draft-ietf-oauth-json-web-token-00.txt   draft-ietf-oauth-json-web-token-01.txt 
OAuth Working Group M. Jones OAuth Working Group M. Jones
Internet-Draft Microsoft Internet-Draft Microsoft
Intended status: Standards Track J. Bradley Intended status: Standards Track J. Bradley
Expires: November 23, 2012 Ping Identity Expires: January 7, 2013 Ping Identity
N. Sakimura N. Sakimura
NRI NRI
May 22, 2012 July 6, 2012
JSON Web Token (JWT) JSON Web Token (JWT)
draft-ietf-oauth-json-web-token-00 draft-ietf-oauth-json-web-token-01
Abstract Abstract
JSON Web Token (JWT) is a means of representing claims to be JSON Web Token (JWT) is a means of representing claims to be
transferred between two parties. The claims in a JWT are encoded as transferred between two parties. The claims in a JWT are encoded as
a JSON object that is digitally signed or MACed using JSON Web a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) object that is digitally signed
Signature (JWS) and/or encrypted using JSON Web Encryption (JWE). or MACed using JSON Web Signature (JWS) and/or encrypted using JSON
Web Encryption (JWE).
The suggested pronunciation of JWT is the same as the English word The suggested pronunciation of JWT is the same as the English word
"jot". "jot".
Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on November 23, 2012. This Internet-Draft will expire on January 7, 2013.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
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described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. JSON Web Token (JWT) Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. JSON Web Token (JWT) Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1. Example JWT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1. Example JWT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. JWT Claims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. JWT Claims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1. Reserved Claim Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.1. Reserved Claim Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1.1. "exp" (Expiration Time) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.1.1. "exp" (Expiration Time) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1.2. "nbf" (Not Before) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.1.2. "nbf" (Not Before) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1.3. "iat" (Issued At) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.1.3. "iat" (Issued At) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1.4. "iss" (Issuer) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1.4. "iss" (Issuer) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1.5. "aud" (Audience) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1.5. "aud" (Audience) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1.6. "prn" (Principal) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1.6. "prn" (Principal) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1.7. "jti" (JWT ID) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1.7. "jti" (JWT ID) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1.8. "typ" (Type) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1.8. "typ" (Type) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.2. Public Claim Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.2. Public Claim Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.3. Private Claim Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.3. Private Claim Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5. JWT Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5. JWT Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5.1. "typ" (Type) Header Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.1. "typ" (Type) Header Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5.2. "cty" (Content Type) Header Parameter . . . . . . . . . . 10
6. Plaintext JWTs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6. Plaintext JWTs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6.1. Example Plaintext JWT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6.1. Example Plaintext JWT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7. Rules for Creating and Validating a JWT . . . . . . . . . . . 11 7. Rules for Creating and Validating a JWT . . . . . . . . . . . 11
8. Cryptographic Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 8. Cryptographic Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
9.1. JSON Web Token Claims Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 9.1. JSON Web Token Claims Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
9.1.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
9.1.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
9.2. Sub-Namespace Registration of 9.2. Sub-Namespace Registration of
urn:ietf:params:oauth:token-type:jwt . . . . . . . . . . . 14 urn:ietf:params:oauth:token-type:jwt . . . . . . . . . . . 16
9.3. Registration of application/jwt MIME Media Type . . . . . 14 9.2.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
9.4. Registration of "JWT" Type Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 9.3. JSON Web Signature and Encryption Type Values
10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
11. Open Issues and Things To Be Done (TBD) . . . . . . . . . . . 16 9.3.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 9.4. Media Type Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 9.4.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Appendix A. Relationship of JWTs to SAML Tokens . . . . . . . . . 18 11. Open Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Appendix B. Relationship of JWTs to Simple Web Tokens (SWTs) . . 18 12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Appendix C. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Appendix D. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Appendix A. Relationship of JWTs to SAML Tokens . . . . . . . . . 19
Appendix B. Relationship of JWTs to Simple Web Tokens (SWTs) . . 20
Appendix C. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Appendix D. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
JSON Web Token (JWT) is a compact token format intended for space JSON Web Token (JWT) is a compact token format intended for space
constrained environments such as HTTP Authorization headers and URI constrained environments such as HTTP Authorization headers and URI
query parameters. JWTs encode claims to be transmitted as a JSON query parameters. JWTs encode claims to be transmitted as a
object (as defined in RFC 4627 [RFC4627]) that is base64url encoded JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) [RFC4627] object that is base64url
and digitally signed or MACed and/or encrypted. Signing and MACing encoded and digitally signed or MACed and/or encrypted. Signing and
is performed using JSON Web Signature (JWS) [JWS]. Encryption is MACing is performed using JSON Web Signature (JWS) [JWS]. Encryption
performed using JSON Web Encryption (JWE) [JWE]. is performed using JSON Web Encryption (JWE) [JWE].
