draft-ietf-netmod-yang-10.txt   draft-ietf-netmod-yang-11.txt 
Network Working Group M. Bjorklund, Ed. Network Working Group M. Bjorklund, Ed.
Internet-Draft Tail-f Systems Internet-Draft Tail-f Systems
Intended status: Standards Track January 12, 2010 Intended status: Standards Track February 24, 2010
Expires: July 16, 2010 Expires: August 28, 2010
YANG - A data modeling language for NETCONF YANG - A data modeling language for NETCONF
draft-ietf-netmod-yang-10 draft-ietf-netmod-yang-11
Abstract
YANG is a data modeling language used to model configuration and
state data manipulated by the Network Configuration Protocol
(NETCONF) protocol, NETCONF remote procedure calls, and NETCONF
notifications.
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
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YANG is a data modeling language used to model configuration and This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
state data manipulated by the Network Configuration Protocol Contributions published or made publicly available before November
(NETCONF) protocol, NETCONF remote procedure calls, and NETCONF 10, 2008. The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this
notifications. material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2. Key Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2. Key Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.1. Mandatory nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.1. Mandatory nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4. YANG Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4. YANG Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.1. Functional Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.1. Functional Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.2. Language Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.2. Language Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.2.1. Modules and Submodules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.2.1. Modules and Submodules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.2.2. Data Modeling Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.2.2. Data Modeling Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.2.3. State Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 4.2.3. State Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.2.4. Built-in Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 4.2.4. Built-in Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.2.5. Derived Types (typedef) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4.2.5. Derived Types (typedef) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.2.6. Reusable Node Groups (grouping) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4.2.6. Reusable Node Groups (grouping) . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.2.7. Choices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4.2.7. Choices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.2.8. Extending Data Models (augment) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4.2.8. Extending Data Models (augment) . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.2.9. RPC Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4.2.9. RPC Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.2.10. Notification Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4.2.10. Notification Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5. Language Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 5. Language Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.1. Modules and Submodules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 5.1. Modules and Submodules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.1.1. Import and Include by Revision . . . . . . . . . . . 28 5.1.1. Import and Include by Revision . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.1.2. Module Hierarchies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 5.1.2. Module Hierarchies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.2. File Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 5.2. File Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.3. XML Namespaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 5.3. XML Namespaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.3.1. YANG XML Namespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 5.3.1. YANG XML Namespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.4. Resolving Grouping, Type, and Identity Names . . . . . . 30 5.4. Resolving Grouping, Type, and Identity Names . . . . . . 31
5.5. Nested Typedefs and Groupings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 5.5. Nested Typedefs and Groupings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.6. Conformance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 5.6. Conformance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.6.1. Basic Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 5.6.1. Basic Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.6.2. Optional Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 5.6.2. Optional Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.6.3. Deviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 5.6.3. Deviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.6.4. Announcing Conformance Information in the <hello> 5.6.4. Announcing Conformance Information in the <hello>
Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
5.7. Data Store Modification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 5.7. Data Store Modification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
6. YANG syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 6. YANG syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
6.1. Lexicographical Tokenization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 6.1. Lexicographical Tokenization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
6.1.1. Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 6.1.1. Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
6.1.2. Tokens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 6.1.2. Tokens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
6.1.3. Quoting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 6.1.3. Quoting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
6.2. Identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
6.2.1. Identifiers and their namespaces . . . . . . . . . . 39
6.3. Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
6.3.1. Language Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
6.4. XPath Evaluations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
6.4.1. XPath Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
6.5. Schema Node Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
7. YANG Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
7.1. The module Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
7.1.1. The module's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
7.1.2. The yang-version Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
7.1.3. The namespace Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
7.1.4. The prefix Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
7.1.5. The import Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
7.1.6. The include Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
7.1.7. The organization Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
7.1.8. The contact Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
7.1.9. The revision Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
7.1.10. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
7.2. The submodule Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
7.2.1. The submodule's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
7.2.2. The belongs-to Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
7.2.3. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
7.3. The typedef Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
7.3.1. The typedef's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
