draft-ietf-oauth-pop-architecture-03.txt   draft-ietf-oauth-pop-architecture-04.txt 
OAuth P. Hunt, Ed. OAuth P. Hunt, Ed.
Internet-Draft Oracle Corporation Internet-Draft Oracle Corporation
Intended status: Informational J. Richer Intended status: Informational J. Richer
Expires: March 28, 2016 Expires: April 21, 2016
W. Mills W. Mills
P. Mishra P. Mishra
Oracle Corporation Oracle Corporation
H. Tschofenig H. Tschofenig
ARM Limited ARM Limited
September 25, 2015 October 19, 2015
OAuth 2.0 Proof-of-Possession (PoP) Security Architecture OAuth 2.0 Proof-of-Possession (PoP) Security Architecture
draft-ietf-oauth-pop-architecture-03.txt draft-ietf-oauth-pop-architecture-04.txt
Abstract Abstract
The OAuth 2.0 bearer token specification, as defined in RFC 6750, The OAuth 2.0 bearer token specification, as defined in RFC 6750,
allows any party in possession of a bearer token (a "bearer") to get allows any party in possession of a bearer token (a "bearer") to get
access to the associated resources (without demonstrating possession access to the associated resources (without demonstrating possession
of a cryptographic key). To prevent misuse, bearer tokens must to be of a cryptographic key). To prevent misuse, bearer tokens must to be
protected from disclosure in transit and at rest. protected from disclosure in transit and at rest.
Some scenarios demand additional security protection whereby a client Some scenarios demand additional security protection whereby a client
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on March 28, 2016. This Internet-Draft will expire on April 21, 2016.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.1. Preventing Access Token Re-Use by the Resource Server . . 4 3.1. Preventing Access Token Re-Use by the Resource Server . . 3
3.2. TLS Channel Binding Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.2. TLS Channel Binding Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.3. Access to a Non-TLS Protected Resource . . . . . . . . . 4 3.3. Access to a Non-TLS Protected Resource . . . . . . . . . 4
3.4. Offering Application Layer End-to-End Security . . . . . 5 3.4. Offering Application Layer End-to-End Security . . . . . 5
4. Security and Privacy Threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4. Security and Privacy Threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
5. Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5. Threat Mitigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
6. Threat Mitigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.1. Confidentiality Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6.1. Confidentiality Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.2. Sender Constraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6.2. Sender Constraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.3. Key Confirmation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
6.3. Key Confirmation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5.4. Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
6.4. Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6. Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7. Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 7. Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
7.1. Client and Authorization Server Interaction . . . . . . . 14 8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7.1.1. Symmetric Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
7.1.2. Asymmetric Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
7.2. Client and Resource Server Interaction . . . . . . . . . 17
7.3. Resource and Authorization Server Interaction (Token
Introspection) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
10. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 10. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The OAuth 2.0 protocol family ([RFC6749], [RFC6750], and [RFC6819]) At the time of writing the OAuth 2.0 protocol family ([RFC6749],
offer a single token type known as the "bearer" token to access [RFC6750], and [RFC6819]) offer a single standardized security
protected resources. RFC 6750 [RFC6750] specifies the bearer token mechanism to access protected resources, namely the bearer token.
mechanism and defines it as follows: RFC 6750 [RFC6750] specifies the bearer token mechanism and defines
it as follows:
"A security token with the property that any party in possession "A security token with the property that any party in possession
of the token (a "bearer") can use the token in any way that any of the token (a "bearer") can use the token in any way that any
other party in possession of it can. Using a bearer token does other party in possession of it can. Using a bearer token does
not require a bearer to prove possession of cryptographic key not require a bearer to prove possession of cryptographic key
material." material."
The bearer token meets the security needs of a number of use cases The bearer token meets the security needs of a number of use cases
the OAuth 2.0 protocol had originally been designed for. There are, the OAuth 2.0 protocol had originally been designed for. There are,
however, other scenarios that require stronger security properties however, other scenarios that require stronger security properties
and ask for active participation of the OAuth client in form of and ask for active participation of the OAuth client in form of
cryptographic computations when presenting an access token to a cryptographic computations when presenting an access token to a
resource server. resource server.
This document outlines additional use cases requiring stronger This document outlines additional use cases requiring stronger
security protection in Section 3, identifies threats in Section 4, security protection in Section 3, identifies threats in Section 4,
proposes different ways to mitigate those threats in Section 6, proposes different ways to mitigate those threats in Section 5,
outlines an architecture for a solution that builds on top of the outlines an architecture for a solution that builds on top of the
existing OAuth 2.0 framework in Section 7, and concludes with a existing OAuth 2.0 framework in Section 6, and concludes with a
requirements list in Section 5. requirements list in Section 7.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
The key words 'MUST', 'MUST NOT', 'REQUIRED', 'SHALL', 'SHALL NOT', The key words 'MUST', 'MUST NOT', 'REQUIRED', 'SHALL', 'SHALL NOT',
'SHOULD', 'SHOULD NOT', 'RECOMMENDED', 'MAY', and 'OPTIONAL' in this 'SHOULD', 'SHOULD NOT', 'RECOMMENDED', 'MAY', and 'OPTIONAL' in this
specification are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119], with specification are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119], with
the important qualification that, unless otherwise stated, these the important qualification that, unless otherwise stated, these
terms apply to the design of the protocol, not its implementation or terms apply to the design of the protocol, not its implementation or
application. application.
3. Use Cases 3. Use Cases
The main use case that motivates improvement upon "bearer" token The main use case that motivates better-than-bearer token security is
security is the desire of resource servers to obtain additional the desire of resource servers to obtain additional assurance that
assurance that the client is indeed authorized to present an access the client is indeed authorized to present an access token. The
token. The expectation is that the use of additional credentials expectation is that the use of additional credentials (symmetric or
(symmetric or asymmetric keying material) will encourage developers asymmetric keying material) will encourage developers to take
to take additional precautions when transferring and storing access additional precautions when transferring and storing access token in
token in combination with these credentials. combination with these credentials.
Additional use cases listed below provide further requirements for Additional use cases listed below provide further requirements for
the solution development. Note that a single solution does not the solution development. Note that a single solution does not
necessarily need to offer support for all use cases. necessarily need to offer support for all use cases.