The suggested pronunciation of JWT is the same as the English word The suggested pronunciation of JWT is the same as the English word
"jot". "jot".
1.1. Notational Conventions
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in Key words for use in
RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels [RFC2119].
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
JSON Web Token (JWT) A string consisting of multiple parts, the JSON Web Token (JWT) A string consisting of multiple parts, the
first being the Encoded JWT Header, plus additional parts first being the Encoded JWT Header, plus additional parts
depending upon the contents of the header, with the parts being depending upon the contents of the header, with the parts being
separated by period ('.') characters, and each part containing separated by period ('.') characters, and each part containing
base64url encoded content. base64url encoded content.
JWT Header A string representing a JSON object that describes the JWT Header A string representing a JSON object that describes the
cryptographic operations applied to the JWT. When the JWT is cryptographic operations applied to the JWT. When the JWT is
digitally signed or MACed, the JWT Header is a JWS Header. When digitally signed or MACed, the JWT Header is a JWS Header. When
the JWT is encrypted, the JWT Header is a JWE Header. the JWT is encrypted, the JWT Header is a JWE Header.
Header Parameter Names The names of the members within the JWT Header Parameter Name The name of a member of the JSON object
Header. representing a JWT Header.
Header Parameter Values The values of the members within the JWT Header Parameter Value The value of a member of the JSON object
Header. representing a JWT Header.
JWT Claims Set A string representing a JSON object that contains the JWT Claims Set A string representing a JSON object that contains the
claims conveyed by the JWT. When the JWT is digitally signed or claims conveyed by the JWT. When the JWT is digitally signed or
MACed, the bytes of the UTF-8 representation of the JWT Claims Set MACed, the bytes of the UTF-8 representation of the JWT Claims Set
are base64url encoded to create the Encoded JWS Payload. When the are base64url encoded to create the Encoded JWS Payload. When the
JWT is encrypted, the bytes of the UTF-8 representation of the JWT JWT is encrypted, the bytes of the UTF-8 representation of the JWT
Claims Set are used as the JWE Plaintext. Claims Set are used as the JWE Plaintext.
Claim Names The names of the members of the JSON object represented Claim Name The name of a member of the JSON object representing a
by the JWT Claims Set. JWT Claims Set.
Claim Values The values of the members of the JSON object Claim Value The value of a member of the JSON object representing a
represented by the JWT Claims Set. JWT Claims Set.
Encoded JWT Header Base64url encoding of the bytes of the UTF-8 RFC Encoded JWT Header Base64url encoding of the bytes of the UTF-8
3629 [RFC3629] representation of the JWT Header. [RFC3629] representation of the JWT Header.
Base64url Encoding For the purposes of this specification, this term Base64url Encoding For the purposes of this specification, this term
always refers to the URL- and filename-safe Base64 encoding always refers to the URL- and filename-safe Base64 encoding
described in RFC 4648 [RFC4648], Section 5, with the (non URL- described in RFC 4648 [RFC4648], Section 5, with the (non URL-
safe) '=' padding characters omitted, as permitted by Section 3.2. safe) '=' padding characters omitted, as permitted by Section 3.2.
