draft-ietf-nemo-home-network-models-04.txt   draft-ietf-nemo-home-network-models-05.txt 
Network Mobility P. Thubert Network Mobility P. Thubert
Internet-Draft Cisco Internet-Draft Cisco
Expires: December 26, 2005 R. Wakikawa Expires: April 13, 2006 R. Wakikawa
Keio University Keio University
V. Devarapalli V. Devarapalli
Nokia Nokia
June 24, 2005 October 10, 2005
NEMO Home Network models NEMO Home Network models
draft-ietf-nemo-home-network-models-04 draft-ietf-nemo-home-network-models-05
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
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Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005). Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005).
Abstract Abstract
This paper documents some usage patterns and the associated issues This paper documents some usage patterns and the associated issues
when deploying a Home Network for NEMO-enabled Mobile Routers, when deploying a Home Network for NEMO-enabled Mobile Routers,
conforming the NEMO Basic Support draft [8]. The aim here is conforming the NEMO Basic Support draft [8]. The aim here is
specifically to provide some examples of organization of the Home specifically to provide some examples of organization of the Home
Network, as they were discussed in NEMO related mailing lists. Network, as they were discussed in NEMO related mailing lists.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Terminology and concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Terminology and concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. General Expectations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. General Expectations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4. MIP Home Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. MIP Home Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
5. NEMO Extended Home Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5. NEMO Extended Home Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5.1 Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5.1 Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5.2 Returning Home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5.2 Returning Home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5.3 Home Address from MNP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5.3 Home Address from MNP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5.4 Deployment Caveats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.4 Deployment Caveats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5.4.1 Mobile Router side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.4.1 Mobile Router side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5.5 Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.5 Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
6. NEMO Aggregated Home Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 6. NEMO Aggregated Home Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6.1 Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 6.1 Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6.2 Returning Home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 6.2 Returning Home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6.2.1 Returning Home by egress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6.2.1 Returning Home with the Egress interface . . . . . . . 11
6.2.2 Returning Home by ingress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6.2.2 Returning Home with the Ingress interface . . . . . . 12
6.3 Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6.3 Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6.4 Deployment Caveats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6.4 Deployment Caveats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6.4.1 Home Agent Side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6.4.1 Home Agent Side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6.4.2 Mobile Router side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6.4.2 Mobile Router side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
7. Virtual Home Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 7. Virtual Home Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
7.1 Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 7.1 Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
7.2 Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 7.2 Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
8. Mobile Home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 8. Mobile Home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
8.1 Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 8.1 Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
8.2 Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 8.2 Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
9. IANA considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 9. IANA considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
11. Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 11. Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
11.1 Changes from version 00 to 01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 11.1 Changes from version 00 to 01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
11.2 Changes from version 01 to 02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 11.2 Changes from version 01 to 02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
11.3 Changes from version 02 to 03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 11.3 Changes from version 02 to 03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
11.4 Changes from version 03 to 04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 11.4 Changes from version 03 to 04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
12. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 11.5 Changes from version 04 to 05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
13. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 12. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
13.1 normative reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 13. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
13.2 informative reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 13.1 normative reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 13.2 informative reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
A. Returning Home emulation in the virtual case . . . . . . . . . 23 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . 24 Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . 22
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document assumes that the reader is familiar with IPv6 Mobility This document assumes that the reader is familiar with IPv6 Mobility
as defined in [7], with the NEMO Basic Support [8] and with the NEMO as defined in [7], with the NEMO Basic Support [8]. In order to read
terminology document [9]. this document properly, it is important to realize that in NEMO, the
Home Network can encompass much more than the Home Link, as it spans
In order to read this document properly, the distinction between the the Home Link and all the Links that the Mobile Routers carry with
concepts of Home Link and of Home Network must be very clear. A Home them. Exactly how the two concepts relate in a given deployment
Link is a physical or a virtual Link, attached to a Home Agent. A depend on the organization of the Home Network, as described below.
Home Network is an aggregation that can be further subnetted. As a
result, the Home Network is not necessarily contained on a Home Link.
In fact, the Mobile Network Prefixes are subnets of the Home Network.
How the two concepts relate in a given deployment depend on the
organization of the Home Network, as described below.
Five different organizations of the Home Network including a Five different organizations of the Home Network including a
hierarchical construction are documented: hierarchical construction are documented:
MIPv6 Home Network: A short reminder of what the Home Network is with MIPv6 Home Network: A short reminder of what the Home Network is with
Mobile IP, in order to help the reader figure out the evolution Mobile IP, in order to help the reader figure out the evolution
towards NEMO. towards NEMO.
NEMO Extended Home Network: In this disposition, the Home Network is NEMO Extended Home Network: In this arrangement, the Home Network is
only one subnet of a larger aggregation that encompasses the only one subnet of a larger aggregation that encompasses the
Mobile Networks, called extended Home Network. When at Home, a Mobile Networks, called extended Home Network. When at Home, a
Mobile Router performs normal routing between the Home Link and Mobile Router performs normal routing between the Home Link and
the Mobile Networks. More in Section 5. the Mobile Networks. More in Section 5.
NEMO Aggregated Home Network: In this disposition, the Home Network NEMO Aggregated Home Network: In this arrangement, the Home Network
actually overlaps with the Mobile Networks. When at Home, a actually overlaps with the Mobile Networks. When at Home, a
Mobile Router acts as a bridge between the Home Link and the Mobile Router acts as a bridge between the Home Link and the
Mobile Networks. More in Section 6. Mobile Networks. More in Section 6.
Virtual Home Network: In this disposition, there is no physical Home Virtual Home Network: In this arrangement, there is no physical Home
Link at all for the Mobile Routers to come back Home to. More in Link at all for the Mobile Routers to come back Home to. More in
Section 7. Section 7.
NEMO Mobile Home Network: In this disposition, there is a bitwise NEMO Mobile Home Network: In this arrangement, there is a bitwise
hierarchy of Home Networks. A global Home Network is advertised hierarchy of Home Networks. A global Home Network is advertised
to the infrastructure by a head Home Agent and further subnetted to the infrastructure by a head Home Agent and further subnetted
into Mobile Networks. Each subnet is owned by a Mobile Router into Mobile Networks. Each subnet is owned by a Mobile Router
that registers it in a NEMO fashion while acting as a Home Agent that registers it in a NEMO fashion while acting as a Home Agent
for that network. More in Section 8. for that network. More in Section 8.