7.3.2. The typedef's type Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
7.3.3. The units Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
7.3.4. The typedef's default Statement . . . . . . . . . . . 53
7.3.5. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
7.4. The type Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
7.4.1. The type's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
7.5. The container Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
7.5.1. Containers with Presence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
7.5.2. The container's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
7.5.3. The must Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
7.5.4. The must's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
7.5.5. The presence Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
7.5.6. The container's Child Node Statements . . . . . . . . 59
7.5.7. XML Mapping Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
7.5.8. NETCONF <edit-config> Operations . . . . . . . . . . 59
7.5.9. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
7.6. The leaf Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
7.6.1. The leaf's default value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
7.6.2. The leaf's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
7.6.3. The leaf's type Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
7.6.4. The leaf's default Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
7.6.5. The leaf's mandatory Statement . . . . . . . . . . . 63
7.6.6. XML Mapping Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
7.6.7. NETCONF <edit-config> Operations . . . . . . . . . . 63
7.6.8. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
7.7. The leaf-list Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
7.7.1. Ordering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
7.7.2. The leaf-list's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
7.7.3. The min-elements Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
7.7.4. The max-elements Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
7.7.5. The ordered-by Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
7.7.6. XML Mapping Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
7.7.7. NETCONF <edit-config> Operations . . . . . . . . . . 68
7.7.8. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
7.8. The list Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
7.8.1. The list's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
7.8.2. The list's key Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
7.8.3. The list's unique Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
7.8.4. The list's Child Node Statements . . . . . . . . . . 73
7.8.5. XML Mapping Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
7.8.6. NETCONF <edit-config> Operations . . . . . . . . . . 74
7.8.7. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
7.9. The choice Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
7.9.1. The choice's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
7.9.2. The choice's case Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
7.9.3. The choice's default Statement . . . . . . . . . . . 80
7.9.4. The choice's mandatory Statement . . . . . . . . . . 82
7.9.5. XML Mapping Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
7.9.6. NETCONF <edit-config> Operations . . . . . . . . . . 82
7.9.7. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
7.10. The anyxml Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
7.10.1. The anyxml's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
7.10.2. XML Mapping Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
7.10.3. NETCONF <edit-config> Operations . . . . . . . . . . 84
7.10.4. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
7.11. The grouping Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
7.11.1. The grouping's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
7.11.2. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
7.12. The uses Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
7.12.1. The uses's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
7.12.2. The refine Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
7.12.3. XML Mapping Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
7.12.4. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
7.13. The rpc Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
7.13.1. The rpc's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
7.13.2. The input Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
7.13.3. The output Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
7.13.4. XML Mapping Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
7.13.5. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
7.14. The notification Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
7.14.1. The notification's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . 95
7.14.2. XML Mapping Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
7.14.3. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
7.15. The augment Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
7.15.1. The augment's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
7.15.2. XML Mapping Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
7.15.3. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
7.16. The identity Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
7.16.1. The identity's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
7.16.2. The base Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
7.16.3. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
7.17. The extension Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
7.17.1. The extension's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
7.17.2. The argument Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
7.17.3. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
7.18. Conformance-related Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
7.18.1. The feature Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
7.18.2. The if-feature Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
7.18.3. The deviation Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
7.19. Common Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
7.19.1. The config Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
7.19.2. The status Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
7.19.3. The description Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
7.19.4. The reference Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
7.19.5. The when Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
8. Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
8.1. Constraints on Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
8.2. Hierarchy of Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
8.3. Constraint Enforcement Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
8.3.1. Payload Parsing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
8.3.2. NETCONF <edit-config> Processing . . . . . . . . . . 112
8.3.3. Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
9. Built-in Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
9.1. Canonical representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
9.2. The Integer Built-in Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
9.2.1. Lexicographic Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
9.2.2. Canonical Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
9.2.3. Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
9.2.4. The range Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
9.2.5. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
9.3. The decimal64 Built-in Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
9.3.1. Lexicographic Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
9.3.2. Canonical Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
9.3.3. Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
9.3.4. The fraction-digits Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
