draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-00.txt   draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-01.txt 
Internet Engineering Task Force M. Ersue, Ed. Internet Engineering Task Force M. Ersue, Ed.
Internet-Draft Nokia Solutions and Networks Internet-Draft Nokia Solutions and Networks
Intended status: Informational D. Romascanu Intended status: Informational D. Romascanu
Expires: July 24, 2014 Avaya Expires: August 18, 2014 Avaya
J. Schoenwaelder J. Schoenwaelder
A. Sehgal
Jacobs University Bremen Jacobs University Bremen
January 20, 2014 February 14, 2014
Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Use Cases Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Use Cases
draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-00 draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-01
Abstract Abstract
This document discusses the use cases concerning the management of This document discusses the use cases concerning the management of
networks, where constrained devices are involved. A problem networks, where constrained devices are involved. A problem
statement, deployment options and the requirements on the networks statement, deployment options and the requirements on the networks
with constrained devices can be found in the companion document on with constrained devices can be found in the companion document on
"Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Problem Statement "Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Problem Statement
and Requirements". and Requirements".
skipping to change at page 1, line 38 skipping to change at page 1, line 39
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on July 24, 2014. This Internet-Draft will expire on August 18, 2014.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Access Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1. Constrained Access Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2. Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2. Mobile Access Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.1. Environmental Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.2. Medical Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1. Environmental Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.3. Industrial Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.2. Infrastructure Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.4. Home Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.3. Industrial Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.5. Building Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.4. Energy Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.6. Energy Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.5. Medical Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.7. Transport Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.6. Building Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.8. Infrastructure Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.7. Home Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.9. Community Network Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.8. Transport Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.10. Mobile Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.9. Vehicular Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.11. Automated Metering Infrastructure (AMI) . . . . . . . . . 16 3.10. Community Network Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.12. MANET Concept of Operations (CONOPS) in Military . . . . . 18 3.11. Military Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 6. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
6. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 7. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
7. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 8. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
7.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Appendix A. Open Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
7.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Appendix B. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Appendix A. Open issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 B.1. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-00 -
Appendix B. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-01 . . . . . . . . . . . 27
B.1. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-03 - B.2. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-03 -
draft-ersue-opsawg-coman-use-cases-00 . . . . . . . . . . 30 draft-ersue-opsawg-coman-use-cases-00 . . . . . . . . . . 27
B.2. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-02-03 . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 B.3. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-02-03 . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
B.3. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-01-02 . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 B.4. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-01-02 . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
B.4. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-00-01 . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 B.5. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-00-01 . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
1.1. Overview
Small devices with limited CPU, memory, and power resources, so Small devices with limited CPU, memory, and power resources, so
called constrained devices (aka. sensor, smart object, or smart called constrained devices (aka. sensor, smart object, or smart
device) can be connected to a network. Such a network of constrained device) can be connected to a network. Such a network of constrained
devices itself may be constrained or challenged, e.g. with unreliable devices itself may be constrained or challenged, e.g., with
or lossy channels, wireless technologies with limited bandwidth and a unreliable or lossy channels, wireless technologies with limited
dynamic topology, needing the service of a gateway or proxy to bandwidth and a dynamic topology, needing the service of a gateway or
connect to the Internet. In other scenarios, the constrained devices proxy to connect to the Internet. In other scenarios, the
can be connected to a non-constrained network using off-the-shelf constrained devices can be connected to a non-constrained network
protocol stacks. Constrained devices might be in charge of gathering using off-the-shelf protocol stacks. Constrained devices might be in
information in diverse settings including natural ecosystems, charge of gathering information in diverse settings including natural
buildings, and factories and send the information to one or more ecosystems, buildings, and factories and send the information to one
server stations. or more server stations.
Network management is characterized by monitoring network status, Network management is characterized by monitoring network status,
detecting faults, and inferring their causes, setting network detecting faults, and inferring their causes, setting network
parameters, and carrying out actions to remove faults, maintain parameters, and carrying out actions to remove faults, maintain
normal operation, and improve network efficiency and application normal operation, and improve network efficiency and application
performance. The traditional network management application performance. The traditional network management application
periodically collects information from a set of elements that are periodically collects information from a set of elements that are
needed to manage, processes the data, and presents them to the needed to manage, processes the data, and presents them to the
network management users. Constrained devices, however, often have network management users. Constrained devices, however, often have
limited power, low transmission range, and might be unreliable. They limited power, low transmission range, and might be unreliable. They
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constrained devices are expected to be deployed. For each constrained devices are expected to be deployed. For each
application scenario, we first briefly describe the characteristics application scenario, we first briefly describe the characteristics
followed by a discussion on how network management can be provided, followed by a discussion on how network management can be provided,
who is likely going to be responsible for it, and on which time-scale who is likely going to be responsible for it, and on which time-scale
management operations are likely to be carried out. management operations are likely to be carried out.
A problem statement, deployment and management topology options as A problem statement, deployment and management topology options as
well as the requirements on the networks with constrained devices can well as the requirements on the networks with constrained devices can
be found in the companion document [COM-REQ]. be found in the companion document [COM-REQ].
1.2. Terminology
This documents builds on the terminology defined in This documents builds on the terminology defined in
[I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology] and [COM-REQ]. [I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology] and [COM-REQ].
[I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology] is a base document for the terminology [I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology] is a base document for the terminology
concerning constrained devices and constrained networks. concerning constrained devices and constrained networks. Some use
cases specific to IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks
(6LoWPANs) can be found in [RFC6568].
2. Use Cases 2. Access Technologies
2.1. Environmental Monitoring Besides the management requirements imposed by the different use
cases, the access technologies used by constrained devices can impose
restrictions and requirements upon the Network Management System
(NMS) and protocol of choice.
It is possible that some networks of constrained devices might
utilize traditional non-constrained access technologies for network
access, e.g., local area networks with plenty of capacity. In such
scenarios, the constrainedness of the device presents special
management restrictions and requirements rather than the access
technology utilized.
However, in other situations constrained or mobile access
technologies might be used for network access, thereby causing
management restrictions and requirements to arise as a result of the
underlying access technologies.
2.1. Constrained Access Technologies
Due to resource restrictions, embedded devices deployed as sensors
and actuators in the various use cases utilize low-power low data-
rate wireless access technologies such as IEEE 802.15.4, DECT ULE or
BT-LE for network connectivity.
In such scenarios, it is important for the NMS to be aware of the
restrictions imposed by these access technologies to efficiently
manage these constrained devices. Specifically, such low-power low
data-rate access technologies typically have small frame sizes. So
it would be important for the NMS and management protocol of choice
to craft packets in a way that avoids fragmentation and reassembly of
packets since this can use valuable memory on constrained devices.
Devices using such access technologies might operate via a gateway
that translates between these access technologies and more
traditional Internet protocols. A hierarchical approach to device
management in such a situation might be useful, wherein the gateway
device is in-charge of devices connected to it, while the NMS
conducts management operations only to the gateway.
2.2. Mobile Access Technologies
Machine to machine (M2M) services are increasingly provided by mobile
service providers as numerous devices, home appliances, utility
meters, cars, video surveillance cameras, and health monitors, are
connected with mobile broadband technologies. Different
applications, e.g., in a home appliance or in-car network, use
Bluetooth, Wi-Fi or Zigbee locally and connect to a cellular module
acting as a gateway between the constrained environment and the
mobile cellular network.
Such a gateway might provide different options for the connectivity
of mobile networks and constrained devices:
o a smart phone with 3G/4G and WLAN radio might use BT-LE to connect
to the devices in a home area network,
o a femtocell might be combined with home gateway functionality
acting as a low-power cellular base station connecting smart
devices to the application server of a mobile service provider,
o an embedded cellular module with LTE radio connecting the devices
in the car network with the server running the telematics service,
o an M2M gateway connected to the mobile operator network supporting
diverse IoT connectivity technologies including ZigBee and CoAP
over 6LoWPAN over IEEE 802.15.4.
Common to all scenarios above is that they are embedded in a service
and connected to a network provided by a mobile service provider.
Usually there is a hierarchical deployment and management topology in
place where different parts of the network are managed by different
management entities and the count of devices to manage is high (e.g.
many thousands). In general, the network is comprised by manifold
type and size of devices matching to different device classes. As
such, the managing entity needs to be prepared to manage devices with
diverse capabilities using different communication or management
protocols. In case the devices are directly connected to a gateway
they most likely are managed by a management entity integrated with
the gateway, which itself is part of the Network Management System
(NMS) run by the mobile operator. Smart phones or embedded modules
connected to a gateway might be themselves in charge to manage the
devices on their level. The initial and subsequent configuration of
such a device is mainly based on self-configuration and is triggered
by the device itself.
The gateway might be in charge of filtering and aggregating the data
received from the device as the information sent by the device might
be mostly redundant.