In all cases, the Home Agents collectively advertise only the In all cases, the Home Agents collectively advertise only the
aggregation of the Mobile Networks. The dichotomy is kept within the aggregation of the Mobile Networks. The subnetting is kept within
Home Agents and the Mobile Routers, as opposed to advertised by means the Home Agents and the Mobile Routers, as opposed to advertised by
of routing protocols to other parties. means of routing protocols to other parties.
The examples provided here aim at illustrating the NEMO Basic Support The examples provided here aim at illustrating the NEMO Basic Support
[8] but do not aim at limiting its scope of application, and [8] but do not aim at limiting its scope of application, and
additional cases may be added in the future. additional cases may be added in the future.
2. Terminology and concepts 2. Terminology and concepts
The key words MUST, MUST NOT, REQUIRED, SHALL, SHALL NOT, SHOULD, The key words MUST, MUST NOT, REQUIRED, SHALL, SHALL NOT, SHOULD,
SHOULD NOT, RECOMMENDED, MAY, and OPTIONAL in this document are to be SHOULD NOT, RECOMMENDED, MAY, and OPTIONAL in this document are to be
interpreted as described in RFC2119 [1]. interpreted as described in RFC2119 [1].
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networks. Finally, the aggregation could be configured on a virtual networks. Finally, the aggregation could be configured on a virtual
network, with no physical Home Link at all, in which case Home means network, with no physical Home Link at all, in which case Home means
topologically and administratively close to the Home Agent that owns topologically and administratively close to the Home Agent that owns
the virtual network. the virtual network.
The following sections provide additional information on these forms The following sections provide additional information on these forms
of Home Network. of Home Network.
4. MIP Home Network 4. MIP Home Network
With Mobile IPv6 (MIP6) specification [7] Mobile Nodes are at Home In the Mobile IPv6 (MIP6) specification [7] Mobile Nodes are at Home
when they are connected to their Home Link, where they recognize when they are connected to their Home Link, where they recognize
their Home Prefix in Router Advertisement messages. Also, a binding their Home Prefix in Router Advertisement messages. Also, a binding
is checked using of Duplicate Address Detection on the Home Link, and is checked using Duplicate Address Detection on the Home Link, and
Home Agents discover each other by means of Neighbor Discovery Home Agents discover each other by means of Neighbor Discovery
extensions over that link. extensions over that link.
The Home Prefix, that is advertized on the Home Link, is a final The Home Prefix that is advertized on the Home Link is a final
prefix, as opposed to an aggregation, and it may be used by hosts on prefix, as opposed to an aggregation, and it may be used by hosts on
the Home Link for autoconfiguration purposes. the Home Link for autoconfiguration purposes.
As we see, the concept of a Home Network for Mobile IPv6 is really a As we see, the concept of a Home Network for Mobile IPv6 is really a
prefix on a link, served by one or more Home Agents as opposed to a prefix on a link, served by one or more Home Agents as opposed to a
routed mesh. We will see in the next sections that NEMO needs routed mesh. We will see in the next sections that NEMO needs
additional prefixes for use by the Mobile Networks. For that reason, additional prefixes for use by the Mobile Networks. For that reason,
NEMO extends the concept of Home Network into a more complex, NEMO extends the concept of Home Network into a more complex,
aggregated structure. aggregated structure.
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/64 /64 /64 /64 MNP: A:B:C:i::/64 /64 /64 /64 /64 MNP: A:B:C:i::/64
Extended Home Network Extended Home Network
<-----------------------------------------------------------> <----------------------------------------------------------->
Home Net Mobile Net Mobile Net ... Mobile Net Home Net Mobile Net Mobile Net ... Mobile Net
<------------><------------><------------> ... <------------> <------------><------------><------------> ... <------------>
Figure 1: Extended Home Network Figure 1: Extended Home Network
In that configuration: In that arrangement:
o There is one physical Home Network and multiple Mobile Networks o There is one physical Home Network and multiple Mobile Networks
o The Home and the MNPs are tailored to allow for IPv6 Stateless o The Home and the MNPs are tailored to allow for IPv6 Stateless
Address Autoconfiguration with typical interface identifier length Address Autoconfiguration with typical interface identifier length
for the type of interface (can be for example /64). for the type of interface (can be for example /64).
o The prefix length of the Extended Home Network is shorter than o The prefix length of the Extended Home Network is shorter than
that of the Home Network and the MNPs, since it is an aggregation that of the Home Network and the MNPs, since it is an aggregation
(can be for example /48). (can be for example /48).
o Since the Extended Home Network operations inherit trivially from o Since the Extended Home Network operations inherit trivially from
MIPv6, it can be seen as natural that the Mobile Routers be MIPv6, it can be seen as natural that the Mobile Routers be
assigned their Home Addresses from the prefix on the Home Link, as assigned their Home Addresses from the prefix on the Home Link.
opposed to their own MNP, which is allowed by the NEMO In that case, a Home Agent can perform DAD on the Home Link as
specification. In that case, a Home Agent can perform DAD on the prescribed by Mobile IPv6 for the Mobile Router Home Addresses.
Home Link as prescribed by Mobile IPv6 for the Mobile Router Home
Addresses.
5.2 Returning Home 5.2 Returning Home
In the Extended Home Network model, the Home Network is configured on In the Extended Home Network model, the Home Network is configured on
a physical interface of the Home Agent, the Home Link. a physical interface of the Home Agent, the Home Link.
A Mobile Router returns Home by connecting directly to the Home Link, A Mobile Router returns Home by connecting directly to the Home Link,
and dropping the MRHA tunnel. and dropping the MRHA tunnel.
When at home, the Mobile Router ensures the connectivity of the When at home, the Mobile Router ensures the connectivity of the
Mobile Network using standard router operations. Mobile Network using standard router operations.
In implicit mode, the Home Agent has the necessary information to In implicit mode, the Home Agent has the necessary information to
continue routing to the MNPs in the absence of registration, and the continue routing to the MNPs in the absence of registration, assuming
participation of the Mobile Router to the Home IGP is not required. that the Mobile Router is at Home, and the participation of the
Mobile Router to the Home Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) is not
required.
