draft-ietf-oauth-json-web-token-19.txt   draft-ietf-oauth-json-web-token-20.txt 
OAuth Working Group M. Jones OAuth Working Group M. Jones
Internet-Draft Microsoft Internet-Draft Microsoft
Intended status: Standards Track J. Bradley Intended status: Standards Track J. Bradley
Expires: September 19, 2014 Ping Identity Expires: November 1, 2014 Ping Identity
N. Sakimura N. Sakimura
NRI NRI
March 18, 2014 April 30, 2014
JSON Web Token (JWT) JSON Web Token (JWT)
draft-ietf-oauth-json-web-token-19 draft-ietf-oauth-json-web-token-20
Abstract Abstract
JSON Web Token (JWT) is a compact URL-safe means of representing JSON Web Token (JWT) is a compact URL-safe means of representing
claims to be transferred between two parties. The claims in a JWT claims to be transferred between two parties. The claims in a JWT
are encoded as a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) object that is are encoded as a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) object that is
used as the payload of a JSON Web Signature (JWS) structure or as the used as the payload of a JSON Web Signature (JWS) structure or as the
plaintext of a JSON Web Encryption (JWE) structure, enabling the plaintext of a JSON Web Encryption (JWE) structure, enabling the
claims to be digitally signed or MACed and/or encrypted. claims to be digitally signed or MACed and/or encrypted.
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This Internet-Draft will expire on September 19, 2014. This Internet-Draft will expire on November 1, 2014.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.1. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. JSON Web Token (JWT) Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. JSON Web Token (JWT) Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.1. Example JWT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1. Example JWT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. JWT Claims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4. JWT Claims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1. Registered Claim Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1. Registered Claim Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1.1. "iss" (Issuer) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1.1. "iss" (Issuer) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.1.2. "sub" (Subject) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.1.2. "sub" (Subject) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.1.3. "aud" (Audience) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.1.3. "aud" (Audience) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.1.4. "exp" (Expiration Time) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.1.4. "exp" (Expiration Time) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.1.5. "nbf" (Not Before) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.1.5. "nbf" (Not Before) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.1.6. "iat" (Issued At) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.1.6. "iat" (Issued At) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.1.7. "jti" (JWT ID) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.1.7. "jti" (JWT ID) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.2. Public Claim Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.2. Public Claim Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.3. Private Claim Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.3. Private Claim Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5. JWT Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5. JWT Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.1. "typ" (Type) Header Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.1. "typ" (Type) Header Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5.2. "cty" (Content Type) Header Parameter . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.2. "cty" (Content Type) Header Parameter . . . . . . . . . . 11
5.3. Replicating Claims as Header Parameters . . . . . . . . . 11 5.3. Replicating Claims as Header Parameters . . . . . . . . . 11
6. Plaintext JWTs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6. Plaintext JWTs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6.1. Example Plaintext JWT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6.1. Example Plaintext JWT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
7. Rules for Creating and Validating a JWT . . . . . . . . . . . 13 7. Rules for Creating and Validating a JWT . . . . . . . . . . . 13
7.1. String Comparison Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 7.1. String Comparison Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
8. Implementation Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 8. Implementation Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
9. URI for Declaring that Content is a JWT . . . . . . . . . . . 15 9. URI for Declaring that Content is a JWT . . . . . . . . . . . 16
10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
10.1. JSON Web Token Claims Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 10.1. JSON Web Token Claims Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
10.1.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 10.1.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
10.1.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 10.1.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
10.2. Sub-Namespace Registration of 10.2. Sub-Namespace Registration of
urn:ietf:params:oauth:token-type:jwt . . . . . . . . . . . 18 urn:ietf:params:oauth:token-type:jwt . . . . . . . . . . . 18
10.2.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 10.2.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