3. Use Cases
3.1. Environmental Monitoring
Environmental monitoring applications are characterized by the Environmental monitoring applications are characterized by the
deployment of a number of sensors to monitor emissions, water deployment of a number of sensors to monitor emissions, water
quality, or even the movements and habits of wildlife. Other quality, or even the movements and habits of wildlife. Other
applications in this category include earthquake or tsunami early- applications in this category include earthquake or tsunami early-
warning systems. The sensors often span a large geographic area, warning systems. The sensors often span a large geographic area,
they can be mobile, and they are often difficult to replace. they can be mobile, and they are often difficult to replace.
Furthermore, the sensors are usually not protected against tampering. Furthermore, the sensors are usually not protected against tampering.
Management of environmental monitoring applications is largely Management of environmental monitoring applications is largely
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Management responsibility typically rests with the organization Management responsibility typically rests with the organization
running the environmental monitoring application. Since these running the environmental monitoring application. Since these
monitoring applications must be designed to tolerate a number of monitoring applications must be designed to tolerate a number of
failures, the time scale for detecting and recording failures is for failures, the time scale for detecting and recording failures is for
some of these applications likely measured in hours and repairs might some of these applications likely measured in hours and repairs might
easily take days. However, for certain environmental monitoring easily take days. However, for certain environmental monitoring
applications, much tighter time scales may exist and might be applications, much tighter time scales may exist and might be
enforced by regulations (e.g., monitoring of nuclear radiation). enforced by regulations (e.g., monitoring of nuclear radiation).
2.2. Medical Applications 3.2. Infrastructure Monitoring
Constrained devices can be seen as an enabling technology for Infrastructure monitoring is concerned with the monitoring of
advanced and possibly remote health monitoring and emergency infrastructures such as bridges, railway tracks, or (offshore)
notification systems, ranging from blood pressure and heart rate windmills. The primary goal is usually to detect any events or
monitors to advanced devices capable to monitor implanted changes of the structural conditions that can impact the risk and
technologies, such as pacemakers or advanced hearing aids. Medical safety of the infrastructure being monitored. Another secondary goal
sensors may not only be attached to human bodies, they might also is to schedule repair and maintenance activities in a cost effective
exist in the infrastructure used by humans such as bathrooms or manner.
kitchens. Medical applications will also be used to ensure
treatments are being applied properly and they might guide people
losing orientation. Fitness and wellness applications, such as
connected scales or wearable heart monitors, encourage consumers to
exercise and empower self-monitoring of key fitness indicators.
Different applications use Bluetooth, Wi-Fi or Zigbee connections to
access the patient's smartphone or home cellular connection to access
the Internet.
Constrained devices that are part of medical applications are managed The infrastructure to monitor might be in a factory or spread over a
either by the users of those devices or by an organization providing wider area but difficult to access. As such, the network in use
medical (monitoring) services for physicians. In the first case, might be based on a combination of fixed and wireless technologies,
management must be automatic and or easy to install and setup by which use robust networking equipment and support reliable
average people. In the second case, it can be expected that devices communication. It is likely that constrained devices in such a
be controlled by specially trained people. In both cases, however, network are mainly C2 devices and have to be controlled centrally by
it is crucial to protect the privacy of the people to which medical an application running on a server. In case such a distributed
devices are attached. Even though the data collected by a heart beat network is widely spread, the wireless devices might use diverse
monitor might be protected, the pure fact that someone carries such a long-distance wireless technologies such as WiMAX, or 3G/LTE, e.g.
device may need protection. As such, certain medical appliances may
not want to participate in discovery and self-configuration protocols
in order to remain invisible.
Many medical devices are likely to be used (and relied upon) to based on embedded hardware modules. In cases, where an in-building
provide data to physicians in critical situations since the biggest network is involved, the network can be based on Ethernet or wireless
market is likely elderly and handicapped people. As such, fault technologies suitable for in-building usage.
detection of the communication network or the constrained devices
becomes a crucial function that must be carried out with high
reliability and, depending on the medical appliance and its
application, within seconds.
2.3. Industrial Applications The management of infrastructure monitoring applications is primarily
concerned with the monitoring of the functioning of the system.
Infrastructure monitoring devices are typically rolled out and
installed by dedicated experts and changes are rare since the
infrastructure itself changes rarely. However, monitoring devices
are often deployed in unsupervised environments and hence special
attention must be given to protecting the devices from being
modified.
Industrial Applications and smart manufacturing refer not only to Management responsibility typically rests with the organization
production equipment, but also to a factory that carries out owning the infrastructure or responsible for its operation. The time
centralized control of energy, HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air scale for detecting and recording failures is likely measured in
conditioning), lighting, access control, etc. via a network. For the hours and repairs might easily take days. However, certain events
(e.g., natural disasters) may require that status information be
obtained much more quickly and that replacements of failed sensors
can be rolled out quickly (or redundant sensors are activated
quickly). In case the devices are difficult to access, a self-
healing feature on the device might become necessary.
3.3. Industrial Applications
Industrial Applications and smart manufacturing refer to tasks such
as networked control and monitoring of manufacturing equipment, asset
and situation management, or manufacturing process control. For the
management of a factory it is becoming essential to implement smart management of a factory it is becoming essential to implement smart
capabilities. From an engineering standpoint, industrial capabilities. From an engineering standpoint, industrial
applications are intelligent systems enabling rapid manufacturing of applications are intelligent systems enabling rapid manufacturing of
new products, dynamic response to product demand, and real-time new products, dynamic response to product demands, and real-time
optimization of manufacturing production and supply chain networks. optimization of manufacturing production and supply chain networks.
Potential industrial applications e.g. for smart factories and smart Potential industrial applications (e.g., for smart factories and
manufacturing are: smart manufacturing) are:
o Digital control systems with embedded, automated process controls, o Digital control systems with embedded, automated process controls,
operator tools, as well as service information systems optimizing operator tools, as well as service information systems optimizing
plant operations and safety. plant operations and safety.
o Asset management using predictive maintenance tools, statistical o Asset management using predictive maintenance tools, statistical
evaluation, and measurements maximizing plant reliability. evaluation, and measurements maximizing plant reliability.
o Smart sensors detecting anomalies to avoid abnormal or o Smart sensors detecting anomalies to avoid abnormal or
catastrophic events. catastrophic events.
o Smart systems integrated within the industrial energy management o Smart systems integrated within the industrial energy management
system and externally with the smart grid enabling real-time system and externally with the smart grid enabling real-time
energy optimization. energy optimization.
Management of Industrial Applications and smart manufacturing may in
some situations involve Building Automation tasks such as control of
energy, HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning), lighting,
or access control. Interacting with management systems from other
application areas might be important in some cases (e.g.,
environmental monitoring for electric energy production, energy
management for dynamically scaling manufacturing, vehicular networks
for mobile asset tracking).
Sensor networks are an essential technology used for smart Sensor networks are an essential technology used for smart
manufacturing. Measurements, automated controls, plant optimization, manufacturing. Measurements, automated controls, plant optimization,
health and safety management, and other functions are provided by a health and safety management, and other functions are provided by a
large number of networked sectors. Data interoperability and large number of networked sectors. Data interoperability and
seamless exchange of product, process, and project data are enabled seamless exchange of product, process, and project data are enabled
through interoperable data systems used by collaborating divisions or through interoperable data systems used by collaborating divisions or
business systems. Intelligent automation and learning systems are business systems. Intelligent automation and learning systems are
vital to smart manufacturing but must be effectively integrated with vital to smart manufacturing but must be effectively integrated with
the decision environment. Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have been the decision environment. Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have been
developed for machinery Condition-based Maintenance (CBM) as they developed for machinery Condition-based Maintenance (CBM) as they
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Management responsibility is typically owned by the organization Management responsibility is typically owned by the organization
running the industrial application. Since the monitoring running the industrial application. Since the monitoring
applications must handle a potentially large number of failures, the applications must handle a potentially large number of failures, the
time scale for detecting and recording failures is for some of these time scale for detecting and recording failures is for some of these
applications likely measured in minutes. However, for certain applications likely measured in minutes. However, for certain
industrial applications, much tighter time scales may exist, e.g. in industrial applications, much tighter time scales may exist, e.g. in
real-time, which might be enforced by the manufacturing process or real-time, which might be enforced by the manufacturing process or
the use of critical material. the use of critical material.
2.4. Home Automation 3.4. Energy Management
Home automation includes the control of lighting, heating, The EMAN working group developed an energy management framework
ventilation, air conditioning, appliances, and entertainment devices [I-D.ietf-eman-framework] for devices and device components within or
to improve convenience, comfort, energy efficiency, and security. It connected to communication networks. This document observes that one
can be seen as a residential extension of building automation. of the challenges of energy management is that a power distribution
network is responsible for the supply of energy to various devices
and components, while a separate communication network is typically
used to monitor and control the power distribution network. Devices
that have energy management capability are defined as Energy Devices
and identified components within a device (Energy Device Components)
can be monitored for parameters like Power, Energy, Demand and Power
Quality. If a device contains batteries, they can be also monitored
and managed.