3.1. Preventing Access Token Re-Use by the Resource Server 3.1. Preventing Access Token Re-Use by the Resource Server
In a scenario where a resource server receives a valid access token, Imagine a scenario where a resource server that receives a valid
the resource server then re-uses it with other resource server. The access token re-uses it with other resource server. The reason for
reason for re-use may be malicious or may well be legitimate. In a re-use may be malicious or may well be legitimate. In a legitimate
legitimate case, the intent is to support chaining of computations use case consider chaining of computations whereby a resource server
whereby a resource server needs to consult other third party resource needs to consult other third party resource servers to complete the
servers to complete a requested operation. In both cases it may be requested operation. In both cases it may be assumed that the scope
assumed that the scope of the access token is sufficiently large that of the access token is sufficiently large that it allows such a re-
it allows such a re-use. For example, imagine a case where a company use. For example, imagine a case where a company operates email
operates email services as well as picture sharing services and that services as well as picture sharing services and that company had
company had decided to issue access tokens with a scope that allows decided to issue access tokens with a scope that allows access to
access to both services. both services.
With this use case the desire is to prevent such access token re-use. With this use case the desire is to prevent such access token re-use.
This also implies that the legitimate use cases require additional This also implies that the legitimate use cases require additional
enhancements for request chaining. enhancements for request chaining.
3.2. TLS Channel Binding Support 3.2. TLS Channel Binding Support
In this use case we consider the scenario where an OAuth 2.0 request In this use case we consider the scenario where an OAuth 2.0 request
to a protected resource is secured using TLS but the client and the to a protected resource is secured using TLS but the client and the
resource server demand that the underlying TLS exchange is bound to resource server demand that the underlying TLS exchange is bound to
additional application layer security to prevent cases where the TLS additional application layer security to prevent cases where the TLS
connection is terminated at a TLS intermediary, which splits the TLS connection is terminated at a TLS intermediary, which splits the TLS
connection into two separate connections. connection into two separate connections.
In this use case additional information should be conveyed to the In this use case additional information is conveyed to the resource
resource server to ensure that no entity entity has tampered with the server to ensure that no entity entity has tampered with the TLS
TLS connection. connection.
3.3. Access to a Non-TLS Protected Resource 3.3. Access to a Non-TLS Protected Resource
This use case is for a web client that needs to access a resource This use case is for a web client that needs to access a resource
that makes data available (such as videos) without offering integrity that makes data available (such as videos) without offering integrity
and confidentiality protection using TLS. Still, the initial and confidentiality protection using TLS. Still, the initial
resource request using OAuth, which includes the access token, must resource request using OAuth, which includes the access token, must
be protected against various threats (e.g., token replay, token be protected against various threats (e.g., token replay, token
modification). modification).
While it is possible to utilize bearer tokens in this scenario with While it is possible to utilize bearer tokens in this scenario with
TLS protection when the request to the protected resource is made, as TLS protection when the request to the protected resource is made, as
described in [RFC6750], there may be the desire to avoid using TLS described in [RFC6750], there may be the desire to avoid using TLS
between the client and the resource server at all. In such a case between the client and the resource server at all. In such a case
the bearer token approach is not possible since it relies on TLS for the bearer token approach is not possible since it relies on TLS for
ensuring integrity and confidentiality protection of the access token ensuring integrity and confidentiality protection of the access token
exchange since otherwise replay attacks are possible: First, an exchange since otherwise replay attacks are possible: First, an
eavesdropper may steal an access token and present it at a different eavesdropper may steal an access token and represent it at a
resource server. Second, an eavesdropper may steal an access token different resource server. Second, an eavesdropper may steal an
and replay it against the same resource server at a later point in access token and replay it against the same resource server at a
time. In both cases, if the attack is successful, the adversary gets later point in time. In both cases, if the attack is successful, the
access to the resource owners data or may perform an operation adversary gets access to the resource owners data or may perform an
selected by the adversary (e.g., sending a message). Note that the operation selected by the adversary (e.g., sending a message). Note
adversary may obtain the access token (if the recommendations in that the adversary may obtain the access token (if the
[RFC6749] and [RFC6750] are not followed) using a number of ways, recommendations in [RFC6749] and [RFC6750] are not followed) using a
including eavesdropping the communication on the wireless link. number of ways, including eavesdropping the communication on the
wireless link.
Consequently, the important assumption in this use case is that a Consequently, the important assumption in this use case is that a
resource server does not have TLS support and the security solution resource server does not have TLS support and the security solution
should work in such a scenario. Furthermore, it may not be necessary should work in such a scenario. Furthermore, it may not be necessary
to provide authentication of the resource server towards the client. to provide authentication of the resource server towards the client.
3.4. Offering Application Layer End-to-End Security 3.4. Offering Application Layer End-to-End Security
In Web deployments resource servers are often placed behind load In Web deployments resource servers are often placed behind load
balancers, which are deployed by the same organization that operates balancers, which are deployed by the same organization that operates
the resource servers. These load balancers may terminate the TLS the resource servers. These load balancers may terminate the TLS
connection setup and HTTP traffic is transmitted without TLS connection setup and HTTP traffic is transmitted in the clear from
protection from the load balancer to the resource server. With the load balancer to the resource server. With application layer
application layer security in addition to the underlying TLS security security in addition to the underlying TLS security it is possible to
it is possible to allow application servers to perform cryptographic allow application servers to perform cryptographic verification on an
verification on an end-to-end basis. end-to-end basis.
The key aspect in this use case is therefore to offer end-to-end The key aspect in this use case is therefore to offer end-to-end
security in the presence of load balancers via application layer security in the presence of load balancers via application layer
security. Enterprise networks also deploy proxies that inspect security. Enterprise networks also deploy proxies that inspect
traffic and thereby break TLS. traffic and thereby break TLS.
4. Security and Privacy Threats 4. Security and Privacy Threats
The following list presents several common threats against protocols The following list presents several common threats against protocols
utilizing some form of token. This list of threats is based on NIST utilizing some form of tokens. This list of threats is based on NIST
Special Publication 800-63 [NIST800-63]. We exclude a discussion of Special Publication 800-63 [NIST800-63]. We exclude a discussion of
threats related to any form of identity proofing and authentication threats related to any form of identity proofing and authentication
of the resource owner to the authorization server since these of the resource owner to the authorization server since these
procedures are not part of the OAuth 2.0 protocol specification procedures are not part of the OAuth 2.0 protocol specification
itself. itself.
Token manufacture/modification: Token manufacture/modification:
An attacker may generate a bogus tokens or modify the token An attacker may generate a bogus tokens or modify the token
content (such as authentication or attribute statements) of an content (such as authentication or attribute statements) of an
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An attacker uses the token generated for consumption by the An attacker uses the token generated for consumption by the
resource server to obtain access to another resource server. resource server to obtain access to another resource server.
