draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-01.txt   draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-02.txt 
Internet Engineering Task Force M. Ersue, Ed. Internet Engineering Task Force M. Ersue, Ed.
Internet-Draft Nokia Solutions and Networks Internet-Draft Nokia Networks
Intended status: Informational D. Romascanu Intended status: Informational D. Romascanu
Expires: August 18, 2014 Avaya Expires: January 5, 2015 Avaya
J. Schoenwaelder J. Schoenwaelder
A. Sehgal A. Sehgal
Jacobs University Bremen Jacobs University Bremen
February 14, 2014 July 4, 2014
Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Use Cases Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Use Cases
draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-01 draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-02
Abstract Abstract
This document discusses the use cases concerning the management of This document discusses use cases concerning the management of
networks, where constrained devices are involved. A problem networks, where constrained devices are involved. A problem
statement, deployment options and the requirements on the networks statement, deployment options and the requirements on the networks
with constrained devices can be found in the companion document on with constrained devices can be found in the companion document on
"Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Problem Statement "Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Problem Statement
and Requirements". and Requirements".
Status of this Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on August 18, 2014. This Internet-Draft will expire on January 5, 2015.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
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document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. Access Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Access Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1. Constrained Access Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1. Constrained Access Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.2. Mobile Access Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2. Cellular Access Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3. Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1. Environmental Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.1. Environmental Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.2. Infrastructure Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2. Infrastructure Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.3. Industrial Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.3. Industrial Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.4. Energy Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.4. Energy Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.5. Medical Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.5. Medical Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.6. Building Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.6. Building Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.7. Home Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.7. Home Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.8. Transport Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.8. Transport Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.9. Vehicular Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3.9. Community Network Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.10. Community Network Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3.10. Field Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.11. Military Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 4. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 6. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 7. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
7. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 8. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
8. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Appendix A. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Appendix A. Open Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 A.1. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-01 - draft-ietf-opsawg-
Appendix B. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 coman-use-cases-02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
B.1. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-00 - A.2. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-00 - draft-ietf-opsawg-
draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-01 . . . . . . . . . . . 27 coman-use-cases-01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
B.2. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-03 - A.3. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-03 - draft-ersue-opsawg-
draft-ersue-opsawg-coman-use-cases-00 . . . . . . . . . . 27 coman-use-cases-00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
B.3. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-02-03 . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 A.4. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-02-03 . . . . . . . . . . . 23
B.4. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-01-02 . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 A.5. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-01-02 . . . . . . . . . . . 24
B.5. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-00-01 . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 A.6. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-00-01 . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Small devices with limited CPU, memory, and power resources, so Small devices with limited CPU, memory, and power resources, so
called constrained devices (aka. sensor, smart object, or smart called constrained devices (aka. sensor, smart object, or smart
device) can be connected to a network. Such a network of constrained device) can be connected to a network. Such a network of constrained
devices itself may be constrained or challenged, e.g., with devices itself may be constrained or challenged, e.g., with
unreliable or lossy channels, wireless technologies with limited unreliable or lossy channels, wireless technologies with limited
bandwidth and a dynamic topology, needing the service of a gateway or bandwidth and a dynamic topology, needing the service of a gateway or
proxy to connect to the Internet. In other scenarios, the proxy to connect to the Internet. In other scenarios, the
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needed to manage, processes the data, and presents them to the needed to manage, processes the data, and presents them to the
network management users. Constrained devices, however, often have network management users. Constrained devices, however, often have
limited power, low transmission range, and might be unreliable. They limited power, low transmission range, and might be unreliable. They
might also need to work in hostile environments with advanced might also need to work in hostile environments with advanced
security requirements or need to be used in harsh environments for a security requirements or need to be used in harsh environments for a
long time without supervision. Due to such constraints, the long time without supervision. Due to such constraints, the
management of a network with constrained devices offers different management of a network with constrained devices offers different
type of challenges compared to the management of a traditional IP type of challenges compared to the management of a traditional IP
network. network.
This document aims to understand the use cases for the management of This document aims to understand use cases for the management of a
a network, where constrained devices are involved. The document network, where constrained devices are involved. The document lists
lists and discusses diverse use cases for the management from the and discusses diverse use cases for the management from the network
network as well as from the application point of view. The as well as from the application point of view. The list of discussed
application scenarios discussed aim to show where networks of use cases is not an exhaustive one since other scenarios, currently
constrained devices are expected to be deployed. For each unknown to the authors, are possible. are The application scenarios
application scenario, we first briefly describe the characteristics discussed aim to show where networks of constrained devices are
followed by a discussion on how network management can be provided, expected to be deployed. For each application scenario, we first
who is likely going to be responsible for it, and on which time-scale briefly describe the characteristics followed by a discussion on how
management operations are likely to be carried out. network management can be provided, who is likely going to be
responsible for it, and on which time-scale management operations are
likely to be carried out.
