draft-ietf-opes-architecture-04.txt   rfc3835.txt 
Network Working Group A. Barbir Network Working Group A. Barbir
Internet-Draft Nortel Networks Request for Comments: 3835 R. Penno
Expires: June 11, 2003 R. Chen Category: Informational Nortel Networks
R. Chen
AT&T Labs AT&T Labs
M. Hofmann M. Hofmann
Bell Labs/Lucent Technologies Bell Labs/Lucent Technologies
H. Orman H. Orman
Purple Streak Development Purple Streak Development
R. Penno August 2004
Nortel Networks
December 11, 2002
An Architecture for Open Pluggable Edge Services (OPES) An Architecture for Open Pluggable Edge Services (OPES)
draft-ietf-opes-architecture-04
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Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2002). All Rights Reserved. Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).
Abstract Abstract
This memo defines an architecture that enables the creation of an This memo defines an architecture that enables the creation of an
application service in which a data provider, a data consumer, and application service in which a data provider, a data consumer, and
zero or more application entities cooperatively implement a data zero or more application entities cooperatively implement a data
stream service. stream service.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. The Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 . The Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1 OPES Entities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1. OPES Entities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1.1 Data Dispatcher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1.1. Data Dispatcher. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2 OPES Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.2. OPES Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.3 OPES Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.3. OPES Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.4 Callout Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.4. Callout Servers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.5 Tracing Facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.5. Tracing Facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3. Security and Privacy Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3. Security and Privacy Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.1 Trust Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.1. Trust Domains. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.2 Establishing Trust and Service Authorization . . . . . . . . 12 3.2. Establishing Trust and Service Authorization . . . . . . 11
3.3 Callout protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.3. Callout Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.4 Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.4. Privacy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.5 End-to-end Integrity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.5. End-to-end Integrity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4. IAB Architectural and Policy Considerations for OPES . . . . 15 4. IAB Architectural and Policy Considerations for OPES . . . . . 12
4.1 IAB consideration (2.1) One-party consent . . . . . . . . . 15 4.1. IAB consideration (2.1) One-party Consent. . . . . . . . 12
4.2 IAB consideration (2.2) IP-layer communications . . . . . . 15 4.2. IAB consideration (2.2) IP-Layer Communications. . . . . 13
4.3 IAB consideration (3.1 and 3.2) Notification . . . . . . . . 15 4.3. IAB consideration (3.1 and 3.2) Notification . . . . . . 13
4.4 IAB consideration (3.3) Non-blocking . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.4. IAB consideration (3.3) Non-Blocking . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.5 IAB consideration (4.1) URI resolution . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.5. IAB consideration (4.1) URI Resolution . . . . . . . . . 13
4.6 IAB consideration (4.2) Reference validity . . . . . . . . . 16 4.6. IAB consideration (4.2) Reference Validity . . . . . . . 13
4.7 IAB consideration (4.3) Application addressing extensions . 16 4.7. IAB consideration (4.3) Application Addressing
4.8 IAB consideration (5.1) Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4.8. IAB consideration (5.1) Privacy. . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
7. Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 7. Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
A. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . 24 9. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
10. Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
11. Full Copyright Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
When supplying a data stream service between a provider and a When supplying a data stream service between a provider and a
consumer, the need may arise to provision the use of other consumer, the need to provision the use of other application
application entities, in addition to the provider and consumer. For entities, in addition to the provider and consumer, may arise. For
example, some party may wish to customize a data stream as a service example, some party may wish to customize a data stream as a service
to a consumer. The customization step might be based on the to a consumer. The customization step might be based on the
customer's resource availability (e.g., display capabilities). customer's resource availability (e.g., display capabilities).
In some cases it may be beneficial to provide a customization service In some cases it may be beneficial to provide a customization service
at a network location between the provider and consumer host rather at a network location between the provider and consumer host rather
than at one of these endpoints. For certain services performed on than at one of these endpoints. For certain services performed on
behalf of the end-user, this may be the only option of service behalf of the end-user, this may be the only option of service
deployment. In this case, zero or more additional application deployment. In this case, zero or more additional application
entities may participate in the data stream service. There are many entities may participate in the data stream service. There are many
possible provisioning scenarios which make a data stream service possible provisioning scenarios which make a data stream service
attractive. The OPES Use Cases and Deployment Scenarios [1] document attractive. The OPES Use Cases and Deployment Scenarios [1] document
provides examples of OPES services. The document discusses services provides examples of OPES services. The document discusses services
that modify requests, services that modify responses and services that modify requests, services that modify responses, and services
that create responses. It is recommended that the document on OPES that create responses. It is recommended that the document on OPES
Use Cases and Deployment Scenarios [1] be read before reading this Use Cases and Deployment Scenarios [1] be read before reading this
document. document.