Home automation networks need a certain amount of configuration Energy devices differ in complexity and may include basic sensors or
(associating switches or sensors to actors) that is either provided switches, specialized electrical meters, or power distribution units
by electricians deploying home automation solutions or done by (PDU), and subsystems inside the network devices (routers, network
residents by using the application user interface to configure (parts switches) or home or industrial appliances. An Energy Management
of) the home automation solution. Similarly, failures may be System is a combination of hardware and software used to administer a
reported via suitable interfaces to residents or they might be network with the primary purpose being Energy Management. The
recorded and made available to electricians in charge of the operators of such a system are either the utility providers or
maintenance of the home automation infrastructure. customers that aim to control and reduce the energy consumption and
the associated costs. The topology in use differs and the deployment
can cover areas from small surfaces (individual homes) to large
geographical areas. The EMAN requirements document [RFC6988]
discusses the requirements for energy management concerning
monitoring and control functions.
The management responsibility lies either with the residents or it It is assumed that Energy Management will apply to a large range of
may be outsourced to electricians providing management of home devices of all classes and networks topologies. Specific resource
automation solutions as a service. The time scale for failure monitoring like battery utilization and availability may be specific
detection and resolution is in many cases likely counted in hours to to devices with lower physical resources (device classes C0 or C1).
days.
2.5. Building Automation Energy Management is especially relevant to the Smart Grid. A Smart
Grid is an electrical grid that uses data networks to gather and to
act on energy and power-related information in an automated fashion
with the goal to improve the efficiency, reliability, economics, and
sustainability of the production and distribution of electricity. A
Smart Grid provides sustainable and reliable generation,
transmission, distribution, storage and consumption of electrical
energy based on advanced energy and information technology. Smart
Grids enable the following specific application areas: Smart
transmission systems, Demand Response/Load Management, Substation
Automation, Advanced Distribution Management, Advanced Metering
Infrastructure (AMI), Smart Metering, Smart Home and Building
Automation, E-mobility, etc.
Smart Metering is a good example of Smart Grid based Energy
Management applications. Different types of possibly wireless small
meters produce all together a large amount of data, which is
collected by a central entity and processed by an application server,
which may be located within the customer's residence or off-site in a
data-center. The communication infrastructure can be provided by a
mobile network operator as the meters in urban areas will have most
likely a cellular or WiMAX radio. In case the application server is
located within the residence, such meters are more likely to use WiFi
protocols to interconnect with an existing network.
An AMI network is another example of the Smart Grid that enables an
electric utility to retrieve frequent electric usage data from each
electric meter installed at a customer's home or business. This is
unlike Smart Metering, in which case the customer or their agents
install appliance level meters, because an AMI infrastructure is
typically managed by the utility providers. With an AMI network, a
utility can also receive immediate notification of power outages when
they occur, directly from the electric meters that are experiencing
those outages. In addition, if the AMI network is designed to be
open and extensible, it could serve as the backbone for communicating
with other distribution automation devices besides meters, which
could include transformers and reclosers.
Each meter in the AMI network typically contains constrained devices
of the C2 type. Each meter uses the constrained devices to connect
to mesh networks with a low-bandwidth radio. These radios can be 50,
150, or 200 kbps at raw link speed, but actual network throughput may
be significantly lower due to forward error correction, multihop
delays, MAC delays, lossy links, and protocol overhead. Usage data
and outage notifications can be sent by these meters to the utility's
headend systems, typically located in a data center managed by the
utility, which include meter data collection systems, meter data
management systems, and outage management systems.
Meters in an AMI network, unlike in Smart Metering, act as traffic
sources and routers as well. Typically, smaller amounts of traffic
(read requests, configuration) flow "downstream" from the headend to
the mesh, and larger amounts of traffic flow "upstream" from the mesh
to the headend. However, during a firmware update operation for
example, larger amounts of traffic might flow downstream while
smaller amounts flow upstream. The mesh network is anchored by a
collection of higher-end devices that bridge the constrained network
with a backhaul link that connects to a less-constrained network via
cellular, WiMAX, or Ethernet. These higher-end devices might be
installed on utility poles that could be owned and managed by a
different entity than the utility company.
While a Smart Metering solution is likely to have a smaller number of
devices within a single household, AMI network installations could
contain 1000 meters per router, i.e., the higher-end device. Meters
in a local network that use a specific router form a Local Meter
Network (LMN). When powered on, meters discover nearby LMNs, select
the optimal LMN to join, and the meters in that LMN to route through.
However, in a Smart Metering application the meters are likely to
connect directly to a less-constrained network, thereby not needing
to form such local mesh networks.
Encryption key sharing in both types of network is also likely to be
important for providing confidentiality for all data traffic. In AMI
networks the key may be obtained by a meter only after an end-to-end
authentication process based on certificates, ensuring that only
authorized and authenticated meters are allowed to join the LMN.
Smart Metering solution could adopt a similar approach or the
security may be implied due to the encrypted WiFi networks they
become part of.
These examples demonstrate that the Smart Grid, and Energy Management
in general, is built on a distributed and heterogeneous network and
can use a combination of diverse networking technologies, such as
wireless Access Technologies (WiMAX, Cellular, etc.), wireline and
Internet Technologies (e.g., IP/MPLS, Ethernet, SDH/PDH over Fiber
optic) as well as low-power radio technologies enabling the
networking of smart meters, home appliances, and constrained devices
(e.g., BT-LE, ZigBee, Z-Wave, Wi-Fi). The operational effectiveness
of the Smart Grid is highly dependent on a robust, two-way, secure,
and reliable communications network with suitable availability.
The management of such a network requires end-to-end management of
and information exchange through different types of networks.
However, as of today there is no integrated energy management
approach and no common information model available. Specific energy
management applications or network islands use their own management
mechanisms.
3.5. Medical Applications
Constrained devices can be seen as an enabling technology for
advanced and possibly remote health monitoring and emergency
notification systems, ranging from blood pressure and heart rate
monitors to advanced devices capable to monitor implanted
technologies, such as pacemakers or advanced hearing aids. Medical
sensors may not only be attached to human bodies, they might also
exist in the infrastructure used by humans such as bathrooms or
kitchens. Medical applications will also be used to ensure
treatments are being applied properly and they might guide people
losing orientation. Fitness and wellness applications, such as
connected scales or wearable heart monitors, encourage consumers to
exercise and empower self-monitoring of key fitness indicators.
Different applications use Bluetooth, Wi-Fi or Zigbee connections to
access the patient's smartphone or home cellular connection to access
the Internet.
Constrained devices that are part of medical applications are managed
either by the users of those devices or by an organization providing
medical (monitoring) services for physicians. In the first case,
management must be automatic and or easy to install and setup by
average people. In the second case, it can be expected that devices
be controlled by specially trained people. In both cases, however,
it is crucial to protect the privacy of the people to which medical
devices are attached. Even though the data collected by a heart beat
monitor might be protected, the pure fact that someone carries such a
device may need protection. As such, certain medical appliances may
not want to participate in discovery and self-configuration protocols
in order to remain invisible.
Many medical devices are likely to be used (and relied upon) to
provide data to physicians in critical situations since the biggest
market is likely elderly and handicapped people. As such, fault
detection of the communication network or the constrained devices
becomes a crucial function that must be carried out with high
reliability and, depending on the medical appliance and its
application, within seconds.
3.6. Building Automation
Building automation comprises the distributed systems designed and Building automation comprises the distributed systems designed and
deployed to monitor and control the mechanical, electrical and deployed to monitor and control the mechanical, electrical and
electronic systems inside buildings with various destinations (e.g., electronic systems inside buildings with various destinations (e.g.,
public and private, industrial, institutions, or residential). public and private, industrial, institutions, or residential).
Advanced Building Automation Systems (BAS) may be deployed Advanced Building Automation Systems (BAS) may be deployed
concentrating the various functions of safety, environmental control, concentrating the various functions of safety, environmental control,
occupancy, security. More and more the deployment of the various occupancy, security. More and more the deployment of the various
functional systems is connected to the same communication functional systems is connected to the same communication
infrastructure (possibly Internet Protocol based), which may involve infrastructure (possibly Internet Protocol based), which may involve
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Examples of functions performed by such controllers are regulating Examples of functions performed by such controllers are regulating
the quality, humidity, and temperature of the air inside the building the quality, humidity, and temperature of the air inside the building
and lighting. Other systems may report the status of the machinery and lighting. Other systems may report the status of the machinery
inside the building like elevators, or inside the rooms like inside the building like elevators, or inside the rooms like
projectors in meeting rooms. Security cameras and sensors may be projectors in meeting rooms. Security cameras and sensors may be
deployed and operated on separate dedicated infrastructures connected deployed and operated on separate dedicated infrastructures connected
to the common backbone. The deployment area of a BAS is typically to the common backbone. The deployment area of a BAS is typically
inside one building (or part of it) or several buildings inside one building (or part of it) or several buildings
geographically grouped in a campus. A building network can be geographically grouped in a campus. A building network can be
composed of subnets, where a subnet covers a floor, an area on the composed of subnets, where a subnet covers a floor, an area on the
floor, or a given functionality (e.g. security cameras). floor, or a given functionality (e.g., security cameras).