A problem statement, deployment and management topology options as A problem statement, deployment and management topology options as
well as the requirements on the networks with constrained devices can well as the requirements on the networks with constrained devices can
be found in the companion document [COM-REQ]. be found in the companion document [COM-REQ].
This documents builds on the terminology defined in This documents builds on the terminology defined in [RFC7228] and
[I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology] and [COM-REQ]. [COM-REQ]. [RFC7228] is a base document for the terminology
[I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology] is a base document for the terminology
concerning constrained devices and constrained networks. Some use concerning constrained devices and constrained networks. Some use
cases specific to IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks cases specific to IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks
(6LoWPANs) can be found in [RFC6568]. (6LoWPANs) can be found in [RFC6568].
2. Access Technologies 2. Access Technologies
Besides the management requirements imposed by the different use Besides the management requirements imposed by the different use
cases, the access technologies used by constrained devices can impose cases, the access technologies used by constrained devices can impose
restrictions and requirements upon the Network Management System restrictions and requirements upon the Network Management System
(NMS) and protocol of choice. (NMS) and protocol of choice.
It is possible that some networks of constrained devices might It is possible that some networks of constrained devices might
utilize traditional non-constrained access technologies for network utilize traditional non-constrained access technologies for network
access, e.g., local area networks with plenty of capacity. In such access, e.g., local area networks with plenty of capacity. In such
scenarios, the constrainedness of the device presents special scenarios, the constrainedness of the device presents special
management restrictions and requirements rather than the access management restrictions and requirements rather than the access
technology utilized. technology utilized.
However, in other situations constrained or mobile access However, in other situations constrained or cellular access
technologies might be used for network access, thereby causing technologies might be used for network access, thereby causing
management restrictions and requirements to arise as a result of the management restrictions and requirements to arise as a result of the
underlying access technologies. underlying access technologies.
2.1. Constrained Access Technologies 2.1. Constrained Access Technologies
Due to resource restrictions, embedded devices deployed as sensors Due to resource restrictions, embedded devices deployed as sensors
and actuators in the various use cases utilize low-power low data- and actuators in the various use cases utilize low-power low data-
rate wireless access technologies such as IEEE 802.15.4, DECT ULE or rate wireless access technologies such as IEEE 802.15.4, DECT ULE or
BT-LE for network connectivity. BT-LE for network connectivity.
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to craft packets in a way that avoids fragmentation and reassembly of to craft packets in a way that avoids fragmentation and reassembly of
packets since this can use valuable memory on constrained devices. packets since this can use valuable memory on constrained devices.
Devices using such access technologies might operate via a gateway Devices using such access technologies might operate via a gateway
that translates between these access technologies and more that translates between these access technologies and more
traditional Internet protocols. A hierarchical approach to device traditional Internet protocols. A hierarchical approach to device
management in such a situation might be useful, wherein the gateway management in such a situation might be useful, wherein the gateway
device is in-charge of devices connected to it, while the NMS device is in-charge of devices connected to it, while the NMS
conducts management operations only to the gateway. conducts management operations only to the gateway.
2.2. Mobile Access Technologies 2.2. Cellular Access Technologies
Machine to machine (M2M) services are increasingly provided by mobile Machine to machine (M2M) services are increasingly provided by mobile
service providers as numerous devices, home appliances, utility service providers as numerous devices, home appliances, utility
meters, cars, video surveillance cameras, and health monitors, are meters, cars, video surveillance cameras, and health monitors, are
connected with mobile broadband technologies. Different connected with mobile broadband technologies. Different
applications, e.g., in a home appliance or in-car network, use applications, e.g., in a home appliance or in-car network, use
Bluetooth, Wi-Fi or Zigbee locally and connect to a cellular module Bluetooth, Wi-Fi or Zigbee locally and connect to a cellular module
acting as a gateway between the constrained environment and the acting as a gateway between the constrained environment and the
mobile cellular network. mobile cellular network.