This document presents the architectural components of Open Pluggable This document presents the architectural components of Open Pluggable
Edge Services (OPES) that are needed in order to perform a data Edge Services (OPES) that are needed in order to perform a data
stream service. The architecture addresses the IAB considerations stream service. The architecture addresses the IAB considerations
described in [2]. These considerations are covered in various parts described in [2]. These considerations are covered in various parts
of the document. Section 2.5 addresses tracing, section 3 addresses of the document. Section 2.5 addresses tracing; section 3 addresses
security considerations. In section 4 a summary of IAB security considerations. Section 4 provides a summary of IAB
considerations and how the architecture addresses them is provided. considerations and how the architecture addresses them.
The document is organized as follows: Section 2 introduces the OPES The document is organized as follows: Section 2 introduces the OPES
architecture. Section 3 discusses OPES security and privacy architecture. Section 3 discusses OPES security and privacy
considerations. Section 4 addresses IAB considerations for OPES. considerations. Section 4 addresses IAB considerations for OPES.
Section 5 discusses security considerations. Section 6 addresses Section 5 discusses security considerations. Section 6 addresses
IANA considerations. Section 7 provides a summary of the IANA considerations. Section 7 provides a summary of the
architecture and the requirements for interoperability. architecture and the requirements for interoperability.
2. The Architecture 2. The Architecture
The architecture of Open Pluggable Edge Services (OPES) can be The architecture of Open Pluggable Edge Services (OPES) can be
described in terms of three interrelated concepts, mainly: described in terms of three interrelated concepts, mainly:
o OPES entities: processes operating in the network; o OPES entities: processes operating in the network;
o OPES flows: data flows that are cooperatively realized by the o OPES flows: data flows that are cooperatively realized by the
OPES entities; and, OPES entities; and,
o OPES rules: these specify when and how to execute OPES services. o OPES rules: these specify when and how to execute OPES services.
2.1 OPES Entities 2.1. OPES Entities
An OPES entity is an application that operates on a data flow between An OPES entity is an application that operates on a data flow between
a data provider application and a data consumer application. OPES a data provider application and a data consumer application. OPES
entities can be: entities can be:
o an OPES service application, which analyzes and possibly o an OPES service application, which analyzes and possibly
transforms messages exchanged between the data provider transforms messages exchanged between the data provider
application and the data consumer application; application and the data consumer application;
o a data dispatcher, which invokes an OPES service application based o a data dispatcher, which invokes an OPES service application based
on an OPES ruleset and application-specific knowledge. on an OPES ruleset and application-specific knowledge.
The cooperative behavior of OPES entities introduces additional The cooperative behavior of OPES entities introduces additional
functionality for each data flow provided that it matches the OPES functionality for each data flow provided that it matches the OPES
rules. In the network, OPES entities reside inside OPES processors. rules. In the network, OPES entities reside inside OPES processors.
In the current work, an OPES processor MUST include a data In the current work, an OPES processor MUST include a data
dispatcher. Furthermore, the data provider and data consumer dispatcher. Furthermore, the data provider and data consumer
applications are not considered as OPES entities. applications are not considered as OPES entities.
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o a data dispatcher, which invokes an OPES service application based o a data dispatcher, which invokes an OPES service application based
on an OPES ruleset and application-specific knowledge. on an OPES ruleset and application-specific knowledge.
The cooperative behavior of OPES entities introduces additional The cooperative behavior of OPES entities introduces additional
functionality for each data flow provided that it matches the OPES functionality for each data flow provided that it matches the OPES
rules. In the network, OPES entities reside inside OPES processors. rules. In the network, OPES entities reside inside OPES processors.
In the current work, an OPES processor MUST include a data In the current work, an OPES processor MUST include a data
dispatcher. Furthermore, the data provider and data consumer dispatcher. Furthermore, the data provider and data consumer
applications are not considered as OPES entities. applications are not considered as OPES entities.
In order to provide verifiable system integrity (see section 3.1 on To provide verifiable system integrity (see section 3.1 on trust
trust domains below), facilitate deployment of end-to-end encryption domains below) and to facilitate deployment of end-to-end encryption
and data integrity control , OPES processors MUST be: and data integrity control , OPES processors MUST be:
o explicitly addressable at the IP layer by the end user (data o explicitly addressable at the IP layer by the end user (data
consumer application). This requirement does not preclude a chain consumer application). This requirement does not preclude a chain
of OPES processors with the first one in the chain explicitly of OPES processors with the first one in the chain explicitly
addressed at the IP layer by the end user (data consumer addressed at the IP layer by the end user (data consumer
application). application).
o consented to by either the data consumer or data provider o consented to by either the data consumer or data provider
application. The details of this process is beyond the scope of application. The details of this process are beyond the scope of
the current work. the current work.
The OPES architecture is largely independent of the protocol that is The OPES architecture is largely independent of the protocol that is
used by the data provider application and the data consumer used by the data provider application and the data consumer
application to exchange data. However, this document selects HTTP application to exchange data. However, this document selects HTTP
[3] as the example for the underlying protocol in OPES flows. [3] as the example for the underlying protocol in OPES flows.