(See Appendix C of [JWS] for notes on implementing base64url (See Appendix C of [JWS] for notes on implementing base64url
encoding without padding.) encoding without padding.)
Collision Resistant Namespace A namespace that allows names to be
allocated in a manner such that they are highly unlikely to
collide with other names. For instance, collision resistance can
be achieved through administrative delegation of portions of the
namespace or through use of collision-resistant name allocation
functions. Examples of Collision Resistant Namespaces include:
Domain Names, Object Identifiers (OIDs) as defined in the ITU-T
X.660 and X.670 Recommendation series, and Universally Unique
IDentifiers (UUIDs) [RFC4122]. When using an administratively
delegated namespace, the definer of a name needs to take
reasonable precautions to ensure they are in control of the
portion of the namespace they use to define the name.
StringOrURI A JSON string value, with the additional requirement StringOrURI A JSON string value, with the additional requirement
that while arbitrary string values MAY be used, any value that while arbitrary string values MAY be used, any value
containing a ":" character MUST be a URI as defined in RFC 3986 containing a ":" character MUST be a URI [RFC3986].
[RFC3986].
IntDate A JSON numeric value representing the number of seconds from IntDate A JSON numeric value representing the number of seconds from
1970-01-01T0:0:0Z UTC until the specified UTC date/time. See RFC 1970-01-01T0:0:0Z UTC until the specified UTC date/time. See RFC
3339 [RFC3339] for details regarding date/times in general and UTC 3339 [RFC3339] for details regarding date/times in general and UTC
in particular. in particular.
3. JSON Web Token (JWT) Overview 3. JSON Web Token (JWT) Overview
JWTs represent a set of claims as a JSON object that is base64url JWTs represent a set of claims as a JSON object that is base64url
encoded and digitally signed or MACed and/or encrypted. The JWT encoded and digitally signed or MACed and/or encrypted. The JWT
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can be used to prevent the JWT from being replayed. The "jti" value can be used to prevent the JWT from being replayed. The "jti" value
is case sensitive. Its value MUST be a string. This claim is is case sensitive. Its value MUST be a string. This claim is
OPTIONAL. OPTIONAL.
4.1.8. "typ" (Type) Claim 4.1.8. "typ" (Type) Claim
The "typ" (type) claim is used to declare a type for the contents of The "typ" (type) claim is used to declare a type for the contents of
this JWT Claims Set. The "typ" value is case sensitive. Its value this JWT Claims Set. The "typ" value is case sensitive. Its value
MUST be a string. This claim is OPTIONAL. MUST be a string. This claim is OPTIONAL.
The values used for the "typ" claim SHOULD come from the same value The values used for the "typ" claim come from the same value space as
space as the "typ" header parameter, with the same rules applying. the "typ" header parameter, with the same rules applying.
4.2. Public Claim Names 4.2. Public Claim Names
Claim names can be defined at will by those using JWTs. However, in Claim names can be defined at will by those using JWTs. However, in
order to prevent collisions, any new claim name SHOULD either be order to prevent collisions, any new claim name SHOULD either be
defined in the IANA JSON Web Token Claims registry Section 9.1 or be registered in the IANA JSON Web Token Claims registry Section 9.1 or
a URI that contains a collision resistant namespace. Examples of be a URI that contains a Collision Resistant Namespace.
collision resistant namespaces include:
o Domain Names,
o Object Identifiers (OIDs) as defined in the ITU-T X.660 and X.670
Recommendation series, or
o Universally Unique IDentifier (UUID) as defined in RFC 4122
[RFC4122].
In each case, the definer of the name or value needs to take
reasonable precautions to make sure they are in control of the part
of the namespace they use to define the claim name.