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too much of its structure. The constrained devices themselves need too much of its structure. The constrained devices themselves need
to be able to establish connectivity (auto-configuration) and they to be able to establish connectivity (auto-configuration) and they
need to be able to deal with events such as loosing neighbors or need to be able to deal with events such as loosing neighbors or
being moved to other locations. being moved to other locations.
Management responsibility typically rests with the organization Management responsibility typically rests with the organization
running the environmental monitoring application. Since these running the environmental monitoring application. Since these
monitoring applications must be designed to tolerate a number of monitoring applications must be designed to tolerate a number of
failures, the time scale for detecting and recording failures is for failures, the time scale for detecting and recording failures is for
some of these applications likely measured in hours and repairs might some of these applications likely measured in hours and repairs might
easily take days. However, for certain environmental monitoring easily take days. In fact, in some scenarios it might be more cost-
applications, much tighter time scales may exist and might be and time-effective to not repair such devices at all. However, for
enforced by regulations (e.g., monitoring of nuclear radiation). certain environmental monitoring applications, much tighter time
scales may exist and might be enforced by regulations (e.g.,
monitoring of nuclear radiation).
3.2. Infrastructure Monitoring 3.2. Infrastructure Monitoring
Infrastructure monitoring is concerned with the monitoring of Infrastructure monitoring is concerned with the monitoring of
infrastructures such as bridges, railway tracks, or (offshore) infrastructures such as bridges, railway tracks, or (offshore)
windmills. The primary goal is usually to detect any events or windmills. The primary goal is usually to detect any events or
changes of the structural conditions that can impact the risk and changes of the structural conditions that can impact the risk and
safety of the infrastructure being monitored. Another secondary goal safety of the infrastructure being monitored. Another secondary goal
is to schedule repair and maintenance activities in a cost effective is to schedule repair and maintenance activities in a cost effective
manner. manner.
The infrastructure to monitor might be in a factory or spread over a The infrastructure to monitor might be in a factory or spread over a
wider area but difficult to access. As such, the network in use wider area but difficult to access. As such, the network in use
might be based on a combination of fixed and wireless technologies, might be based on a combination of fixed and wireless technologies,
which use robust networking equipment and support reliable which use robust networking equipment and support reliable
communication. It is likely that constrained devices in such a communication via application layer transactions. It is likely that
network are mainly C2 devices and have to be controlled centrally by constrained devices in such a network are mainly C2 devices and have
an application running on a server. In case such a distributed to be controlled centrally by an application running on a server. In
network is widely spread, the wireless devices might use diverse case such a distributed network is widely spread, the wireless
long-distance wireless technologies such as WiMAX, or 3G/LTE, e.g. devices might use diverse long-distance wireless technologies such as
WiMAX, or 3G/LTE, e.g. based on embedded hardware modules. In cases,
based on embedded hardware modules. In cases, where an in-building where an in-building network is involved, the network can be based on
network is involved, the network can be based on Ethernet or wireless Ethernet or wireless technologies suitable for in-building usage.
technologies suitable for in-building usage.
The management of infrastructure monitoring applications is primarily The management of infrastructure monitoring applications is primarily
concerned with the monitoring of the functioning of the system. concerned with the monitoring of the functioning of the system.
Infrastructure monitoring devices are typically rolled out and Infrastructure monitoring devices are typically rolled out and
installed by dedicated experts and changes are rare since the installed by dedicated experts and changes are rare since the
infrastructure itself changes rarely. However, monitoring devices infrastructure itself changes rarely. However, monitoring devices
are often deployed in unsupervised environments and hence special are often deployed in unsupervised environments and hence special
attention must be given to protecting the devices from being attention must be given to protecting the devices from being
modified. modified.
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3.4. Energy Management 3.4. Energy Management
The EMAN working group developed an energy management framework The EMAN working group developed an energy management framework
[I-D.ietf-eman-framework] for devices and device components within or [I-D.ietf-eman-framework] for devices and device components within or
connected to communication networks. This document observes that one connected to communication networks. This document observes that one
of the challenges of energy management is that a power distribution of the challenges of energy management is that a power distribution
network is responsible for the supply of energy to various devices network is responsible for the supply of energy to various devices
and components, while a separate communication network is typically and components, while a separate communication network is typically
used to monitor and control the power distribution network. Devices used to monitor and control the power distribution network. Devices
that have energy management capability are defined as Energy Devices in the context of energy management can be monitored for parameters
and identified components within a device (Energy Device Components) like Power, Energy, Demand and Power Quality. If a device contains
can be monitored for parameters like Power, Energy, Demand and Power batteries, they can be also monitored and managed.