2.1.1 Data Dispatcher 2.1.1. Data Dispatcher
Data dispatchers include a ruleset that can be compiled from several Data dispatchers include a ruleset that can be compiled from several
sources and MUST resolve into an unambiguous result. The combined sources and MUST resolve into an unambiguous result. The combined
ruleset enables an OPES processor to determine which service ruleset enables an OPES processor to determine which service
applications to invoke for which data flow. Accordingly, the data applications to invoke for which data flow. Accordingly, the data
dispatcher constitutes an enhanced policy enforcement point, where dispatcher constitutes an enhanced policy enforcement point, where
policy rules are evaluated, service-specific data handlers and state policy rules are evaluated and service-specific data handlers and
information is maintained, as depicted in Figure 1. state information are maintained, as depicted in Figure 1.
+----------+ +----------+
| callout | | callout |
| server | | server |
+----------+ +----------+
|| ||
|| ||
|| ||
|| ||
+--------------------------+ +--------------------------+
skipping to change at page 6, line 32 skipping to change at page 6, line 5
| +----------------------+ | | +----------------------+ |
| OPES | | OPES |
| processor | | processor |
+--------------------------+ +--------------------------+
Figure 1: Data Dispatchers Figure 1: Data Dispatchers
The architecture allows for more than one policy enforcement point to The architecture allows for more than one policy enforcement point to
be present on an OPES flow. be present on an OPES flow.
2.2 OPES Flows 2.2. OPES Flows
An OPES flow is a cooperative undertaking between a data provider An OPES flow is a cooperative undertaking between a data provider
application, a data consumer application, zero or more OPES service application, a data consumer application, zero or more OPES service
applications, and one or more data dispatchers. applications, and one or more data dispatchers.
Since policies are enforced by data dispatchers, the presence of at Since policies are enforced by data dispatchers, the presence of at
least one data dispatcher is required in the OPES flow. least one data dispatcher is required in the OPES flow.
data OPES OPES data data OPES OPES data
provider processor A processor N consumer consumer processor A processor N provider
+-----------+ +-----------+ . +-----------+ +-----------+ +-----------+ +-----------+ . +-----------+ +-----------+
| data | | OPES | . | OPES | | data | | data | | OPES | . | OPES | | data |
| consumer | | service | . | service | | provider | | consumer | | service | . | service | | provider |
|application| |application| . |application| |application| |application| |application| . |application| |application|
+-----------+ +-----------+ . +-----------+ +-----------+ +-----------+ +-----------+ . +-----------+ +-----------+
| | | | . | | | | | | | | . | | | |
| HTTP | | HTTP | . | HTTP | | HTTP | | HTTP | | HTTP | . | HTTP | | HTTP |
| | | | . | | | | | | | | . | | | |
+-----------+ +-----------+ . +-----------+ +-----------+ +-----------+ +-----------+ . +-----------+ +-----------+
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================ =====.======== =========== ================ =====.======== ===========
| <----------------- OPES flow -------------------> | | <----------------- OPES flow -------------------> |
Figure 2: An OPES flow Figure 2: An OPES flow
Figure 2 depicts two data dispatchers that are present in the OPES Figure 2 depicts two data dispatchers that are present in the OPES
flow. The architecture allows for one or more data dispatchers to be flow. The architecture allows for one or more data dispatchers to be
present in any flow. present in any flow.
2.3 OPES Rules 2.3. OPES Rules
OPES policy regarding services and the data provided to them is OPES' policy regarding services and the data provided to them is
determined by a ruleset consisting of OPES rules. The rules consist determined by a ruleset consisting of OPES rules. The rules consist
of a set of conditions and related actions. The ruleset is the of a set of conditions and related actions. The ruleset is the
superset of all OPES rules on the processor. The OPES ruleset superset of all OPES rules on the processor. The OPES ruleset
determines which service applications will operate on a data stream. determines which service applications will operate on a data stream.
In this model, all data dispatchers are invoked for all flows. In this model, all data dispatchers are invoked for all flows.
In order to ensure predictable behavior, the OPES architecture In order to ensure predictable behavior, the OPES architecture
requires the use of a standardized schema for the purpose of defining requires the use of a standardized schema for the purpose of defining
and interpreting the ruleset. The OPES architecture does not require and interpreting the ruleset. The OPES architecture does not require
a mechanism for configuring a ruleset into a data dispatcher. This a mechanism for configuring a ruleset into a data dispatcher. This
is treated as a local matter for each implementation (e.g., through is treated as a local matter for each implementation (e.g., through
the use of a text editor, secure upload protocol, and so on), as long the use of a text editor or a secure upload protocol), as long as
as such mechanism complies with the requirements set forth in section such a mechanism complies with the requirements set forth in section
3. 3.
2.4 Callout Servers 2.4. Callout Servers
The evaluation of the OPES ruleset determines which service The evaluation of the OPES ruleset determines which service
applications will operate on a data stream. How the ruleset is applications will operate on a data stream. How the ruleset is
evaluated is not the subject of the architecture, except to note that evaluated is not the subject of the architecture, except to note that
it MUST result in the same unambiguous result in all implementations. it MUST result in the same unambiguous result in all implementations.