Token reuse: Token reuse:
An attacker attempts to use a token that has already been used An attacker attempts to use a token that has already been used
once with a resource server. The attacker may be an eavesdropper once with a resource server. The attacker may be an eavesdropper
who observes the communication exchange or, worse, one of the who observes the communication exchange or, worse, one of the
communication end points. A client may, for example, leak access communication end points. A client may, for example, leak access
tokens because it cannot keep secrets confidential. A client may tokens because it cannot keep secrets confidential. A client may
also reuse access tokens for some other resource servers. also re-use access tokens for some other resource servers.
Finally, a resource server may use a token it had obtained from a Finally, a resource server may use a token it had obtained from a
client and use it with another resource server that the client client and use it with another resource server that the client
interacts with. A resource server, offering relatively interacts with. A resource server, offering relatively
unimportant application services, may attempt to use an access unimportant application services, may attempt to use an access
token obtained from a client to access a high-value service, such token obtained from a client to access a high-value service, such
as a payment service, on behalf of the client using the same as a payment service, on behalf of the client using the same
access token. access token.
Token repudiation: Token repudiation:
Token repudiation refers to a property whereby a resource server Token repudiation refers to a property whereby a resource server
is given an assurance that the authorization server cannot deny to is given an assurance that the authorization server cannot deny to
have created a token for the client. have created a token for the client.
5. Requirements 5. Threat Mitigation
RFC 4962 [RFC4962] gives useful guidelines for designers of
authentication and key management protocols. While RFC 4962 was
written with the AAA framework used for network access authentication
in mind the offered suggestions are useful for the design of other
key management systems as well. The following requirements list
applies OAuth 2.0 terminology to the requirements outlined in RFC
4962.
These requirements include
Cryptographic Algorithm Independent:
The key management protocol MUST be cryptographic algorithm
independent.
Strong, fresh session keys:
Session keys MUST be strong and fresh. Each session deserves an
independent session key, i.e., one that is generated specifically
for the intended use. In context of OAuth this means that keying
material is created in such a way that can only be used by the
combination of a client instance, protected resource, and
authorization scope.
Limit Key Scope:
Following the principle of least privilege, parties MUST NOT have
access to keying material that is not needed to perform their
role. Any protocol that is used to establish session keys MUST
specify the scope for session keys, clearly identifying the
parties to whom the session key is available.
Replay Detection Mechanism:
The key management protocol exchanges MUST be replay protected.
Replay protection allows a protocol message recipient to discard
any message that was recorded during a previous legitimate
dialogue and presented as though it belonged to the current
dialogue.
Authenticate All Parties:
Each party in the key management protocol MUST be authenticated to
the other parties with whom they communicate. Authentication
mechanisms MUST maintain the confidentiality of any secret values
used in the authentication process. Secrets MUST NOT be sent to
another party without confidentiality protection.
Authorization:
Client and resource server authorization MUST be performed. These
entities MUST demonstrate possession of the appropriate keying
material, without disclosing it. Authorization is REQUIRED
whenever a client interacts with an authorization server.
Authorization checking prevents an elevation of privilege attack.
Keying Material Confidentiality and Integrity:
While preserving algorithm independence, confidentiality and
integrity of all keying material MUST be maintained.
Confirm Cryptographic Algorithm Selection:
The selection of the "best" cryptographic algorithms SHOULD be
securely confirmed. The mechanism SHOULD detect attempted roll-
back attacks.
Uniquely Named Keys:
Key management proposals require a robust key naming scheme,
particularly where key caching is supported. The key name
provides a way to refer to a key in a protocol so that it is clear
to all parties which key is being referenced. Objects that cannot
be named cannot be managed. All keys MUST be uniquely named, and
the key name MUST NOT directly or indirectly disclose the keying
material.
Prevent the Domino Effect:
Compromise of a single client MUST NOT compromise keying material
held by any other client within the system, including session keys
and long-term keys. Likewise, compromise of a single resource
server MUST NOT compromise keying material held by any other
Resource Server within the system. In the context of a key
hierarchy, this means that the compromise of one node in the key
hierarchy must not disclose the information necessary to
compromise other branches in the key hierarchy. Obviously, the
compromise of the root of the key hierarchy will compromise all of
the keys; however, a compromise in one branch MUST NOT result in
the compromise of other branches. There are many implications of
this requirement; however, two implications deserve highlighting.
First, the scope of the keying material must be defined and
understood by all parties that communicate with a party that holds
that keying material. Second, a party that holds keying material
in a key hierarchy must not share that keying material with
parties that are associated with other branches in the key
hierarchy.
Bind Key to its Context:
Keying material MUST be bound to the appropriate context. The
context includes the following.
* The manner in which the keying material is expected to be used.
* The other parties that are expected to have access to the
keying material.
* The expected lifetime of the keying material. Lifetime of a
child key SHOULD NOT be greater than the lifetime of its parent
in the key hierarchy.
Any party with legitimate access to keying material can determine
its context. In addition, the protocol MUST ensure that all
parties with legitimate access to keying material have the same
context for the keying material. This requires that the parties
are properly identified and authenticated, so that all of the
parties that have access to the keying material can be determined.
The context will include the client and the resource server
identities in more than one form.
Authorization Restriction:
If client authorization is restricted, then the client SHOULD be
made aware of the restriction.
Client Identity Confidentiality:
A client has identity confidentiality when any party other than
the resource server and the authorization server cannot
sufficiently identify the client within the anonymity set. In
comparison to anonymity and pseudonymity, identity confidentiality
is concerned with eavesdroppers and intermediaries. A key
management protocol SHOULD provide this property.
Resource Owner Identity Confidentiality:
Resource servers SHOULD be prevented from knowing the real or
pseudonymous identity of the resource owner, since the
authorization server is the only entity involved in verifying the
resource owner's identity.
Collusion:
Resource servers that collude can be prevented from using
information related to the resource owner to track the individual.
That is, two different resource servers can be prevented from
determining that the same resource owner has authenticated to both
of them. Authorization servers MUST bind different keying
material to access tokens used for resource servers from different
origins (or similar concepts in the app world).
AS-to-RS Relationship Anonymity:
For solutions using asymmetric key cryptography the client MAY
conceal information about the resource server it wants to interact
with. The authorization server MAY reject such an attempt since
it may not be able to enforce access control decisions.
Channel Binding:
A solution MUST enable support for channel bindings. The concept
of channel binding, as defined in [RFC5056], allows applications
to establish that the two end-points of a secure channel at one
network layer are the same as at a higher layer by binding
authentication at the higher layer to the channel at the lower
layer.