4.3. Private Claim Names 4.3. Private Claim Names
A producer and consumer of a JWT may agree to any claim name that is A producer and consumer of a JWT may agree to any claim name that is
not a Reserved Name Section 4.1 or a Public Name Section 4.2. Unlike not a Reserved Name Section 4.1 or a Public Name Section 4.2. Unlike
Public Names, these private names are subject to collision and should Public Names, these private names are subject to collision and should
be used with caution. be used with caution.
5. JWT Header 5. JWT Header
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the cryptographic operations applied to the JWT and optionally, the cryptographic operations applied to the JWT and optionally,
additional properties of the JWT. The member names within the JWT additional properties of the JWT. The member names within the JWT
Header are referred to as Header Parameter Names. These names MUST Header are referred to as Header Parameter Names. These names MUST
be unique; JWTs with duplicate Header Parameter Names MUST be be unique; JWTs with duplicate Header Parameter Names MUST be
rejected. The corresponding values are referred to as Header rejected. The corresponding values are referred to as Header
Parameter Values. Parameter Values.
Implementations MUST understand the entire contents of the header; Implementations MUST understand the entire contents of the header;
otherwise, the JWT MUST be rejected for processing. otherwise, the JWT MUST be rejected for processing.
There are two ways of distinguishing whether the JWT is a JWS or JWE.
The first is by examining the "alg" (algorithm) header value. If the
value represents a signature algorithm, the JWT is a JWS; if it
represents an encryption algorithm, the JWT is a JWE. A second
method is determining whether an "enc" (encryption method) member
exists. If the "enc" member exists, the JWT is a JWE; otherwise, the
JWT is a JWS. Both methods will yield the same result.
JWS Header Parameters are defined by [JWS]. JWE Header Parameters JWS Header Parameters are defined by [JWS]. JWE Header Parameters
are defined by [JWE]. This specification further specifies the use are defined by [JWE]. This specification further specifies the use
of the following header parameters in both the cases where the JWT is of the following header parameter in both the cases where the JWT is
a JWS and where it is a JWE. a JWS and where it is a JWE.
5.1. "typ" (Type) Header Parameter 5.1. "typ" (Type) Header Parameter
The "typ" (type) header parameter is used to declare structural The "typ" (type) header parameter is used to declare the type of this
information about the JWT. In the normal case where nested signing object. If present, it is RECOMMENDED that its value be either "JWT"
or encryption operations are not employed, the use of this header or "urn:ietf:params:oauth:token-type:jwt" to indicate that this
parameter is OPTIONAL, and if present, it is RECOMMENDED that its object is a JWT. The "typ" value is case sensitive. Its value MUST
value be either "JWT" or "urn:ietf:params:oauth:token-type:jwt". In be a string. This header parameter is OPTIONAL.
the case that nested signing or encryption steps are employed, the
use of this header parameter is REQUIRED; in this case, the value 5.2. "cty" (Content Type) Header Parameter
MUST either be "JWS", to indicate that a nested digitally signed or
MACed JWT is carried in this JWT or "JWE", to indicate that a nested The "cty" (content type) header parameter is used to declare
encrypted JWT is carried in this JWT. structural information about the JWT. Its value MUST be a string.
In the normal case where nested signing or encryption operations are
not employed, the use of this header parameter is NOT RECOMMENDED.
In the case that nested signing or encryption is employed, the use of
this header parameter is REQUIRED; in this case, the value MUST be
"JWT", to indicate that a nested JWT is carried in this JWT.
The values used for the "cty" header parameter come from the same
value space as the "typ" header parameter, with the same rules
applying.