Some of the sensors in Building Automation Systems (for example fire Some of the sensors in Building Automation Systems (for example fire
alarms or security systems) register, record and transfer critical alarms or security systems) register, record and transfer critical
alarm information and therefore must be resilient to events like loss alarm information and therefore must be resilient to events like loss
of power or security attacks. This leads to the need that some of power or security attacks. This leads to the need that some
components and subsystems operate in constrained conditions and are components and subsystems operate in constrained conditions and are
separately certified. Also in some environments, the malfunctioning separately certified. Also in some environments, the malfunctioning
of a control system (like temperature control) needs to be reported of a control system (like temperature control) needs to be reported
in the shortest possible time. Complex control systems can in the shortest possible time. Complex control systems can
misbehave, and their critical status reporting and safety algorithms misbehave, and their critical status reporting and safety algorithms
need to be basic and robust and perform even in critical conditions. need to be basic and robust and perform even in critical conditions.
Building Automation solutions are deployed in some cases in newly Building Automation solutions are deployed in some cases in newly
designed buildings, in other cases it might be over existing designed buildings, in other cases it might be over existing
infrastructures. In the first case, there is a broader range of infrastructures. In the first case, there is a broader range of
possible solutions, which can be planned for the infrastructure of possible solutions, which can be planned for the infrastructure of
the building. In the second case the solution needs to be deployed the building. In the second case the solution needs to be deployed
over an existing structure taking into account factors like existing over an existing structure taking into account factors like existing
wiring, distance limitations, the propagation of radio signals over wiring, distance limitations, the propagation of radio signals over
walls and floors. As a result, some of the existing WLAN solutions walls and floors. As a result, some of the existing WLAN solutions
(e.g. IEEE 802.11 or IEEE 802.15) may be deployed. In mission- (e.g., IEEE 802.11 or IEEE 802.15) may be deployed. In mission-
critical or security sensitive environments and in cases where link critical or security sensitive environments and in cases where link
failures happen often, topologies that allow for reconfiguration of failures happen often, topologies that allow for reconfiguration of
the network and connection continuity may be required. Some of the the network and connection continuity may be required. Some of the
sensors deployed in building automation may be very simple sensors deployed in building automation may be very simple
constrained devices for which class 0 or class 1 may be assumed. constrained devices for which class 0 or class 1 may be assumed.
For lighting applications, groups of lights must be defined and For lighting applications, groups of lights must be defined and
managed. Commands to a group of light must arrive within 200 ms at managed. Commands to a group of light must arrive within 200 ms at
all destinations. The installation and operation of a building all destinations. The installation and operation of a building
network has different requirements. During the installation, many network has different requirements. During the installation, many
stand-alone networks of a few to 100 nodes co-exist without a stand-alone networks of a few to 100 nodes co-exist without a
connection to the backbone. During this phase, the nodes are connection to the backbone. During this phase, the nodes are
identified with a network identifier related to their physical identified with a network identifier related to their physical
location. Devices are accessed from an installation tool to connect location. Devices are accessed from an installation tool to connect
them to the network in a secure fashion. During installation, the them to the network in a secure fashion. During installation, the
setting of parameters to common values to enable interoperability may setting of parameters to common values to enable interoperability may
occur (e.g. Trickle parameter values). During operation, the occur (e.g., Trickle parameter values). During operation, the
networks are connected to the backbone while maintaining the network networks are connected to the backbone while maintaining the network
identifier to physical location relation. Network parameters like identifier to physical location relation. Network parameters like
address and name are stored in DNS. The names can assist in address and name are stored in DNS. The names can assist in
determining the physical location of the device. determining the physical location of the device.
2.6. Energy Management 3.7. Home Automation
EMAN working group developed [I-D.ietf-eman-framework], which defines
a framework for providing Energy Management for devices within or
connected to communication networks. This document observes that one
of the challenges of energy management is that a power distribution
network is responsible for the supply of energy to various devices
and components, while a separate communication network is typically
used to monitor and control the power distribution network. Devices
that have energy management capability are defined as Energy Devices
and identified components within a device (Energy Device Components)
can be monitored for parameters like Power, Energy, Demand and Power
Quality. If a device contains batteries, they can be also monitored
and managed.
Energy devices differ in complexity and may include basic sensors or
switches, specialized electrical meters, or power distribution units
(PDU), and subsystems inside the network devices (routers, network
switches) or home or industrial appliances. An Energy Management
System is a combination of hardware and software used to administer a
network with the primary purpose being Energy Management. The
operators of such a system are either the utility providers or
customers that aim to control and reduce the energy consumption and
the associated costs. The topology in use differs and the deployment
can cover areas from small surfaces (individual homes) to large
geographical areas. EMAN requirements document [RFC6988] discusses
the requirements for energy management concerning monitoring and
control functions.
It is assumed that Energy Management will apply to a large range of
devices of all classes and networks topologies. Specific resource
monitoring like battery utilization and availability may be specific
to devices with lower physical resources (device classes C0 or C1).
Energy Management is especially relevant to Smart Grid. A Smart Grid
is an electrical grid that uses data networks to gather and act on
energy and power-related information, in an automated fashion with
the goal to improve the efficiency, reliability, economics, and
sustainability of the production and distribution of electricity. As
such Smart Grid provides sustainable and reliable generation,
transmission, distribution, storage and consumption of electrical
energy based on advanced energy and ICT solutions and as such enables
e.g. following specific application areas: Smart transmission
systems, Demand Response/Load Management, Substation Automation,
Advanced Distribution Management, Advanced Metering Infrastructure
(AMI), Smart Metering, Smart Home and Building Automation,
E-mobility, etc.
Smart Metering is a good example of a M2M application and can be Home automation includes the control of lighting, heating,
realized as one of the vertical applications in an M2M environment. ventilation, air conditioning, appliances, entertainment and home
Different types of possibly wireless small meters produce all security devices to improve convenience, comfort, energy efficiency,
together a huge amount of data, which is collected by a central and security. It can be seen as a residential extension of building
entity and processed by an application server. The M2M automation. However, unlike a building automation system, the
infrastructure can be provided by a mobile network operator as the infrastructure in a home is operated in a considerably more ad-hoc
meters in urban areas will have most likely a cellular or WiMAX manner, with no centralized management system akin to a Building
radio. Automation System (BAS) available.
Smart Grid is built on a distributed and heterogeneous network and Home automation networks need a certain amount of configuration
can use a combination of diverse networking technologies, such as (associating switches or sensors to actors) that is either provided
wireless Access Technologies (WiMAX, Cellular, etc.), wireline and by electricians deploying home automation solutions, by third party
Internet Technologies (e.g., IP/MPLS, Ethernet, SDH/PDH over Fiber home automation service providers (e.g., small specialized companies
optic, etc.) as well as low-power radio technologies enabling the or home automation device manufacturers) or by residents by using the
networking of smart meters, home appliances, and constrained devices application user interface provided by home automation devices to
(e.g. BT-LE, ZigBee, Z-Wave, Wi-Fi, etc.). The operational configure (parts of) the home automation solution. Similarly,
effectiveness of the smart grid is highly dependent on a robust, two- failures may be reported via suitable interfaces to residents or they
way, secure, and reliable communications network with suitable might be recorded and made available to services providers in charge
availability. of the maintenance of the home automation infrastructure.
The management of a distributed system like smart grid requires an The management responsibility lies either with the residents or it
end-to-end management of and information exchange through different may be outsourced to electricians and/or third parties providing
type of networks. However, as of today there is no integrated smart management of home automation solutions as a service. A varying
grid management approach and no common smart grid information model combination of electricians, service providers or the residents may
available. Specific smart grid applications or network islands use be responsible for different aspects of managing the infrastructure.
their own management mechanisms. For example, the management of The time scale for failure detection and resolution is in many cases
smart meters depends very much on the AMI environment they have been likely counted in hours to days.
integrated to and the networking technologies they are using. In
general, smart meters do only need seldom reconfiguration and they
send a small amount of redundant data to a central entity. For a
discussion on the management needs of an AMI network see
Section 2.11. The management needs for Smart Home and Building
Automation are discussed in Section 2.4 and Section 2.5.