Quality. If a device contains batteries, they can be also monitored
and managed.
Energy devices differ in complexity and may include basic sensors or Energy devices differ in complexity and may include basic sensors or
switches, specialized electrical meters, or power distribution units switches, specialized electrical meters, or power distribution units
(PDU), and subsystems inside the network devices (routers, network (PDU), and subsystems inside the network devices (routers, network
switches) or home or industrial appliances. An Energy Management switches) or home or industrial appliances. The operators of an
System is a combination of hardware and software used to administer a Energy Management System are either the utility providers or
network with the primary purpose being Energy Management. The
operators of such a system are either the utility providers or
customers that aim to control and reduce the energy consumption and customers that aim to control and reduce the energy consumption and
the associated costs. The topology in use differs and the deployment the associated costs. The topology in use differs and the deployment
can cover areas from small surfaces (individual homes) to large can cover areas from small surfaces (individual homes) to large
geographical areas. The EMAN requirements document [RFC6988] geographical areas. The EMAN requirements document [RFC6988]
discusses the requirements for energy management concerning discusses the requirements for energy management concerning
monitoring and control functions. monitoring and control functions.
It is assumed that Energy Management will apply to a large range of It is assumed that Energy Management will apply to a large range of
devices of all classes and networks topologies. Specific resource devices of all classes and networks topologies. Specific resource
monitoring like battery utilization and availability may be specific monitoring like battery utilization and availability may be specific
to devices with lower physical resources (device classes C0 or C1). to devices with lower physical resources (device classes C0 or C1).
Energy Management is especially relevant to the Smart Grid. A Smart Energy Management is especially relevant to the Smart Grid. A Smart
Grid is an electrical grid that uses data networks to gather and to Grid is an electrical grid that uses data networks to gather and to
act on energy and power-related information in an automated fashion act on energy and power-related information in an automated fashion
with the goal to improve the efficiency, reliability, economics, and with the goal to improve the efficiency, reliability, economics, and
sustainability of the production and distribution of electricity. A sustainability of the production and distribution of electricity.
Smart Grid provides sustainable and reliable generation,
transmission, distribution, storage and consumption of electrical
energy based on advanced energy and information technology. Smart
Grids enable the following specific application areas: Smart
transmission systems, Demand Response/Load Management, Substation
Automation, Advanced Distribution Management, Advanced Metering
Infrastructure (AMI), Smart Metering, Smart Home and Building
Automation, E-mobility, etc.
Smart Metering is a good example of Smart Grid based Energy Smart Metering is a good example of Smart Grid based Energy
Management applications. Different types of possibly wireless small Management applications. Different types of possibly wireless small
meters produce all together a large amount of data, which is meters produce all together a large amount of data, which is
collected by a central entity and processed by an application server, collected by a central entity and processed by an application server,
which may be located within the customer's residence or off-site in a which may be located within the customer's residence or off-site in a
data-center. The communication infrastructure can be provided by a data-center. The communication infrastructure can be provided by a
mobile network operator as the meters in urban areas will have most mobile network operator as the meters in urban areas will have most
likely a cellular or WiMAX radio. In case the application server is likely a cellular or WiMAX radio. In case the application server is
located within the residence, such meters are more likely to use WiFi located within the residence, such meters are more likely to use WiFi
protocols to interconnect with an existing network. protocols to interconnect with an existing network.
An AMI network is another example of the Smart Grid that enables an An Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) network is another example
electric utility to retrieve frequent electric usage data from each of the Smart Grid that enables an electric utility to retrieve
electric meter installed at a customer's home or business. This is frequent electric usage data from each electric meter installed at a
unlike Smart Metering, in which case the customer or their agents customer's home or business. Unlike Smart Metering, in which case
install appliance level meters, because an AMI infrastructure is the customer or their agents install appliance level meters, an AMI
typically managed by the utility providers. With an AMI network, a infrastructure is typically managed by the utility providers and
utility can also receive immediate notification of power outages when could also include other distribution automation devices like
they occur, directly from the electric meters that are experiencing transformers and reclosers. Meters in AMI networks typically contain
those outages. In addition, if the AMI network is designed to be constrained devices that connect to mesh networks with a low-
open and extensible, it could serve as the backbone for communicating bandwidth radio. Usage data and outage notifications can be sent by
with other distribution automation devices besides meters, which these meters to the utility's headend systems, via aggregation points
could include transformers and reclosers. of higher-end router devices that bridge the constrained network to a
less constrained network via cellular, WiMAX, or Ethernet. Unlike
Each meter in the AMI network typically contains constrained devices meters, these higher-end devices might be installed on utility poles
of the C2 type. Each meter uses the constrained devices to connect owned and operated by a separate entity.