In some cases it may be useful for the OPES processor to distribute In some cases it may be useful for the OPES processor to distribute
the responsibility of service execution by communicating with one or the responsibility of service execution by communicating with one or
more callout servers. A data dispatcher invokes the services of a more callout servers. A data dispatcher invokes the services of a
callout server by using the OPES callout protocol (OCP). The callout server by using the OPES callout protocol (OCP). The
requirements for the OCP are given in [6]. The OCP is application- requirements for the OCP are given in [5]. The OCP is application-
agnostic, being unaware of the semantics of the encapsulated agnostic, being unaware of the semantics of the encapsulated
application protocol (e.g., HTTP). However, the data dispatcher MUST application protocol (e.g., HTTP). However, the data dispatcher MUST
incorporate a service aware vectoring capability that parses the data incorporate a service aware vectoring capability that parses the data
flow according to the ruleset and delivers the data to either the flow according to the ruleset and delivers the data to either the
local or remote OPES service application. local or remote OPES service application.
The general interaction situation is depicted in Figure 3, which The general interaction situation is depicted in Figure 3, which
illustrates the positions and interaction of different components of illustrates the positions and interaction of different components of
OPES architecture. OPES architecture.
skipping to change at page 9, line 33 skipping to change at page 8, line 37
| +---------+ | +-----------+ | +---------+ | +-----------+
+--------||-||-------------+ +--------||-||-------------+
|| || || ||
+--------+ || || +--------+ +--------+ || || +--------+
|data |== =========================================|data | |data |== =========================================|data |
|producer| |consumer| |producer| |consumer|
+--------+ +--------+ +--------+ +--------+
Figure 3: Interaction of OPES Entities Figure 3: Interaction of OPES Entities
2.5 Tracing Facility 2.5. Tracing Facility
The OPES architecture requires that each data dispatcher provides The OPES architecture requires that each data dispatcher provides
tracing facilities that allow the appropriate verification of its tracing facilities that allow the appropriate verification of its
operation. The OPES architecture requires that tracing be feasible operation. The OPES architecture requires that tracing be feasible
on the OPES flow per OPES processor using in-band annotation. One of on the OPES flow, per OPES processor, using in-band annotation. One
those annotations could be a URI with more detailed information on of those annotations could be a URI with more detailed information on
the OPES services being executed in the OPES flow. the OPES services being executed in the OPES flow.
Providing the ability for in-band annotation MAY require header Providing the ability for in-band annotation MAY require header
extensions on the application protocol that is used (e.g., HTTP). extensions on the application protocol that is used (e.g., HTTP).
However, the presence of an OPES processor in the data request/ However, the presence of an OPES processor in the data request/
response flow SHALL NOT interfere with the operations of non-OPES response flow SHALL NOT interfere with the operations of non-OPES
aware clients and servers. The support of these extensions to the aware clients and servers. Non-OPES clients and servers need not
base protocol HTTP is not required by non-OPES clients and servers. support these extensions to the base protocol.
OPES processors MUST obey tracing, reporting and notification OPES processors MUST obey tracing, reporting, and notification
requirements set by the center of authority in the trust domain to requirements set by the center of authority in the trust domain to
which OPES processor belongs. As part of these requirements OPES which an OPES processor belongs. As part of these requirements, the
processor may be instructed to reject or ignore such requirements OPES processor may be instructed to reject or ignore such
that originate from other trust domains. requirements that originate from other trust domains.
3. Security and Privacy Considerations 3. Security and Privacy Considerations
Each data flow MUST be secured in accordance with several policies. Each data flow MUST be secured in accordance with several policies.
The primary stakeholders are the data consumer and the data provider. The primary stakeholders are the data consumer and the data provider.
The secondary stakeholders are the entities to which they may have The secondary stakeholders are the entities to which they may have
delegated their trust. The other stakeholders are the owners of the delegated their trust. The other stakeholders are the owners of the
callout servers. Any of these parties may be participants in the callout servers. Any of these parties may be participants in the
OPES flow. OPES flow.
These parties MUST have a model, explicit or implicit, describing These parties MUST have a model, explicit or implicit, describing
their trust policy; which of the other parties are trusted to operate their trust policy, which of the other parties are trusted to operate
on data, and what security enhancements are required for on data, and what security enhancements are required for
communication. The trust might be delegated for all data, or it communication. The trust might be delegated for all data, or it
might be restricted to granularity as small as an application data might be restricted to granularity as small as an application data
unit. unit.
All parties that are involved in enforcing policies MUST communicate All parties that are involved in enforcing policies MUST communicate
the policies to the parties that are involved. These parties are the policies to the parties that are involved. These parties are
trusted to adhere to the communicated policies. trusted to adhere to the communicated policies.
In order to delegate fine-grained trust, the parties MUST convey In order to delegate fine-grained trust, the parties MUST convey
policy information by implicit contract, by a setup protocol, by a policy information by implicit contract, by a setup protocol, by a
dynamic negotiation protocol, or in-line with application data dynamic negotiation protocol, or in-line with application data
headers. headers.