There are performance concerns with the use of asymmetric
cryptography. Although symmetric key cryptography offers better
performance asymmetric cryptography offers additional security
properties. A solution MUST therefore offer the capability to
support both symmetric as well as asymmetric keys.
There are threats that relate to the experience of the software
developer as well as operational practices. Verifying the servers
identity in TLS is discussed at length in [RFC6125].
A number of the threats listed in Section 4 demand protection of the
access token content and a standardized solution, in form of a JSON-
based format, is available with the JWT [RFC7519].
6. Threat Mitigation
A large range of threats can be mitigated by protecting the content A large range of threats can be mitigated by protecting the content
of the token, for example using a digital signature or a keyed of the token, for example using a digital signature or a keyed
message digest. Alternatively, the content of the token could be message digest. Alternatively, the content of the token could be
passed by reference rather than by value (requiring a separate passed by reference rather than by value (requiring a separate
message exchange to resolve the reference to the token content). To message exchange to resolve the reference to the token content). To
simplify the subsequent description we assume that the token itself simplify the subsequent description we assume that the token itself
is digitally signed by the authorization server and therefore cannot is digitally signed by the authorization server and therefore cannot
be modified. be modified.
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between the client and the resource server to experience between the client and the resource server to experience
confidentiality protection. As an example, TLS with a ciphersuite confidentiality protection. As an example, TLS with a ciphersuite
that offers confidentiality protection has to be applied (which is that offers confidentiality protection has to be applied (which is
currently true for all ciphersuites, except for one). Encrypting the currently true for all ciphersuites, except for one). Encrypting the
token content itself is another alternative. In our scenario the token content itself is another alternative. In our scenario the
authorization server would, for example, encrypt the token content authorization server would, for example, encrypt the token content
with a symmetric key shared with the resource server. with a symmetric key shared with the resource server.
To deal with token reuse more choices are available. To deal with token reuse more choices are available.
6.1. Confidentiality Protection 5.1. Confidentiality Protection
In this approach confidentiality protection of the exchange is In this approach confidentiality protection of the exchange is
provided on the communication interfaces between the client and the provided on the communication interfaces between the client and the
resource server, and between the client and the authorization server. resource server, and between the client and the authorization server.
No eavesdropper on the wire is able to observe the token exchange. No eavesdropper on the wire is able to observe the token exchange.
Consequently, a replay by a third party is not possible. An Consequently, a replay by a third party is not possible. An
authorization server wants to ensure that it only hands out tokens to authorization server wants to ensure that it only hands out tokens to
clients it has authenticated first and who are authorized. For this clients it has authenticated first and who are authorized. For this
purpose, authentication of the client to the authorization server purpose, authentication of the client to the authorization server
will be a requirement to ensure adequate protection against a range will be a requirement to ensure adequate protection against a range
of attacks. This is, however, true for the description in of attacks. This is, however, true for the description in
Section 6.2 and Section 6.3 as well. Furthermore, the client has to Section 5.2 and Section 5.3 as well. Furthermore, the client has to
make sure it does not distribute (or leak) the access token to make sure it does not distribute (or leak) the access token to
entities other than the intended the resource server. For that entities other than the intended the resource server. For that
purpose the client will have to authenticate the resource server purpose the client will have to authenticate the resource server
before transmitting the access token. before transmitting the access token.
6.2. Sender Constraint 5.2. Sender Constraint
Instead of providing confidentiality protection the authorization Instead of providing confidentiality protection the authorization
server could also put the identifier of the client into the protected server could also put the identifier of the client into the protected
token with the following semantic: 'This token is only valid when token with the following semantic: 'This token is only valid when
presented by a client with the following identifier.' When the presented by a client with the following identifier.' When the
access token is then presented to the resource server how does it access token is then presented to the resource server how does it
know that it was provided by the client? It has to authenticate the know that it was provided by the client? It has to authenticate the
client! There are many choices for authenticating the client to the client! There are many choices for authenticating the client to the
resource server, for example by using client certificates in TLS resource server, for example by using client certificates in TLS
[RFC5246], or pre-shared secrets within TLS [RFC4279]. The choice of [RFC5246], or pre-shared secrets within TLS [RFC4279]. The choice of
skipping to change at page 12, line 16 skipping to change at page 8, line 18
o performance o performance
o integration into the existing IT infrastructure o integration into the existing IT infrastructure
o operational overhead for configuration and distribution of o operational overhead for configuration and distribution of
credentials credentials
This long list hints to the challenge of selecting at least one This long list hints to the challenge of selecting at least one
mandatory-to-implement client authentication mechanism. mandatory-to-implement client authentication mechanism.
6.3. Key Confirmation 5.3. Key Confirmation
A variation of the mechanism of sender authentication, described in A variation of the mechanism of sender authentication, described in
Section 6.2, is to replace authentication with the proof-of- Section 5.2, is to replace authentication with the proof-of-
possession of a specific (session) key, i.e., key confirmation. In possession of a specific (session) key, i.e., key confirmation. In
this model the resource server would not authenticate the client this model the resource server would not authenticate the client
itself but would rather verify whether the client knows the session itself but would rather verify whether the client knows the session
key associated with a specific access token. Examples of this key associated with a specific access token. Examples of this
approach can be found with the OAuth 1.0 MAC token [RFC5849], and approach can be found with the OAuth 1.0 MAC token [RFC5849], and
Kerberos [RFC4120] when utilizing the AP_REQ/AP_REP exchange (see Kerberos [RFC4120] when utilizing the AP_REQ/AP_REP exchange (see
also [I-D.hardjono-oauth-kerberos] for a comparison between Kerberos also [I-D.hardjono-oauth-kerberos] for a comparison between Kerberos
and OAuth). and OAuth).