10.3. Media Type Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 10.3. Media Type Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
10.3.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 10.3.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
10.4. Registration of JWE Header Parameter Names . . . . . . . . 19 10.4. Registration of JWE Header Parameter Names . . . . . . . . 19
10.4.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 10.4.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Appendix A. JWT Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Appendix A. JWT Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
A.1. Example Encrypted JWT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 A.1. Example Encrypted JWT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
A.2. Example Nested JWT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 A.2. Example Nested JWT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Appendix B. Relationship of JWTs to SAML Assertions . . . . . . . 25 Appendix B. Relationship of JWTs to SAML Assertions . . . . . . . 25
Appendix C. Relationship of JWTs to Simple Web Tokens (SWTs) . . 26 Appendix C. Relationship of JWTs to Simple Web Tokens (SWTs) . . 26
Appendix D. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Appendix D. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Appendix E. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Appendix E. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
JSON Web Token (JWT) is a compact claims representation format JSON Web Token (JWT) is a compact claims representation format
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3.1. Example JWT 3.1. Example JWT
The following example JWT Header declares that the encoded object is The following example JWT Header declares that the encoded object is
a JSON Web Token (JWT) and the JWT is a JWS that is MACed using the a JSON Web Token (JWT) and the JWT is a JWS that is MACed using the
HMAC SHA-256 algorithm: HMAC SHA-256 algorithm:
{"typ":"JWT", {"typ":"JWT",
"alg":"HS256"} "alg":"HS256"}
The following octet sequence is the UTF-8 representation of the JWT To remove potential ambiguities in the representation of the JSON
Header/JWS Header above: object above, the octet sequence for the actual UTF-8 representation
used in this example for the JWT Header/JWS Header above is also
included below. (Note that ambiguities can arise due to differing
platform representations of line breaks (CRLF versus LF), differing
spacing at the beginning and ends of lines, whether the last line has
a terminating line break or not, and other causes. In the
representation used in this example, the first line has no leading or
trailing spaces, a CRLF line break (13, 10) occurs between the first
and second lines, the second line has one leading space (32) and no
trailing spaces, and the last line does not have a terminating line
break.) The octets representing the UTF-8 representation of the JWS
Header in this example (using JSON array notation) are:
[123, 34, 116, 121, 112, 34, 58, 34, 74, 87, 84, 34, 44, 13, 10, 32, [123, 34, 116, 121, 112, 34, 58, 34, 74, 87, 84, 34, 44, 13, 10, 32,
34, 97, 108, 103, 34, 58, 34, 72, 83, 50, 53, 54, 34, 125] 34, 97, 108, 103, 34, 58, 34, 72, 83, 50, 53, 54, 34, 125]
Base64url encoding the octets of the UTF-8 representation of the JWT Base64url encoding the octets of the UTF-8 representation of the JWT
Header yields this Encoded JWT Header value (which is also the Header yields this Encoded JWT Header value (which is also the
underlying encoded JWS Header value): underlying encoded JWS Header value):
eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLA0KICJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9 eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLA0KICJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9
The following is an example of a JWT Claims Set: The following is an example of a JWT Claims Set:
{"iss":"joe", {"iss":"joe",
"exp":1300819380, "exp":1300819380,
"http://example.com/is_root":true} "http://example.com/is_root":true}
The following octet sequence, which is the UTF-8 representation of The following octet sequence, which is the UTF-8 representation used
the JWT Claims Set above, is the JWS Payload: in this example for the JWT Claims Set above, is the JWS Payload:
[123, 34, 105, 115, 115, 34, 58, 34, 106, 111, 101, 34, 44, 13, 10, [123, 34, 105, 115, 115, 34, 58, 34, 106, 111, 101, 34, 44, 13, 10,
32, 34, 101, 120, 112, 34, 58, 49, 51, 48, 48, 56, 49, 57, 51, 56, 32, 34, 101, 120, 112, 34, 58, 49, 51, 48, 48, 56, 49, 57, 51, 56,
48, 44, 13, 10, 32, 34, 104, 116, 116, 112, 58, 47, 47, 101, 120, 97, 48, 44, 13, 10, 32, 34, 104, 116, 116, 112, 58, 47, 47, 101, 120, 97,
109, 112, 108, 101, 46, 99, 111, 109, 47, 105, 115, 95, 114, 111, 109, 112, 108, 101, 46, 99, 111, 109, 47, 105, 115, 95, 114, 111,
111, 116, 34, 58, 116, 114, 117, 101, 125] 111, 116, 34, 58, 116, 114, 117, 101, 125]
Base64url encoding the JWS Payload yields this encoded JWS Payload Base64url encoding the JWS Payload yields this encoded JWS Payload
(with line breaks for display purposes only): (with line breaks for display purposes only):
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[ECMAScript] [ECMAScript]
Ecma International, "ECMAScript Language Specification, Ecma International, "ECMAScript Language Specification,
5.1 Edition", ECMA 262, June 2011. 5.1 Edition", ECMA 262, June 2011.
[IANA.MediaTypes] [IANA.MediaTypes]
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), "MIME Media Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), "MIME Media
Types", 2005. Types", 2005.