But in explicit mode, or if the Mobile Router uses an IGP over the But in explicit mode, or if the Mobile Router uses an IGP over the
MRHA tunnel, then it needs to resume its IGP operations on the Home MRHA tunnel, then it needs to resume its IGP operations on the Home
Link in order to advertise its Mobile Networks to the HA, unless some Link in order to advertise its Mobile Networks to the HA, unless some
other means such as static routes are deployed to cover the case. other means such as static routes are deployed to cover the case.
Alternate procedures for ensuring the connectivity of the Mobile Alternative procedures for ensuring the connectivity of the Mobile
Networks when at home are described in Section 7. Networks when at home are described in Section 7.
5.3 Home Address from MNP 5.3 Home Address from MNP
We saw that a natural extension of the MIP procedure is to derive the We saw that a natural extension of the MIP procedure is to derive the
Home Address of a Mobile Router from the prefix on the Home Link. Home Address of a Mobile Router from the prefix on the Home Link.
Alternatively, NEMO basic support allows that a Mobile Router forms Alternatively, NEMO basic support allows that a Mobile Router forms
its Home Address from one of its Mobile Network Prefixes. its Home Address from one of its Mobile Network Prefixes.
In that case, the Home Address does not match the Home Link Prefix, In that case, the Home Address does not match the Home Link Prefix,
and there is a need to configure the Home Agent in a specific mode and there is a need to configure the Home Agent in a specific mode
with the support for the extended Home Network and the range of the with the support for the Extended Home Network and the range of the
Mobile Network Prefixes. Based on that new configuration, the Home Mobile Network Prefixes. Based on that new configuration, the Home
Agent can accept a Home Address that is not from the Home Link, and Agent can accept a Home Address that is not from the Home Link, and
it will know that it should not perform any DAD. it will know that it should not perform any DAD.
Also, if the Mobile Router uses a Home Address that is derived from Also, if the Mobile Router uses a Home Address that is derived from
its MNP, some specific support is required on the Mobile Router as its MNP, some specific support is required on the Mobile Router as
well. In order to determine that it is at Home, the Mobile Router well. In order to determine that it is at Home, the Mobile Router
recognizes the well-known prefix of its Home Agent as opposed to recognizes the well-known prefix of its Home Agent as opposed to
matching the prefix on the Home Link with that of its Home Address. matching the prefix on the Home Link with that of its Home Address.
When connecting to the Home Link, the Mobile Router also need to When connecting to the Home Link, the Mobile Router also need to
autoconfigure an address on the egress interface as opposed to autoconfigure an address on the Egress interface as opposed to
assigning its Home Address to the interface. assigning its Home Address to the interface.
For all these reasons, this submode of extended is no more a trivial For all these reasons, this submode of Extended Home Network is not a
extension to the MIPv6 Home Model, and it might not be compatible trivial extension of the MIPv6 Home Model, and it might not be
with all implementations. compatible with all implementations.
5.4 Deployment Caveats 5.4 Deployment Caveats
5.4.1 Mobile Router side 5.4.1 Mobile Router side
In explicit mode, the routing to the MNP via the Mobile Router must In explicit mode, the routing to the MNP via the Mobile Router must
be restored when the Mobile Router is at Home. This is normally be restored when the Mobile Router is at Home. This is normally
performed by the Mobile Router by means of the existing IGP. In that performed by the Mobile Router by means of the existing IGP. In that
case, a specific support is required on the Mobile Router to control case, a specific support is required on the Mobile Router to control
the routing protocol operation, enabling the participation to the IGP the routing protocol operation, enabling the participation in the IGP
if and only if the Mobile Router is at home. This support might not if and only if the Mobile Router is at home. This support might not
be present in all implementations. be present in all implementations.
5.5 Applicability 5.5 Applicability
The extended Home Network keeps the MIP6 concept of a Home Network The Extended Home Network keeps the MIP6 concept of a Home Network
for both Mobile Nodes and Mobile Routers to take their Home Address for both Mobile Nodes and Mobile Routers to take their Home Address
from. Since there is no overlap between the prefixes that are from. Since there is no overlap between the prefixes that are
affected to MNPs and prefix(es) that are dedicated to the Home Link, assigned to MNPs and prefix(es) that are dedicated to the Home Link,
it is possible for MNs and Mobile Routers to coexist with that model. it is possible for MNs and Mobile Routers to coexist with that model.
Also, when the Home Address is derived from the prefix on the Home Also, when the Home Address is derived from the prefix on the Home
Link, the Home Agent behavior on the link trivially extends that of Link, the Home Agent behavior on the link trivially extends that of
MIP and the support should for that configuration should be available MIP and the support for that configuration should be available with
with all implementations. all implementations.
There are a number of issues with returning home when a mobile router
configures its home address from the MNP as described in Section 5.3.
Therefore we do not recommend this mechanism if the mobile routers
attach to the home network.
6. NEMO Aggregated Home Network 6. NEMO Aggregated Home Network
6.1 Configuration 6.1 Configuration
One other approach is to consider that the Aggregation of all the One other approach is to consider that the Aggregation of all the
MNPs is used plainly as the Home Link Prefix. In this model, the MNPs is used plainly as the Home Link Prefix. In this model, the
Home Network is referred to as a NEMO Aggregated Home Network. This Home Network is referred to as a NEMO Aggregated Home Network. This
means that the Mobile Aggregated Prefix is configured on the Home means that the Mobile Aggregated Prefix is configured on the Home
Link and advertised by the Home Agent as a subnet, as depicted in Link and advertised by the Home Agent as a subnet, as depicted in
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HA HA
| /56 Aggreg /56 | /56 Aggreg /56
--+-----+--+- . -+- . -+-- --+-----+--+- . -+- . -+--
| | | | | | | |
MR1 MR2 MRi MRN MR1 MR2 MRi MRN
| | | | | | | |
------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------
/64 /64 /64 /64 Aggreg|i /64 0 < i <= N /64 /64 /64 /64 Aggreg|i /64 0 < i <= N
Aggregated Home Aggregated Home == Home Net
== Home Net
<-----------------------------------------------------------> <----------------------------------------------------------->
Mobile Net Mobile Net Mobile Net ... Mobile Net Mobile Net Mobile Net Mobile Net ... Mobile Net
<------------><------------><------------> ... <------------> <------------><------------><------------> ... <------------>
Figure 2: Aggregated Home Figure 2: Aggregated Home
In that model, it seems natural to subnet the whole range of In that model, it seems natural to subnet the whole range of
addresses into Mobile Network prefixes, as opposed to reserving one addresses into Mobile Network prefixes, as opposed to reserving one
prefix for the Home Link, which would boil down to the Extended Home prefix for the Home Link, which would boil down to the Extended Home
Network model. If the prefix on the Home Link is really an Network model. If the prefix on the Home Link is really an
aggregation and not a final prefix, it should not be allowed for aggregation and not a final prefix, it should not be allowed for
autoconfiguration or Home Address allocation. autoconfiguration or Home Address allocation.
