Internet Engineering Task Force                            M. Ersue, Ed.
Internet-Draft                              Nokia Solutions and Networks
Intended status: Informational                              D. Romascanu
Expires: July 24, August 18, 2014                                           Avaya
                                                        J. Schoenwaelder
                                                               A. Sehgal
                                                Jacobs University Bremen
                                                        January 20,
                                                       February 14, 2014

       Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Use Cases
                  draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-00
                  draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-01

Abstract

   This document discusses the use cases concerning the management of
   networks, where constrained devices are involved.  A problem
   statement, deployment options and the requirements on the networks
   with constrained devices can be found in the companion document on
   "Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Problem Statement
   and Requirements".

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on July 24, August 18, 2014.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.1.  Overview
   2.  Access Technologies  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.1.  Constrained Access Technologies  . . . . . .  3
     1.2.  Terminology . . . . . . .  5
     2.2.  Mobile Access Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  5
   3.  Use Cases  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.1.  7
     3.1.  Environmental Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.2.  Medical Applications . . .  7
     3.2.  Infrastructure Monitoring  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.3.  7
     3.3.  Industrial Applications  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.4.  Home Automation  . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.4.  Energy Management  . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     2.5.  Building Automation . . . . . . . . . 10
     3.5.  Medical Applications . . . . . . . . . .  8
     2.6.  Energy Management . . . . . . . . . 12
     3.6.  Building Automation  . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     2.7.  Transport Applications . . . . . . . . 13
     3.7.  Home Automation  . . . . . . . . . . 11
     2.8.  Infrastructure Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     3.8.  Transport Applications . . . . . 12
     2.9.  Community Network Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     3.9.  Vehicular Networks . 13
     2.10. Mobile Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     2.11. Automated Metering Infrastructure (AMI) 17
     3.10. Community Network Applications . . . . . . . . . 16
     2.12. MANET Concept of Operations (CONOPS) in Military . . . . . 18
   3.  IANA Considerations  . .
     3.11. Military Operations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 19
   4.  Security  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
   5.  Contributors . . . . . . 21
   5.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 22
   6.  Acknowledgments  .  Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
   7.  References . . . 23
   7.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
     7.1.  Normative 24
   8.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
     7.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . 25
   Appendix A.  Open Issues . . . . . . . . . . . 28
   Appendix A.  Open issues . . . . . . . . . . 26
   Appendix B.  Change Log  . . . . . . . . . . . 29
   Appendix B.  Change Log . . . . . . . . . . 27
     B.1.  draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-00 -
           draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-01 . . . . . . . . . . . 30
     B.1. 27
     B.2.  draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-03 -
           draft-ersue-opsawg-coman-use-cases-00  . . . . . . . . . . 30
     B.2. 27
     B.3.  draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-02-03 . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
     B.3. 27
     B.4.  draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-01-02 . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
     B.4. 28
     B.5.  draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-00-01 . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 29
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 30

1.  Introduction

1.1.  Overview

   Small devices with limited CPU, memory, and power resources, so
   called constrained devices (aka. sensor, smart object, or smart
   device) can be connected to a network.  Such a network of constrained
   devices itself may be constrained or challenged, e.g. e.g., with
   unreliable or lossy channels, wireless technologies with limited
   bandwidth and a dynamic topology, needing the service of a gateway or
   proxy to connect to the Internet.  In other scenarios, the
   constrained devices can be connected to a non-constrained network
   using off-the-shelf protocol stacks.  Constrained devices might be in
   charge of gathering information in diverse settings including natural
   ecosystems, buildings, and factories and send the information to one
   or more server stations.

   Network management is characterized by monitoring network status,
   detecting faults, and inferring their causes, setting network
   parameters, and carrying out actions to remove faults, maintain
   normal operation, and improve network efficiency and application
   performance.  The traditional network management application
   periodically collects information from a set of elements that are
   needed to manage, processes the data, and presents them to the
   network management users.  Constrained devices, however, often have
   limited power, low transmission range, and might be unreliable.  They
   might also need to work in hostile environments with advanced
   security requirements or need to be used in harsh environments for a
   long time without supervision.  Due to such constraints, the
   management of a network with constrained devices offers different
   type of challenges compared to the management of a traditional IP
   network.

   This document aims to understand the use cases for the management of
   a network, where constrained devices are involved.  The document
   lists and discusses diverse use cases for the management from the
   network as well as from the application point of view.  The
   application scenarios discussed aim to show where networks of
   constrained devices are expected to be deployed.  For each
   application scenario, we first briefly describe the characteristics
   followed by a discussion on how network management can be provided,
   who is likely going to be responsible for it, and on which time-scale
   management operations are likely to be carried out.

   A problem statement, deployment and management topology options as
   well as the requirements on the networks with constrained devices can
   be found in the companion document [COM-REQ].

1.2.  Terminology

   This documents builds on the terminology defined in
   [I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology] and [COM-REQ].

   [I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology] is a base document for the terminology
   concerning constrained devices and constrained networks.  Some use
   cases specific to IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks
   (6LoWPANs) can be found in [RFC6568].

2.  Use Cases

2.1.  Environmental Monitoring

   Environmental monitoring applications are characterized  Access Technologies

   Besides the management requirements imposed by the
   deployment of a number of sensors to monitor emissions, water
   quality, or even different use
   cases, the movements access technologies used by constrained devices can impose
   restrictions and habits requirements upon the Network Management System
   (NMS) and protocol of wildlife.  Other
   applications in this category include earthquake or tsunami early-
   warning systems.  The sensors often span a large geographic area,
   they can be mobile, and they are often difficult to replace.
   Furthermore, the sensors are usually not protected against tampering.

   Management of environmental monitoring applications choice.

   It is largely
   concerned possible that some networks of constrained devices might
   utilize traditional non-constrained access technologies for network
   access, e.g., local area networks with plenty of capacity.  In such
   scenarios, the monitoring whether constrainedness of the system is still functional device presents special
   management restrictions and requirements rather than the roll-out of new constrained devices access
   technology utilized.

   However, in case the system looses
   too much of its structure.  The other situations constrained devices themselves need
   to or mobile access
   technologies might be able to establish connectivity (auto-configuration) used for network access, thereby causing
   management restrictions and they
   need requirements to be able arise as a result of the
   underlying access technologies.

2.1.  Constrained Access Technologies

   Due to deal with events resource restrictions, embedded devices deployed as sensors
   and actuators in the various use cases utilize low-power low data-
   rate wireless access technologies such as loosing neighbors IEEE 802.15.4, DECT ULE or
   being moved to other locations.

   Management responsibility typically rests with the organization
   running
   BT-LE for network connectivity.

   In such scenarios, it is important for the environmental monitoring application.  Since these
   monitoring applications must be designed NMS to tolerate a number be aware of
   failures, the time scale
   restrictions imposed by these access technologies to efficiently
   manage these constrained devices.  Specifically, such low-power low
   data-rate access technologies typically have small frame sizes.  So
   it would be important for detecting the NMS and recording failures is for
   some management protocol of these applications likely measured choice
   to craft packets in hours a way that avoids fragmentation and repairs reassembly of
   packets since this can use valuable memory on constrained devices.

   Devices using such access technologies might
   easily take days.  However, for certain environmental monitoring
   applications, much tighter time scales may exist operate via a gateway
   that translates between these access technologies and more
   traditional Internet protocols.  A hierarchical approach to device
   management in such a situation might be
   enforced by regulations (e.g., monitoring useful, wherein the gateway
   device is in-charge of nuclear radiation).

2.2.  Medical Applications

   Constrained devices can be seen as an enabling technology for
   advanced and possibly remote health monitoring and emergency
   notification systems, ranging from blood pressure and heart rate
   monitors to advanced devices capable connected to monitor implanted
   technologies, such as pacemakers or advanced hearing aids.  Medical
   sensors may not it, while the NMS
   conducts management operations only be attached to human bodies, they might also
   exist in the infrastructure used by humans such as bathrooms or
   kitchens.  Medical applications will also be used gateway.

2.2.  Mobile Access Technologies

   Machine to ensure
   treatments machine (M2M) services are being applied properly and they might guide people
   losing orientation.  Fitness and wellness applications, such increasingly provided by mobile
   service providers as
   connected scales or wearable heart monitors, encourage consumers to
   exercise numerous devices, home appliances, utility
   meters, cars, video surveillance cameras, and empower self-monitoring of key fitness indicators. health monitors, are
   connected with mobile broadband technologies.  Different applications
   applications, e.g., in a home appliance or in-car network, use
   Bluetooth, Wi-Fi or Zigbee connections locally and connect to
   access the patient's smartphone or home a cellular connection to access module
   acting as a gateway between the Internet.

   Constrained devices that are part of medical applications are managed
   either by constrained environment and the users of those devices or by an organization providing
   medical (monitoring) services
   mobile cellular network.

   Such a gateway might provide different options for physicians.  In the first case,
   management must be automatic connectivity
   of mobile networks and or easy to install constrained devices:

   o  a smart phone with 3G/4G and setup by
   average people.  In WLAN radio might use BT-LE to connect
      to the second case, it can be expected that devices in a home area network,

   o  a femtocell might be controlled by specially trained people.  In both cases, however,
   it is crucial combined with home gateway functionality
      acting as a low-power cellular base station connecting smart
      devices to protect the privacy application server of a mobile service provider,

   o  an embedded cellular module with LTE radio connecting the people to which medical devices are attached.  Even though
      in the data collected by a heart beat
   monitor might be protected, car network with the pure fact that someone carries such a
   device may need protection.  As such, certain medical appliances may
   not want server running the telematics service,

   o  an M2M gateway connected to participate in discovery the mobile operator network supporting
      diverse IoT connectivity technologies including ZigBee and self-configuration protocols
   in order CoAP
      over 6LoWPAN over IEEE 802.15.4.

   Common to remain invisible.