to mesh networks with a low-bandwidth radio. These radios can be 50,
150, or 200 kbps at raw link speed, but actual network throughput may
be significantly lower due to forward error correction, multihop
delays, MAC delays, lossy links, and protocol overhead. Usage data
and outage notifications can be sent by these meters to the utility's
headend systems, typically located in a data center managed by the
utility, which include meter data collection systems, meter data
management systems, and outage management systems.
Meters in an AMI network, unlike in Smart Metering, act as traffic
sources and routers as well. Typically, smaller amounts of traffic
(read requests, configuration) flow "downstream" from the headend to
the mesh, and larger amounts of traffic flow "upstream" from the mesh
to the headend. However, during a firmware update operation for
example, larger amounts of traffic might flow downstream while
smaller amounts flow upstream. The mesh network is anchored by a
collection of higher-end devices that bridge the constrained network
with a backhaul link that connects to a less-constrained network via
cellular, WiMAX, or Ethernet. These higher-end devices might be
installed on utility poles that could be owned and managed by a
different entity than the utility company.
While a Smart Metering solution is likely to have a smaller number of
devices within a single household, AMI network installations could
contain 1000 meters per router, i.e., the higher-end device. Meters
in a local network that use a specific router form a Local Meter
Network (LMN). When powered on, meters discover nearby LMNs, select
the optimal LMN to join, and the meters in that LMN to route through.
However, in a Smart Metering application the meters are likely to
connect directly to a less-constrained network, thereby not needing
to form such local mesh networks.
Encryption key sharing in both types of network is also likely to be It thereby becomes important for a management application to not only
important for providing confidentiality for all data traffic. In AMI be able to work with diverse types of devices, but also over multiple
networks the key may be obtained by a meter only after an end-to-end links that might be operated and managed by separate entities, each
authentication process based on certificates, ensuring that only having divergent policies for their own devices and network segments.
authorized and authenticated meters are allowed to join the LMN. During management operations, like firmware updates, it is important
Smart Metering solution could adopt a similar approach or the that the management system performs robustly in order to avoid
security may be implied due to the encrypted WiFi networks they accidental outages of critical power systems that could be part of
become part of. AMI networks. In fact, since AMI networks must also report on
outages, the management system might have to manage the energy
properties of battery operated AMI devices themselves as well.
These examples demonstrate that the Smart Grid, and Energy Management A management system for home based Smart Metering solutions is likely
in general, is built on a distributed and heterogeneous network and to have few devices laid out in a simple topology. However, AMI
can use a combination of diverse networking technologies, such as networks installations could have thousands of nodes per router,
wireless Access Technologies (WiMAX, Cellular, etc.), wireline and i.e., higher-end device, which organize themselves in an ad-hoc
Internet Technologies (e.g., IP/MPLS, Ethernet, SDH/PDH over Fiber manner. As such, a management system for AMI networks will need to
optic) as well as low-power radio technologies enabling the discover and operate over complex topologies as well. In some
networking of smart meters, home appliances, and constrained devices situations, it is possible that the management system might also have
(e.g., BT-LE, ZigBee, Z-Wave, Wi-Fi). The operational effectiveness to setup and manage the topology of nodes, especially critical
of the Smart Grid is highly dependent on a robust, two-way, secure, routers. Encryption key management and sharing in both types of
and reliable communications network with suitable availability. network is also likely to be important for providing confidentiality
for all data traffic. In AMI networks the key may be obtained by a
meter only after an end-to-end authentication process based on
certificates. Smart Metering solution could adopt a similar approach
or the security may be implied due to the encrypted WiFi networks
they become part of.
The management of such a network requires end-to-end management of The management of such a network requires end-to-end management of
and information exchange through different types of networks. and information exchange through different types of networks.
However, as of today there is no integrated energy management However, as of today there is no integrated energy management
approach and no common information model available. Specific energy approach and no common information model available. Specific energy
management applications or network islands use their own management management applications or network islands use their own management
mechanisms. mechanisms.