6. Plaintext JWTs 6. Plaintext JWTs
To support use cases where the JWT content is secured by a means To support use cases where the JWT content is secured by a means
other than a signature and/or encryption contained within the token other than a signature and/or encryption contained within the token
(such as a signature on a data structure containing the token), JWTs (such as a signature on a data structure containing the token), JWTs
MAY also be created without a signature or encryption. A plaintext MAY also be created without a signature or encryption. A plaintext
JWT is a JWS using the "none" JWS "alg" header parameter value JWT is a JWS using the "none" JWS "alg" header parameter value
defined in JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA]; it is a JWS with an empty defined in JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA]; it is a JWS with an empty
JWS Signature value. JWS Signature value.
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* If the JWT is a JWS, create a JWS using the JWT Header as the * If the JWT is a JWS, create a JWS using the JWT Header as the
JWS Header and the Message as the JWS Payload; all steps JWS Header and the Message as the JWS Payload; all steps
specified in [JWS] for creating a JWS MUST be followed. specified in [JWS] for creating a JWS MUST be followed.
* Else, if the JWT is a JWE, create a JWE using the JWT Header * Else, if the JWT is a JWE, create a JWE using the JWT Header
as the JWE Header and the Message as the JWE Plaintext; all as the JWE Header and the Message as the JWE Plaintext; all
steps specified in [JWE] for creating a JWE MUST be followed. steps specified in [JWE] for creating a JWE MUST be followed.
6. If a nested signing or encryption operation will be performed, 6. If a nested signing or encryption operation will be performed,
let the Message be the JWS or JWE, and return to Step 3, using a let the Message be the JWS or JWE, and return to Step 3, using a
"typ" value of either "JWS" or "JWE" respectively in the new JWT "cty" (content type) value of "JWT" in the new JWT Header created
Header created in that step. in that step.
7. Otherwise, let the resulting JWT be the JWS or JWE. 7. Otherwise, let the resulting JWT be the JWS or JWE.
When validating a JWT the following steps MUST be taken. The order When validating a JWT the following steps MUST be taken. The order
of the steps is not significant in cases where there are no of the steps is not significant in cases where there are no
dependencies between the inputs and outputs of the steps. If any of dependencies between the inputs and outputs of the steps. If any of
the listed steps fails then the token MUST be rejected for the listed steps fails then the token MUST be rejected for
processing. processing.
1. The JWT MUST contain at least one period character. 1. The JWT MUST contain at least one period character.
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cases: cases:
* If the JWT is a JWS, all steps specified in [JWS] for * If the JWT is a JWS, all steps specified in [JWS] for
validating a JWS MUST be followed. Let the Message be the validating a JWS MUST be followed. Let the Message be the
result of base64url decoding the JWS Payload. result of base64url decoding the JWS Payload.
* Else, if the JWT is a JWE, all steps specified in [JWE] for * Else, if the JWT is a JWE, all steps specified in [JWE] for
validating a JWE MUST be followed. Let the Message be the validating a JWE MUST be followed. Let the Message be the
JWE Plaintext. JWE Plaintext.
8. If the JWT Header contains a "typ" value of either "JWS" or 8. If the JWT Header contains a "cty" (content type) value of
"JWE", then the Message contains a JWT that was the subject of "JWT", then the Message contains a JWT that was the subject of
nested signing or encryption operations, respectively. In this nested signing or encryption operations. In this case, return
case, return to Step 1, using the Message as the JWT. to Step 1, using the Message as the JWT.
9. Otherwise, let the JWT Claims Set be the Message. 9. Otherwise, let the JWT Claims Set be the Message.
10. The JWT Claims Set MUST be completely valid JSON syntax 10. The JWT Claims Set MUST be completely valid JSON syntax
conforming to RFC 4627 [RFC4627]. conforming to RFC 4627 [RFC4627].
11. When used in a security-related context, the JWT Claims Set MUST 11. When used in a security-related context, the JWT Claims Set MUST
be validated to only include claims whose syntax and semantics be validated to only include claims whose syntax and semantics
are both understood and supported. are both understood and supported.