   Many medical devices all scenarios above is that they are likely to be used (and relied upon) to
   provide data to physicians embedded in critical situations since the biggest
   market a service
   and connected to a network provided by a mobile service provider.
   Usually there is likely elderly a hierarchical deployment and handicapped people.  As such, fault
   detection management topology in
   place where different parts of the communication network or are managed by different
   management entities and the constrained count of devices
   becomes a crucial function that must be carried out with to manage is high
   reliability and, depending on (e.g.
   many thousands).  In general, the medical appliance and its
   application, within seconds.

2.3.  Industrial Applications

   Industrial Applications network is comprised by manifold
   type and smart manufacturing refer not only size of devices matching to
   production equipment, but also different device classes.  As
   such, the managing entity needs to be prepared to manage devices with
   diverse capabilities using different communication or management
   protocols.  In case the devices are directly connected to a factory that carries out
   centralized control gateway
   they most likely are managed by a management entity integrated with
   the gateway, which itself is part of energy, HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air
   conditioning), lighting, access control, etc. via the Network Management System
   (NMS) run by the mobile operator.  Smart phones or embedded modules
   connected to a network.  For gateway might be themselves in charge to manage the
   management
   devices on their level.  The initial and subsequent configuration of
   such a factory it device is becoming essential to implement smart
   capabilities.  From an engineering standpoint, industrial mainly based on self-configuration and is triggered
   by the device itself.

   The gateway might be in charge of filtering and aggregating the data
   received from the device as the information sent by the device might
   be mostly redundant.

3.  Use Cases

3.1.  Environmental Monitoring

   Environmental monitoring applications are intelligent systems enabling rapid manufacturing characterized by the
   deployment of
   new products, dynamic response a number of sensors to product demand, monitor emissions, water
   quality, or even the movements and real-time
   optimization habits of manufacturing production and supply chain networks.
   Potential industrial wildlife.  Other
   applications e.g. for smart factories and smart
   manufacturing are:

   o  Digital control systems with embedded, automated process controls,
      operator tools, as well as service information systems optimizing
      plant operations and safety.

   o  Asset management using predictive maintenance tools, statistical
      evaluation, and measurements maximizing plant reliability.

   o  Smart sensors detecting anomalies to avoid abnormal in this category include earthquake or
      catastrophic events.

   o  Smart systems integrated within the industrial energy management
      system and externally with the smart grid enabling real-time
      energy optimization.

   Sensor networks are an essential technology used for smart
   manufacturing.  Measurements, automated controls, plant optimization,
   health and safety management, and other functions are provided by tsunami early-
   warning systems.  The sensors often span a large number of networked sectors.  Data interoperability and
   seamless exchange of product, process, and project data are enabled
   through interoperable data systems used by collaborating divisions or
   business systems.  Intelligent automation and learning systems are
   vital to smart manufacturing but must be effectively integrated with
   the decision environment.  Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have been
   developed for machinery Condition-based Maintenance (CBM) as geographic area,
   they
   offer significant cost savings and enable new functionalities.
   Inaccessible locations, rotating machinery, hazardous areas, and
   mobile assets can be reached with wireless sensors.  WSNs can provide
   today wireless link reliability, real-time capabilities, and quality-
   of-service and enable industrial and related wireless sense mobile, and
   control applications. they are often difficult to replace.
   Furthermore, the sensors are usually not protected against tampering.

   Management of industrial and factory environmental monitoring applications is largely focused
   on
   concerned with the monitoring whether the system is still functional, real-time
   continuous performance monitoring, functional
   and optimization as necessary.
   The factory network might be part of a campus network or connected to the Internet.  The roll-out of new constrained devices in such a network case the system looses
   too much of its structure.  The constrained devices themselves need
   to be able to establish configuration themselves connectivity (auto-configuration) and
   might they
   need to be able to deal with error conditions as much events such as possible locally.
   Access control has loosing neighbors or
   being moved to be provided with multi-level administrative
   access and security.  Support and diagnostics can be provided through
   remote monitoring access centralized outside of the factory. other locations.

   Management responsibility is typically owned by rests with the organization
   running the industrial environmental monitoring application.  Since the these
   monitoring applications must handle be designed to tolerate a potentially large number of
   failures, the time scale for detecting and recording failures is for
   some of these applications likely measured in minutes. hours and repairs might
   easily take days.  However, for certain
   industrial environmental monitoring
   applications, much tighter time scales may exist, e.g. in
   real-time, which exist and might be
   enforced by the manufacturing process or
   the use regulations (e.g., monitoring of critical material.

2.4.  Home Automation

   Home automation includes nuclear radiation).

3.2.  Infrastructure Monitoring

   Infrastructure monitoring is concerned with the control monitoring of lighting, heating,
   ventilation, air conditioning, appliances, and entertainment devices
   to improve convenience, comfort, energy efficiency, and security.  It
   can be seen
   infrastructures such as a residential extension of building automation.

   Home automation networks need a certain amount of configuration
   (associating switches bridges, railway tracks, or sensors to actors) that (offshore)
   windmills.  The primary goal is either provided
   by electricians deploying home automation solutions usually to detect any events or done by
   residents by using
   changes of the application user interface to configure (parts
   of) structural conditions that can impact the home automation solution.  Similarly, failures may be
   reported via suitable interfaces to residents or they might be
   recorded risk and made available to electricians in charge
   safety of the infrastructure being monitored.  Another secondary goal
   is to schedule repair and maintenance of the home automation infrastructure. activities in a cost effective
   manner.

   The management responsibility lies either with the residents or it
   may infrastructure to monitor might be outsourced in a factory or spread over a
   wider area but difficult to electricians providing management of home
   automation solutions as access.  As such, the network in use
   might be based on a service.  The time scale for failure
   detection combination of fixed and resolution wireless technologies,
   which use robust networking equipment and support reliable
   communication.  It is in many cases likely counted that constrained devices in hours to
   days.

2.5.  Building Automation

   Building automation comprises the distributed systems designed such a
   network are mainly C2 devices and
   deployed have to monitor and control the mechanical, electrical and
   electronic systems inside buildings with various destinations (e.g.,
   public and private, industrial, institutions, or residential).
   Advanced Building Automation Systems (BAS) may be deployed
   concentrating the various functions of safety, environmental control,
   occupancy, security.  More and more the deployment of controlled centrally by
   an application running on a server.  In case such a distributed
   network is widely spread, the various
   functional systems wireless devices might use diverse
   long-distance wireless technologies such as WiMAX, or 3G/LTE, e.g.

   based on embedded hardware modules.  In cases, where an in-building
   network is connected to involved, the same communication
   infrastructure (possibly Internet Protocol based), which may involve
   wired network can be based on Ethernet or wireless communications networks inside the building.

   Building automation requires the deployment
   technologies suitable for in-building usage.

   The management of a large number (10-
   100.000) infrastructure monitoring applications is primarily
   concerned with the monitoring of sensors that monitor the status functioning of devices, and
   parameters inside the building system.
   Infrastructure monitoring devices are typically rolled out and controllers with different
   specialized functionality for areas within the building or the
   totality of the building.  Inter-node distances between neighboring
   nodes vary between 1 to 20 meters.  Contrary to home automation, in
   building management
   installed by dedicated experts and changes are rare since the
   infrastructure itself changes rarely.  However, monitoring devices
   are expected to be managed assets often deployed in unsupervised environments and
   known hence special
   attention must be given to a set of commissioning tools and a data storage, such that
   every connected device has a known origin.  The management includes
   verifying the presence of protecting the expected devices and detecting from being
   modified.

   Management responsibility typically rests with the
   presence of unwanted devices.

   Examples of functions performed by such controllers are regulating organization
   owning the quality, humidity, infrastructure or responsible for its operation.  The time
   scale for detecting and temperature of the air inside the building recording failures is likely measured in
   hours and lighting.  Other systems repairs might easily take days.  However, certain events
   (e.g., natural disasters) may report the require that status of the machinery
   inside the building like elevators, or inside the rooms like
   projectors in meeting rooms.  Security cameras information be
   obtained much more quickly and that replacements of failed sensors may
   can be
   deployed and operated rolled out quickly (or redundant sensors are activated
   quickly).  In case the devices are difficult to access, a self-
   healing feature on separate dedicated infrastructures connected the device might become necessary.

3.3.  Industrial Applications

   Industrial Applications and smart manufacturing refer to tasks such
   as networked control and monitoring of manufacturing equipment, asset
   and situation management, or manufacturing process control.  For the common backbone.  The deployment area
   management of a BAS factory it is typically
   inside one building (or part of it) or several buildings
   geographically grouped in a campus.  A building network can be
   composed of subnets, where a subnet covers a floor, becoming essential to implement smart
   capabilities.  From an area on the
   floor, or a given functionality (e.g. security cameras).

   Some engineering standpoint, industrial
   applications are intelligent systems enabling rapid manufacturing of the sensors in Building Automation Systems (for example fire
   alarms or security systems) register, record and transfer critical
   alarm information and therefore must be resilient
   new products, dynamic response to events like loss product demands, and real-time
   optimization of power or security attacks.  This leads to the need that some
   components manufacturing production and subsystems operate in constrained conditions supply chain networks.
   Potential industrial applications (e.g., for smart factories and are
   separately certified.  Also in some environments, the malfunctioning
   of a control system (like temperature control) needs to be reported
   in the shortest possible time.  Complex
   smart manufacturing) are:

   o  Digital control systems can
   misbehave, with embedded, automated process controls,
      operator tools, as well as service information systems optimizing
      plant operations and their critical status reporting safety.

   o  Asset management using predictive maintenance tools, statistical
      evaluation, and safety algorithms
   need measurements maximizing plant reliability.

   o  Smart sensors detecting anomalies to be basic avoid abnormal or
      catastrophic events.

   o  Smart systems integrated within the industrial energy management
      system and robust externally with the smart grid enabling real-time
      energy optimization.