2.7. Transport Applications 3.8. Transport Applications
Transport Application is a generic term for the integrated Transport Application is a generic term for the integrated
application of communications, control, and information processing in application of communications, control, and information processing in
a transportation system. Transport telematics or vehicle telematics a transportation system. Transport telematics or vehicle telematics
are used as a term for the group of technologies that support are used as a term for the group of technologies that support
transportation systems. Transport applications running on such a transportation systems. Transport applications running on such a
transportation system cover all modes of the transport and consider transportation system cover all modes of the transport and consider
all elements of the transportation system, i.e. the vehicle, the all elements of the transportation system, i.e. the vehicle, the
infrastructure, and the driver or user, interacting together infrastructure, and the driver or user, interacting together
dynamically. The overall aim is to improve decision making, often in dynamically. The overall aim is to improve decision making, often in
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-configuration capabilities. Monitoring and data exchange might be -configuration capabilities. Monitoring and data exchange might be
necessary to do via a gateway entity connected to the back-end necessary to do via a gateway entity connected to the back-end
transport infrastructure. The devices and entities in the transport transport infrastructure. The devices and entities in the transport
infrastructure need to be monitored more frequently and can be able infrastructure need to be monitored more frequently and can be able
to communicate with a higher data rate. The connectivity of such to communicate with a higher data rate. The connectivity of such
entities does not necessarily need to be wireless. The time scale entities does not necessarily need to be wireless. The time scale
for detecting and recording failures in a moving transport network is for detecting and recording failures in a moving transport network is
likely measured in hours and repairs might easily take days. It is likely measured in hours and repairs might easily take days. It is
likely that a self-healing feature would be used locally. likely that a self-healing feature would be used locally.
2.8. Infrastructure Monitoring 3.9. Vehicular Networks
Infrastructure monitoring is concerned with the monitoring of Networks involving mobile nodes, especially transport vehicles, are
infrastructures such as bridges, railway tracks, or (offshore) emerging. Such networks are used to provide inter-vehicle
windmills. The primary goal is usually to detect any events or communication services, or even tracking of mobile assets, to develop
changes of the structural conditions that can impact the risk and intelligent transportation systems and drivers and passengers
safety of the infrastructure being monitored. Another secondary goal assistance services. Constrained devices are deployed within a
is to schedule repair and maintenance activities in a cost effective larger single entity, the vehicle, and must be individually managed.
manner.
The infrastructure to monitor might be in a factory or spread over a Vehicles can be either private, belonging to individuals or private
wider area but difficult to access. As such, the network in use companies, or public transportation. Scenarios consisting of
might be based on a combination of fixed and wireless technologies, vehicle-to-vehicle ad-hoc networks, a wired backbone with wireless
which use robust networking equipment and support reliable last hops, and hybrid vehicle-to-road communications are expected to
communication. It is likely that constrained devices in such a be common.
network are mainly C2 devices and have to be controlled centrally by
an application running on a server. In case such a distributed
network is widely spread, the wireless devices might use diverse
long-distance wireless technologies such as WiMAX, or 3G/LTE, e.g.
based on embedded hardware modules. In cases, where an in-building
network is involved, the network can be based on Ethernet or wireless
technologies suitable for in-building usage.
The management of infrastructure monitoring applications is primarily Besides the access control and security, depending on the type of
concerned with the monitoring of the functioning of the system. vehicle and service being provided, it would be important for a NMS
Infrastructure monitoring devices are typically rolled out and to be able to function with different architectures, since different
installed by dedicated experts and changes are rare since the manufacturers might have their own proprietary systems.
infrastructure itself changes rarely. However, monitoring devices
are often deployed in unsupervised environments and hence special
attention must be given to protecting the devices from being
modified.
Management responsibility typically rests with the organization Unlike some mobile networks, most vehicular networks are expected to
owning the infrastructure or responsible for its operation. The time have specific patterns in the mobility of the nodes. Such patterns
scale for detecting and recording failures is likely measured in could possibly be exploited, managed and monitored by the NMS.
hours and repairs might easily take days. However, certain events
(e.g., natural disasters) may require that status information be
obtained much more quickly and that replacements of failed sensors
can be rolled out quickly (or redundant sensors are activated
quickly). In case the devices are difficult to access, a self-
healing feature on the device might become necessary.
2.9. Community Network Applications The challenges in the management of vehicles in a mobile application
are manifold. Firstly, the issues caused through the device mobility
need to be taken into consideration. The up-to-date position of each
node in the network should be reported to the corresponding
management entities, since the nodes could be moving within or
roaming between different networks. Secondly, a variety of
troubleshooting information, including sensitive location
information, needs to be reported to the management system in order
to provide accurate service to the customer.
The NMS must also be able to handle partitioned networks, which would
arise due to the dynamic nature of traffic resulting in large inter-
vehicle gaps in sparsely populated scenarios. Constant changes in
topology must also be contended with.
Auto-configuration of nodes in a vehicular network remains a
challenge since based on location, and access network, the vehicle
might have different configurations that must be obtained from its
management system. Operating configuration updates, while in remote
networks also needs to be considered in the design of a network
management system."
3.10. Community Network Applications
Community networks are comprised of constrained routers in a multi- Community networks are comprised of constrained routers in a multi-
hop mesh topology, communicating over a lossy, and often wireless hop mesh topology, communicating over a lossy, and often wireless
channel. While the routers are mostly non-mobile, the topology may channel. While the routers are mostly non-mobile, the topology may
be very dynamic because of fluctuations in link quality of the be very dynamic because of fluctuations in link quality of the
(wireless) channel caused by, e.g., obstacles, or other nearby radio (wireless) channel caused by, e.g., obstacles, or other nearby radio
transmissions. Depending on the routers that are used in the transmissions. Depending on the routers that are used in the
community network, the resources of the routers (memory, CPU) may be community network, the resources of the routers (memory, CPU) may be
more or less constrained - available resources may range from only a more or less constrained - available resources may range from only a
few kilobytes of RAM to several megabytes or more, and CPUs may be few kilobytes of RAM to several megabytes or more, and CPUs may be
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interoperability). However, external management and monitoring of an interoperability). However, external management and monitoring of an
ad hoc routing protocol may be desirable to optimize parameters of ad hoc routing protocol may be desirable to optimize parameters of
the routing protocol. Such an optimization may lead to a more stable the routing protocol. Such an optimization may lead to a more stable
perceived topology and to a lower control traffic overhead, and perceived topology and to a lower control traffic overhead, and
therefore to a higher delivery success ratio of data packets, a lower therefore to a higher delivery success ratio of data packets, a lower
end-to-end delay, and less unnecessary bandwidth and energy usage. end-to-end delay, and less unnecessary bandwidth and energy usage.
Different use cases for the management of community networks are Different use cases for the management of community networks are
possible: possible:
o One single Network Management Station (NMS), e.g. a border gateway o One single Network Management Station, e.g. a border gateway
providing connectivity to the Internet, requires managing or providing connectivity to the Internet, requires managing or
monitoring routers in the community network, in order to monitoring routers in the community network, in order to
investigate problems (monitoring) or to improve performance by investigate problems (monitoring) or to improve performance by
changing parameters (managing). As the topology of the network is changing parameters (managing). As the topology of the network is
dynamic, constant connectivity of each router towards the dynamic, constant connectivity of each router towards the
management station cannot be guaranteed. Current network management station cannot be guaranteed. Current network
management protocols, such as SNMP and Netconf, may be used (e.g., management protocols, such as SNMP and Netconf, may be used (e.g.,
using interfaces such as the NHDP-MIB [RFC6779]). However, when using interfaces such as the NHDP-MIB [RFC6779]). However, when
routers in the community network are constrained, existing routers in the community network are constrained, existing
protocols may require too many resources in terms of memory and protocols may require too many resources in terms of memory and
CPU; and more importantly, the bandwidth requirements may exceed CPU; and more importantly, the bandwidth requirements may exceed
the available channel capacity in wireless mesh networks. the available channel capacity in wireless mesh networks.