Note that in that case, it makes sense for a Mobile Router to Note that in that case, it makes sense for a Mobile Router to
register using a Home Address from one of its own MNPs. Taking the register using a Home Address from one of its own MNPs. Taking the
Home Address from its own range guarantees the uniqueness of the Home Address from its own range guarantees the uniqueness of the
suffix. That uniqueness can be checked by the Mobile Router on its suffix. That uniqueness can be checked by the Mobile Router on its
ingress network using DAD. Ingress network (see [6]) using DAD.
6.2 Returning Home 6.2 Returning Home
The Aggregated Home Prefix is configured on a physical interface of The Aggregated Home Prefix is configured on a physical interface of
the Home Agent, the Home Link. As a consequence, the Home Agent has the Home Agent, the Home Link. As a consequence, the Home Agent has
a connected route to the Aggregated Home Network over the Home Link. a connected route to the Aggregated Home Network over the Home Link.
A Mobile Router returns Home by connecting directly to the Home Link, A Mobile Router returns Home by connecting directly to the Home Link,
and dropping the MRHA tunnel. The Mobile Router recognizes its Home and dropping the MRHA tunnel. The Mobile Router recognizes its Home
Link by a prefix match with its Home Agent. Link by a prefix match with its Home Agent.
Note that it must expect a shorter prefix than that of its Mobile Since the Home Network prefix is an aggregation that encompasses all
Networks, even if its Home Address is formed out of one of its MNPs, the MNPs, the Home Address that an MR forms from one of its Mobile
but that the Home Address still matches the Home Network Prefix. Network Prefixes will actually match both the Home Network prefix and
its Mobile Network prefix. To properly identify the Home Network,
the MR must expect a shorter prefix than that of the Mobile Network
from which the Home Address was formed.
6.2.1 Returning Home by egress When the Mobile Router forms its Home Address out of one of its
Mobile Network Prefixes, since the Home Network prefix is an
aggregation that encompasses all the MNPs, the Home Address actually
matches both prefixes. As a result, the MR must expect a shorter
prefix than that of the Mobile Network from which the Home Address
was formed.
A Mobile Router coming Home via its egress interface sees overlapping 6.2.1 Returning Home with the Egress interface
prefixes between the ingress and the egress interface and some
A Mobile Router coming Home via its Egress interface sees overlapping
prefixes between the Ingress and the Egress interface and some
specific support may be needed: specific support may be needed:
When a Mobile Router connects to the Home Link using its egress When a Mobile Router connects to the Home Link using its Egress
interface, it might set up a bridge between its ingress interface(s) interface, it might set up a bridge between its Ingress interface(s)
and the Home Link. and the Home Link, if the interfaces are compatible.
Alternatively, the Mobile Router might perform ND proxying for all Alternatively, the Mobile Router might perform ND proxying for all
addresses in its MNPs, between the egress and the related ingress addresses in its MNPs, between the Egress and the related Ingress
interface. Since the prefixes on the egress and ingress interfaces interface, as described in [12]. Since the prefixes on the Egress
are overlapping, routing is disallowed. and Ingress interfaces are overlapping, routing is disallowed.
On the positive side, the Mobile Router does not need to join the The Mobile Router does not need to join the local IGP when returning
local IGP when returning Home, even if it is using the explicit Home, even if it is using the explicit Prefix Mode. When the Mobile
Prefix Mode. When the Mobile Router is not registered, the Home Router is not registered, the Home Agent simply expects that all MNNs
Agent simply expects that all MNNs will be reachable over the Home will be reachable over the Home Link.
Link.
HA HA
| /56 Aggreg /56 |
--+-----+--+- . -+- . -+-- -------+--+--- /56
| | | | |
MR1 MR2 MRi MRN Egress |
------ ------ ------ ------ MR at Home
/64 /64 /64 /64 Aggreg|i /64 0 < i <= N |
--+--- /64
Figure 3: Bridging between egress and ingress Figure 3: Bridging between egress and ingress
6.2.2 Returning Home by ingress 6.2.2 Returning Home with the Ingress interface
Alternatively, if the Mobile Router has a single ingress Interface, Alternatively, if the Mobile Router has a single Ingress interface,
the Mobile Router may use the NEMO-Link to connect to the Home Link, the Mobile Router may use the NEMO-Link to connect to the Home Link,
merging the two links in a single consistent network. merging the two links in a single consistent network.
HA HA
| /56 Aggreg /56 |
--+-----+--+- . -+- . -+-- -------+-+---- /56
/64 /64 /64 /64 Aggreg|i /64 0 < i <= N |
------ ------ ------ ------ ---+-- /64
MR1 MR2 MRi MRN |
| | | | MR at Home
Egress |
Figure 4: Merging the Home and the Mobile Networks Figure 4: Merging the Home and the Mobile Networks
This fits the connected route model, since the Aggregated Home is This fits the connected route model, since the Aggregated Home is
truly located on that network. Note that in that case, it makes truly located on that network. Note that in that case, it makes
sense for a Mobile Router to register using a Home Address from one sense for a Mobile Router to register using a Home Address from one
of its own MNPs. . of its own MNPs.
6.3 Applicability 6.3 Applicability
With this model, there is no specific space for independent nodes as With this model, there is no specific space for independent nodes, as
any address in the aggregation belongs to a MNP, and thus to a Mobile any address in the aggregation belongs to a MNP, and thus to a Mobile
Router. This configuration excludes the cohabitation with MIP6 MNs Router. This configuration excludes the cohabitation with MIP6 MNs
on the Home Link. on the Home Link.