   Management of Industrial Applications and perform even smart manufacturing may in critical conditions.
   some situations involve Building Automation solutions are deployed in some cases in newly
   designed buildings, in other cases it might be over existing
   infrastructures.  In the first case, there is a broader range of
   possible solutions, which can be planned for the infrastructure of
   the building.  In the second case the solution needs to be deployed
   over an existing structure taking into account factors like existing
   wiring, distance limitations, the propagation of radio signals over
   walls and floors.  As a result, some of the existing WLAN solutions
   (e.g.  IEEE 802.11 or IEEE 802.15) may be deployed.  In mission-
   critical or security sensitive environments and in cases where link
   failures happen often, topologies that allow for reconfiguration of
   the network and connection continuity may be required.  Some of the
   sensors deployed in building automation may be very simple
   constrained devices for which class 0 or class 1 may be assumed.

   For lighting applications, groups of lights must be defined and
   managed.  Commands to a group of light must arrive within 200 ms at
   all destinations.  The installation and operation of a building
   network has different requirements.  During the installation, many
   stand-alone networks of a few to 100 nodes co-exist without a
   connection to the backbone.  During this phase, the nodes are
   identified with a network identifier related to their physical
   location.  Devices are accessed from an installation tool to connect
   them to the network in a secure fashion.  During installation, the
   setting of parameters to common values to enable interoperability may
   occur (e.g.  Trickle parameter values).  During operation, the
   networks are connected to the backbone while maintaining the network
   identifier to physical location relation.  Network parameters like
   address and name are stored in DNS.  The names can assist in
   determining the physical location of the device.

2.6.  Energy Management

   EMAN working group developed [I-D.ietf-eman-framework], which defines
   a framework for providing Energy Management for devices within or
   connected to communication networks.  This document observes that one
   of the challenges of energy management is that a power distribution
   network is responsible for the supply of energy to various devices
   and components, while a separate communication network is typically
   used to monitor and control the power distribution network.  Devices
   that have energy management capability are defined tasks such as Energy Devices
   and identified components within a device (Energy Device Components)
   can be monitored for parameters like Power, Energy, Demand and Power
   Quality.  If a device contains batteries, they can be also monitored
   and managed.

   Energy devices differ in complexity and may include basic sensors or
   switches, specialized electrical meters, or power distribution units
   (PDU), and subsystems inside the network devices (routers, network
   switches) or home or industrial appliances.  An Energy Management
   System is a combination control of hardware
   energy, HVAC (heating, ventilation, and software used to administer a
   network with the primary purpose being Energy Management.  The
   operators of such a system are either the utility providers air conditioning), lighting,
   or
   customers that aim to control and reduce the energy consumption and
   the associated costs.  The topology in use differs and the deployment
   can cover areas access control.  Interacting with management systems from small surfaces (individual homes) to large
   geographical areas.  EMAN requirements document [RFC6988] discusses
   the requirements other
   application areas might be important in some cases (e.g.,
   environmental monitoring for electric energy production, energy
   management concerning monitoring for dynamically scaling manufacturing, vehicular networks
   for mobile asset tracking).

   Sensor networks are an essential technology used for smart
   manufacturing.  Measurements, automated controls, plant optimization,
   health and
   control functions.

   It is assumed that Energy Management will apply to safety management, and other functions are provided by a
   large range number of
   devices networked sectors.  Data interoperability and
   seamless exchange of all classes product, process, and networks topologies.  Specific resource
   monitoring like battery utilization project data are enabled
   through interoperable data systems used by collaborating divisions or
   business systems.  Intelligent automation and availability may be specific learning systems are
   vital to devices smart manufacturing but must be effectively integrated with lower physical resources (device classes C0 or C1).

   Energy Management is especially relevant to Smart Grid.  A Smart Grid
   is an electrical grid that uses data
   the decision environment.  Wireless sensor networks to gather (WSN) have been
   developed for machinery Condition-based Maintenance (CBM) as they
   offer significant cost savings and act on
   energy enable new functionalities.
   Inaccessible locations, rotating machinery, hazardous areas, and power-related information, in an automated fashion
   mobile assets can be reached with
   the goal to improve the efficiency, wireless sensors.  WSNs can provide
   today wireless link reliability, economics, real-time capabilities, and
   sustainability of the production quality-
   of-service and distribution of electricity.  As
   such Smart Grid provides sustainable enable industrial and reliable generation,
   transmission, distribution, storage related wireless sense and consumption
   control applications.

   Management of electrical
   energy based on advanced energy industrial and ICT solutions factory applications is largely focused
   on the monitoring whether the system is still functional, real-time
   continuous performance monitoring, and optimization as such enables
   e.g. following specific application areas: Smart transmission
   systems, Demand Response/Load Management, Substation Automation,
   Advanced Distribution Management, Advanced Metering Infrastructure
   (AMI), Smart Metering, Smart Home and Building Automation,
   E-mobility, etc.

   Smart Metering is a good example necessary.
   The factory network might be part of a M2M application campus network or connected to
   the Internet.  The constrained devices in such a network need to be
   able to establish configuration themselves (auto-configuration) and
   might need to deal with error conditions as much as possible locally.
   Access control has to be provided with multi-level administrative
   access and security.  Support and diagnostics can be
   realized as one provided through
   remote monitoring access centralized outside of the vertical applications in an M2M environment.
   Different types of possibly wireless small meters produce all
   together a huge amount of data, which factory.

   Management responsibility is collected typically owned by the organization
   running the industrial application.  Since the monitoring
   applications must handle a central
   entity potentially large number of failures, the
   time scale for detecting and processed by an application server.  The M2M
   infrastructure can recording failures is for some of these
   applications likely measured in minutes.  However, for certain
   industrial applications, much tighter time scales may exist, e.g. in
   real-time, which might be provided enforced by a mobile network operator as the
   meters in urban areas will have most likely a cellular manufacturing process or WiMAX
   radio.

   Smart Grid
   the use of critical material.

3.4.  Energy Management

   The EMAN working group developed an energy management framework
   [I-D.ietf-eman-framework] for devices and device components within or
   connected to communication networks.  This document observes that one
   of the challenges of energy management is built on that a distributed power distribution
   network is responsible for the supply of energy to various devices
   and heterogeneous components, while a separate communication network is typically
   used to monitor and control the power distribution network.  Devices
   that have energy management capability are defined as Energy Devices
   and identified components within a device (Energy Device Components)
   can use be monitored for parameters like Power, Energy, Demand and Power
   Quality.  If a combination of diverse networking technologies, such as
   wireless Access Technologies (WiMAX, Cellular, etc.), wireline device contains batteries, they can be also monitored
   and managed.

   Energy devices differ in complexity and
   Internet Technologies (e.g., IP/MPLS, Ethernet, SDH/PDH over Fiber
   optic, etc.) as well as low-power radio technologies enabling the
   networking of smart may include basic sensors or
   switches, specialized electrical meters, home appliances, or power distribution units
   (PDU), and constrained devices
   (e.g.  BT-LE, ZigBee, Z-Wave, Wi-Fi, etc.).  The operational
   effectiveness of subsystems inside the smart grid network devices (routers, network
   switches) or home or industrial appliances.  An Energy Management
   System is highly dependent on a robust, two-
   way, secure, combination of hardware and reliable communications software used to administer a
   network with suitable
   availability. the primary purpose being Energy Management.  The management
   operators of such a distributed system like smart grid requires an
   end-to-end are either the utility providers or
   customers that aim to control and reduce the energy consumption and
   the associated costs.  The topology in use differs and the deployment
   can cover areas from small surfaces (individual homes) to large
   geographical areas.  The EMAN requirements document [RFC6988]
   discusses the requirements for energy management of concerning
   monitoring and information exchange through different
   type control functions.

   It is assumed that Energy Management will apply to a large range of networks.  However, as
   devices of today there is no integrated smart
   grid management approach all classes and no common smart grid information model
   available. networks topologies.  Specific smart grid applications resource
   monitoring like battery utilization and availability may be specific
   to devices with lower physical resources (device classes C0 or network islands use
   their own management mechanisms.  For example, C1).

   Energy Management is especially relevant to the management of
   smart meters depends very much Smart Grid.  A Smart
   Grid is an electrical grid that uses data networks to gather and to
   act on energy and power-related information in an automated fashion
   with the AMI environment they have been
   integrated goal to improve the efficiency, reliability, economics, and
   sustainability of the networking technologies they are using.  In
   general, smart meters do only need seldom reconfiguration production and they
   send a small amount distribution of redundant data to a central entity.  For a
   discussion electricity.  A
   Smart Grid provides sustainable and reliable generation,
   transmission, distribution, storage and consumption of electrical
   energy based on advanced energy and information technology.  Smart
   Grids enable the management needs of an AMI network see
   Section 2.11.  The management needs for following specific application areas: Smart
   transmission systems, Demand Response/Load Management, Substation
   Automation, Advanced Distribution Management, Advanced Metering
   Infrastructure (AMI), Smart Metering, Smart Home and Building
   Automation are discussed in Section 2.4 and Section 2.5.

2.7.  Transport Applications

   Transport Application
   Automation, E-mobility, etc.

   Smart Metering is a generic term for the integrated
   application good example of communications, control, Smart Grid based Energy
   Management applications.  Different types of possibly wireless small
   meters produce all together a large amount of data, which is
   collected by a central entity and information processing processed by an application server,
   which may be located within the customer's residence or off-site in a transportation system.  Transport telematics or vehicle telematics
   are used as
   data-center.  The communication infrastructure can be provided by a term for
   mobile network operator as the group of technologies that support
   transportation systems.  Transport applications running on such meters in urban areas will have most
   likely a
   transportation system cover all modes of cellular or WiMAX radio.  In case the transport and consider
   all elements application server is
   located within the residence, such meters are more likely to use WiFi
   protocols to interconnect with an existing network.