To illustrate key confirmation, the first example is borrowed from To illustrate key confirmation the first examples borrow from
Kerberos and use symmetric key cryptography. Assume that the Kerberos and use symmetric key cryptography. Assume that the
authorization server shares a long-term secret with the resource authorization server shares a long-term secret with the resource
server, called K(Authorization Server-Resource Server). This secret server, called K(Authorization Server-Resource Server). This secret
would be established between them out-of-band. When the client would be established between them out-of-band. When the client
requests an access token the authorization server creates a fresh and requests an access token the authorization server creates a fresh and
unique session key Ks and places it into the token encrypted with the unique session key Ks and places it into the token encrypted with the
long term key K(Authorization Server-Resource Server). Additionally, long term key K(Authorization Server-Resource Server). Additionally,
the authorization server attaches Ks to the response message to the the authorization server attaches Ks to the response message to the
client (in addition to the access token itself) over a client (in addition to the access token itself) over a
confidentiality protected channel. When the client sends a request confidentiality protected channel. When the client sends a request
skipping to change at page 13, line 17 skipping to change at page 9, line 19
authorization server creates an ephemeral public / privacy key pair authorization server creates an ephemeral public / privacy key pair
(PK/SK) and places the public key PK into the protected token. When (PK/SK) and places the public key PK into the protected token. When
the authorization server returns the access token to the client it the authorization server returns the access token to the client it
also provides the PK/SK key pair over a confidentiality protected also provides the PK/SK key pair over a confidentiality protected
channel. When the client sends a request to the resource server it channel. When the client sends a request to the resource server it
has to use the privacy key SK to sign the request. The resource has to use the privacy key SK to sign the request. The resource
server, when receiving the message, retrieves the access token, server, when receiving the message, retrieves the access token,
verifies it and extracts the public key PK. It uses this ephemeral verifies it and extracts the public key PK. It uses this ephemeral
public key to verify the attached signature. public key to verify the attached signature.
6.4. Summary 5.4. Summary
As a high level message, there are various ways the threats can be As a high level message, there are various ways how the threats can
mitigated. While the details of each solution are somewhat be mitigated and while the details of each solution is somewhat
different, they all accomplish the goal of mitigating the threats. different they all ultimately accomplish the goal.
The three approaches are: The three approaches are:
Confidentiality Protection: Confidentiality Protection:
The weak point with this approach, which is briefly described in The weak point with this approach, which is briefly described in
Section 6.1, is that the client has to be careful to whom it Section 5.1, is that the client has to be careful to whom it
discloses the access token. What can be done with the token discloses the access token. What can be done with the token
entirely depends on what rights the token entitles the presenter entirely depends on what rights the token entitles the presenter
and what constraints it contains. A token could encode the and what constraints it contains. A token could encode the
identifier of the client but there are scenarios where the client identifier of the client but there are scenarios where the client
is not authenticated to the resource server or where the is not authenticated to the resource server or where the
identifier of the client rather represents an application class identifier of the client rather represents an application class
rather than a single application instance. As such, it is rather than a single application instance. As such, it is
possible that certain deployments choose a rather liberal approach possible that certain deployments choose a rather liberal approach
to security and that everyone who is in possession of the access to security and that everyone who is in possession of the access
token is granted access to the data. token is granted access to the data.
Sender Constraint: Sender Constraint:
The weak point with this approach, which is briefly described in The weak point with this approach, which is briefly described in
Section 6.2, is to setup the authentication infrastructure such Section 5.2, is to setup the authentication infrastructure such
that clients can be authenticated towards resource servers. that clients can be authenticated towards resource servers.
Additionally, the authorization server must encode the identifier Additionally, the authorization server must encode the identifier
of the client in the token for later verification by the resource of the client in the token for later verification by the resource
server. Depending on the chosen layer for providing client-side server. Depending on the chosen layer for providing client-side
authentication there may be additional challenges due to Web authentication there may be additional challenges due Web server
server load balancing, lack of API access to identity information, load balancing, lack of API access to identity information, etc.
etc.
Key Confirmation: Key Confirmation:
The weak point with this approach, see Section 6.3, is the The weak point with this approach, see Section 5.3, is the
increased complexity: a complete key distribution protocol has to increased complexity: a complete key distribution protocol has to
be defined. be defined.
In all cases above it has to be ensured that the client is able to In all cases above it has to be ensured that the client is able to
keep the credentials secret. keep the credentials secret.
7. Architecture 6. Architecture
The proof-of-possession security concept assumes that the The proof-of-possession security concept assumes that the
authorization server acts as a trusted third party that binds keys to authorization server acts as a trusted third party that binds keys to
access tokens. These keys are then used by the client to demonstrate access tokens. These keys are then used by the client to demonstrate
the possession of the secret to the resource server when accessing the possession of the secret to the resource server when accessing
the resource. The resource server, when receiving an access token, the resource. The resource server, when receiving an access token,
needs to verify that the key used by the client matches the one needs to verify that the key used by the client matches the one
included in the access token. included in the access token.
There are slight differences between the use of symmetric keys and There are slight differences between the use of symmetric keys and
skipping to change at page 14, line 42 skipping to change at page 11, line 5
With the JSON Web Token (JWT) [RFC7519] a standardized format for With the JSON Web Token (JWT) [RFC7519] a standardized format for
access tokens is available. The necessary elements to bind symmetric access tokens is available. The necessary elements to bind symmetric
or asymmetric keys to a JWT are described in or asymmetric keys to a JWT are described in
[I-D.ietf-oauth-proof-of-possession]. [I-D.ietf-oauth-proof-of-possession].
Note: The negotiation of cryptographic algorithms between the client Note: The negotiation of cryptographic algorithms between the client
and the authorization server is not shown in the examples below and and the authorization server is not shown in the examples below and
assumed to be present in a protocol solution to meet the requirements assumed to be present in a protocol solution to meet the requirements
for crypto-agility. for crypto-agility.
7.1. Client and Authorization Server Interaction
7.1.1. Symmetric Keys
+---------------+ +---------------+
^| | ^| |
// | Authorization | // | Authorization |
/ | Server | / | Server |
// | | // | |
/ | | / | |
(I) // /+---------------+ (I) // /+---------------+
Access / // Access / //
Token / / Token / /
Request // // (II) Access Token Request // // (II) Access Token
skipping to change at page 16, line 9 skipping to change at page 12, line 13
requires that the symmetric key is confidentiality protected. requires that the symmetric key is confidentiality protected.
The resource server queries the authorization server for the The resource server queries the authorization server for the
symmetric key. This is an approach envisioned by the token symmetric key. This is an approach envisioned by the token
introspection endpoint [I-D.ietf-oauth-introspection]. introspection endpoint [I-D.ietf-oauth-introspection].
The authorization server and the resource server both have access The authorization server and the resource server both have access
to the same back-end database. Smaller, tightly coupled systems to the same back-end database. Smaller, tightly coupled systems
might prefer such a deployment strategy. might prefer such a deployment strategy.