9.3.5. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
9.4. The string Built-in Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
9.4.1. Lexicographic Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
9.4.2. Canonical Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
9.4.3. Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
9.4.4. The length Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
9.4.5. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
9.4.6. The pattern Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
9.4.7. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
9.5. The boolean Built-in Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
9.5.1. Lexicographic Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
9.5.2. Canonical Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
9.5.3. Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
9.6. The enumeration Built-in Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
9.6.1. Lexicographic Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
9.6.2. Canonical Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
9.6.3. Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
9.6.4. The enum Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
9.6.5. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
9.7. The bits Built-in Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
9.7.1. Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
9.7.2. Lexicographic Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
9.7.3. Canonical Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
9.7.4. The bit Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
9.7.5. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
9.8. The binary Built-in Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
9.8.1. Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
9.8.2. Lexicographic Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
9.8.3. Canonical Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
9.9. The leafref Built-in Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
9.9.1. Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
9.9.2. The path Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
9.9.3. Lexicographic Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
9.9.4. Canonical Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
9.9.5. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
9.10. The identityref Built-in Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
9.10.1. Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
9.10.2. The identityref's base Statement . . . . . . . . . . 131
9.10.3. Lexicographic Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
9.10.4. Canonical Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
9.10.5. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
9.11. The empty Built-in Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
9.11.1. Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
9.11.2. Lexicographic Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
9.11.3. Canonical Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
9.11.4. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
9.12. The union Built-in Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
9.12.1. Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
9.12.2. Lexicographic Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
9.12.3. Canonical Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
9.13. The instance-identifier Built-in Type . . . . . . . . . . 135
9.13.1. Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
9.13.2. The require-instance Statement . . . . . . . . . . . 136
9.13.3. Lexicographic Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
9.13.4. Canonical Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
9.13.5. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
10. Updating a Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
11. YIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
11.1. Formal YIN Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
11.1.1. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
6.2. Identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 12. YANG ABNF Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
6.2.1. Identifiers and their namespaces . . . . . . . . . . 38 13. Error Responses for YANG Related Errors . . . . . . . . . . . 168
6.3. Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 13.1. Error Message for Data that Violates a unique Statement . 168
6.3.1. Language Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
6.4. XPath Evaluations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
6.4.1. XPath Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
6.5. Schema Node Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
7. YANG Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
7.1. The module Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
7.1.1. The module's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
7.1.2. The yang-version Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
7.1.3. The namespace Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
7.1.4. The prefix Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
7.1.5. The import Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
7.1.6. The include Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
7.1.7. The organization Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
7.1.8. The contact Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
7.1.9. The revision Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
7.1.10. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
7.2. The submodule Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
7.2.1. The submodule's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
7.2.2. The belongs-to Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
7.2.3. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
7.3. The typedef Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
7.3.1. The typedef's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
7.3.2. The typedef's type Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
7.3.3. The units Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
7.3.4. The typedef's default Statement . . . . . . . . . . . 52
7.3.5. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
7.4. The type Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
7.4.1. The type's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
7.5. The container Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
7.5.1. Containers with Presence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
7.5.2. The container's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
7.5.3. The must Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
7.5.4. The must's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
7.5.5. The presence Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
7.5.6. The container's Child Node Statements . . . . . . . . 58
7.5.7. XML Mapping Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
7.5.8. NETCONF <edit-config> Operations . . . . . . . . . . 58
7.5.9. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
7.6. The leaf Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
7.6.1. The leaf's default value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
7.6.2. The leaf's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
7.6.3. The leaf's type Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
7.6.4. The leaf's default Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
7.6.5. The leaf's mandatory Statement . . . . . . . . . . . 62
7.6.6. XML Mapping Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
7.6.7. NETCONF <edit-config> Operations . . . . . . . . . . 62
7.6.8. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
7.7. The leaf-list Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
7.7.1. Ordering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
7.7.2. The leaf-list's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
7.7.3. The min-elements Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