Moreover, management and monitoring may be unfeasible if the Moreover, management and monitoring may be unfeasible if the
connection between the NMS and the routers is frequently connection between the network management station and the routers
interrupted. is frequently interrupted.
o A distributed network monitoring, in which more than one o A distributed network monitoring, in which more than one
management station monitors or manages other routers. Because management station monitors or manages other routers. Because
connectivity to a server cannot be guaranteed at all times, a connectivity to a server cannot be guaranteed at all times, a
distributed approach may provide a higher reliability, at the cost distributed approach may provide a higher reliability, at the cost
of increased complexity. Currently, no IETF standard exists for of increased complexity. Currently, no IETF standard exists for
distributed monitoring and management. distributed monitoring and management.
o Monitoring and management of a whole network or a group of o Monitoring and management of a whole network or a group of
routers. Monitoring the performance of a community network may routers. Monitoring the performance of a community network may
require more information than what can be acquired from a single require more information than what can be acquired from a single
router using a network management protocol. Statistics, such as router using a network management protocol. Statistics, such as
topology changes over time, data throughput along certain routing topology changes over time, data throughput along certain routing
paths, congestion etc., are of interest for a group of routers (or paths, congestion etc., are of interest for a group of routers (or
the routing domain) as a whole. As of 2012, no IETF standard the routing domain) as a whole. As of 2012, no IETF standard
allows for monitoring or managing whole networks, instead of allows for monitoring or managing whole networks, instead of
single routers. single routers.
2.10. Mobile Applications 3.11. Military Operations
M2M services are increasingly provided by mobile service providers as
numerous devices, home appliances, utility meters, cars, video
surveillance cameras, and health monitors, are connected with mobile
broadband technologies. This diverse range of machines brings new
network and service requirements and challenges. Different
applications e.g. in a home appliance or in-car network use
Bluetooth, Wi-Fi or Zigbee and connect to a cellular module acting as
a gateway between the constrained environment and the mobile cellular
network.
Such a gateway might provide different options for the connectivity
of mobile networks and constrained devices, e.g.:
o a smart phone with 3G/4G and WLAN radio might use BT-LE to connect
to the devices in a home area network,
o a femtocell might be combined with home gateway functionality
acting as a low-power cellular base station connecting smart
devices to the application server of a mobile service provider.
o an embedded cellular module with LTE radio connecting the devices
in the car network with the server running the telematics service,
o an M2M gateway connected to the mobile operator network supporting
diverse IoT connectivity technologies including ZigBee and CoAP
over 6LoWPAN over IEEE 802.15.4.
Common to all scenarios above is that they are embedded in a service
and connected to a network provided by a mobile service provider.
Usually there is a hierarchical deployment and management topology in
place where different parts of the network are managed by different
management entities and the count of devices to manage is high (e.g.
many thousands). In general, the network is comprised by manifold
type and size of devices matching to different device classes. As
such, the managing entity needs to be prepared to manage devices with
diverse capabilities using different communication or management
protocols. In case the devices are directly connected to a gateway
they most likely are managed by a management entity integrated with
the gateway, which itself is part of the Network Management System
(NMS) run by the mobile operator. Smart phones or embedded modules
connected to a gateway might be themselves in charge to manage the
devices on their level. The initial and subsequent configuration of
such a device is mainly based on self-configuration and is triggered
by the device itself.
The challenges in the management of devices in a mobile application
are manifold. Firstly, the issues caused through the device mobility
need to be taken into consideration. While the cellular devices are
moving around or roaming between different regional networks, they
should report their status to the corresponding management entities
with regard to their proximity and management hierarchy. Secondly, a
variety of device troubleshooting information needs to be reported to
the management system in order to provide accurate service to the
customer. Third but not least, the NMS and the used management
protocol need to be tailored to keep the cellular devices lightweight
and as energy efficient as possible.
The data models used in these scenario are mostly derived from the
models of the operator NMS and might be used to monitor the status of
the devices and to exchange the data sent by or read from the
devices. The gateway might be in charge of filtering and aggregating
the data received from the device as the information sent by the
device might be mostly redundant.
2.11. Automated Metering Infrastructure (AMI)
An AMI network enables an electric utility to retrieve frequent
electric usage data from each electric meter installed at a
customer's home or business. With an AMI network, a utility can also
receive immediate notification of power outages when they occur,
directly from the electric meters that are experiencing those
outages. In addition, if the AMI network is designed to be open and
extensible, it could serve as the backbone for communicating with
other distribution automation devices besides meters, which could
include transformers and reclosers.
In this use case, each meter in the AMI network contains a
constrained device. These devices are typically C2 devices. Each
meter connects to a constrained mesh network with a low-bandwidth
radio. These radios can be 50, 150, or 200 kbps at raw link speed,
but actual network throughput may be significantly lower due to
forward error correction, multihop delays, MAC delays, lossy links,
and protocol overhead.
The constrained devices are used to connect the metering logic with
the network, so that usage data and outage notifications can be sent
back to the utility's headend systems over the network. These
headend systems are located in a data center managed by the utility,
and may include meter data collection systems, meter data management
systems, and outage management systems.
The meters are connected to a mesh network, and each meter can act as
both a source of traffic and as a router for other meters' traffic.
In a typical AMI application, smaller amounts of traffic (read
requests, configuration) flow "downstream" from the headend to the
mesh, and larger amounts of traffic flow "upstream" from the mesh to
the headend. However, during a firmware update operation, larger
amounts of traffic might flow downstream while smaller amounts flow
upstream. Other applications that make use of the AMI network may
have their own distinct traffic flows.
The mesh network is anchored by a collection of higher-end devices,
which contain a mesh radio that connects to the constrained network
as well as a backhaul link that connects to a less-constrained
network. The backhaul link could be cellular, WiMAX, or Ethernet,
depending on the backhaul networking technology that the utility has
chosen. These higher-end devices (termed "routers" in this use case)
are typically installed on utility poles throughout the service
territory. Router devices are typically less constrained than
meters, and often contain the full routing table for all the
endpoints routing through them.
In this use case, the utility typically installs on the order of 1000
meters per router. The collection of meters comprised in a local
network that are routing through a specific router is called in this
use case a Local Meter Network (LMN). When powered on, each meter is
designed to discover the nearby LMNs, select the optimal LMN to join,
and select the optimal meters in that LMN to route through when
sending data to the headend. After joining the LMN, the meter is
designed to continuously monitor and optimize its connection to the
LMN, and it may change routes and LMNs as needed.
Each LMN may be configured e.g. to share an encryption key, providing
confidentiality for all data traffic within the LMN. This key may be
obtained by a meter only after an end-to-end authentication process
based on certificates, ensuring that only authorized and
authenticated meters are allowed to join the LMN, and by extension,
the mesh network as a whole.
After joining the LMN, each endpoint obtains a routable and possibly
private IPv6 address that enables end-to-end communication between
the headend systems and each meter. In this use case, the meters are
always-on. However, due to lossy links and network optimization, not
every meter will be immediately accessible, though eventually every
meter will be able to exchange data with the headend.
In a large AMI deployment, there may be 10 million meters supported
by 10.000 routers, spread across a very large geographic area.
Within a single LMN, the meters may range between 1 and approx. 20
hops from the router. During the deployment process, these meters
are installed and turned on in large batches, and those meters must
be authenticated, given addresses, and provisioned with any
configuration information necessary for their operation. During
deployment and after deployment is finished, the network must be
monitored continuously and failures must be handled. Configuration
parameters may need to be changed on large numbers of devices, but
most of the devices will be running the same configuration.
Moreover, eventually, the firmware in those meters will need to be
upgraded, and this must also be done in large batches because most of
the devices will be running the same firmware image.
Because there may be thousands of routers, this operational model
(batch deployment, automatic provisioning, continuous monitoring,
batch reconfiguration, batch firmware update) should also apply to
the routers as well as the constrained devices. The scale is
different (thousands instead of millions) but still large enough to
make individual management impractical for routers as well.
2.12. MANET Concept of Operations (CONOPS) in Military
The use case on the Concept of Operations (CONOPS) focuses on the
configuration and monitoring of networks that are currently being
used in military and as such, it offers insights and challenges of
network management that military agencies are facing.
As technology advances, military networks nowadays become large and
consist of varieties of different types of equipments that run
different protocols and tools that obviously increase complexity of
the tactical networks. Moreover, lacks of open common interfaces and
Application Programming Interface (API) are often a challenge to
network management. Configurations are, most likely, manually
performed. Some devices do not support IP networks. Integration and
evaluation process are no longer trivial for a large set of protocols
and tools. In addition, majority of protocols and tools developed by
vendors that are being used are proprietary which makes integration
more difficult. The main reason that leads to this problem is that
there is no clearly defined standard for the MANET Concept of
Operations (CONOPS). In the following, a set of scenarios of network
operations are described, which might lead to the development of
network management protocols and a framework that can potentially be
used in military networks.
Note: The term "node" is used at IETF for either a host or router.
The term "unit" or "mobile unit" in military (e.g. Humvees, tanks)
is a unit that contains multiple routers, hosts, and/or other non-IP-
based communication devices.
Scenario: Parking Lot Staging Area:
The Parking Lot Staging Area is the most common network operation
that is currently widely used in military prior to deployment. MANET
routers, which can be identical such as the platoon leader's or
rifleman's radio, are shipped to a remote location along with a Fixed
Network Operations Center (NOC), where they are all connected over
traditional wired or wireless networks. The Fixed NOC then performs
mass-configuration and evaluation of configuration processes. The
same concept can be applied to mobile units. Once all units are
successfully configured, they are ready to be deployed.