3.1 Trust Domains 3.1. Trust Domains
The delegation of authority starts at either a data consumer or data The delegation of authority starts at either a data consumer or data
provider and moves to more distant entities in a "stepwise" fashion. provider and moves to more distant entities in a "stepwise" fashion.
Stepwise means A delegates to B and B delegates to C and so forth. Stepwise means A delegates to B, and B delegates to C, and so forth.
The entities thus "colored" by the delegation are said to form a The entities thus "colored" by the delegation are said to form a
trust domain with respect to the original delegating party. Here, trust domain with respect to the original delegating party. Here,
"Colored" means that if the first step in the chain is the data "Colored" means that if the first step in the chain is the data
provider, then the stepwise delegation "colors" the chain with that provider, then the stepwise delegation "colors" the chain with that
data "provider" color. The only colors that are defined are the data data "provider" color. The only colors defined are the data
"provider" and the data "consumer". Delegation of authority "provider" and the data "consumer". Delegation of authority
(coloring) propagates from the content producer start of authority or (coloring) propagates from the content producer start of authority or
from the content consumer start of authority, that may be different from the content consumer start of authority, which may be different
from the end points in the data flow. from the end points in the data flow.
Figure 4 illustrates administrative domains and out-of-band rules and Figure 4 illustrates administrative domains, out-of-band rules, and
policy distribution. policy distribution.
provider administrative domain consumer administrative domain provider administrative domain consumer administrative domain
+------------------------------+ +-------------------------------+ +------------------------------+ +-------------------------------+
| +--------------+ | | +--------------+ | | +--------------+ | | +--------------+ |
| |Provider | <- out-of-band rules, -> |Consumer | | | |Provider | <- out-of-band rules, -> |Consumer | |
| |Administrative|~~>~~~: policies and ~<~|Administrative| | | |Administrative|~~>~~~: policies and ~<~|Administrative| |
| |Authority | : service authorization : |Authority | | | |Authority | : service authorization : |Authority | |
| +--------------+ : | | : +--------------+ | | +--------------+ : | | : +--------------+ |
| : : | | : : | | : : | | : : |
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An OPES processor may be in several trust domains at any time. There An OPES processor may be in several trust domains at any time. There
is no restriction on whether the OPES processors are authorized by is no restriction on whether the OPES processors are authorized by
data consumers and/or data providers. The original party has the data consumers and/or data providers. The original party has the
option of forbidding or limiting redelegation. option of forbidding or limiting redelegation.
An OPES processor MUST have a representation of its trust domain An OPES processor MUST have a representation of its trust domain
memberships that it can report in whole or in part for tracing memberships that it can report in whole or in part for tracing
purposes. It MUST include the name of the party that delegated each purposes. It MUST include the name of the party that delegated each
privilege to it. privilege to it.
3.2 Establishing Trust and Service Authorization 3.2. Establishing Trust and Service Authorization
The OPES processor will have configuration policy specifying what The OPES processor will have a configuration policy specifying what
privileges the callout servers have and how they are to be privileges the callout servers have and how they are to be
identified. OPES uses standard protocols for authentication and identified. OPES uses standard protocols for authentication and
otherwise security communication with callout servers. other security communication with callout servers.
An OPES processor will have a trusted method for receiving An OPES processor will have a trusted method for receiving
configuration information such as rules for the data dispatcher, configuration information, such as rules for the data dispatcher,
trusted callout servers, primary parties that opt-in or opt-out of trusted callout servers, primary parties that opt-in or opt-out of
individual services, etc. individual services, etc.
Protocol(s) for policy/rule distribution are out of scope for this Protocol(s) for policy/rule distribution are out of scope for this
document, but the OPES architecture assumes the existence of such a document, but the OPES architecture assumes the existence of such a
mechanism. mechanism.
Requirements for authorization mechanism are set in a separate Requirements for the authorization mechanism are set in a separate
document. document [4].
Certain service requests, positive or negative, may be done in-band Service requests may be done in-band. For example, a request to
(for example OPES service bypass request, e.g. User agent can insert bypass OPES services could be signalled by a user agent using an HTTP
an HTTP header like "Bypass-OPES"). Such requests MUST be header string "Bypass-OPES". Such requests MUST be authenticated.
authenticated. The way OPES entities will honor such requests is The way OPES entities will honor such requests is subordinate to the
subordinate to the authorization policies effective at that moment. authorization policies effective at that moment.
3.3 Callout protocol 3.3. Callout Protocol
The determination of whether or not OPES processors will use the The determination of whether or not OPES processors will use the
measures that are described in the previous section during their measures that are described in the previous section during their
communication with callout servers depends on the details of how the communication with callout servers depends on the details of how the
primary parties delegated trust to the OPES processors and the trust primary parties delegated trust to the OPES processors and the trust
relationship between the OPES processors and the callout server. If relationship between the OPES processors and the callout server.
the OPES processors are in a single administrative domain with strong Strong authentication, message authentication codes, and encryption
confidentiality guarantees, then encryption may be optional. SHOULD be used. If the OPES processors are in a single
However, it is recommended that for all cases that encryption and administrative domain with strong confidentiality and integrity
strong authentication be used. guarantees, then cryptographic protection is recommended but
optional.