7.7.4. The max-elements Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
7.7.5. The ordered-by Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
7.7.6. XML Mapping Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
7.7.7. NETCONF <edit-config> Operations . . . . . . . . . . 67
7.7.8. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
7.8. The list Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
7.8.1. The list's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
7.8.2. The list's key Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
7.8.3. The list's unique Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
7.8.4. The list's Child Node Statements . . . . . . . . . . 72
7.8.5. XML Mapping Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
7.8.6. NETCONF <edit-config> Operations . . . . . . . . . . 73
7.8.7. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
7.9. The choice Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
7.9.1. The choice's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
7.9.2. The choice's case Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
7.9.3. The choice's default Statement . . . . . . . . . . . 79
7.9.4. The choice's mandatory Statement . . . . . . . . . . 81
7.9.5. XML Mapping Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
7.9.6. NETCONF <edit-config> Operations . . . . . . . . . . 81
7.9.7. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
7.10. The anyxml Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
7.10.1. The anyxml's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
7.10.2. XML Mapping Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
7.10.3. NETCONF <edit-config> Operations . . . . . . . . . . 83
7.10.4. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
7.11. The grouping Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
7.11.1. The grouping's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
7.11.2. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
7.12. The uses Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
7.12.1. The uses's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
7.12.2. The refine Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
7.12.3. XML Mapping Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
7.12.4. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
7.13. The rpc Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
7.13.1. The rpc's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
7.13.2. The input Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
7.13.3. The output Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
7.13.4. XML Mapping Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
7.13.5. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
7.14. The notification Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
7.14.1. The notification's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . 94
7.14.2. XML Mapping Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
7.14.3. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
7.15. The augment Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
7.15.1. The augment's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
7.15.2. XML Mapping Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
7.15.3. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
7.16. The identity Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
7.16.1. The identity's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
7.16.2. The base Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
7.16.3. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
7.17. The extension Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
7.17.1. The extension's Substatements . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
7.17.2. The argument Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
7.17.3. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
7.18. Conformance-related Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
7.18.1. The feature Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
7.18.2. The if-feature Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
7.18.3. The deviation Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
7.19. Common Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
7.19.1. The config Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
7.19.2. The status Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
7.19.3. The description Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
7.19.4. The reference Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
7.19.5. The when Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
8. Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
8.1. Constraints on Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
8.2. Hierarchy of Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
8.3. Constraint Enforcement Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
8.3.1. Payload Parsing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
8.3.2. NETCONF <edit-config> Processing . . . . . . . . . . 111
8.3.3. Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
9. Built-in Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
9.1. Canonical representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
9.2. The Integer Built-in Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
9.2.1. Lexicographic Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
9.2.2. Canonical Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
9.2.3. Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
9.2.4. The range Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
9.2.5. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
9.3. The decimal64 Built-in Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
9.3.1. Lexicographic Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
9.3.2. Canonical Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
9.3.3. Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
9.3.4. The fraction-digits Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
9.3.5. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
9.4. The string Built-in Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
9.4.1. Lexicographic Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
9.4.2. Canonical Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
9.4.3. Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
9.4.4. The length Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
9.4.5. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
9.4.6. The pattern Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
9.4.7. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
9.5. The boolean Built-in Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
9.5.1. Lexicographic Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
9.5.2. Canonical Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
9.5.3. Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
9.6. The enumeration Built-in Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
9.6.1. Lexicographic Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
9.6.2. Canonical Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
9.6.3. Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
9.6.4. The enum Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
9.6.5. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
9.7. The bits Built-in Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
9.7.1. Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
9.7.2. Lexicographic Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
9.7.3. Canonical Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
9.7.4. The bit Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
9.7.5. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
9.8. The binary Built-in Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
9.8.1. Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
9.8.2. Lexicographic Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
9.8.3. Canonical Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