+---------+ +----------+
| Fixed |<---+------->| router_1 |
| NOC | | +----------+
+---------+ |
| +----------+
+------->| router_2 |
| +----------+
| 0
| 0
| 0
| +----------+
+------->| router_N |
+----------+
Figure 1: Parking Lot Staging Area
Scenario: Monitoring with SatCom Reachback:
The Monitoring with SatCom Reachback, which is considered another
possible common scenario to military's network operations, is similar
to the Parking Lot Staging Area. Instead, the Fixed NOC and MANET
routers are connected through a Satellite Communications (SatCom)
network. The Monitoring with SatCom Reachback is a scenario where
MANET routers are augmented with SatCom Reachback capabilities while
On-The-Move (OTM). Vehicles carrying MANET routers support multiple
types of wireless interfaces, including High Capacity Short Range
Radio interfaces as well as Low Capacity OTM SatCom interfaces. The
radio interfaces are the preferred interfaces for carrying data
traffic due to their high capacity, but the range is limiting with
respect to connectivity to a Fixed NOC. Hence, OTM SatCom interfaces
offer a more persistent but lower capacity reachback capability. The
existence of a SatCom persistent Reachback capability offers the NOC
the ability to monitor and manage the MANET routers over the air.
Similarly to the Parking Lot Staging scenario, the same concept can
be applied to mobile units.
--- +--+ ---
/ /---|SC|---/ /
--- +--+ ---
+---------+ |
| Fixed |<---------------------+
| NOC | +--------------|
+---------+ | +-------------------+
| | |
+----------+ | +----------+
| router_1 | +----------+ | router_N |
+----------+ | | +----------+
* | | * *
* +----------+ | * *
*********| router_2 |*****|******* *
+----------+ | *
* | *
* +----------+ *
********| router_3 |****
+----------+
--- SatCom links
*** Radio links
Figure 2: Monitoring with one-hop SatCom Reachback network
Scenario: Hierarchical Management:
Another reasonable scenario common to military operations in a MANET
environment is the Hierarchical Management scenario. Vehicles carry
a rather complex set of networking devices, including routers running
MANET control protocols. In this hierarchical architecture, the
MANET mobile unit has a rather complex internal architecture where a
local manager within the unit is responsible for local management.
The local management includes management of the MANET router and
control protocols, the firewall, servers, proxies, hosts and
applications. In addition, a standard management interface is
required in this architecture. Moreover, in addition to requiring
standard management interfaces into the components comprising the
MANET nodal architecture, the local manager is responsible for local
monitoring and the generation of periodic reports back to the Fixed
NOC.
Interface
|
V
+---------+ +-------------------------+
| Fixed | Interface | +---+ +---+ |
| NOC |<---+------->| | R |--+--| F | |
+---------+ | | +---+ | +---+ |
| | | | +---+ |
| | +---+ | +--| P | |
| | | M |--+ | +---+ |
| | +---+ | |
| | | +---+ |
| | +--| D | |
| | | +---+ |
| | | |
| | | +---+ |
| | +--| H | |
| | | +---+ |
| | unit_1 |
| +-------------------------+
|
|
| +--------+
+------->| unit_2 |
| +--------+
| 0
| 0
| 0
| +--------+
+------->| unit_N |
+--------+
Key: R-Router
F-Firewall
P-PEP (Performance Enhancing Proxy)
D-Servers, e.g., DNS
H-hosts
M-Local Manager
Figure 3: Hierarchical Management
Scenario: Management over Lossy/Intermittent Links:
In the future of military operations, the standard management will be
done over lossy and intermittent links and ideally the Fixed NOC will
become mobile. In this architecture, the nature and current quality
of each link are distinct. However, there are a number of issues
that would arise and need to be addressed:
1. Common and specific configurations are undefined:
A. When mass-configuring devices, common set of configurations
are undefined at this time.
B. Similarly, when performing a specific device, set of specific
configurations is unknown.
2. Once the total number of units becomes quite large, scalability The challenges of configuration and monitoring of networks faced by
would be an issue and need to be addressed. military agencies can be different from the other use cases since the
requirements and operating conditions of military networks are quite
different.
3. The state of the devices are different and may be in various With technology advancements, military networks nowadays have become
states of operations, e.g., ON/OFF, etc. large and consist of varieties of different types of equipment that
run different protocols and tools that obviously increase complexity
of the tactical networks. In many scenarios, configurations are,
most likely, manually performed. Furthermore, some legacy and even
modern devices do not even support IP networking. Majority of
protocols and tools developed by vendors that are being used are
proprietary which makes integration more difficult.
4. Pushing large data files over reliable transport, e.g., TCP, The main reason for this disjoint operation scenario is that most
would be problematic. Would a new mechanism of transmitting military equipment is developed with specific tasks requirements in
large configurations over the air in low bandwidth be mind, rather than interoperability of the varied equipment types.
implemented? Which protocol would be used at transport layer? For example, the operating conditions experienced by high altitude
equipment is significantly different from that used in desert
conditions and interoperation of tactical equipment with
telecommunication equipment was not an expected outcome.
5. How to validate network configuration (and local configuration) Currently, most military networks operate with a fixed Network
is complex, even when to cutover is an interesting question. Operations Center (NOC) that physically manages the configuration and
evaluation of all field devices. Once configured, the devices might
be deployed in fixed or mobile scenarios. Any configuration changes
required would need to be appropriately encrypted and authenticated
to prevent unauthorized access.
6. Security as a general issue needs to be addressed as it could be Hierarchical management of devices is a common requirement of
problematic in military operations. military operations as well since local managers may need to respond
to changing conditions within their platoon, regiment, brigade,
division or corps. The level of configuration management available
at each hierarchy must also be closely governed.
+---------+ +----------+ Since most military networks operate in hostile environments, a high
| Mobile |<----------->| router_1 | failure rate and disconnection rate should be tolerated by the NMS,
| NOC |?--+ +----------+ which must also be able to deal with multiple gateways and disjoint
+---------+ | management protocols.
^ | +----------+
| +------->| router_2 |
| +----------+
| 0
| 0
| 0
| +----------+
+---------------->| router_N |
+----------+
Figure 4: Management over Lossy/intermittent Links Multi-national military operations are becoming increasingly common,
requiring the interoperation of a diverse set of equipment designed
with different operating conditions in mind. Furthermore, different
militaries are likely to have a different set of standards, best
practices, rules and regulation, and implementation approaches that
may contradict or conflict with each other. The NMS should be able
to detect these and handle them in an acceptable manner, which may
require human intervention.
3. IANA Considerations 4. IANA Considerations
This document does not introduce any new code-points or namespaces This document does not introduce any new code-points or namespaces
for registration with IANA. for registration with IANA.
Note to RFC Editor: this section may be removed on publication as an Note to RFC Editor: this section may be removed on publication as an
RFC. RFC.
4. Security Considerations 5. Security Considerations
This document discusses the use cases for a network of constrained In several use cases, constrained devices are deployed in unsafe
devices and does not introduce any security issues by itself. environments, where attackers can gain physical access to the
devices. As a consequence, it is crucial to properly protect any
security credentials that may be stored on the device (e.g., by using
hardware protection mechanisms). Furthermore, it is important that
any credentials leeking from a single device do not simplify the
attack on other (similar) devices. In particular, security
credentials should never be shared.
5. Contributors Since constrained devices often have limited computational resources,
care should be taken in choosing efficient but cryptographically
strong crytographic algorithms. Designers of constrained devices
that have a long expected lifetime need to ensure that cryptographic
algorithms can be updated once devices have been deployed. The
ability to perform secure firmware and software updates is an
important management requirement.
Several use cases generate sensitive data or require the processing
of sensitive data. It is therefore an important requirement to
properly protect access to the data in order to protect the privacy
of humans using Internet-enabled devices. For certain types of data,
protection during the transmission over the network may not be
sufficient and methods should be investigated that provide protection
of data while it is cached or stored (e.g., when using a store-and-
forward transport mechanism).
6. Contributors
Following persons made significant contributions to and reviewed this Following persons made significant contributions to and reviewed this
document: document:
o Ulrich Herberg (Fujitsu Laboratories of America) contributed the o Ulrich Herberg (Fujitsu Laboratories of America) contributed the
Section 2.9 on Community Network Applications. Section 3.10 on Community Network Applications.
o Peter van der Stok contributed to Section 2.5 on Building o Peter van der Stok contributed to Section 3.6 on Building
Automation. Automation.
o Zhen Cao contributed to Section 2.10 on Mobile Applications. o Zhen Cao contributed to Section 2.2 Mobile Access Technologies.
o Gilman Tolle contributed the Section 2.11 on Automated Metering o Gilman Tolle contributed the Section 3.4 on Automated Metering
Infrastructure. Infrastructure.
o James Nguyen and Ulrich Herberg contributed the Section 2.12 on o James Nguyen and Ulrich Herberg contributed to Section 3.11 on
MANET Concept of Operations (CONOPS) in Military. Military operations.