If the delegation mechanism names the trusted parties and their If the delegation mechanism names the trusted parties and their
privileges in some way that permits authentication, then the OPES privileges in some way that permits authentication, then the OPES
processors will be responsible for enforcing the policy and for using processors will be responsible for enforcing the policy and for using
authentication as part of that enforcement. authentication as part of that enforcement.
The callout servers MUST be aware of the policy governing the The callout servers MUST be aware of the policy governing the
communication path. They MUST not, for example, communicate communication path. They MUST not, for example, communicate
confidential information to auxiliary servers outside the trust confidential information to auxiliary servers outside the trust
domain. domain.
A separate security association MUST be used for each channel A separate security association MUST be used for each channel
established between an OPES processor and a callout server. The established between an OPES processor and a callout server. The
channels MUST be separate for different primary parties. channels MUST be separate for different primary parties.
3.4 Privacy 3.4. Privacy
Some data from data consumers is considered "private" or "sensitive", Some data from OPES flow endpoints is considered "private" or
and OPES processors MUST both advise the primary parties of their "sensitive", and OPES processors MUST advise the primary parties of
privacy policy and respect the policies of the primary parties. The their privacy policy and respect the policies of the primary parties.
privacy information MUST be conveyed on a per-flow basis. This can The privacy information MUST be conveyed on a per-flow basis. This
be accomplished by using current available privacy techniques such as can be accomplished by using current available privacy techniques
P3P [9] and HTTP privacy capabilities. such as P3P [7] and HTTP privacy capabilities.
The callout servers MUST also participate in the handling of private The callout servers MUST also participate in the handling of private
data, and they MUST be prepared to announce their own capabilities data, they MUST be prepared to announce their own capabilities, and
and to enforce the policy required by the primary parties. enforce the policy required by the primary parties.
3.5 End-to-end Integrity 3.5. End-to-End Integrity
Digital signature techniques can be used to mark data changes in such Digital signature techniques can be used to mark data changes in such
a way that a third-party can verify that the changes are or are not a way that a third-party can verify that the changes are or are not
consistent with the originating party's policy. This requires an consistent with the originating party's policy. This requires an
inline manner of specifying policy and its binding to data, a trace inline method to specify policy and its binding to data, a trace of
of changes and the party making the changes, and strong identities changes and the identity of the party making the changes, and strong
and authentication methods. identification and authentication methods.
Strong end-to-end integrity can fulfill some of the functions Strong end-to-end integrity can fulfill some of the functions
required by "tracing". required by "tracing".
4. IAB Architectural and Policy Considerations for OPES 4. IAB Architectural and Policy Considerations for OPES
This section addresses the IAB considerations for OPES [2] and This section addresses the IAB considerations for OPES [2] and
summarizes how the architecture addresses them. summarizes how the architecture addresses them.
4.1 IAB consideration (2.1) One-party consent 4.1. IAB Consideration (2.1) One-Party Consent
The IAB recommends that all OPES services are explicitly authorized The IAB recommends that all OPES services be explicitly authorized by
by one of the application-layer end-hosts (that is, either the data one of the application-layer end-hosts (that is, either the data
consumer application or the data provider application). consumer application or the data provider application).
The current work requires that either the data consumer application The current work requires that either the data consumer application
or the data provider application consent to OPES services. These or the data provider application consent to OPES services. These
requirements have been addressed in sections 2 (section 2.1) and 3. requirements have been addressed in sections 2 (section 2.1) and 3.
4.2 IAB consideration (2.2) IP-layer communications 4.2. IAB Consideration (2.2) IP-Layer Communications
The IAB recommends that OPES processors must be explicitly addressed The IAB recommends that OPES processors must be explicitly addressed
at the IP layer by the end user (data consumer application). at the IP layer by the end user (data consumer application).
This requirement has been addressed in section 2.1, whereby the This requirement has been addressed in section 2.1, by the
architecture requires that OPES processors be addressable at the IP requirement that OPES processors be addressable at the IP layer by
layer by the data consumer application. the data consumer application.
4.3 IAB consideration (3.1 and 3.2) Notification 4.3. IAB Consideration (3.1 and 3.2) Notification
The IAB recommends that the OPES architecture incorporates tracing The IAB recommends that the OPES architecture incorporate tracing
facilities. Tracing enables data consumer and data provider facilities. Tracing enables data consumer and data provider
applications to detect and respond to actions performed by OPES applications to detect and respond to actions performed by OPES
processors that are deemed inappropriate to the data consumer or data processors that are deemed inappropriate to the data consumer or data
provider applications. provider applications.