A Mobile Router that is at Home must own an address from the
aggregation on its egress interface and an address from its MNP -a
subnet of that aggregation- on its ingress interface. A pure router
will reject that configuration, and the Mobile Router needs to act as
a bridge to enable it. In order to deploy the aggregated Home
Network model, one must check whether that support is available in
the Mobile Routers if returning Home is required.
6.4 Deployment Caveats 6.4 Deployment Caveats
6.4.1 Home Agent Side 6.4.1 Home Agent Side
A node on the Home Link discovers that the Aggregated Home Network is A node on the Home Link receiving a Router Advertisement that
actually a subnet on the Home Link and may use the prefix on the Home includes the Aggregated Home Network prefix might use that prefix for
Link to autoconfigure a Home Address. Such a node may also install a Address Autoconfiguration. Such a node would also install a
connected route to the Aggregated Home Network over the Home Link. connected route to the Aggregated Home Network over the Home Link.
As a result, unless the node has a better (longest match) route to a As a result, unless the node has a better (longest match) route to a
given Mobile Network Prefix, it will lookup all MNNs on that MNP given Mobile Network Prefix, it would lookup all MNNs on that MNP
using Neighbor Discovery over the Home Link. using Neighbor Discovery over its interface to the Home Link, and
fail.
Thus, on the Home Link, the Home Agent must intercept all the packets Thus, on the Home Link, the Home Agent must intercept all the packets
to ALL the Mobile Network Nodes on the registered prefixes. In order to ALL the Mobile Network Nodes on the registered prefixes. In order
to do so, the Home Agent might perform some form of ND proxying for to do so, the Home Agent might perform some form of ND proxying for
all addresses in all registered Mobile Network Prefixes. The Home all addresses in all registered Mobile Network Prefixes. The Home
Agent must also protect the MNP space from autoconfiguration by Agent must also protect the MNP space from autoconfiguration by
uncontrolled visitors at Neighbor Discovery level. uncontrolled visitors at Neighbor Discovery level.
Alternatives based on a routing protocol or ICMP redirect may apply Alternatives based on a routing protocol or ICMP redirect may apply
in some cases. in some cases.
In any case, there is a need to provide a specific configuration on In any case, there is a need to provide a specific configuration on
the Home Agent to specify that it operates in Aggregated Mode. If a the Home Agent to specify that it operates in Aggregated Mode. If a
Home Agent implementation is simply derived from that of MIP, then Home Agent implementation is simply derived from that of MIP, then
the capability to perform the required proxying might not exist, and the capability to perform the required proxying might not exist, and
the Aggregated Mode will not operate properly for nodes on the Home the Aggregated Mode will not operate properly for nodes on the Home
Link. Link.
6.4.2 Mobile Router side 6.4.2 Mobile Router side
If the Mobile Router returns Home by egress, a specific support is If the Mobile Router returns Home by Egress, a specific support is
required to control the bridging operation depending on whether a required to control the bridging operation depending on whether a
Mobile Router is at Home or not. This support might not be present Mobile Router is at Home or not. This support might not be present
in all implementations. in all implementations.
Also, note that NEMO authorizes multiple registrations for a same MNP Also, note that NEMO authorizes multiple registrations for a same MNP
by different Mobile Routers. This is a case of multihoming, and it by different Mobile Routers. This is a case of multihoming, and it
normally means that the Mobile Routers are interconnected by the normally means that the Mobile Routers are interconnected by the
ingress network that bears the common MNP. But there is no provision Ingress network that bears the common MNP. But there is no provision
in NEMO basic support to test that this condition is met at binding in NEMO basic support to test that this condition is met at binding
time and maintained overtime. time and maintained overtime.
It is thus possible for 2 different Mobile Routers to register a same It is thus possible for 2 different Mobile Routers to register the
prefix with different Home Addresses, and this will cause an same prefix with different Home Addresses, and this will cause an
undetected problem if the corresponding ingress links are not undetected problem if the corresponding Ingress interfaces are not
connected. connected.
When the Home Address of a Mobile Router is derived from its MNP, When the Home Address of a Mobile Router is derived from its MNP,
there is thus an additional risk of an undetected misconfiguration if there is thus an additional risk of an undetected misconfiguration if
the Home Address is autoconfigured from the ingress link as opposed the Home Address is autoconfigured from the Ingress interface as
to statically assigned with the MNP itself. opposed to statically assigning an address and MNP.
A Mobile Router that is at Home must own an address from the
aggregation on its Egress interface and an address from its MNP - a
subnet of that aggregation - on its Ingress interface. A pure router
will reject that configuration, and the Mobile Router needs to act as
a bridge to use it. In order to deploy the aggregated Home Network
model, one must check whether that support is available in the Mobile
Routers if returning Home is required.
7. Virtual Home Network 7. Virtual Home Network
7.1 Configuration 7.1 Configuration
The Home Link can be configured on the Home Agent on a virtual link, The Home Link can be configured on the Home Agent on a virtual link,
in which case there's no physical Home Link for Mobile Routers to in which case there's no physical Home Link for Mobile Routers to
return Home or for Home Agents to discover each others and perform return Home to, or for Home Agents to discover each others and
the ND level interactions as described in Mobile IPv6. [7] perform the ND level interactions on, as described in Mobile IPv6
[7].
/48 eg: A:B:C::/48 /48 e.g.: A:B:C::/48
HA HA
| /64 A:C:C:E::/64 | /64 A:B:C::/64
--+-----+--+- . -+- . -+-- --+-----+--+- . -+- . -+--
| | | | | | | |
MR1 MR2 MRi MRN MR1 MR2 MRi MRN
/64 /64 /64 /64 A:B:C:i::/64 0 < i <= N /64 /64 /64 /64 A:B:C:i::/64 0 < i <= N
Figure 5: Virtual Home Network Figure 5: Virtual Home Network
The Extended Home Network and the Aggregated Home Network models can The Extended Home Network and the Aggregated Home Network models can
be adapted for virtual links. be adapted for virtual links.
skipping to change at page 15, line 49 skipping to change at page 14, line 50
available than a physical link. The high availability of the Home available than a physical link. The high availability of the Home
Link is critical for the mobility service. Link is critical for the mobility service.