7.1.2. Asymmetric Keys
+---------------+ +---------------+
^| | ^| |
Access Token Req. // | Authorization | Access Token Req. // | Authorization |
+Parameters / | Server | +Parameters / | Server |
+[Fingerprint] // | | +[Fingerprint] // | |
/ | | / | |
(I) // /+---------------+ (I) // /+---------------+
/ // / //
/ / (II) / / (II)
// // Access Token // // Access Token
skipping to change at page 17, line 5 skipping to change at page 13, line 5
authorization server would include this fingerprint or public key in authorization server would include this fingerprint or public key in
the confirmation claim inside the access token and thereby bind the the confirmation claim inside the access token and thereby bind the
asymmetric key pair to the token. If the client did not provide a asymmetric key pair to the token. If the client did not provide a
fingerprint or a public key in the request then the authorization fingerprint or a public key in the request then the authorization
server is asked to create an ephemeral asymmetric key pair, binds the server is asked to create an ephemeral asymmetric key pair, binds the
fingerprint of the public key to the access token, and returns the fingerprint of the public key to the access token, and returns the
asymmetric key pair (public and private key) to the client. Note asymmetric key pair (public and private key) to the client. Note
that there is a strong preference for generating the private/public that there is a strong preference for generating the private/public
key pair locally at the client rather than at the server. key pair locally at the client rather than at the server.
7.2. Client and Resource Server Interaction
The specification describing the interaction between the client and The specification describing the interaction between the client and
the authorization server, as shown in Figure 1 and in Figure 2, can the authorization server, as shown in Figure 1 and in Figure 2, can
be found in [I-D.ietf-oauth-pop-key-distribution]. be found in [I-D.ietf-oauth-pop-key-distribution].
Once the client has obtained the necessary access token and keying Once the client has obtained the necessary access token and keying
material it can start to interact with the resource server. To material it can start to interact with the resource server. To
demonstrate possession of the key bound to the access token it needs demonstrate possession of the key bound to the access token it needs
to apply this key to the request by computing a keyed message digest to apply this key to the request by computing a keyed message digest
(i.e., a symmetric key-based cryptographic primitive) or a digital (i.e., a symmetric key-based cryptographic primitive) or a digital
signature (i.e., an asymmetric cryptographic computation). When the signature (i.e., an asymmetric cryptographic computation). When the
skipping to change at page 17, line 47 skipping to change at page 13, line 45
^ ^ ^ ^
| | | |
| | | |
Symmetric Key Symmetric Key Symmetric Key Symmetric Key
or or or or
Asymmetric Key Pair Public Key (Client) Asymmetric Key Pair Public Key (Client)
+ + + +
Parameters Parameters Parameters Parameters
Figure 3: Client Demonstrates PoP. Figure 3: Client demonstrates PoP.
The specification describing the ability to sign the HTTP request The specification describing the ability to sign the HTTP request
from the client to the resource server can be found in from the client to the resource server can be found in
[I-D.ietf-oauth-signed-http-request]. [I-D.ietf-oauth-signed-http-request].
7.3. Resource and Authorization Server Interaction (Token
Introspection)
So far the examples talked about access tokens that are passed by So far the examples talked about access tokens that are passed by
value and allow the resource server to make authorization decisions value and allow the resource server to make authorization decisions
immediately after verifying the request from the client. In some immediately after verifying the request from the client. In some
deployments a real-time interaction between the authorization server deployments a real-time interaction between the authorization server
and the resource server is envisioned that lowers the need to pass and the resource server is envisioned that lowers the need to pass
self-contained access tokens around. In that case the access token self-contained access tokens around. In that case the access token
merely serves as a handle or a reference to state stored at the merely serves as a handle or a reference to state stored at the
authorization server. As a consequence, the resource server cannot authorization server. As a consequence, the resource server cannot
autonomously make an authorization decision when receiving a request autonomously make an authorization decision when receiving a request
from a client but has to consult the authorization server. This can, from a client but has to consult the authorization server. This can,
skipping to change at page 19, line 5 skipping to change at page 15, line 5
+-----------+ Request +Signature/MAC+------------+ +-----------+ Request +Signature/MAC+------------+
| | (III) +Access Token | | | | (III) +Access Token | |
| |---------------------->| Resource | | |---------------------->| Resource |
| Client | (VI) Success or | Server | | Client | (VI) Success or | Server |
| | Failure | | | | Failure | |
| |<----------------------| | | |<----------------------| |
+-----------+ +------------+ +-----------+ +------------+
Figure 4: Token Introspection and Access Token Handles. Figure 4: Token Introspection and Access Token Handles.
7. Requirements
RFC 4962 [RFC4962] gives useful guidelines for designers of
authentication and key management protocols. While RFC 4962 was
written with the AAA framework used for network access authentication
in mind the offered suggestions are useful for the design of other
key management systems as well. The following requirements list
applies OAuth 2.0 terminology to the requirements outlined in RFC
4962.
These requirements include
Cryptographic Algorithm Independent:
The key management protocol MUST be cryptographic algorithm
independent.
Strong, fresh session keys:
Session keys MUST be strong and fresh. Each session deserves an
independent session key, i.e., one that is generated specifically
for the intended use. In context of OAuth this means that keying
material is created in such a way that can only be used by the
combination of a client instance, protected resource, and
authorization scope.
Limit Key Scope:
Following the principle of least privilege, parties MUST NOT have
access to keying material that is not needed to perform their
role. Any protocol that is used to establish session keys MUST
specify the scope for session keys, clearly identifying the
parties to whom the session key is available.
Replay Detection Mechanism:
The key management protocol exchanges MUST be replay protected.
Replay protection allows a protocol message recipient to discard
any message that was recorded during a previous legitimate
dialogue and presented as though it belonged to the current
dialogue.
Authenticate All Parties:
Each party in the key management protocol MUST be authenticated to
the other parties with whom they communicate. Authentication
mechanisms MUST maintain the confidentiality of any secret values
used in the authentication process. Secrets MUST NOT be sent to
another party without confidentiality protection.
Authorization:
Client and resource server authorization MUST be performed. These
entities MUST demonstrate possession of the appropriate keying
material, without disclosing it. Authorization is REQUIRED
whenever a client interacts with an authorization server. The
authorization checking prevents an elevation of privilege attack,
and it ensures that an unauthorized authorized is detected.
Keying Material Confidentiality and Integrity:
While preserving algorithm independence, confidentiality and
integrity of all keying material MUST be maintained.
Confirm Cryptographic Algorithm Selection:
The selection of the "best" cryptographic algorithms SHOULD be
securely confirmed. The mechanism SHOULD detect attempted roll-
back attacks.