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If an implementation provides encryption capabilities, of the JWE If an implementation provides encryption capabilities, of the JWE
encryption algorithms, only RSA-PKCS1-1.5 with 2048 bit keys, AES- encryption algorithms, only RSA-PKCS1-1.5 with 2048 bit keys, AES-
128-KW, AES-256-KW, AES-128-CBC, and AES-256-CBC MUST be implemented 128-KW, AES-256-KW, AES-128-CBC, and AES-256-CBC MUST be implemented
by conforming implementations. It is RECOMMENDED that by conforming implementations. It is RECOMMENDED that
implementations also support ECDH-ES with 256 bit keys, AES-128-GCM, implementations also support ECDH-ES with 256 bit keys, AES-128-GCM,
and AES-256-GCM. Support for other algorithms and key sizes is and AES-256-GCM. Support for other algorithms and key sizes is
OPTIONAL. OPTIONAL.
9. IANA Considerations 9. IANA Considerations
9.1. JSON Web Token Claims Registry 9.1. JSON Web Token Claims Registry
This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Token Claims This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Token Claims
registry for reserved JWT claim names. Inclusion in the registry is registry for reserved JWT Claim Names. The registry records the
RFC Required in the RFC 5226 [RFC5226] sense. The registry records reserved Claim Name and a reference to the specification that defines
the reserved claim name and a reference to the RFC that defines it. it. This specification registers the Claim Names defined in
This specification registers the claim names defined in Section 4.1. Section 4.1.
Values are registered with a Specification Required [RFC5226] after a
two week review period on the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list, on the
advice of one or more Designated Experts. However, to allow for the
allocation of values prior to publication, the Designated Expert(s)
may approve registration once they are satisfied that such a
specification will be published.
Registration requests must be sent to the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list
for review and comment, with an appropriate subject (e.g., "Request
for access token type: example"). [[ Note to RFC-EDITOR: The name of
the mailing list should be determined in consultation with the IESG
and IANA. Suggested name: claims-reg-review. ]]
Within the review period, the Designated Expert(s) will either
approve or deny the registration request, communicating this decision
to the review list and IANA. Denials should include an explanation
and, if applicable, suggestions as to how to make the request
successful.
IANA must only accept registry updates from the Designated Expert(s),
and should direct all requests for registration to the review mailing
list.
9.1.1. Registration Template
Claim Name:
The name requested (e.g., "example").
Change Controller:
For standards-track RFCs, state "IETF". For others, give the name
of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address,
e-mail address, home page URI) may also be included.
Specification Document(s):
Reference to the document that specifies the parameter, preferably
including a URI that can be used to retrieve a copy of the
document. An indication of the relevant sections may also be
included, but is not required.
9.1.2. Initial Registry Contents
o Claim Name: "exp"
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1.1 of [[ this document ]]
o Claim Name: "nbf"
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1.2 of [[ this document ]]
o Claim Name: "iat"
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1.3 of [[ this document ]]
o Claim Name: "iss"
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1.4 of [[ this document ]]
o Claim Name: "aud"
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1.5 of [[ this document ]]
o Claim Name: "prn"
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1.6 of [[ this document ]]
o Claim Name: "jti"
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1.7 of [[ this document ]]
o Claim Name: "typ"
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1.8 of [[ this document ]]
9.2. Sub-Namespace Registration of urn:ietf:params:oauth:token-type:jwt 9.2. Sub-Namespace Registration of urn:ietf:params:oauth:token-type:jwt
This specification registers the value "token-type:jwt" in the 9.2.1. Registry Contents
registry urn:ietf:params:oauth established in An IETF URN Sub-
This specification registers the value "token-type:jwt" in the IANA
urn:ietf:params:oauth registry established in An IETF URN Sub-
Namespace for OAuth [I-D.ietf-oauth-urn-sub-ns]. Namespace for OAuth [I-D.ietf-oauth-urn-sub-ns].
o URN: urn:ietf:params:oauth:token-type:jwt o URN: urn:ietf:params:oauth:token-type:jwt
o Common Name: JSON Web Token (JWT) Token Type o Common Name: JSON Web Token (JWT) Token Type
o Change controller: IETF o Change Controller: IETF
o Description: [[this document]] o Specification Document(s): [[this document]]
9.3. Registration of application/jwt MIME Media Type 9.3. JSON Web Signature and Encryption Type Values Registration
This specification registers the "application/jwt" MIME Media Type 9.3.1. Registry Contents
RFC 2045 [RFC2045].