   An AMI network is another example of the transportation system, i.e. the vehicle, the
   infrastructure, and the driver Smart Grid that enables an
   electric utility to retrieve frequent electric usage data from each
   electric meter installed at a customer's home or user, interacting together
   dynamically.  The overall aim business.  This is to improve decision making, often
   unlike Smart Metering, in
   real time, by transport network controllers and other users, thereby
   improving which case the operation of customer or their agents
   install appliance level meters, because an AMI infrastructure is
   typically managed by the entire transport system.  As such,
   transport applications utility providers.  With an AMI network, a
   utility can be seen as one also receive immediate notification of power outages when
   they occur, directly from the important M2M
   service scenarios with the involvement of manifold small devices.

   The definition encompasses a broad array of techniques and approaches electric meters that may are experiencing
   those outages.  In addition, if the AMI network is designed to be achieved through stand-alone technological applications
   or
   open and extensible, it could serve as enhancements to other transportation communication schemes.
   Examples the backbone for transport applications are inter and intra vehicular
   communication, smart traffic control, smart parking, electronic toll
   collection systems, logistic and fleet management, vehicle control,
   and safety communicating
   with other distribution automation devices besides meters, which
   could include transformers and road assistance.

   As a distributed system, transport applications require an end-to-end
   management of different types reclosers.

   Each meter in the AMI network typically contains constrained devices
   of networks.  It is likely that the C2 type.  Each meter uses the constrained devices in to connect
   to mesh networks with a low-bandwidth radio.  These radios can be 50,
   150, or 200 kbps at raw link speed, but actual network (e.g. a moving in-car network) have throughput may
   be significantly lower due to forward error correction, multihop
   delays, MAC delays, lossy links, and protocol overhead.  Usage data
   and outage notifications can be controlled sent by an application running on an application server
   in the network of a service provider.  Such a highly distributed
   network including mobile devices on vehicles is assumed these meters to include a
   wireless access network using diverse long distance wireless
   technologies such as WiMAX, 3G/LTE or satellite communication, e.g.
   based on an embedded hardware module.  As the utility's
   headend systems, typically located in a result, data center managed by the
   utility, which include meter data collection systems, meter data
   management of
   constrained devices systems, and outage management systems.

   Meters in an AMI network, unlike in Smart Metering, act as traffic
   sources and routers as well.  Typically, smaller amounts of traffic
   (read requests, configuration) flow "downstream" from the transport system might be necessary headend to
   plan top-down
   the mesh, and might need to use data models obliged larger amounts of traffic flow "upstream" from and
   defined on the application layer. mesh
   to the headend.  However, during a firmware update operation for
   example, larger amounts of traffic might flow downstream while
   smaller amounts flow upstream.  The assumed device classes in use
   are mainly C2 devices.  In cases, where an in-vehicle mesh network is
   involved, C1 devices with limited capabilities and anchored by a short-distance
   constrained radio network, e.g.  IEEE 802.15.4 might be used
   additionally.

   Management responsibility typically rests within the organization
   running
   collection of higher-end devices that bridge the transport application.  The constrained devices in a
   moving transport network might be initially configured in network
   with a factory
   and backhaul link that connects to a reconfiguration might be needed only rarely.  New less-constrained network via
   cellular, WiMAX, or Ethernet.  These higher-end devices might be integrated in an ad-hoc manner based
   installed on self-management and
   -configuration capabilities.  Monitoring and data exchange might utility poles that could be
   necessary to do via owned and managed by a gateway
   different entity connected to than the back-end
   transport infrastructure.  The utility company.

   While a Smart Metering solution is likely to have a smaller number of
   devices and entities within a single household, AMI network installations could
   contain 1000 meters per router, i.e., the higher-end device.  Meters
   in a local network that use a specific router form a Local Meter
   Network (LMN).  When powered on, meters discover nearby LMNs, select
   the transport
   infrastructure need optimal LMN to be monitored more frequently join, and can be able the meters in that LMN to communicate with route through.
   However, in a higher data rate.  The connectivity of such
   entities does Smart Metering application the meters are likely to
   connect directly to a less-constrained network, thereby not necessarily need needing
   to be wireless.  The time scale
   for detecting and recording failures form such local mesh networks.

   Encryption key sharing in a moving transport both types of network is also likely measured in hours and repairs might easily take days.  It is
   likely that a self-healing feature would to be used locally.

2.8.  Infrastructure Monitoring

   Infrastructure monitoring is concerned with
   important for providing confidentiality for all data traffic.  In AMI
   networks the monitoring of
   infrastructures such as bridges, railway tracks, or (offshore)
   windmills.  The primary goal is usually key may be obtained by a meter only after an end-to-end
   authentication process based on certificates, ensuring that only
   authorized and authenticated meters are allowed to detect any events join the LMN.
   Smart Metering solution could adopt a similar approach or
   changes of the structural conditions that can impact
   security may be implied due to the risk and
   safety of encrypted WiFi networks they
   become part of.

   These examples demonstrate that the infrastructure being monitored.  Another secondary goal
   is to schedule repair Smart Grid, and maintenance activities in a cost effective
   manner.

   The infrastructure to monitor might be Energy Management
   in general, is built on a factory or spread over a
   wider area but difficult to access.  As such, the distributed and heterogeneous network in and
   can use
   might be based on a combination of fixed and wireless diverse networking technologies,
   which use robust such as
   wireless Access Technologies (WiMAX, Cellular, etc.), wireline and
   Internet Technologies (e.g., IP/MPLS, Ethernet, SDH/PDH over Fiber
   optic) as well as low-power radio technologies enabling the
   networking equipment of smart meters, home appliances, and support reliable
   communication.  It is likely that constrained devices in such a
   network are mainly C2 devices and have to be controlled centrally by
   an application running
   (e.g., BT-LE, ZigBee, Z-Wave, Wi-Fi).  The operational effectiveness
   of the Smart Grid is highly dependent on a server.  In case robust, two-way, secure,
   and reliable communications network with suitable availability.

   The management of such a distributed network is widely spread, the wireless devices might use diverse
   long-distance wireless technologies such requires end-to-end management of
   and information exchange through different types of networks.
   However, as WiMAX, or 3G/LTE, e.g.
   based on embedded hardware modules.  In cases, where an in-building
   network of today there is involved, the no integrated energy management
   approach and no common information model available.  Specific energy
   management applications or network islands use their own management
   mechanisms.

3.5.  Medical Applications

   Constrained devices can be based on Ethernet or wireless
   technologies suitable seen as an enabling technology for in-building usage.

   The management of infrastructure monitoring applications is primarily
   concerned with the monitoring of the functioning of the system.
   Infrastructure
   advanced and possibly remote health monitoring devices are typically rolled out and
   installed by dedicated experts emergency
   notification systems, ranging from blood pressure and changes are rare since the
   infrastructure itself changes rarely.  However, monitoring heart rate
   monitors to advanced devices
   are often deployed in unsupervised environments and hence special
   attention must capable to monitor implanted
   technologies, such as pacemakers or advanced hearing aids.  Medical
   sensors may not only be given attached to protecting the devices from being
   modified.

   Management responsibility typically rests with the organization
   owning human bodies, they might also
   exist in the infrastructure used by humans such as bathrooms or responsible for its operation.  The time
   scale for detecting and recording failures is likely measured in
   hours and repairs might easily take days.  However, certain events
   (e.g., natural disasters) may require that status information be
   obtained much more quickly and that replacements of failed sensors
   can
   kitchens.  Medical applications will also be rolled out quickly (or redundant sensors are activated
   quickly).  In case the devices are difficult used to access, a self-
   healing feature on the device might become necessary.

2.9.  Community Network Applications

   Community networks ensure
   treatments are comprised of constrained routers in a multi-
   hop mesh topology, communicating over a lossy, being applied properly and they might guide people
   losing orientation.  Fitness and wellness applications, such as
   connected scales or wearable heart monitors, encourage consumers to
   exercise and often wireless
   channel.  While the routers are mostly non-mobile, the topology may
   be very dynamic because of fluctuations in link quality empower self-monitoring of key fitness indicators.
   Different applications use Bluetooth, Wi-Fi or Zigbee connections to
   access the
   (wireless) channel caused by, e.g., obstacles, patient's smartphone or other nearby radio
   transmissions.  Depending on home cellular connection to access
   the routers Internet.

   Constrained devices that are used in the
   community network, part of medical applications are managed
   either by the resources users of those devices or by an organization providing
   medical (monitoring) services for physicians.  In the routers (memory, CPU) may first case,
   management must be
   more automatic and or less constrained - available resources may range from only a
   few kilobytes of RAM easy to several megabytes or more, install and CPUs may setup by
   average people.  In the second case, it can be
   small and embedded, or more powerful general-purpose processors.
   Examples expected that devices
   be controlled by specially trained people.  In both cases, however,
   it is crucial to protect the privacy of such community networks are the FunkFeuer network
   (Vienna, Austria), FreiFunk (Berlin, Germany), Seattle Wireless
   (Seattle, USA), and AWMN (Athens, Greece).  These community networks people to which medical
   devices are public attached.  Even though the data collected by a heart beat
   monitor might be protected, the pure fact that someone carries such a
   device may need protection.  As such, certain medical appliances may
   not want to participate in discovery and non-regulated, allowing their users self-configuration protocols
   in order to connect remain invisible.

   Many medical devices are likely to each
   other and - through an uplink be used (and relied upon) to an ISP -
   provide data to physicians in critical situations since the Internet.  No fee,
   other than the initial purchase of a wireless router, biggest
   market is charged for
   these services.  Applications of these community networks can be
   diverse, e.g., location based services, free Internet access, file
   sharing between users, distributed chat services, social networking
   etc, video sharing etc.

   As an example of a community network, the FunkFeuer network comprises
   several hundred routers, many of which have several radio interfaces
   (with omnidirectional likely elderly and some directed antennas).  The routers handicapped people.  As such, fault
   detection of the communication network are small-sized wireless routers, such as or the Linksys
   WRT54GL, available in 2011 for less than 50 Euros.  These routers, constrained devices
   becomes a crucial function that must be carried out with 16 MB of RAM and 264 MHz of CPU power, are mounted high
   reliability and, depending on the
   rooftops of medical appliance and its
   application, within seconds.