[JWA] Jones, M., "JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)", [JWA] Jones, M., "JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)",
draft-ietf-jose-json-web-algorithms (work in progress), draft-ietf-jose-json-web-algorithms (work in progress),
March 2014. April 2014.
[JWE] Jones, M. and J. Hildebrand, "JSON Web Encryption (JWE)", [JWE] Jones, M. and J. Hildebrand, "JSON Web Encryption (JWE)",
draft-ietf-jose-json-web-encryption (work in progress), draft-ietf-jose-json-web-encryption (work in progress),
March 2014. April 2014.
[JWK] Jones, M., "JSON Web Key (JWK)",
draft-ietf-jose-json-web-key (work in progress),
March 2014.
[JWS] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web [JWS] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web
Signature (JWS)", draft-ietf-jose-json-web-signature (work Signature (JWS)", draft-ietf-jose-json-web-signature (work
in progress), March 2014. in progress), April 2014.
[RFC2046] Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail [RFC2046] Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types", RFC 2046, Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types", RFC 2046,
November 1996. November 1996.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform [RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
RFC 3986, January 2005. RFC 3986, January 2005.
[RFC4648] Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data [RFC4648] Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data
Encodings", RFC 4648, October 2006. Encodings", RFC 4648, October 2006.
[RFC6755] Campbell, B. and H. Tschofenig, "An IETF URN Sub-Namespace
for OAuth", RFC 6755, October 2012.
[RFC7159] Bray, T., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data [RFC7159] Bray, T., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
Interchange Format", RFC 7159, March 2014. Interchange Format", RFC 7159, March 2014.
12.2. Informative References 12.2. Informative References
[CanvasApp] [CanvasApp]
Facebook, "Canvas Applications", 2010. Facebook, "Canvas Applications", 2010.
[JSS] Bradley, J. and N. Sakimura (editor), "JSON Simple Sign", [JSS] Bradley, J. and N. Sakimura (editor), "JSON Simple Sign",
September 2010. September 2010.
[JWK] Jones, M., "JSON Web Key (JWK)",
draft-ietf-jose-json-web-key (work in progress),
April 2014.
[MagicSignatures] [MagicSignatures]
Panzer (editor), J., Laurie, B., and D. Balfanz, "Magic Panzer (editor), J., Laurie, B., and D. Balfanz, "Magic
Signatures", January 2011. Signatures", January 2011.
[OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os] [OASIS.saml-core-2.0-os]
Cantor, S., Kemp, J., Philpott, R., and E. Maler, Cantor, S., Kemp, J., Philpott, R., and E. Maler,
"Assertions and Protocol for the OASIS Security Assertion "Assertions and Protocol for the OASIS Security Assertion
Markup Language (SAML) V2.0", OASIS Standard saml-core- Markup Language (SAML) V2.0", OASIS Standard saml-core-
2.0-os, March 2005. 2.0-os, March 2005.
skipping to change at page 22, line 20 skipping to change at page 22, line 35
Internet: Timestamps", RFC 3339, July 2002. Internet: Timestamps", RFC 3339, July 2002.
[RFC4122] Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R. Salz, "A Universally [RFC4122] Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R. Salz, "A Universally
Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace", RFC 4122, Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace", RFC 4122,
July 2005. July 2005.
[RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an [RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226, IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
May 2008. May 2008.
[RFC6755] Campbell, B. and H. Tschofenig, "An IETF URN Sub-Namespace
for OAuth", RFC 6755, October 2012.
[SWT] Hardt, D. and Y. Goland, "Simple Web Token (SWT)", [SWT] Hardt, D. and Y. Goland, "Simple Web Token (SWT)",
Version 0.9.5.1, November 2009. Version 0.9.5.1, November 2009.
[W3C.CR-xml11-20021015] [W3C.CR-xml11-20021015]
Cowan, J., "Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.1", W3C Cowan, J., "Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.1", W3C
CR CR-xml11-20021015, October 2002. CR CR-xml11-20021015, October 2002.