6. Acknowledgments 7. Acknowledgments
Following persons reviewed and provided valuable comments to Following persons reviewed and provided valuable comments to
different versions of this document: different versions of this document:
Dominique Barthel, Carsten Bormann, Zhen Cao, Benoit Claise, Bert Dominique Barthel, Carsten Bormann, Zhen Cao, Benoit Claise, Bert
Greevenbosch, Ulrich Herberg, James Nguyen, Anuj Sehgal, Zach Shelby, Greevenbosch, Ulrich Herberg, James Nguyen, Zach Shelby, and Peter
and Peter van der Stok. van der Stok.
The editors would like to thank the reviewers and the participants on The editors would like to thank the reviewers and the participants on
the Coman maillist for their valuable contributions and comments. the Coman maillist for their valuable contributions and comments.
7. References 8. Informative References
7.1. Normative References
7.2. Informative References
[RFC6130] Clausen, T., Dearlove, C., and J. Dean, "Mobile Ad Hoc [RFC6130] Clausen, T., Dearlove, C., and J. Dean, "Mobile Ad Hoc
Network (MANET) Neighborhood Discovery Protocol (NHDP)", Network (MANET) Neighborhood Discovery Protocol (NHDP)",
RFC 6130, April 2011. RFC 6130, April 2011.
[RFC6568] Kim, E., Kaspar, D., and JP. Vasseur, "Design and
Application Spaces for IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless
Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)", RFC 6568, April 2012.
[RFC6779] Herberg, U., Cole, R., and I. Chakeres, "Definition of [RFC6779] Herberg, U., Cole, R., and I. Chakeres, "Definition of
Managed Objects for the Neighborhood Discovery Protocol", Managed Objects for the Neighborhood Discovery Protocol",
RFC 6779, October 2012. RFC 6779, October 2012.
[RFC6988] Quittek, J., Chandramouli, M., Winter, R., Dietz, T., and [RFC6988] Quittek, J., Chandramouli, M., Winter, R., Dietz, T., and
B. Claise, "Requirements for Energy Management", RFC 6988, B. Claise, "Requirements for Energy Management", RFC 6988,
September 2013. September 2013.
[I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology] [I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology]
Bormann, C., Ersue, M., and A. Keranen, "Terminology for Bormann, C., Ersue, M., and A. Keranen, "Terminology for
Constrained Node Networks", draft-ietf-lwig-terminology-06 Constrained Node Networks", draft-ietf-lwig-terminology-07
(work in progress), December 2013. (work in progress), February 2014.
[I-D.ietf-eman-framework] [I-D.ietf-eman-framework]
Parello, J., Claise, B., Schoening, B., and J. Quittek, Claise, B., Schoening, B., and J. Quittek, "Energy
"Energy Management Framework", Management Framework", draft-ietf-eman-framework-15 (work
draft-ietf-eman-framework-11 (work in progress), in progress), February 2014.
October 2013.
[I-D.ietf-manet-olsrv2] [I-D.ietf-manet-olsrv2]
Clausen, T., Dearlove, C., Jacquet, P., and U. Herberg, Clausen, T., Dearlove, C., Jacquet, P., and U. Herberg,
"The Optimized Link State Routing Protocol version 2", "The Optimized Link State Routing Protocol version 2",
draft-ietf-manet-olsrv2-19 (work in progress), March 2013. draft-ietf-manet-olsrv2-19 (work in progress), March 2013.
[COM-REQ] Ersue, M., "Constrained Management: Problem statement and [COM-REQ] Ersue, M., "Constrained Management: Problem statement and
Requirements", draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs Requirements", draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs
(work in progress), January 2014. (work in progress), January 2014.
Appendix A. Open issues Appendix A. Open Issues
o It has been noted that the use cases the Industrial Application, o Section 3.11 should be replaced by a different use case motivating
Home Automation and Building Automation have an intersect. similar requirements or perhaps deleted if the IETF prefers to not
work on specific requirements coming from military use cases.
o Section 3.8 and Section 3.9 should be merged.
Appendix B. Change Log Appendix B. Change Log
B.1. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-03 - B.1. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-00 -
draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-01
o Reordered some use cases to improve the flow.
o Added "Vehicular Networks".
o Shortened the Military Operations use case.
o Started adding substance to the security considerations section.
B.2. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-03 -
draft-ersue-opsawg-coman-use-cases-00 draft-ersue-opsawg-coman-use-cases-00
o Reduced the terminology section for terminology addressed in the o Reduced the terminology section for terminology addressed in the
LWIG and Coman Requirements drafts. Referenced the other drafts. LWIG and Coman Requirements drafts. Referenced the other drafts.
o Checked and aligned all terminology against the LWIG terminology o Checked and aligned all terminology against the LWIG terminology
draft. draft.
o Spent some effort to resolve the intersection between the o Spent some effort to resolve the intersection between the
Industrial Application, Home Automation and Building Automation Industrial Application, Home Automation and Building Automation
use cases. use cases.
o Moved section section 3. Use Cases from the companion document o Moved section section 3. Use Cases from the companion document
[COM-REQ] to this draft. [COM-REQ] to this draft.
o Reformulation of some text parts for more clarity. o Reformulation of some text parts for more clarity.
B.2. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-02-03 B.3. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-02-03
o Extended the terminology section and removed some of the o Extended the terminology section and removed some of the
terminology addressed in the new LWIG terminology draft. terminology addressed in the new LWIG terminology draft.
Referenced the LWIG terminology draft. Referenced the LWIG terminology draft.
o Moved Section 1.3. on Constrained Device Classes to the new LWIG o Moved Section 1.3. on Constrained Device Classes to the new LWIG
terminology draft. terminology draft.
o Class of networks considering the different type of radio and o Class of networks considering the different type of radio and
communication technologies in use and dimensions extended. communication technologies in use and dimensions extended.
skipping to change at page 31, line 24 skipping to change at page 28, line 33
* Software distribution (group-based firmware update) and Group- * Software distribution (group-based firmware update) and Group-
based provisioning. based provisioning.
o Deleted the empty section on the gaps in network management o Deleted the empty section on the gaps in network management
standards, as it will be written in a separate draft. standards, as it will be written in a separate draft.
o Added links to mentioned external pages. o Added links to mentioned external pages.
o Added text on OMA M2M Device Classification in appendix. o Added text on OMA M2M Device Classification in appendix.
B.3. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-01-02 B.4. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-01-02
o Extended the terminology section. o Extended the terminology section.
o Added additional text for the use cases concerning deployment o Added additional text for the use cases concerning deployment
type, network topology in use, network size, network capabilities, type, network topology in use, network size, network capabilities,
radio technology, etc. radio technology, etc.
o Added examples for device classes in a use case. o Added examples for device classes in a use case.
o Added additional text provided by Cao Zhen (China Mobile) for o Added additional text provided by Cao Zhen (China Mobile) for
skipping to change at page 32, line 11 skipping to change at page 29, line 20
constrained management matched to management tasks like fault, constrained management matched to management tasks like fault,
monitoring, configuration management, Security and Access Control, monitoring, configuration management, Security and Access Control,
Energy Management, etc. Energy Management, etc.
o Solved nits and added references. o Solved nits and added references.
o Added Appendix A on the related development in other bodies. o Added Appendix A on the related development in other bodies.
o Added Appendix B on the work in related research projects. o Added Appendix B on the work in related research projects.
B.4. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-00-01 B.5. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-00-01
o Splitted the section on 'Networks of Constrained Devices' into the o Splitted the section on 'Networks of Constrained Devices' into the
sections 'Network Topology Options' and 'Management Topology sections 'Network Topology Options' and 'Management Topology
Options'. Options'.
o Added the use case 'Community Network Applications' and 'Mobile o Added the use case 'Community Network Applications' and 'Mobile
Applications'. Applications'.
o Provided a Contributors section. o Provided a Contributors section.
skipping to change at line 1233 skipping to change at page 30, line 21
Dan Romascanu Dan Romascanu
Avaya Avaya
Email: dromasca@avaya.com Email: dromasca@avaya.com
Juergen Schoenwaelder Juergen Schoenwaelder
Jacobs University Bremen Jacobs University Bremen
Email: j.schoenwaelder@jacobs-university.de Email: j.schoenwaelder@jacobs-university.de
Anuj Sehgal
Jacobs University Bremen
Email: a.sehgal@jacobs-university.de
 End of changes. 73 change blocks. 
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