3.6.  Building Automation

   Building automation comprises the users.  When new users want to connect distributed systems designed and
   deployed to monitor and control the
   network, they acquire a wireless router, install the appropriate
   firmware mechanical, electrical and routing protocol,
   electronic systems inside buildings with various destinations (e.g.,
   public and mount the router on the rooftop.
   IP addresses for private, industrial, institutions, or residential).
   Advanced Building Automation Systems (BAS) may be deployed
   concentrating the router are assigned manually from a list of
   addresses (because various functions of safety, environmental control,
   occupancy, security.  More and more the lack deployment of autoconfiguration standards for
   mesh the various
   functional systems is connected to the same communication
   infrastructure (possibly Internet Protocol based), which may involve
   wired or wireless communications networks in inside the IETF).

   While building.

   Building automation requires the routers are non-mobile, fluctuations in link quality
   require an ad hoc routing protocol deployment of a large number (10-
   100.000) of sensors that allows for quick convergence
   to reflect monitor the effective topology status of the network (such as NHDP
   [RFC6130] devices, and OLSRv2 [I-D.ietf-manet-olsrv2] developed in the MANET
   WG).  Usually, no human interaction is required for these protocols,
   as all variable
   parameters required by inside the routing protocol are
   either negotiated in building and controllers with different
   specialized functionality for areas within the control traffic exchange, building or are only the
   totality of
   local importance the building.  Inter-node distances between neighboring
   nodes vary between 1 to each router (i.e. do not influence
   interoperability).  However, external management and monitoring of an
   ad hoc routing protocol may be desirable 20 meters.  Contrary to optimize parameters of home automation, in
   building management the routing protocol.  Such an optimization may lead devices are expected to a more stable
   perceived topology be managed assets and
   known to a lower control traffic overhead, set of commissioning tools and
   therefore to a higher delivery success ratio of data packets, storage, such that
   every connected device has a lower
   end-to-end delay, and less unnecessary bandwidth known origin.  The management includes
   verifying the presence of the expected devices and energy usage.

   Different use cases for detecting the management
   presence of community networks unwanted devices.

   Examples of functions performed by such controllers are
   possible:

   o  One single Network Management Station (NMS), e.g. a border gateway
      providing connectivity to regulating
   the quality, humidity, and temperature of the air inside the building
   and lighting.  Other systems may report the Internet, requires managing status of the machinery
   inside the building like elevators, or
      monitoring routers in inside the community network, rooms like
   projectors in order to
      investigate problems (monitoring) or meeting rooms.  Security cameras and sensors may be
   deployed and operated on separate dedicated infrastructures connected
   to improve performance by
      changing parameters (managing).  As the topology common backbone.  The deployment area of the network a BAS is
      dynamic, constant connectivity typically
   inside one building (or part of each router towards the
      management station cannot be guaranteed.  Current it) or several buildings
   geographically grouped in a campus.  A building network
      management protocols, such as SNMP and Netconf, may can be used (e.g.,
      using interfaces such as
   composed of subnets, where a subnet covers a floor, an area on the NHDP-MIB [RFC6779]).  However, when
      routers in
   floor, or a given functionality (e.g., security cameras).

   Some of the community network are constrained, existing
      protocols may require too many resources sensors in terms of memory Building Automation Systems (for example fire
   alarms or security systems) register, record and
      CPU; transfer critical
   alarm information and more importantly, the bandwidth requirements may exceed therefore must be resilient to events like loss
   of power or security attacks.  This leads to the available channel capacity need that some
   components and subsystems operate in wireless mesh networks.
      Moreover, management constrained conditions and monitoring may be unfeasible if are
   separately certified.  Also in some environments, the
      connection between malfunctioning
   of a control system (like temperature control) needs to be reported
   in the NMS shortest possible time.  Complex control systems can
   misbehave, and their critical status reporting and safety algorithms
   need to be basic and robust and the routers is frequently
      interrupted.

   o  A distributed network monitoring, perform even in critical conditions.

   Building Automation solutions are deployed in some cases in newly
   designed buildings, in which more than one
      management station monitors or manages other routers.  Because
      connectivity to a server cannot cases it might be guaranteed at all times, a
      distributed approach may provide a higher reliability, at over existing
   infrastructures.  In the cost
      of increased complexity.  Currently, no IETF standard exists for
      distributed monitoring and management.

   o  Monitoring and management of a whole network or first case, there is a group broader range of
      routers.  Monitoring
   possible solutions, which can be planned for the performance infrastructure of a community network may
      require more information than what can
   the building.  In the second case the solution needs to be acquired from a single
      router using a network management protocol.  Statistics, such as
      topology changes deployed
   over time, data throughput along certain routing
      paths, congestion etc., are an existing structure taking into account factors like existing
   wiring, distance limitations, the propagation of interest for radio signals over
   walls and floors.  As a group result, some of routers (or the routing domain) as a whole.  As of 2012, no IETF standard
      allows for monitoring existing WLAN solutions
   (e.g., IEEE 802.11 or managing whole networks, instead of
      single routers.

2.10.  Mobile Applications

   M2M services are increasingly provided by mobile service providers as
   numerous devices, home appliances, utility meters, cars, video
   surveillance cameras, IEEE 802.15) may be deployed.  In mission-
   critical or security sensitive environments and health monitors, are connected with mobile
   broadband technologies.  This diverse range in cases where link
   failures happen often, topologies that allow for reconfiguration of machines brings new
   the network and service requirements and challenges.  Different
   applications e.g. connection continuity may be required.  Some of the
   sensors deployed in a home appliance or in-car network use
   Bluetooth, Wi-Fi building automation may be very simple
   constrained devices for which class 0 or Zigbee class 1 may be assumed.

   For lighting applications, groups of lights must be defined and connect
   managed.  Commands to a cellular module acting as
   a gateway between the constrained environment group of light must arrive within 200 ms at
   all destinations.  The installation and the mobile cellular
   network.

   Such operation of a gateway might provide building
   network has different options for requirements.  During the connectivity
   of mobile installation, many
   stand-alone networks and constrained devices, e.g.:

   o of a smart phone few to 100 nodes co-exist without a
   connection to the backbone.  During this phase, the nodes are
   identified with 3G/4G and WLAN radio might use BT-LE a network identifier related to their physical
   location.  Devices are accessed from an installation tool to connect
   them to the network in a secure fashion.  During installation, the
   setting of parameters to common values to enable interoperability may
   occur (e.g., Trickle parameter values).  During operation, the
   networks are connected to the backbone while maintaining the network
   identifier to physical location relation.  Network parameters like
   address and name are stored in DNS.  The names can assist in
   determining the physical location of the device.

3.7.  Home Automation

   Home automation includes the control of lighting, heating,
   ventilation, air conditioning, appliances, entertainment and home
   security devices to improve convenience, comfort, energy efficiency,
   and security.  It can be seen as a residential extension of building
   automation.  However, unlike a building automation system, the devices
   infrastructure in a home area network,

   o is operated in a femtocell might be combined considerably more ad-hoc
   manner, with home gateway functionality
      acting as a low-power cellular base station connecting smart
      devices no centralized management system akin to the application server of a mobile Building
   Automation System (BAS) available.

   Home automation networks need a certain amount of configuration
   (associating switches or sensors to actors) that is either provided
   by electricians deploying home automation solutions, by third party
   home automation service provider.

   o  an embedded cellular module with LTE radio connecting providers (e.g., small specialized companies
   or home automation device manufacturers) or by residents by using the
   application user interface provided by home automation devices to
   configure (parts of) the home automation solution.  Similarly,
   failures may be reported via suitable interfaces to residents or they
   might be recorded and made available to services providers in charge
   of the car network with maintenance of the server running home automation infrastructure.

   The management responsibility lies either with the telematics service,

   o  an M2M gateway connected residents or it
   may be outsourced to electricians and/or third parties providing
   management of home automation solutions as a service.  A varying
   combination of electricians, service providers or the mobile operator network supporting
      diverse IoT connectivity technologies including ZigBee residents may
   be responsible for different aspects of managing the infrastructure.
   The time scale for failure detection and CoAP
      over 6LoWPAN over IEEE 802.15.4.

   Common to all scenarios above resolution is that they are embedded in a service
   and connected many cases
   likely counted in hours to a network provided by a mobile service provider.
   Usually there days.

3.8.  Transport Applications

   Transport Application is a hierarchical deployment generic term for the integrated
   application of communications, control, and management topology information processing in
   place where different parts
   a transportation system.  Transport telematics or vehicle telematics
   are used as a term for the group of technologies that support
   transportation systems.  Transport applications running on such a
   transportation system cover all modes of the network are managed by different
   management entities transport and the count consider
   all elements of devices to manage is high (e.g.
   many thousands).  In general, the network transportation system, i.e. the vehicle, the
   infrastructure, and the driver or user, interacting together
   dynamically.  The overall aim is comprised to improve decision making, often in
   real time, by manifold
   type transport network controllers and size other users, thereby
   improving the operation of devices matching to different device classes. the entire transport system.  As such, the managing entity needs to
   transport applications can be prepared to manage devices with
   diverse capabilities using different communication or management
   protocols.  In case seen as one of the devices are directly connected to a gateway
   they most likely are managed by a management entity integrated important M2M
   service scenarios with the gateway, which itself is part involvement of the Network Management System
   (NMS) run by the mobile operator.  Smart phones or embedded modules
   connected to manifold small devices.

   The definition encompasses a gateway might broad array of techniques and approaches
   that may be themselves in charge achieved through stand-alone technological applications
   or as enhancements to manage the
   devices on their level.  The initial other transportation communication schemes.
   Examples for transport applications are inter and intra vehicular
   communication, smart traffic control, smart parking, electronic toll
   collection systems, logistic and fleet management, vehicle control,
   and safety and subsequent configuration of
   such road assistance.