9.9. The leafref Built-in Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
9.9.1. Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
9.9.2. The path Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
9.9.3. Lexicographic Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
9.9.4. Canonical Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
9.9.5. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
9.10. The identityref Built-in Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
9.10.1. Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
9.10.2. The identityref's base Statement . . . . . . . . . . 130
9.10.3. Lexicographic Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
9.10.4. Canonical Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
9.10.5. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
9.11. The empty Built-in Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
9.11.1. Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
9.11.2. Lexicographic Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
9.11.3. Canonical Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
9.11.4. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
9.12. The union Built-in Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
9.12.1. Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
9.12.2. Lexicographic Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
9.12.3. Canonical Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
9.13. The instance-identifier Built-in Type . . . . . . . . . . 134
9.13.1. Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
9.13.2. The require-instance Statement . . . . . . . . . . . 135
9.13.3. Lexicographic Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
9.13.4. Canonical Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
9.13.5. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
10. Updating a Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
11. YIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
11.1. Formal YIN Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
11.1.1. Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
12. YANG ABNF Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
13. Error Responses for YANG Related Errors . . . . . . . . . . . 167
13.1. Error Message for Data that Violates a unique Statement . 167
13.2. Error Message for Data that Violates a max-elements 13.2. Error Message for Data that Violates a max-elements
Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
13.3. Error Message for Data that Violates a min-elements 13.3. Error Message for Data that Violates a min-elements
Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
13.4. Error Message for Data that Violates a must Statement . . 168 13.4. Error Message for Data that Violates a must Statement . . 169
13.5. Error Message for Data that Violates a 13.5. Error Message for Data that Violates a
require-instance Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 require-instance Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
13.6. Error Message for Data that does not Match a leafref 13.6. Error Message for Data that does not Match a leafref
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
13.7. Error Message for Data that Violates a mandatory 13.7. Error Message for Data that Violates a mandatory
choice Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 choice Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
13.8. Error Message for the "insert" Operation . . . . . . . . 169 13.8. Error Message for the "insert" Operation . . . . . . . . 170
14. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 14. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
15. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 15. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
16. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 16. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
17. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 17. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
18. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 18. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
18.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 18.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
18.2. Non-Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 18.2. Non-Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Appendix A. ChangeLog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Appendix A. ChangeLog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
A.1. Version -10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 A.1. Version -10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
A.2. Version -09 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 A.2. Version -09 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
A.3. Version -08 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 A.3. Version -08 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
A.4. Version -07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 A.4. Version -07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
A.5. Version -06 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 A.5. Version -06 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
A.6. Version -05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 A.6. Version -05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
A.7. Version -04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 A.7. Version -04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
A.8. Version -03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 A.8. Version -03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
A.9. Version -02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 A.9. Version -02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
A.10. Version -01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 A.10. Version -01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
A.11. Version -00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 A.11. Version -00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
YANG is a data modeling language used to model configuration and YANG is a data modeling language used to model configuration and
state data manipulated by the Network Configuration Protocol state data manipulated by the Network Configuration Protocol
(NETCONF) protocol, NETCONF remote procedure calls, and NETCONF (NETCONF) protocol, NETCONF remote procedure calls, and NETCONF
notifications. YANG is used to model the operations and content notifications. YANG is used to model the operations and content
layers of NETCONF (see the NETCONF Configuration Protocol [RFC4741], layers of NETCONF (see the NETCONF Configuration Protocol [RFC4741],
section 1.1). section 1.1).
skipping to change at page 89, line 32 skipping to change at page 90, line 32
7.13. The rpc Statement 7.13. The rpc Statement
The "rpc" statement is used to define a NETCONF RPC operation. It The "rpc" statement is used to define a NETCONF RPC operation. It
takes one argument, which is an identifier, followed by a block of takes one argument, which is an identifier, followed by a block of
substatements that holds detailed rpc information. This argument is substatements that holds detailed rpc information. This argument is
the name of the RPC, and is used as the element name directly under the name of the RPC, and is used as the element name directly under
the <rpc> element, as designated by the substitution group the <rpc> element, as designated by the substitution group
"rpcOperation" in [RFC4741]. "rpcOperation" in [RFC4741].
The "rpc" statement defines an rpc node in the schema tree. Under The "rpc" statement defines an rpc node in the schema tree. Under
the rpc node, an input node with the name "input", and an output node the rpc node, a schema node with the name "input", and a schema node
with the name "output" are also defined. The nodes "input" and with the name "output" are also defined. The nodes "input" and
"output" are defined in the module's namespace. "output" are defined in the module's namespace.