Uniquely Named Keys:
Key management proposals require a robust key naming scheme,
particularly where key caching is supported. The key name
provides a way to refer to a key in a protocol so that it is clear
to all parties which key is being referenced. Objects that cannot
be named cannot be managed. All keys MUST be uniquely named, and
the key name MUST NOT directly or indirectly disclose the keying
material.
Prevent the Domino Effect:
Compromise of a single client MUST NOT compromise keying material
held by any other client within the system, including session keys
and long-term keys. Likewise, compromise of a single resource
server MUST NOT compromise keying material held by any other
Resource Server within the system. In the context of a key
hierarchy, this means that the compromise of one node in the key
hierarchy must not disclose the information necessary to
compromise other branches in the key hierarchy. Obviously, the
compromise of the root of the key hierarchy will compromise all of
the keys; however, a compromise in one branch MUST NOT result in
the compromise of other branches. There are many implications of
this requirement; however, two implications deserve highlighting.
First, the scope of the keying material must be defined and
understood by all parties that communicate with a party that holds
that keying material. Second, a party that holds keying material
in a key hierarchy must not share that keying material with
parties that are associated with other branches in the key
hierarchy.
Bind Key to its Context:
Keying material MUST be bound to the appropriate context. The
context includes the following.
* The manner in which the keying material is expected to be used.
* The other parties that are expected to have access to the
keying material.
* The expected lifetime of the keying material. Lifetime of a
child key SHOULD NOT be greater than the lifetime of its parent
in the key hierarchy.
Any party with legitimate access to keying material can determine
its context. In addition, the protocol MUST ensure that all
parties with legitimate access to keying material have the same
context for the keying material. This requires that the parties
are properly identified and authenticated, so that all of the
parties that have access to the keying material can be determined.
The context will include the client and the resource server
identities in more than one form.
Authorization Restriction:
If client authorization is restricted, then the client SHOULD be
made aware of the restriction.
Client Identity Confidentiality:
A client has identity confidentiality when any party other than
the resource server and the authorization server cannot
sufficiently identify the client within the anonymity set. In
comparison to anonymity and pseudonymity, identity confidentiality
is concerned with eavesdroppers and intermediaries. A key
management protocol SHOULD provide this property.
Resource Owner Identity Confidentiality:
Resource servers SHOULD be prevented from knowing the real or
pseudonymous identity of the resource owner, since the
authorization server is the only entity involved in verifying the
resource owner's identity.
Collusion:
Resource servers that collude can be prevented from using
information related to the resource owner to track the individual.
That is, two different resource servers can be prevented from
determining that the same resource owner has authenticated to both
of them. Authorization servers MUST bind different keying
material to access tokens used for resource servers from different
origins (or similar concepts in the app world).
AS-to-RS Relationship Anonymity:
For solutions using asymmetric key cryptography the client MAY
conceal information about the resource server it wants to interact
with. The authorization server MAY reject such an attempt since
it may not be able to enforce access control decisions.
Channel Binding:
A solution MUST enable support for channel bindings. The concept
of channel binding, as defined in [RFC5056], allows applications
to establish that the two end-points of a secure channel at one
network layer are the same as at a higher layer by binding
authentication at the higher layer to the channel at the lower
layer.
There are performance concerns with the use of asymmetric
cryptography. Although symmetric key cryptography offers better
performance asymmetric cryptography offers additional security
properties. A solution MUST therefore offer the capability to
support both symmetric as well as asymmetric keys.
There are threats that relate to the experience of the software
developer as well as operational practices. Verifying the servers
identity in TLS is discussed at length in [RFC6125].
A number of the threats listed in Section 4 demand protection of the
access token content and a standardized solution, in form of a JSON-
based format, is available with the JWT [RFC7519].
8. Security Considerations 8. Security Considerations
The purpose of this document is to provide use cases, requirements, The purpose of this document is to provide use cases, requirements,
and motivation for developing an OAuth security solution extending and motivation for developing an OAuth security solution extending
Bearer Tokens. As such, this document is only about security. Bearer Tokens. As such, this document is only about security.
9. IANA Considerations 9. IANA Considerations
This document does not require actions by IANA. This document does not require actions by IANA.
skipping to change at page 19, line 26 skipping to change at page 19, line 20
This document is the result of conference calls late 2012/early 2013 This document is the result of conference calls late 2012/early 2013
and in design team conference calls February 2013 of the IETF OAuth and in design team conference calls February 2013 of the IETF OAuth
working group. The following persons (in addition to the OAuth WG working group. The following persons (in addition to the OAuth WG
chairs, Hannes Tschofenig, and Derek Atkins) provided their input chairs, Hannes Tschofenig, and Derek Atkins) provided their input
during these calls: Bill Mills, Justin Richer, Phil Hunt, Prateek during these calls: Bill Mills, Justin Richer, Phil Hunt, Prateek
Mishra, Mike Jones, George Fletcher, Leif Johansson, Lucy Lynch, John Mishra, Mike Jones, George Fletcher, Leif Johansson, Lucy Lynch, John
Bradley, Tony Nadalin, Klaas Wierenga, Thomas Hardjono, Brian Bradley, Tony Nadalin, Klaas Wierenga, Thomas Hardjono, Brian
Campbell Campbell
In the appendix of this document we reuse content from [RFC4962] and In the appendix of this document we re-use content from [RFC4962] and
the authors would like thank Russ Housely and Bernard Aboba for their the authors would like thank Russ Housely and Bernard Aboba for their
work on RFC 4962. work on RFC 4962.
We would like to thank Reddy Tirumaleswar for his review. We would like to thank Reddy Tirumaleswar for his review.
11. References 11. References
11.1. Normative References 11.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-oauth-introspection]
Richer, J., "OAuth 2.0 Token Introspection", draft-ietf-
oauth-introspection-11 (work in progress), July 2015.
[I-D.ietf-oauth-pop-key-distribution]
Bradley, J., Hunt, P., Jones, M., and H. Tschofenig,
"OAuth 2.0 Proof-of-Possession: Authorization Server to
Client Key Distribution", draft-ietf-oauth-pop-key-
distribution-01 (work in progress), March 2015.
[I-D.ietf-oauth-proof-of-possession]
Jones, M., Bradley, J., and H. Tschofenig, "Proof-of-
Possession Key Semantics for JSON Web Tokens (JWTs)",
draft-ietf-oauth-proof-of-possession-04 (work in
progress), August 2015.
[I-D.ietf-oauth-signed-http-request]
Richer, J., Bradley, J., and H. Tschofenig, "A Method for
Signing an HTTP Requests for OAuth", draft-ietf-oauth-
signed-http-request-01 (work in progress), March 2015.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, RFC2119, March 1997,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC5246] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security [RFC5246] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
(TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, DOI 10.17487/
DOI 10.17487/RFC5246, August 2008, RFC5246, August 2008,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5246>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5246>.