   As a device is mainly based on self-configuration and is triggered
   by the device itself.

   The challenges in the distributed system, transport applications require an end-to-end
   management of different types of networks.  It is likely that
   constrained devices in a mobile application
   are manifold.  Firstly, the issues caused through the device mobility
   need network (e.g. a moving in-car network) have
   to be taken into consideration.  While controlled by an application running on an application server
   in the cellular network of a service provider.  Such a highly distributed
   network including mobile devices are
   moving around or roaming between different regional networks, they
   should report their status on vehicles is assumed to include a
   wireless access network using diverse long distance wireless
   technologies such as WiMAX, 3G/LTE or satellite communication, e.g.
   based on an embedded hardware module.  As a result, the corresponding management entities
   with regard to their proximity and management hierarchy.  Secondly, a
   variety of device troubleshooting information needs to be reported to
   constrained devices in the management transport system in order to provide accurate service might be necessary to the
   customer.  Third but not least, the NMS
   plan top-down and the used management
   protocol might need to be tailored to keep the cellular devices lightweight
   and as energy efficient as possible.

   The use data models used obliged from and
   defined on the application layer.  The assumed device classes in these scenario use
   are mostly derived from mainly C2 devices.  In cases, where an in-vehicle network is
   involved, C1 devices with limited capabilities and a short-distance
   constrained radio network, e.g.  IEEE 802.15.4 might be used
   additionally.

   Management responsibility typically rests within the
   models of organization
   running the operator NMS transport application.  The constrained devices in a
   moving transport network might be initially configured in a factory
   and a reconfiguration might be used to monitor the status of
   the needed only rarely.  New devices and to exchange the data sent by or read from the
   devices.  The gateway might
   be integrated in charge of filtering an ad-hoc manner based on self-management and
   -configuration capabilities.  Monitoring and aggregating
   the data received from the device as the information sent by the
   device exchange might be mostly redundant.

2.11.  Automated Metering Infrastructure (AMI)

   An AMI network enables an electric utility
   necessary to retrieve frequent
   electric usage data from each electric meter installed at a
   customer's home or business.  With an AMI network, do via a utility can also
   receive immediate notification of power outages when they occur,
   directly from the electric meters that are experiencing those
   outages.  In addition, if the AMI network is designed gateway entity connected to be open and
   extensible, it could serve as the backbone for communicating with
   other distribution automation back-end
   transport infrastructure.  The devices besides meters, which could
   include transformers and reclosers.

   In this use case, each meter entities in the AMI network contains a
   constrained device.  These devices are typically C2 devices.  Each
   meter connects transport
   infrastructure need to a constrained mesh network be monitored more frequently and can be able
   to communicate with a low-bandwidth
   radio.  These radios can higher data rate.  The connectivity of such
   entities does not necessarily need to be 50, 150, or 200 kbps at raw link speed,
   but actual wireless.  The time scale
   for detecting and recording failures in a moving transport network throughput may is
   likely measured in hours and repairs might easily take days.  It is
   likely that a self-healing feature would be significantly lower due used locally.

3.9.  Vehicular Networks

   Networks involving mobile nodes, especially transport vehicles, are
   emerging.  Such networks are used to
   forward error correction, multihop delays, MAC delays, lossy links, provide inter-vehicle
   communication services, or even tracking of mobile assets, to develop
   intelligent transportation systems and protocol overhead.

   The constrained drivers and passengers
   assistance services.  Constrained devices are used to connect the metering logic with deployed within a
   larger single entity, the network, so that usage data vehicle, and outage notifications must be individually managed.

   Vehicles can be sent
   back either private, belonging to the utility's headend systems over the network.  These
   headend systems are located in individuals or private
   companies, or public transportation.  Scenarios consisting of
   vehicle-to-vehicle ad-hoc networks, a data center managed by the utility,
   and may include meter data collection systems, meter data management
   systems, wired backbone with wireless
   last hops, and outage management systems.

   The meters hybrid vehicle-to-road communications are connected expected to a mesh network,
   be common.

   Besides the access control and each meter can act as
   both a source security, depending on the type of traffic
   vehicle and as a router service being provided, it would be important for other meters' traffic.
   In a typical AMI application, smaller amounts of traffic (read
   requests, configuration) flow "downstream" from the headend NMS
   to the
   mesh, and larger amounts of traffic flow "upstream" from the mesh be able to
   the headend.  However, during a firmware update operation, larger
   amounts of traffic function with different architectures, since different
   manufacturers might flow downstream while smaller amounts flow
   upstream.  Other applications that make use of the AMI network may have their own distinct traffic flows.

   The mesh network is anchored by a collection proprietary systems.

   Unlike some mobile networks, most vehicular networks are expected to
   have specific patterns in the mobility of higher-end devices,
   which contain the nodes.  Such patterns
   could possibly be exploited, managed and monitored by the NMS.

   The challenges in the management of vehicles in a mesh radio that connects mobile application
   are manifold.  Firstly, the issues caused through the device mobility
   need to be taken into consideration.  The up-to-date position of each
   node in the constrained network
   as well as a backhaul link that connects should be reported to a less-constrained
   network.  The backhaul link the corresponding
   management entities, since the nodes could be cellular, WiMAX, moving within or Ethernet,
   depending on the backhaul networking technology that
   roaming between different networks.  Secondly, a variety of
   troubleshooting information, including sensitive location
   information, needs to be reported to the utility has
   chosen.  These higher-end devices (termed "routers" management system in this use case)
   are typically installed on utility poles throughout the order
   to provide accurate service
   territory.  Router devices are typically less constrained than
   meters, and often contain the full routing table for all the
   endpoints routing through them.

   In this use case, to the utility typically installs on customer.

   The NMS must also be able to handle partitioned networks, which would
   arise due to the order dynamic nature of 1000
   meters per router.  The collection traffic resulting in large inter-
   vehicle gaps in sparsely populated scenarios.  Constant changes in
   topology must also be contended with.

   Auto-configuration of meters comprised nodes in a local vehicular network that are routing through remains a specific router is called
   challenge since based on location, and access network, the vehicle
   might have different configurations that must be obtained from its
   management system.  Operating configuration updates, while in this
   use case a Local Meter Network (LMN).  When powered on, each meter is
   designed remote
   networks also needs to discover the nearby LMNs, select be considered in the optimal LMN to join, design of a network
   management system."

3.10.  Community Network Applications

   Community networks are comprised of constrained routers in a multi-
   hop mesh topology, communicating over a lossy, and select often wireless
   channel.  While the optimal meters routers are mostly non-mobile, the topology may
   be very dynamic because of fluctuations in link quality of the
   (wireless) channel caused by, e.g., obstacles, or other nearby radio
   transmissions.  Depending on the routers that LMN to route through when
   sending data to are used in the headend.  After joining
   community network, the LMN, resources of the meter is
   designed routers (memory, CPU) may be
   more or less constrained - available resources may range from only a
   few kilobytes of RAM to continuously monitor several megabytes or more, and optimize its connection to CPUs may be
   small and embedded, or more powerful general-purpose processors.
   Examples of such community networks are the
   LMN, FunkFeuer network
   (Vienna, Austria), FreiFunk (Berlin, Germany), Seattle Wireless
   (Seattle, USA), and it may change routes AWMN (Athens, Greece).  These community networks
   are public and LMNs as needed.

   Each LMN may be configured e.g. non-regulated, allowing their users to share connect to each
   other and - through an encryption key, providing
   confidentiality for all data traffic within uplink to an ISP - to the LMN.  This key may be
   obtained by Internet.  No fee,
   other than the initial purchase of a meter only after an end-to-end authentication process wireless router, is charged for
   these services.  Applications of these community networks can be
   diverse, e.g., location based on certificates, ensuring that only authorized and
   authenticated meters are allowed to join services, free Internet access, file
   sharing between users, distributed chat services, social networking
   etc, video sharing etc.

   As an example of a community network, the LMN, FunkFeuer network comprises
   several hundred routers, many of which have several radio interfaces
   (with omnidirectional and by extension, some directed antennas).  The routers of
   the mesh network are small-sized wireless routers, such as a whole.

   After joining the LMN, each endpoint obtains a routable Linksys
   WRT54GL, available in 2011 for less than 50 Euros.  These routers,
   with 16 MB of RAM and possibly
   private IPv6 address that enables end-to-end communication between 264 MHz of CPU power, are mounted on the headend systems and each meter.  In this use case,
   rooftops of the meters are
   always-on.  However, due users.  When new users want to lossy links and network optimization, not
   every meter will be immediately accessible, though eventually every
   meter will be able connect to exchange data with the headend.

   In a large AMI deployment, there may be 10 million meters supported
   by 10.000 routers, spread across a very large geographic area.
   Within
   network, they acquire a single LMN, wireless router, install the meters may range between 1 appropriate
   firmware and approx. 20
   hops from the router.  During the deployment process, these meters
   are installed routing protocol, and turned mount the router on in large batches, and those meters must
   be authenticated, given addresses, and provisioned with any
   configuration information necessary the rooftop.
   IP addresses for their operation.  During
   deployment and after deployment is finished, the network must be
   monitored continuously and failures must be handled.  Configuration
   parameters may need to be changed on large numbers router are assigned manually from a list of devices, but
   most
   addresses (because of the devices will be running the same configuration.
   Moreover, eventually, the firmware in those meters will need to be
   upgraded, and this must also be done in large batches because most lack of autoconfiguration standards for
   mesh networks in the devices will be running IETF).

   While the same firmware image.

   Because there may be thousands of routers, this operational model
   (batch deployment, automatic provisioning, continuous monitoring,
   batch reconfiguration, batch firmware update) should also apply routers are non-mobile, fluctuations in link quality
   require an ad hoc routing protocol that allows for quick convergence
   to reflect the routers as well effective topology of the network (such as NHDP
   [RFC6130] and OLSRv2 [I-D.ietf-manet-olsrv2] developed in the constrained devices.  The scale MANET
   WG).  Usually, no human interaction is
   different (thousands instead of millions) but still large enough to
   make individual management impractical required for routers these protocols,
   as well.