Section 3.2 of this document discusses the tracing and notification Section 3.2 of this document discusses the tracing and notification
facilities that must be supported by OPES services. facilities that must be supported by OPES services.
4.4 IAB consideration (3.3) Non-blocking 4.4. IAB Consideration (3.3) Non-Blocking
The OPES architecture requires the specification of extensions to The OPES architecture requires the specification of extensions to
HTTP. These extension will provide the data consumer application to HTTP. These extensions will allow the data consumer application to
request a non-OPES version of the content from the data provider request a non-OPES version of the content from the data provider
application. These requirements is covered in Section 3.2 application. These requirements are covered in Section 3.2.
4.5 IAB consideration (4.1) URI resolution 4.5. IAB Consideration (4.1) URI Resolution
This consideration recommends that OPES documentation must be clear This consideration recommends that OPES documentation must be clear
in describing that OPES services as being applied to the result of in describing OPES services as being applied to the result of URI
URI resolution, not as URI resolution itself. resolution, not as URI resolution itself.
This requirement has been addressed in sections 2.5 and 3.2, whereby This requirement has been addressed in sections 2.5 and 3.2, by
the proposed architecture requires OPES entities to document all the requiring OPES entities to document all the transformations that have
transformations that have been performed. been performed.
4.6 IAB consideration (4.2) Reference validity 4.6. IAB Consideration (4.2) Reference Validity
This consideration recommends that all proposed services must define This consideration recommends that all proposed services must define
their impact on inter- and intra-document reference validity. their impact on inter- and intra-document reference validity.
This requirement has been addressed in section 2.5 and throughout the This requirement has been addressed in section 2.5 and throughout the
document whereby OPES entities is required to document the performed document whereby OPES entities are required to document the performed
transformations. transformations.
4.7 IAB consideration (4.3) Application addressing extensions 4.7. IAB Consideration (4.3) Application Addressing Extensions
This consideration recommends that any OPES services that cannot be This consideration recommends that any OPES services that cannot be
achieved while respecting the above two considerations may be achieved while respecting the above two considerations may be
reviewed as potential requirements for Internet application reviewed as potential requirements for Internet application
addressing architecture extensions, but must not be undertaken as ad addressing architecture extensions, but must not be undertaken as ad
hoc fixes. hoc fixes.
The current work does not require extensions of the Internet The current work does not require extensions of the Internet
application addressing architecture. application addressing architecture.
4.8 IAB consideration (5.1) Privacy 4.8. IAB Consideration (5.1) Privacy
This consideration recommends that the overall OPES framework must This consideration recommends that the overall OPES framework must
provide for mechanisms for end users to determine the privacy provide for mechanisms for end users to determine the privacy
policies of OPES intermediaries. policies of OPES intermediaries.
This consideration has been addressed in section 3. This consideration has been addressed in section 3.
5. Security Considerations 5. Security Considerations
The proposed work has to deal with security from various prospective. The proposed work has to deal with security from various
There are security and privacy issues that relate to data consumer perspectives. There are security and privacy issues that relate to
application, callout protocol and the OPES flow. In [7] threat data consumer application, callout protocol, and the OPES flow. In
analysis of OPES entities are discussed. [6], there is an analysis of the threats against OPES entities.
6. IANA Considerations 6. IANA Considerations
The proposed work will evaluate current protocols for OCP. If the The proposed work will evaluate current protocols for OCP. If the
work determines that a new protocol need to be developed, then there work determines that a new protocol needs to be developed, then there
may be a need to request new numbers from IANA. may be a need to request new numbers from IANA.
7. Summary 7. Summary
Although the architecture supports a wide range of cooperative Although the architecture supports a wide range of cooperative
transformation services, it has few requirements for transformation services, it has few requirements for
interoperability. interoperability.
The necessary and sufficient elements are specified in the following The necessary and sufficient elements are specified in the following
documents: documents:
o the OPES ruleset schema [5] which defines the syntax and semantics o the OPES ruleset schema, which defines the syntax and semantics of
of the rules interpreted by a data dispatcher; and, the rules interpreted by a data dispatcher; and,
o the OPES callout protocol (OCP) [6] which defines the requirements o the OPES callout protocol (OCP) [5], which defines the
for the protocol between a data dispatcher and a callout server. requirements for the protocol between a data dispatcher and a
callout server.
Normative References 8. References
[1] McHenry, S., et. al, "OPES Scenarios and Use Cases", 8.1. Normative References
Internet-Draft TBD, May 2002.
[1] Barbir, A., Burger, E., Chen, R., McHenry, S., Orman, H., and R.
Penno, "Open Pluggable Edge Services (OPES) Use Cases and
Deployment Scenarios", RFC 3752, April 2004.
[2] Floyd, S. and L. Daigle, "IAB Architectural and Policy [2] Floyd, S. and L. Daigle, "IAB Architectural and Policy
Considerations for Open Pluggable Edge Services", RFC 3238, Considerations for Open Pluggable Edge Services", RFC 3238,
January 2002. January 2002.