The Home Agent does not have to defend the Mobile Router's Home The Home Agent does not have to defend the Mobile Router's Home
Address through Proxy Neighbor Discovery. The Home Agent does not Address through Proxy Neighbor Discovery. The Home Agent does not
also have to perform Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) for the also have to perform Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) for the
Mobile Router's Home Address when it receives a Binding Update Mobile Router's Home Address when it receives a Binding Update
from the Mobile Router. from the Mobile Router.
The Mobile Router does not have to implement the Returning Home The Mobile Router does not have to implement the Returning Home
procedure (section 11.5.4 of Mobile IPv6. [7]). procedure (section 11.5.4 of Mobile IPv6 [7]).
In order for a Mobile Router to emulate returning Home, it can There are also some drawbacks to the Virtual Home Link approach:
connect to one or more access link(s) configured for that purpose on
the Home Agent. The Mobile Router, after connecting to the access
link, SHOULD not send any routing protocol updates on the egress
interface because the routing information from the Mobile Router
might adversely affect IPv6 route aggregation on the Home Network.
However, the Mobile Router must register its binding as if it was
accessing a foreign link.
There are also some drawbacks to the virtual Home Link approach: RFC 3775 [7] and RFC 3963 [8] do not provide the specific support
for a Mobile Node to emulate returning Home on a Virtual Home
Network. In particular, in the case of NEMO, the routing
information from the Mobile Router being injected on the IGP might
adversely affect IPv6 route aggregation on the Home Network.
There can be only one Home Agent since Mobile IPv6 relies on There can be only one Home Agent since Mobile IPv6 relies on
Neighbor Discovery on the Home Link for other Home Agent discovery Neighbor Discovery on the Home Link for other Home Agent discovery
and for Duplicate Address Detection. and for Duplicate Address Detection.
The Home Agent must maintain a Binding Cache entry for a Mobile The Home Agent must maintain a Binding Cache entry for a Mobile
Router and forwarding state for its Mobile Network even when the Router and forwarding state for its Mobile Network even when the
Mobile Router is directly connected to it. All traffic to and Mobile Router is directly connected to it. All traffic to and
from the Mobile Network is sent through the bi-directional tunnel from the Mobile Network is sent through the bi-directional tunnel
regardless of the Mobile Router location. This results in a regardless of the Mobile Router location. This results in a
tunneling overhead even though the Mobile Router is connected to tunneling overhead even though the Mobile Router is connected to
the Home Network. the Home Network.
Some solutions can be proposed in order to perform an equivalent of Suggestions on how to perform an equivalent of returning Home on a
returning Home on a virtual Home Network. One such approach is Virtual Home Network have been proposed, but this topic is outside of
sketched in appendix as an illustration. the scope of this document.
7.2 Applicability 7.2 Applicability
At some point in the future, NEMO basic support may be extended to NEMO operations rely on ND extensions over the Home Link for the Home
operate fully at L3 for instance if the HAHA protocol [11] gets Agent to Home Agent communication.
standardized and deployed. Until then, NEMO operations still inherit
from mobile IPv6 [7] for the Home Agent to Home Agent communication, Making the Home Link virtual bars the deployment of multiple Home
which is basically based on Neighbor Discovery extensions over the Agents, which may be desirable for reasons of load balancing. Please
Home Link. Making that link virtual bars the deployment of multiple refer to the NEMO multihoming issues [13] draft for more on this.
Home Agents, which may be desirable for reasons of load balancing.
Please refer to the NEMO multihoming issues [12] draft for more on
this.
Yet, for a deployment where a single Home Agent is enough, making the Yet, for a deployment where a single Home Agent is enough, making the
Home Link virtual reduces the vulnerability to some attacks and to Home Link virtual reduces the vulnerability to some attacks and to
some hardware failures, while making the Home Agent operation faster. some hardware failures, while making the Home Agent operation faster.
One should check with the product specifications of an Home Agent to One should check with the product specifications of an Home Agent to
see whether the implementation actually supports a Virtual Home see whether the implementation actually supports a Virtual Home
Network, and if so, whether in that cases, it is optimized for faster Network, and if so, whether in that cases, it is optimized for faster
DAD-less bindings. DAD-less bindings.
8. Mobile Home 8. Mobile Home
8.1 Configuration 8.1 Configuration
In this disposition, there is a bitwise hierarchy of Home Networks. In this arrangement, there is a bitwise hierarchy of Home Networks.
A global Home Network is advertised to the infrastructure by a head A global Home Network is advertised to the infrastructure by a head
Home Agent(s) and further subnetted into Mobile Networks. As a Home Agent(s) and further subnetted into Mobile Networks. As a
result, only the Home Agent(s) responsible for the most global result, only the Home Agent(s) responsible for the most global
(shortest prefix) aggregation receive all the packets for all the (shortest prefix) aggregation receive all the packets for all the
MNPs, which are leaves in the hierarchy tree. MNPs, which are leaves in the hierarchy tree.
Each subnet is owned by a Mobile Router that registers it in a NEMO Each subnet is owned by a Mobile Router that registers it in a NEMO
fashion while acting as a Home Agent for that network. This Mobile fashion while acting as a Home Agent for that network. This Mobile
Router is at Home at the upper level of hierarchy. This Router is at Home at the upper level of hierarchy. This
configuration is referred to as Mobile Home. configuration is referred to as Mobile Home.
An example of that is the Cab Co configuration. When a Taxi Company An example of this is the Cab Co configuration. Cab Co is a taxi
owns a /32 prefix, this prefix is advertised at a fixed point in the Company that owns a /32 prefix, this prefix being advertised by the
Head Quarters. Regional offices are deployed around the world. Even company Head Quarters. Regional offices are deployed around the
though these regional offices are relatively stable in terms of world. Even though these regional offices are relatively stable in
location and prefix requirement -say this changes every few years- terms of location and prefix requirement -say this changes every few
making them mobile allows a simpler management when a move has to years- making them mobile allows a simpler management when a move has
take place, or should the ISP service change. to take place, or should the ISP service change.
global Home Network CAB:C0::/32 owned by HQ global Home Network CAB:C0::/32 owned by HQ
<------------------------------------------------------------------> <------------------------------------------------------------------>
HQ extended Home Net Mobile Home for SFO office HQ Extended Home Net Mobile Home for SFO office
(casa) (casa)
CAB:C0:CA5A::/48 CAB:C0:5F0::/48 CAB:C0:CA5A::/48 CAB:C0:5F0::/48
<----------------------------> ... <-------------------------------> <----------------------------> ... <------------------------------->
| |
Home for offices HQ | Home for offices HQ |
CAB:C0:CA5A:CA5A::/64 MN | CAB:C0:CA5A:CA5A::/64 MN |
<----------------------><----> | <----------------------><----> |
CAB:C0:CA5A:CA5A::CA5A | CAB:C0:CA5A:CA5A::CA5A |
CAB:C0:CA5A:CA5A::CA5B | CAB:C0:CA5A:CA5A::CA5B |
are HAs on link with for each office a route like | are HAs on link with for each office a route like |
skipping to change at page 18, line 12 skipping to change at page 17, line 12
Finally, each regional office owns a number of taxis, each one Finally, each regional office owns a number of taxis, each one
equipped with a mobile router and an associated /64 prefix. equipped with a mobile router and an associated /64 prefix.