2.12.  MANET Concept of Operations (CONOPS) all variable parameters required by the routing protocol are
   either negotiated in Military

   The use case on the Concept control traffic exchange, or are only of Operations (CONOPS) focuses on the
   configuration
   local importance to each router (i.e. do not influence
   interoperability).  However, external management and monitoring of networks that are currently being
   used in military an
   ad hoc routing protocol may be desirable to optimize parameters of
   the routing protocol.  Such an optimization may lead to a more stable
   perceived topology and as such, it offers insights to a lower control traffic overhead, and challenges
   therefore to a higher delivery success ratio of
   network data packets, a lower
   end-to-end delay, and less unnecessary bandwidth and energy usage.

   Different use cases for the management that military agencies of community networks are facing.
   possible:

   o  One single Network Management Station, e.g. a border gateway
      providing connectivity to the Internet, requires managing or
      monitoring routers in the community network, in order to
      investigate problems (monitoring) or to improve performance by
      changing parameters (managing).  As technology advances, military networks nowadays become large and
   consist of varieties of different types of equipments that run
   different protocols and tools that obviously increase complexity the topology of the tactical networks.  Moreover, lacks network is
      dynamic, constant connectivity of open common each router towards the
      management station cannot be guaranteed.  Current network
      management protocols, such as SNMP and Netconf, may be used (e.g.,
      using interfaces and
   Application Programming Interface (API) are often a challenge to such as the NHDP-MIB [RFC6779]).  However, when
      routers in the community network management.  Configurations are, most likely, manually
   performed.  Some devices do not support IP networks.  Integration and
   evaluation process are no longer trivial for a large set of constrained, existing
      protocols
   and tools.  In addition, majority may require too many resources in terms of protocols memory and
      CPU; and tools developed by
   vendors that are being used are proprietary which makes integration more difficult.  The main reason that leads to this problem is that
   there is no clearly defined standard for importantly, the MANET Concept of
   Operations (CONOPS).  In bandwidth requirements may exceed
      the following, a set of scenarios of network
   operations are described, which might lead to available channel capacity in wireless mesh networks.
      Moreover, management and monitoring may be unfeasible if the
      connection between the development of network management protocols station and the routers
      is frequently interrupted.

   o  A distributed network monitoring, in which more than one
      management station monitors or manages other routers.  Because
      connectivity to a framework that can potentially server cannot be
   used in military networks.

   Note: The term "node" is used guaranteed at all times, a
      distributed approach may provide a higher reliability, at the cost
      of increased complexity.  Currently, no IETF standard exists for either
      distributed monitoring and management.

   o  Monitoring and management of a host or router.
   The term "unit" whole network or "mobile unit" in military (e.g.  Humvees, tanks)
   is a unit that contains multiple routers, hosts, and/or other non-IP-
   based communication devices.

   Scenario: Parking Lot Staging Area:

   The Parking Lot Staging Area is group of
      routers.  Monitoring the most common performance of a community network operation
   that is currently widely used in military prior to deployment.  MANET
   routers, which may
      require more information than what can be identical acquired from a single
      router using a network management protocol.  Statistics, such as the platoon leader's or
   rifleman's radio,
      topology changes over time, data throughput along certain routing
      paths, congestion etc., are shipped to of interest for a remote location along with group of routers (or
      the routing domain) as a Fixed
   Network Operations Center (NOC), where they are all connected over
   traditional wired whole.  As of 2012, no IETF standard
      allows for monitoring or wireless networks. managing whole networks, instead of
      single routers.

3.11.  Military Operations

   The Fixed NOC then performs
   mass-configuration and evaluation challenges of configuration processes.  The
   same concept and monitoring of networks faced by
   military agencies can be applied to mobile units.  Once all units are
   successfully configured, they are ready to be deployed.

   +---------+             +----------+
   |  Fixed  |<---+------->| router_1 |
   |   NOC   |    |        +----------+
   +---------+    |
                  |        +----------+
                  +------->| router_2 |
                  |        +----------+
                  |            0
                  |            0
                  |            0
                  |        +----------+
                  +------->| router_N |
                           +----------+

                    Figure 1: Parking Lot Staging Area

   Scenario: Monitoring with SatCom Reachback:

   The Monitoring with SatCom Reachback, which is considered another
   possible common scenario to military's network operations, is similar
   to different from the Parking Lot Staging Area.  Instead, other use cases since the Fixed NOC
   requirements and MANET
   routers are connected through a Satellite Communications (SatCom)
   network.  The Monitoring with SatCom Reachback is a scenario where
   MANET routers are augmented with SatCom Reachback capabilities while
   On-The-Move (OTM).  Vehicles carrying MANET routers support multiple
   types operating conditions of wireless interfaces, including High Capacity Short Range
   Radio interfaces as well as Low Capacity OTM SatCom interfaces.  The
   radio interfaces military networks are the preferred interfaces for carrying data
   traffic due to their high capacity, but the range is limiting with
   respect to connectivity to a Fixed NOC.  Hence, OTM SatCom interfaces
   offer a more persistent but lower capacity reachback capability.  The
   existence quite
   different.

   With technology advancements, military networks nowadays have become
   large and consist of a SatCom persistent Reachback capability offers the NOC
   the ability to monitor varieties of different types of equipment that
   run different protocols and manage the MANET routers over the air.
   Similarly to the Parking Lot Staging scenario, tools that obviously increase complexity
   of the same concept can
   be applied to mobile units.

                            ---   +--+    ---
                           /  /---|SC|---/  /
                           ---    +--+   ---
   +---------+                      |
   |  Fixed  |<---------------------+
   |   NOC   |       +--------------|
   +---------+       |              +-------------------+
                     |              |                   |
                 +----------+       |               +----------+
                 | router_1 |       +----------+    | router_N |
                 +----------+       |          |    +----------+
                     *              |          |      *   *
                     *        +----------+     |      *   *
                     *********| router_2 |*****|*******   *
                              +----------+     |          *
                                   *           |          *
                                   *       +----------+   *
                                   ********| router_3 |****
                                           +----------+

         ---  SatCom links
         ***  Radio links

        Figure 2: Monitoring with one-hop SatCom Reachback network

   Scenario: Hierarchical Management:

   Another reasonable tactical networks.  In many scenarios, configurations are,
   most likely, manually performed.  Furthermore, some legacy and even
   modern devices do not even support IP networking.  Majority of
   protocols and tools developed by vendors that are being used are
   proprietary which makes integration more difficult.

   The main reason for this disjoint operation scenario common to is that most
   military operations in a MANET
   environment equipment is the Hierarchical Management scenario.  Vehicles carry
   a developed with specific tasks requirements in
   mind, rather complex set than interoperability of networking devices, including routers running
   MANET control protocols.  In this hierarchical architecture, the
   MANET mobile unit has a rather complex internal architecture where a
   local manager within varied equipment types.
   For example, the unit operating conditions experienced by high altitude
   equipment is responsible for local management.
   The local management includes management significantly different from that used in desert
   conditions and interoperation of tactical equipment with
   telecommunication equipment was not an expected outcome.

   Currently, most military networks operate with a fixed Network
   Operations Center (NOC) that physically manages the MANET router configuration and
   control protocols,
   evaluation of all field devices.  Once configured, the firewall, servers, proxies, hosts and
   applications.  In addition, a standard management interface is
   required in this architecture.  Moreover, devices might
   be deployed in addition fixed or mobile scenarios.  Any configuration changes
   required would need to requiring
   standard management interfaces into the components comprising the
   MANET nodal architecture, the local manager is responsible for local
   monitoring be appropriately encrypted and the generation of periodic reports back to the Fixed
   NOC.

                               Interface
                               |
                               V
   +---------+             +-------------------------+
   |  Fixed  |  Interface  | +---+     +---+         |
   |   NOC   |<---+------->| | R |--+--| F |         |
   +---------+    |        | +---+  |  +---+         |
                  |        |        |    |  +---+    |
                  |        | +---+  |    +--| P |    |
                  |        | | M |--+    |  +---+    |
                  |        | +---+       |           |
                  |        |             |  +---+    |
                  |        |             +--| D |    |
                  |        |             |  +---+    |
                  |        |             |           |
                  |        |             |  +---+    |
                  |        |             +--| H |    |
                  |        |             |  +---+    |
                  |        | unit_1                  |
                  |        +-------------------------+
                  |
                  |
                  |        +--------+
                  +------->| unit_2 |
                  |        +--------+
                  |             0
                  |             0
                  |             0
                  |        +--------+
                  +------->| unit_N |
                           +--------+

         Key: R-Router
              F-Firewall
              P-PEP (Performance Enhancing Proxy)
              D-Servers, e.g., DNS
              H-hosts
              M-Local Manager

                     Figure 3: authenticated
   to prevent unauthorized access.

   Hierarchical Management

   Scenario: Management over Lossy/Intermittent Links:

   In the future management of devices is a common requirement of
   military operations, the standard management will be
   done over lossy and intermittent links and ideally the Fixed NOC will
   become mobile.  In this architecture, the nature and current quality operations as well since local managers may need to respond
   to changing conditions within their platoon, regiment, brigade,
   division or corps.  The level of configuration management available
   at each link are distinct.  However, there are hierarchy must also be closely governed.

   Since most military networks operate in hostile environments, a number of issues
   that would arise high
   failure rate and need to disconnection rate should be addressed:

   1.  Common tolerated by the NMS,
   which must also be able to deal with multiple gateways and specific configurations disjoint
   management protocols.

   Multi-national military operations are undefined:

       A.  When mass-configuring devices, common becoming increasingly common,
   requiring the interoperation of a diverse set of configurations equipment designed
   with different operating conditions in mind.  Furthermore, different
   militaries are undefined at this time.