[3] Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Nielsen, H., Masinter, L., [3] Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H., Masinter, L.,
Leach, P. and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol --
HTTP/1.1", RFC 2616, June 1999. HTTP/1.1", RFC 2616, June 1999.
[4] OPES working group, "OPES Service Authorization and Enforcement [4] Barbir, A., Batuner, O., Beck, A., Chan, T., and H. Orman,
Requirements", Internet-Draft TBD, May 2002. "Policy, Authorization, and Enforcement Requirements of the Open
Pluggable Edge Services (OPES)", RFC 3838, August 2004.
[5] OPES working group, "OPES Ruleset Schema", Internet-Draft TBD, [5] Beck, A., Hofmann, M., Orman, H., Penno, R., and A. Terzis,
May 2002. "Requirements for Open Pluggable Edge Services (OPES) Callout
Protocols", RFC 3836, August 2004.
[6] A. Beck et al., "Requirements for OPES Callout Protocols", [6] Barbir, A., Batuner, O., Srinivas, B., Hofmann, M., and H.
Internet-Draft http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/ Orman, "Security Threats and Risks for Open Pluggable Edge
draft-ietf-opes-protocol-reqs-03.txt, December 2002. Services (OPES)", RFC 3837, August 2004.
[7] A. Barbir et al., "Security Threats and Risks for Open Pluggable 8.2. Informative References
Edge Services", Internet-Draft http://www.ietf.org/
internet-drafts/draft-ietf-opes-threats-00.txt, October 2002.
Informative References [7] Cranor, L. et. al, "The Platform for Privacy Preferences 1.0
(P3P1.0) Specification", W3C Recommendation 16
http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/REC-P3P-20020416/, April 2002.
[8] Westerinen, A., Schnizlein, J., Strassner, J., Scherling, M., 9. Acknowledgements
Quinn, B., Herzog, S., Huynh, A., Carlson, M., Perry, J. and S.
Waldbusser, "Terminology for Policy-Based Management", RFC 3198,
November 2001.
[9] L. Cranor, et. al, "The Platform for Privacy Preferences 1.0 This document is the product of OPES WG. Oskar Batuner (Independent
(P3P1.0) Specification", W3C Recommendation 16 http:// consultant) and Andre Beck (Lucent) are additional authors that have
www.w3.org/TR/2002/REC-P3P-20020416/ , April 2002. contributed to this document.
Authors' Addresses Earlier versions of this work were done by Gary Tomlinson (The
Tomlinson Group) and Michael Condry (Intel).
The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of: John Morris,
Mark Baker, Ian Cooper and Marshall T. Rose.
10. Authors' Addresses
Abbie Barbir Abbie Barbir
Nortel Networks Nortel Networks
3500 Carling Avenue 3500 Carling Avenue
Nepean, Ontario K2H 8E9 Nepean, Ontario K2H 8E9
Canada Canada
Phone: +1 613 763 5229 Phone: +1 613 763 5229
EMail: abbieb@nortelnetworks.com EMail: abbieb@nortelnetworks.com
Robin Chen Yih-Farn Robin Chen
AT&T Labs AT&T Labs - Research
Room E219, 180 Park Avenue 180 Park Avenue
Florham Park, NJ 07932 Florham Park, NJ 07932
US US
Phone: +1 973 360 8653 Phone: +1 973 360 8653
EMail: chen@research.att.com EMail: chen@research.att.com
Markus Hofmann Markus Hofmann
Bell Labs/Lucent Technologies Bell Labs/Lucent Technologies
Room 4F-513 Room 4F-513
101 Crawfords Corner Road 101 Crawfords Corner Road
skipping to change at page 22, line 4 skipping to change at page 16, line 37
Room 4F-513 Room 4F-513
101 Crawfords Corner Road 101 Crawfords Corner Road
Holmdel, NJ 07733 Holmdel, NJ 07733
US US
Phone: +1 732 332 5983 Phone: +1 732 332 5983
EMail: hofmann@bell-labs.com EMail: hofmann@bell-labs.com
Hilarie Orman Hilarie Orman
Purple Streak Development Purple Streak Development
EMail: ho@alum.mit.edu EMail: ho@alum.mit.edu
Reinaldo Penno Reinaldo Penno
Nortel Networks Nortel Networks
2305 Mission College Boulevard 600 Technology Park Drive
San Jose, CA 95134 Billerica, MA 01821
US USA
Phone:
EMail: rpenno@nortelnetworks.com EMail: rpenno@nortelnetworks.com
Appendix A. Acknowledgements 11. Full Copyright Statement
This document is the product of OPES WG. Oskar Batuner (Independent
consultant) and Andre Beck (Lucent) are additional authors that have
contributed to this current document.
Earlier versions of this work was done by Gary Tomlinson (The Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004). This document is subject
Tomlinson Group) and Michael Condry (Intel). to the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and
except as set forth therein, the authors retain all their rights.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of: John Morris, This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
Mark Baker, Ian Cooper and Marshall T. Rose. "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE
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