Type name: This specification registers the "JWT" type value in the IANA JSON
application Web Signature and Encryption Type Values registry [JWS]:
Subtype name: o "typ" Header Parameter Value: "JWT"
jwt
Required parameters: o Abbreviation for MIME Type: application/jwt
n/a
Optional parameters: o Change Controller: IETF
n/a
Encoding considerations: o Specification Document(s): Section 5.1 of [[ this document ]]
n/a
Security considerations: 9.4. Media Type Registration
See the Security Considerations section of this document
Interoperability considerations: 9.4.1. Registry Contents
n/a
Published specification: This specification registers the "application/jwt" Media Type
[[ this document ]] [RFC2046] in the MIME Media Type registry [RFC4288] to indicate that
the content is a JWT.
Applications that use this media type: o Type Name: application
OpenID Connect, Mozilla Browser ID, Salesforce, Google, numerous
others
Additional information: o Subtype Name: jwt
Magic number(s): n/a
File extension(s): n/a
Macintosh file type code(s): n/a
Person & email address to contact for further information: o Required Parameters: n/a
Michael B. Jones o Optional Parameters: n/a
mbj@microsoft.com
Intended usage: o Encoding considerations: JWT values are encoded as a series of
COMMON base64url encoded values (some of which may be the empty string)
separated by period ('.') characters
Restrictions on usage: o Security Considerations: See the Security Considerations section
none of this document
Author: o Interoperability Considerations: n/a
Michael B. Jones
mbj@microsoft.com
Change controller: o Published Specification: [[ this document ]]
IETF
9.4. Registration of "JWT" Type Value o Applications that use this media type: OpenID Connect, Mozilla
Browser ID, Salesforce, Google, numerous others
This specification registers the following "typ" header parameter o Additional Information: Magic number(s): n/a, File extension(s):
value in the JSON Web Signature and Encryption "typ" Values registry n/a, Macintosh file type code(s): n/a
established by the JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification:
"typ" header parameter value: o Person & email address to contact for further information: Michael
"JWT" B. Jones, mbj@microsoft.com
Abbreviation for MIME type: o Intended Usage: COMMON
application/jwt
Change controller: o Restrictions on Usage: none
IETF
Description: o Author: Michael B. Jones, mbj@microsoft.com
[[ this document ]]
o Change Controller: IETF
10. Security Considerations 10. Security Considerations
All of the security issues faced by any cryptographic application
must be faced by a JWT/JWS/JWE/JWK agent. Among these issues are
protecting the user's private key, preventing various attacks, and
helping the user avoid mistakes such as inadvertently encrypting a
message for the wrong recipient. The entire list of security
considerations is beyond the scope of this document, but some
significant concerns are listed here.
All the security considerations in the JWS specification also apply All the security considerations in the JWS specification also apply
to JWT, as do the JWE security considerations when encryption is to JWT, as do the JWE security considerations when encryption is
employed. In particular, the JWS JSON Security Considerations and employed. In particular, the JWS JSON Security Considerations and
Unicode Comparison Security Considerations apply equally to the JWT Unicode Comparison Security Considerations apply equally to the JWT
Claims Set in the same manner that they do to the JWS Header. Claims Set in the same manner that they do to the JWS Header.