       B.  Similarly, when performing likely to have a specific device, different set of specific
           configurations is unknown.

   2.  Once the total number of units becomes quite large, scalability
       would standards, best
   practices, rules and regulation, and implementation approaches that
   may contradict or conflict with each other.  The NMS should be an issue able
   to detect these and need handle them in an acceptable manner, which may
   require human intervention.

4.  IANA Considerations

   This document does not introduce any new code-points or namespaces
   for registration with IANA.

   Note to RFC Editor: this section may be addressed.

   3.  The state of the removed on publication as an
   RFC.

5.  Security Considerations

   In several use cases, constrained devices are different and may be deployed in various
       states of operations, e.g., ON/OFF, etc.

   4.  Pushing large data files over reliable transport, e.g., TCP,
       would unsafe
   environments, where attackers can gain physical access to the
   devices.  As a consequence, it is crucial to properly protect any
   security credentials that may be problematic.  Would stored on the device (e.g., by using
   hardware protection mechanisms).  Furthermore, it is important that
   any credentials leeking from a new mechanism of transmitting
       large configurations over single device do not simplify the air in low bandwidth
   attack on other (similar) devices.  In particular, security
   credentials should never be
       implemented?  Which protocol would shared.

   Since constrained devices often have limited computational resources,
   care should be used at transport layer?

   5.  How taken in choosing efficient but cryptographically
   strong crytographic algorithms.  Designers of constrained devices
   that have a long expected lifetime need to ensure that cryptographic
   algorithms can be updated once devices have been deployed.  The
   ability to validate network configuration (and local configuration) perform secure firmware and software updates is complex, even when to cutover an
   important management requirement.

   Several use cases generate sensitive data or require the processing
   of sensitive data.  It is therefore an interesting question.

   6.  Security as a general issue needs important requirement to be addressed as it could be
       problematic
   properly protect access to the data in military operations.

   +---------+             +----------+
   |  Mobile |<----------->| router_1 |
   |   NOC   |?--+         +----------+
   +---------+    |
         ^        |        +----------+
         |        +------->| router_2 |
         |                 +----------+
         |                     0
         |                     0
         |                     0
         |                 +----------+
         +---------------->| router_N |
                           +----------+

            Figure 4: Management over Lossy/intermittent Links

3.  IANA Considerations

   This document does not introduce any new code-points or namespaces
   for registration with IANA.

   Note order to RFC Editor: this section may be removed on publication as an
   RFC.

4.  Security Considerations

   This document discusses protect the use cases for a network privacy
   of constrained
   devices and does humans using Internet-enabled devices.  For certain types of data,
   protection during the transmission over the network may not introduce any security issues by itself.

5. be
   sufficient and methods should be investigated that provide protection
   of data while it is cached or stored (e.g., when using a store-and-
   forward transport mechanism).

6.  Contributors

   Following persons made significant contributions to and reviewed this
   document:

   o  Ulrich Herberg (Fujitsu Laboratories of America) contributed the
      Section 2.9 3.10 on Community Network Applications.

   o  Peter van der Stok contributed to Section 2.5 3.6 on Building
      Automation.

   o  Zhen Cao contributed to Section 2.10 on 2.2 Mobile Applications. Access Technologies.

   o  Gilman Tolle contributed the Section 2.11 3.4 on Automated Metering
      Infrastructure.

   o  James Nguyen and Ulrich Herberg contributed the to Section 2.12 3.11 on
      MANET Concept of Operations (CONOPS) in Military.

6.
      Military operations.

7.  Acknowledgments

   Following persons reviewed and provided valuable comments to
   different versions of this document:

   Dominique Barthel, Carsten Bormann, Zhen Cao, Benoit Claise, Bert
   Greevenbosch, Ulrich Herberg, James Nguyen, Anuj Sehgal, Zach Shelby, and Peter
   van der Stok.

   The editors would like to thank the reviewers and the participants on
   the Coman maillist for their valuable contributions and comments.

7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

7.2.

8.  Informative References

   [RFC6130]  Clausen, T., Dearlove, C., and J. Dean, "Mobile Ad Hoc
              Network (MANET) Neighborhood Discovery Protocol (NHDP)",
              RFC 6130, April 2011.

   [RFC6568]  Kim, E., Kaspar, D., and JP. Vasseur, "Design and
              Application Spaces for IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless
              Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)", RFC 6568, April 2012.

   [RFC6779]  Herberg, U., Cole, R., and I. Chakeres, "Definition of
              Managed Objects for the Neighborhood Discovery Protocol",
              RFC 6779, October 2012.

   [RFC6988]  Quittek, J., Chandramouli, M., Winter, R., Dietz, T., and
              B. Claise, "Requirements for Energy Management", RFC 6988,
              September 2013.

   [I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology]
              Bormann, C., Ersue, M., and A. Keranen, "Terminology for
              Constrained Node Networks", draft-ietf-lwig-terminology-06 draft-ietf-lwig-terminology-07
              (work in progress), December 2013. February 2014.

   [I-D.ietf-eman-framework]
              Parello, J.,
              Claise, B., Schoening, B., and J. Quittek, "Energy
              Management Framework",
              draft-ietf-eman-framework-11 draft-ietf-eman-framework-15 (work
              in progress),
              October 2013. February 2014.

   [I-D.ietf-manet-olsrv2]
              Clausen, T., Dearlove, C., Jacquet, P., and U. Herberg,
              "The Optimized Link State Routing Protocol version 2",
              draft-ietf-manet-olsrv2-19 (work in progress), March 2013.

   [COM-REQ]  Ersue, M., "Constrained Management: Problem statement and
              Requirements", draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs
              (work in progress), January 2014.

Appendix A.  Open issues Issues

   o  It has been noted that the  Section 3.11 should be replaced by a different use cases case motivating
      similar requirements or perhaps deleted if the Industrial Application,
      Home Automation IETF prefers to not
      work on specific requirements coming from military use cases.

   o  Section 3.8 and Building Automation have an intersect. Section 3.9 should be merged.

Appendix B.  Change Log

B.1.  draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-00 -
      draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-01

   o  Reordered some use cases to improve the flow.

   o  Added "Vehicular Networks".

   o  Shortened the Military Operations use case.

   o  Started adding substance to the security considerations section.

B.2.  draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-03 -
      draft-ersue-opsawg-coman-use-cases-00

   o  Reduced the terminology section for terminology addressed in the
      LWIG and Coman Requirements drafts.  Referenced the other drafts.

   o  Checked and aligned all terminology against the LWIG terminology
      draft.

   o  Spent some effort to resolve the intersection between the
      Industrial Application, Home Automation and Building Automation
      use cases.

   o  Moved section section 3.  Use Cases from the companion document
      [COM-REQ] to this draft.

   o  Reformulation of some text parts for more clarity.

B.2.

B.3.  draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-02-03

   o  Extended the terminology section and removed some of the
      terminology addressed in the new LWIG terminology draft.
      Referenced the LWIG terminology draft.

   o  Moved Section 1.3. on Constrained Device Classes to the new LWIG
      terminology draft.

   o  Class of networks considering the different type of radio and
      communication technologies in use and dimensions extended.

   o  Extended the Problem Statement in Section 2. following the
      requirements listed in Section 4.

   o  Following requirements, which belong together and can be realized
      with similar or same kind of solutions, have been merged.

      *  Distributed Management and Peer Configuration,

      *  Device status monitoring and Neighbor-monitoring,

      *  Passive Monitoring and Reactive Monitoring,

      *  Event-driven self-management - Self-healing and Periodic self-
         management,

      *  Authentication of management systems and Authentication of
         managed devices,

      *  Access control on devices and Access control on management
         systems,

      *  Management of Energy Resources and Data models for energy
         management,

      *  Software distribution (group-based firmware update) and Group-
         based provisioning.

   o  Deleted the empty section on the gaps in network management
      standards, as it will be written in a separate draft.

   o  Added links to mentioned external pages.

   o  Added text on OMA M2M Device Classification in appendix.

B.3.

B.4.  draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-01-02

   o  Extended the terminology section.

   o  Added additional text for the use cases concerning deployment
      type, network topology in use, network size, network capabilities,
      radio technology, etc.

   o  Added examples for device classes in a use case.

   o  Added additional text provided by Cao Zhen (China Mobile) for
      Mobile Applications and by Peter van der Stok for Building
      Automation.

   o  Added the new use cases 'Advanced Metering Infrastructure' and
      'MANET Concept of Operations in Military'.

   o  Added the section 'Managing the Constrainedness of a Device or
      Network' discussing the needs of very constrained devices.

   o  Added a note that the requirements in [COM-REQ] need to be seen as
      standalone requirements and the current document does not
      recommend any profile of requirements.

   o  Added a section in [COM-REQ] for the detailed requirements on
      constrained management matched to management tasks like fault,
      monitoring, configuration management, Security and Access Control,
      Energy Management, etc.

   o  Solved nits and added references.

   o  Added Appendix A on the related development in other bodies.

   o  Added Appendix B on the work in related research projects.

B.4.

B.5.  draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-00-01

   o  Splitted the section on 'Networks of Constrained Devices' into the
      sections 'Network Topology Options' and 'Management Topology
      Options'.

   o  Added the use case 'Community Network Applications' and 'Mobile
      Applications'.

   o  Provided a Contributors section.

   o  Extended the section on 'Medical Applications'.

   o  Solved nits and added references.

Authors' Addresses

   Mehmet Ersue (editor)
   Nokia Solutions and Networks

   Email: mehmet.ersue@nsn.com

   Dan Romascanu
   Avaya

   Email: dromasca@avaya.com

   Juergen Schoenwaelder
   Jacobs University Bremen

   Email: j.schoenwaelder@jacobs-university.de

   Anuj Sehgal
   Jacobs University Bremen

   Email: a.sehgal@jacobs-university.de