[W3C.REC-xml-c14n-20010315] [W3C.REC-xml-c14n-20010315]
Boyer, J., "Canonical XML Version 1.0", World Wide Web Boyer, J., "Canonical XML Version 1.0", World Wide Web
Consortium Recommendation REC-xml-c14n-20010315, Consortium Recommendation REC-xml-c14n-20010315,
skipping to change at page 24, line 18 skipping to change at page 24, line 30
Header yields this encoded JWE Header value: Header yields this encoded JWE Header value:
eyJhbGciOiJSU0ExXzUiLCJlbmMiOiJBMTI4Q0JDLUhTMjU2IiwiY3R5IjoiSldUIn0 eyJhbGciOiJSU0ExXzUiLCJlbmMiOiJBMTI4Q0JDLUhTMjU2IiwiY3R5IjoiSldUIn0
The computation of this JWT is identical to the computation of the The computation of this JWT is identical to the computation of the
JWE in Appendix A.2 of [JWE], other than that different JWE Header, JWE in Appendix A.2 of [JWE], other than that different JWE Header,
Plaintext, Initialization Vector, and Content Encryption Key values Plaintext, Initialization Vector, and Content Encryption Key values
are used. (The RSA key used is the same.) are used. (The RSA key used is the same.)
The Payload used is the octets of the ASCII representation of the JWT The Payload used is the octets of the ASCII representation of the JWT
at the end of Appendix Section A.2.1 of [JWS] (with all whitespace at the end of Appendix A.2.1 of [JWS] (with all whitespace and line
and line breaks removed), which is a sequence of 458 octets. breaks removed), which is a sequence of 458 octets.
The Initialization Vector value used is: The Initialization Vector value used (using JSON array notation) is:
[82, 101, 100, 109, 111, 110, 100, 32, 87, 65, 32, 57, 56, 48, 53, [82, 101, 100, 109, 111, 110, 100, 32, 87, 65, 32, 57, 56, 48, 53,
50] 50]
This example uses the Content Encryption Key represented in JSON Web This example uses the Content Encryption Key represented in JSON Web
Key [JWK] format below: Key [JWK] format below:
{"kty":"oct", {"kty":"oct",
"k":"GawgguFyGrWKav7AX4VKUg" "k":"GawgguFyGrWKav7AX4VKUg"
} }
skipping to change at page 26, line 41 skipping to change at page 26, line 41
the following individuals contributed ideas, feedback, and wording the following individuals contributed ideas, feedback, and wording
that influenced this specification: that influenced this specification:
Dirk Balfanz, Richard Barnes, Brian Campbell, Breno de Medeiros, Dick Dirk Balfanz, Richard Barnes, Brian Campbell, Breno de Medeiros, Dick
Hardt, Joe Hildebrand, Jeff Hodges, Edmund Jay, Yaron Y. Goland, Ben Hardt, Joe Hildebrand, Jeff Hodges, Edmund Jay, Yaron Y. Goland, Ben
Laurie, James Manger, Prateek Mishra, Tony Nadalin, Axel Nennker, Laurie, James Manger, Prateek Mishra, Tony Nadalin, Axel Nennker,
John Panzer, Emmanuel Raviart, David Recordon, Eric Rescorla, Jim John Panzer, Emmanuel Raviart, David Recordon, Eric Rescorla, Jim
Schaad, Paul Tarjan, Hannes Tschofenig, and Sean Turner. Schaad, Paul Tarjan, Hannes Tschofenig, and Sean Turner.
Hannes Tschofenig and Derek Atkins chaired the OAuth working group Hannes Tschofenig and Derek Atkins chaired the OAuth working group
and Sean Turner and Stephen Farrell served as Security area directors and Sean Turner, Stephen Farrell, and Kathleen Moriarty served as
during the creation of this specification. Security area directors during the creation of this specification.
Appendix E. Document History Appendix E. Document History
[[ to be removed by the RFC Editor before publication as an RFC ]] [[ to be removed by the RFC Editor before publication as an RFC ]]
-20
o Changed the RFC 6755 reference to be normative.
o Changed the JWK reference to be informative.
o Described potential sources of ambiguity in representing the JSON
objects used in the examples. The octets of the actual UTF-8
representations of the JSON objects used in the examples are
included to remove these ambiguities.
o Noted that octet sequences are depicted using JSON array notation.
-19 -19
o Specified that support for Nested JWTs is optional and that o Specified that support for Nested JWTs is optional and that
applications using this specification can impose additional applications using this specification can impose additional
requirements upon implementations that they use. requirements upon implementations that they use.
o Updated the JSON reference to RFC 7159. o Updated the JSON reference to RFC 7159.
-18 -18
o Clarified that the base64url encoding includes no line breaks, o Clarified that the base64url encoding includes no line breaks,
white space, or other additional characters. white space, or other additional characters.
 End of changes. 23 change blocks. 
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