7.13.1. The rpc's Substatements 7.13.1. The rpc's Substatements
+--------------+---------+-------------+ +--------------+---------+-------------+
| substatement | section | cardinality | | substatement | section | cardinality |
+--------------+---------+-------------+ +--------------+---------+-------------+
| description | 7.19.3 | 0..1 | | description | 7.19.3 | 0..1 |
| grouping | 7.11 | 0..n | | grouping | 7.11 | 0..n |
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[RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform [RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
RFC 3986, January 2005. RFC 3986, January 2005.
[RFC4648] Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data [RFC4648] Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data
Encodings", RFC 4648, October 2006. Encodings", RFC 4648, October 2006.
[RFC4741] Enns, R., "NETCONF Configuration Protocol", RFC 4741, [RFC4741] Enns, R., "NETCONF Configuration Protocol", RFC 4741,
December 2006. December 2006.
[RFC4844] Daigle, L. and Internet Architecture Board, "The RFC
Series and RFC Editor", RFC 4844, July 2007.
[RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an [RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226, IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
May 2008. May 2008.
[RFC5234] Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax [RFC5234] Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234, January 2008. Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234, January 2008.
[RFC5277] Chisholm, S. and H. Trevino, "NETCONF Event [RFC5277] Chisholm, S. and H. Trevino, "NETCONF Event
Notifications", RFC 5277, July 2008. Notifications", RFC 5277, July 2008.
skipping to change at page 175, line 28 skipping to change at page 176, line 25
Schoenwaelder, Ed., "Structure of Management Information Schoenwaelder, Ed., "Structure of Management Information
Version 2 (SMIv2)", STD 58, RFC 2578, April 1999. Version 2 (SMIv2)", STD 58, RFC 2578, April 1999.
[RFC2579] McCloghrie, K., Ed., Perkins, D., Ed., and J. [RFC2579] McCloghrie, K., Ed., Perkins, D., Ed., and J.
Schoenwaelder, Ed., "Textual Conventions for SMIv2", Schoenwaelder, Ed., "Textual Conventions for SMIv2",
STD 58, RFC 2579, April 1999. STD 58, RFC 2579, April 1999.
[RFC3780] Strauss, F. and J. Schoenwaelder, "SMIng - Next Generation [RFC3780] Strauss, F. and J. Schoenwaelder, "SMIng - Next Generation
Structure of Management Information", RFC 3780, May 2004. Structure of Management Information", RFC 3780, May 2004.
[RFC4844] Daigle, L. and Internet Architecture Board, "The RFC
Series and RFC Editor", RFC 4844, July 2007.
[XPATH2.0] [XPATH2.0]
Chamberlin, D., Boag, S., Berglund, A., Robie, J., Berglund, A., Boag, S., Chamberlin, D., Fernandez, M.,
SimAfA(C)on, J., FernAfA!ndez, M., and M. Kay, "XML Path Kay, M., Robie, J., and J. Simeon, "XML Path Language
Language (XPath) 2.0", World Wide Web Consortium (XPath) 2.0", World Wide Web Consortium
Recommendation REC-xpath20-20070123, January 2007, Recommendation REC-xpath20-20070123, January 2007,
<http://www.w3.org/TR/2007/REC-xpath20-20070123>. <http://www.w3.org/TR/2007/REC-xpath20-20070123>.
[XSLT] Clark, J., "XSL Transformations (XSLT) Version 1.0", World [XSLT] Clark, J., "XSL Transformations (XSLT) Version 1.0", World
Wide Web Consortium Recommendation REC-xslt-19991116, Wide Web Consortium Recommendation REC-xslt-19991116,
November 1999, November 1999,
<http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-xslt-19991116>. <http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-xslt-19991116>.
Appendix A. ChangeLog Appendix A. ChangeLog
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