For each Office, say San Francisco (SFO) as an example: For each Office, say San Francisco (SFO) as an example:
Mobile Home Network CAB:C0:5F0::/48 owned by SFO office Mobile Home Network CAB:C0:5F0::/48 owned by SFO office
<------------------------------------------------------------------> <------------------------------------------------------------------>
SFO Home Network Mobile Networks for taxis SFO Home Network Mobile Networks for taxis
for taxis <---------------------...---------------------> for taxis <---------------------...--------------------->
CAB:C0:5F0:5F0::/64 CAB:C0:5F0:CAB1::/64 CAB:C0:5F0:....::/6 CAB:C0:5F0:5F0::/64 CAB:C0:5F0:CAB1::/64 CAB:C0:5F0:....::/64
<-------------------><-------------------> ... <-------------------> <-------------------><-------------------> ... <------------------->
CAB:C0:5F0:5F0::5F0 | CAB:C0:5F0:5F0::5F0 |
is HA on link with for | is HA on link with for |
each taxi a route like | each taxi a route like |
| |
CAB:C0:5F0:5F0::CAB1 <------ via CAB:C0:5F0:5F0::CAB1 <------ via
is the Home addrSsync is the Home Address
of CAB 1 of CAB 1
Figure 7: CAB Company regional configuration Figure 7: CAB Company regional configuration
Note that the hierarchy occurs at a configuration level and may not Note that this is a hierarchy in terms of MR-HA relationship, which
be reflected in the actual connection between nodes. For instance in may not be reflected in the physical arrangement of nodes at a given
the Cab Co case, cabs are roaming within the city, each one attaching point of time. For instance, in the Cab Co case, some SFO Cabs might
to a different hot spot, while the regional office is connected to attach to any hot spot or Cab Co office in a different city, and the
the infrastructure using some ISP connection. SFO office might be at Home if it is co-located with the
Headquarters. But note that SFO should never attach to one of its
own Cabs. This would create a stalemate situation, as documented in
the NEMO RO problem statement [11].
But it is also possible to reflect the organizational hierarchy in a But it is also possible to reflect the organizational hierarchy in a
moving cloud of Mobile Router. If a Mobile Home Agent acts as moving cloud of Mobile Routers. If a Mobile Home Agent acts as
root-MR for a nested configuration of its own Mobile Routers, then root-MR for a nested configuration of its own Mobile Routers, then
the communication between Mobile Routers is confined within the the communication between Mobile Routers is confined within the
nested structure. nested structure.
This can be illustrated in the case of a fleet at sea. Assuming that This can be illustrated in the case of a fleet at sea. Assuming that
SFO is a communication ship of a fleet, using a satellite link to SFO is a communication ship of a fleet, using a satellite link to
join the infrastructure, and that the cabs are Mobile Routers join the infrastructure, and that the cabs are Mobile Routers
installed on smaller ships, equipped with low range radios. installed on smaller ships, equipped with low range radios.
If SFO is also the root-MR of a nested structure of cabs, the If SFO is also the root-MR of a nested structure of its own cabs, the
communication between cabs is relayed by SFO and does not require the communication between cabs is relayed by SFO and does not require the
satellite link. SFO recursively terminates the nested tunnels to the satellite link. As for traffic to the outside of the nested NEMO,
cabs and reencapsulates all the packets between the nested cloud and SFO recursively terminates the nested tunnels from its cabs and
correspondents in the infrastructure in a single tunnel to CA5A, this reencapsulates all the packets between the nested cloud and
providing for nested NEMO Route Optimization. correspondents in the infrastructure in a single tunnel to CA5A. As a
result, the unwanted effect of nesting of tunnels is avoided over the
Internet part of the packet path.
8.2 Applicability 8.2 Applicability
This complex topology applies to large distributed fleet, mostly if This complex topology applies to a large distributed fleet, mostly if
there is a single interchange point with the internet (e.g. a NAT or there is a single interchange point with the internet (e.g. a NAT or
a socks farm) where the super Home Agent could be located. a socks farm) where the super Home Agent could be located.
One specific benefit is that when 2 Mobile Routers travel together One specific benefit is that when 2 Mobile Routers travel together
with a common Home Agent, the traffic between the 2 is not with a common Home Agent, the traffic between the 2 is not
necessarily routed via the infrastructure, but can stay confined necessarily routed via the infrastructure, but can stay confined
within the mobile cloud, the Mobile Home Agent acting as a rendez- within the mobile cloud, the Mobile Home Agent acting as a rendez-
vous point between the Mobile Routers. This applies particularly vous point between the Mobile Routers. This applies particularly
well for a fleet at sea when the long haul access may be as expensive well for a fleet at sea when the long haul access may be as expensive
as a satellite link. as a satellite link.
skipping to change at page 20, line 20 skipping to change at page 19, line 20
11.1 Changes from version 00 to 01 11.1 Changes from version 00 to 01
Removed terminology (moved to the Nemo terminology draft). Removed terminology (moved to the Nemo terminology draft).
Added an applicability statement for all documented cases Added an applicability statement for all documented cases
11.2 Changes from version 01 to 02 11.2 Changes from version 01 to 02
Issue 1: Editorial Issue 1: Editorial
Issue 2: Added a caveat part in extended and aggregated sections. Issue 2: Added a caveat part in Extended and Aggregated Home Network
Also added a MIP Home Network section prior to those. sections. Also added a MIP Home Network section prior to those.