[RFC6749] Hardt, D., Ed., "The OAuth 2.0 Authorization Framework", [RFC6749] Hardt, D., Ed., "The OAuth 2.0 Authorization Framework",
RFC 6749, DOI 10.17487/RFC6749, October 2012, RFC 6749, DOI 10.17487/RFC6749, October 2012,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6749>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6749>.
[RFC7519] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web Token [RFC7519] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web Token
(JWT)", RFC 7519, DOI 10.17487/RFC7519, May 2015, (JWT)", RFC 7519, DOI 10.17487/RFC7519, May 2015,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7519>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7519>.
11.2. Informative References 11.2. Informative References
[I-D.hardjono-oauth-kerberos] [I-D.hardjono-oauth-kerberos]
Hardjono, T., "OAuth 2.0 support for the Kerberos V5 Hardjono, T., "OAuth 2.0 support for the Kerberos V5
Authentication Protocol", draft-hardjono-oauth-kerberos-01 Authentication Protocol", draft-hardjono-oauth-kerberos-01
(work in progress), December 2010. (work in progress), December 2010.
[I-D.ietf-oauth-introspection]
Richer, J., "OAuth 2.0 Token Introspection", draft-ietf-
oauth-introspection-11 (work in progress), July 2015.
[I-D.ietf-oauth-pop-key-distribution]
Bradley, J., Hunt, P., Jones, M., and H. Tschofenig,
"OAuth 2.0 Proof-of-Possession: Authorization Server to
Client Key Distribution", draft-ietf-oauth-pop-key-
distribution-01 (work in progress), March 2015.
[I-D.ietf-oauth-proof-of-possession]
Jones, M., Bradley, J., and H. Tschofenig, "Proof-of-
Possession Key Semantics for JSON Web Tokens (JWTs)",
draft-ietf-oauth-proof-of-possession-04 (work in
progress), August 2015.
[I-D.ietf-oauth-signed-http-request]
Richer, J., Bradley, J., and H. Tschofenig, "A Method for
Signing an HTTP Requests for OAuth", draft-ietf-oauth-
signed-http-request-01 (work in progress), March 2015.
[NIST800-63] [NIST800-63]
Burr, W., Dodson, D., Perlner, R., Polk, T., Gupta, S., Burr, W., Dodson, D., Perlner, R., Polk, T., Gupta, S.,
and E. Nabbus, "NIST Special Publication 800-63-1, and E. Nabbus, "NIST Special Publication 800-63-1,
INFORMATION SECURITY", December 2008. INFORMATION SECURITY", December 2008.
[RFC4120] Neuman, C., Yu, T., Hartman, S., and K. Raeburn, "The [RFC4120] Neuman, C., Yu, T., Hartman, S., and K. Raeburn, "The
Kerberos Network Authentication Service (V5)", RFC 4120, Kerberos Network Authentication Service (V5)", RFC 4120,
DOI 10.17487/RFC4120, July 2005, DOI 10.17487/RFC4120, July 2005,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4120>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4120>.
[RFC4279] Eronen, P., Ed. and H. Tschofenig, Ed., "Pre-Shared Key [RFC4279] Eronen, P., Ed. and H. Tschofenig, Ed., "Pre-Shared Key
Ciphersuites for Transport Layer Security (TLS)", Ciphersuites for Transport Layer Security (TLS)", RFC
RFC 4279, DOI 10.17487/RFC4279, December 2005, 4279, DOI 10.17487/RFC4279, December 2005,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4279>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4279>.
[RFC4962] Housley, R. and B. Aboba, "Guidance for Authentication, [RFC4962] Housley, R. and B. Aboba, "Guidance for Authentication,
Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) Key Management", Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) Key Management", BCP
BCP 132, RFC 4962, DOI 10.17487/RFC4962, July 2007, 132, RFC 4962, DOI 10.17487/RFC4962, July 2007,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4962>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4962>.
[RFC5056] Williams, N., "On the Use of Channel Bindings to Secure [RFC5056] Williams, N., "On the Use of Channel Bindings to Secure
Channels", RFC 5056, DOI 10.17487/RFC5056, November 2007, Channels", RFC 5056, DOI 10.17487/RFC5056, November 2007,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5056>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5056>.
[RFC5849] Hammer-Lahav, E., Ed., "The OAuth 1.0 Protocol", RFC 5849, [RFC5849] Hammer-Lahav, E., Ed., "The OAuth 1.0 Protocol", RFC 5849,
DOI 10.17487/RFC5849, April 2010, DOI 10.17487/RFC5849, April 2010,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5849>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5849>.
[RFC6125] Saint-Andre, P. and J. Hodges, "Representation and [RFC6125] Saint-Andre, P. and J. Hodges, "Representation and
Verification of Domain-Based Application Service Identity Verification of Domain-Based Application Service Identity
within Internet Public Key Infrastructure Using X.509 within Internet Public Key Infrastructure Using X.509
(PKIX) Certificates in the Context of Transport Layer (PKIX) Certificates in the Context of Transport Layer
Security (TLS)", RFC 6125, DOI 10.17487/RFC6125, March Security (TLS)", RFC 6125, DOI 10.17487/RFC6125, March
2011, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6125>. 2011, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6125>.
[RFC6750] Jones, M. and D. Hardt, "The OAuth 2.0 Authorization [RFC6750] Jones, M. and D. Hardt, "The OAuth 2.0 Authorization
Framework: Bearer Token Usage", RFC 6750, Framework: Bearer Token Usage", RFC 6750, DOI 10.17487/
DOI 10.17487/RFC6750, October 2012, RFC6750, October 2012,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6750>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6750>.
[RFC6819] Lodderstedt, T., Ed., McGloin, M., and P. Hunt, "OAuth 2.0 [RFC6819] Lodderstedt, T., Ed., McGloin, M., and P. Hunt, "OAuth 2.0
Threat Model and Security Considerations", RFC 6819, Threat Model and Security Considerations", RFC 6819, DOI
DOI 10.17487/RFC6819, January 2013, 10.17487/RFC6819, January 2013,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6819>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6819>.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Phil Hunt (editor) Phil Hunt (editor)
Oracle Corporation Oracle Corporation
Email: phil.hunt@yahoo.com Email: phil.hunt@yahoo.com
Justin Richer Justin Richer
 End of changes. 47 change blocks. 
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