11. Open Issues and Things To Be Done (TBD) 11. Open Issues
The following items remain to be done in this draft: [[ to be removed by the RFC editor before publication as an RFC ]]
The following items remain to be considered or done in this draft:
o Provide an example of an encrypted JWT. o Provide an example of an encrypted JWT.
12. References 12. References
12.1. Normative References 12.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-oauth-urn-sub-ns] [I-D.ietf-oauth-urn-sub-ns]
Tschofenig, H., "An IETF URN Sub-Namespace for OAuth", Campbell, B. and H. Tschofenig, "An IETF URN Sub-Namespace
draft-ietf-oauth-urn-sub-ns-02 (work in progress), for OAuth", draft-ietf-oauth-urn-sub-ns-05 (work in
January 2012. progress), June 2012.
[JWA] Jones, M., "JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)", May 2012. [JWA] Jones, M., "JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)", July 2012.
[JWE] Jones, M., Rescorla, E., and J. Hildebrand, "JSON Web [JWE] Jones, M., Rescorla, E., and J. Hildebrand, "JSON Web
Encryption (JWE)", May 2012. Encryption (JWE)", July 2012.
[JWS] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web [JWS] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web
Signature (JWS)", May 2012. Signature (JWS)", July 2012.
[RFC2045] Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail [RFC2046] Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types", RFC 2046,
Bodies", RFC 2045, November 1996. November 1996.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC3339] Klyne, G., Ed. and C. Newman, "Date and Time on the [RFC3339] Klyne, G., Ed. and C. Newman, "Date and Time on the
Internet: Timestamps", RFC 3339, July 2002. Internet: Timestamps", RFC 3339, July 2002.
[RFC3629] Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO [RFC3629] Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003. 10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003.
[RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform [RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
RFC 3986, January 2005. RFC 3986, January 2005.
[RFC4288] Freed, N. and J. Klensin, "Media Type Specifications and
Registration Procedures", BCP 13, RFC 4288, December 2005.
[RFC4627] Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for [RFC4627] Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for
JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627, July 2006. JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627, July 2006.
[RFC4648] Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data [RFC4648] Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data
Encodings", RFC 4648, October 2006. Encodings", RFC 4648, October 2006.
[RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an [RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226, IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
May 2008. May 2008.
skipping to change at page 19, line 10 skipping to change at page 20, line 47
Solutions for signing JSON content were previously explored by Magic Solutions for signing JSON content were previously explored by Magic
Signatures [MagicSignatures], JSON Simple Sign [JSS], and Canvas Signatures [MagicSignatures], JSON Simple Sign [JSS], and Canvas
Applications [CanvasApp], all of which influenced this draft. Dirk Applications [CanvasApp], all of which influenced this draft. Dirk
Balfanz, Yaron Y. Goland, John Panzer, and Paul Tarjan all made Balfanz, Yaron Y. Goland, John Panzer, and Paul Tarjan all made
significant contributions to the design of this specification. significant contributions to the design of this specification.
Appendix D. Document History Appendix D. Document History
[[ to be removed by the RFC editor before publication as an RFC ]] [[ to be removed by the RFC editor before publication as an RFC ]]
-01
o Added the "cty" (content type) header parameter for declaring type
information about the secured content, as opposed to the "typ"
(type) header parameter, which declares type information about
this object. This significantly simplified nested JWTs.
o Moved description of how to determine whether a header is for a
JWS or a JWE from the JWT spec to the JWE spec.
o Changed registration requirements from RFC Required to
Specification Required with Expert Review.
o Added Registration Template sections for defined registries.
o Added Registry Contents sections to populate registry values.
o Added "Collision Resistant Namespace" to the terminology section.
o Numerous editorial improvements.
-00 -00
o Created the initial IETF draft based upon o Created the initial IETF draft based upon
draft-jones-json-web-token-10 with no normative changes. draft-jones-json-web-token-10 with no normative changes.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Michael B. Jones Michael B. Jones
Microsoft Microsoft
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