Issue 4: Added a subsection to the extended case for the case when Issue 4: Added a subsection to the Extended Home Network case for the
the mr takes a home address from its MNP case when the mr takes a home address from its MNP
11.3 Changes from version 02 to 03 11.3 Changes from version 02 to 03
Issue 5: Editorial fixes. Issue 5: Editorial fixes.
11.4 Changes from version 03 to 04 11.4 Changes from version 03 to 04
Issue 6: Pass idnits. Thanks Henrik for this great tool :) Issue 6: Pass idnits. Thanks Henrik for this great tool :)
11.5 Changes from version 04 to 05
Issue 7: Virtual Home discussion
Issue 8: Whether to recommend not to form a Home Address from MNP in
Extended HN.
Jari and Henrik's reviews Editorial changes
12. Acknowledgements 12. Acknowledgements
The authors wish to thank: The authors wish to thank:
Erik Nordmark, Kent Leung, Thierry Ernst, TJ Kniveton, Patrick Erik Nordmark, Jari Arkko, Henrik Levkowetz, Kent Leung, Thierry
Wetterwald, Alexandru Petrescu and David Binet. for their Ernst, TJ Kniveton, Patrick Wetterwald, Alexandru Petrescu and David
contributions. Binet for their contributions.
13. References 13. References
13.1 normative reference 13.1 normative reference
[1] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement [1] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[2] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) [2] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6)
Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998. Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.
skipping to change at page 22, line 7 skipping to change at page 21, line 7
[9] Ernst, T. and H. Lach, "Network Mobility Support Terminology", [9] Ernst, T. and H. Lach, "Network Mobility Support Terminology",
draft-ietf-nemo-terminology-03 (work in progress), draft-ietf-nemo-terminology-03 (work in progress),
February 2005. February 2005.
[10] Ernst, T., "Network Mobility Support Goals and Requirements", [10] Ernst, T., "Network Mobility Support Goals and Requirements",
draft-ietf-nemo-requirements-04 (work in progress), draft-ietf-nemo-requirements-04 (work in progress),
February 2005. February 2005.
13.2 informative reference 13.2 informative reference
[11] Thubert, P., "Global HA to HA protocol", [11] Ng, C., "Network Mobility Route Optimization Problem
draft-thubert-nemo-global-haha-00 (work in progress), Statement", draft-ietf-nemo-ro-problem-statement-00 (work in
October 2004. progress), July 2005.
[12] Ernst, T., "Analysis of Multihoming in Network Mobility [12] Thaler, D., "Neighbor Discovery Proxies (ND Proxy)",
Support", draft-ietf-nemo-multihoming-issues-02 (work in draft-ietf-ipv6-ndproxy-03 (work in progress), July 2005.
progress), February 2005.
[13] Ng, C., "Analysis of Multihoming in Network Mobility Support",
draft-ietf-nemo-multihoming-issues-03 (work in progress),
July 2005.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Pascal Thubert Pascal Thubert
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
Village d'Entreprises Green Side Village d'Entreprises Green Side
400, Avenue de Roumanille 400, Avenue de Roumanille
Batiment T3 Batiment T3
Biot - Sophia Antipolis 06410 Biot - Sophia Antipolis 06410
FRANCE FRANCE
skipping to change at page 23, line 5 skipping to change at page 22, line 5
Email: ryuji@sfc.wide.ad.jp Email: ryuji@sfc.wide.ad.jp
Vijay Devarapalli Vijay Devarapalli
Nokia Research Center Nokia Research Center
313 Fairchild Drive 313 Fairchild Drive
Mountain View, CA 94043 Mountain View, CA 94043
USA USA
Email: vijay.devarapalli@nokia.com Email: vijay.devarapalli@nokia.com
Appendix A. Returning Home emulation in the virtual case
When a Home Link is virtual, all traffic to and from the Mobile
Network is sent through the bi-directional tunnel even at the Home
Link. This section describes one possible mechanism that extends
NEMO Basic Support to eliminate this tunneling overhead.
Although the Home Link is virtual, the Home Agent has at least one
physical link to communicate with the external world. One or several
of such links, called the virtual Home Access Links, are conceptually
associated with the virtual Home Link and considered as part of Home.
When accessing one of its virtual Home Access Links, a Mobile Router
autoconfigures a Care-of Address from a Router Advertisement as it
would do on any visited link, in order to perform the next binding
flow.
If the Mobile Router is configured to recognize the virtual Home
Access Links as part of Home, it deregisters by sending a Binding
update with null lifetime sourced at the CareOf. Alternatively, the
Home Agent may indicate that the Mobile Router has moved to the
virtual Home Access Links as a status code in the binding
acknowledgement. The status code implies that Home Agent successsful
de-register the binding at the virtual Home Access Link. Detection
of the virtual Home Access Links is achieved by a prefix
comparison(s) between the care-of address and the prefix(es) on the
virtual Home Access Link(s).
With both approaches, the result of the binding flow is a
deregistration. Consequently, both the Mobile Router and the Home
Agent disable the bi-directional tunnel. At that point, the Home
Agent configures its forwarding in order to reach the Mobile Router
and its mobile networks at Home. For instance, this may take the
form of a route to the Mobile Network prefixes via the Mobile Router
Home Address, and a connected host route to the Mobile Router's Home
Address via the virtual Home Access link.
After successful binding de-registration, the Mobile Router must
receive packets meant to the Mobile Router's Home Address at the
Virtual Home Link. How to intercept packets addressed to the Home
Address depends on implementations of the Mobile Router. If the Home
Address is not configured at the egress interface, the Mobile Router
must use proxy Neighbor Discovery to intercept all packets addressed
to the Home Address on the virtual Home Link. Otherwise, the Mobile
Router does not have to perform any special operation at the virtual
Home Link.
Intellectual Property Statement Intellectual Property Statement
The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed to Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed to
pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in
this document or the extent to which any license under such rights this document or the extent to which any license under such rights
might or might not be available; nor does it represent that it has might or might not be available; nor does it represent that it has
made any independent effort to identify any such rights. Information made any independent effort to identify any such rights. Information
on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC documents can be on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC documents can be
found in BCP 78 and BCP 79. found in BCP 78 and BCP 79.
 End of changes. 72 change blocks. 
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