3.5. Medical Applications 3.5. Medical Applications
Constrained devices can be seen as an enabling technology for Constrained devices can be seen as an enabling technology for
advanced and possibly remote health monitoring and emergency advanced and possibly remote health monitoring and emergency
notification systems, ranging from blood pressure and heart rate notification systems, ranging from blood pressure and heart rate
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be controlled by specially trained people. In both cases, however, be controlled by specially trained people. In both cases, however,
it is crucial to protect the privacy of the people to which medical it is crucial to protect the privacy of the people to which medical
devices are attached. Even though the data collected by a heart beat devices are attached. Even though the data collected by a heart beat
monitor might be protected, the pure fact that someone carries such a monitor might be protected, the pure fact that someone carries such a
device may need protection. As such, certain medical appliances may device may need protection. As such, certain medical appliances may
not want to participate in discovery and self-configuration protocols not want to participate in discovery and self-configuration protocols
in order to remain invisible. in order to remain invisible.
Many medical devices are likely to be used (and relied upon) to Many medical devices are likely to be used (and relied upon) to
provide data to physicians in critical situations since the biggest provide data to physicians in critical situations since the biggest
market is likely elderly and handicapped people. As such, fault market is likely elderly and handicapped people. Timely delivery of
detection of the communication network or the constrained devices data can be quite important in certain applications like patient
becomes a crucial function that must be carried out with high mobility monitoring in oldage homes. Data must reach the physician
reliability and, depending on the medical appliance and its and/or emergency services within specified limits of time in order to
application, within seconds. be useful. As such, fault detection of the communication network or
the constrained devices becomes a crucial function of the management
system that must be carried out with high reliability and, depending
on the medical appliance and its application, within seconds.
3.6. Building Automation 3.6. Building Automation
Building automation comprises the distributed systems designed and Building automation comprises the distributed systems designed and
deployed to monitor and control the mechanical, electrical and deployed to monitor and control the mechanical, electrical and
electronic systems inside buildings with various destinations (e.g., electronic systems inside buildings with various destinations (e.g.,
public and private, industrial, institutions, or residential). public and private, industrial, institutions, or residential).
Advanced Building Automation Systems (BAS) may be deployed Advanced Building Automation Systems (BAS) may be deployed
concentrating the various functions of safety, environmental control, concentrating the various functions of safety, environmental control,
occupancy, security. More and more the deployment of the various occupancy, security. More and more the deployment of the various
functional systems is connected to the same communication functional systems is connected to the same communication
infrastructure (possibly Internet Protocol based), which may involve infrastructure (possibly Internet Protocol based), which may involve
wired or wireless communications networks inside the building. wired or wireless communications networks inside the building.
Building automation requires the deployment of a large number (10- Building automation requires the deployment of a large number
100.000) of sensors that monitor the status of devices, and (10-100.000) of sensors that monitor the status of devices, and
parameters inside the building and controllers with different parameters inside the building and controllers with different
specialized functionality for areas within the building or the specialized functionality for areas within the building or the
totality of the building. Inter-node distances between neighboring totality of the building. Inter-node distances between neighboring
nodes vary between 1 to 20 meters. Contrary to home automation, in nodes vary between 1 to 20 meters. Contrary to home automation, in
building management the devices are expected to be managed assets and building management the devices are expected to be managed assets and
known to a set of commissioning tools and a data storage, such that known to a set of commissioning tools and a data storage, such that
every connected device has a known origin. The management includes every connected device has a known origin. The management includes
verifying the presence of the expected devices and detecting the verifying the presence of the expected devices and detecting the
presence of unwanted devices. presence of unwanted devices.
Examples of functions performed by such controllers are regulating Examples of functions performed by such controllers are regulating
the quality, humidity, and temperature of the air inside the building the quality, humidity, and temperature of the air inside the building
and lighting. Other systems may report the status of the machinery and lighting. Other systems may report the status of the machinery
inside the building like elevators, or inside the rooms like inside the building like elevators, or inside the rooms like
projectors in meeting rooms. Security cameras and sensors may be projectors in meeting rooms. Security cameras and sensors may be
deployed and operated on separate dedicated infrastructures connected deployed and operated on separate dedicated infrastructures connected
to the common backbone. The deployment area of a BAS is typically to the common backbone. The deployment area of a BAS is typically
inside one building (or part of it) or several buildings inside one building (or part of it) or several buildings
geographically grouped in a campus. A building network can be geographically grouped in a campus. A building network can be
composed of subnets, where a subnet covers a floor, an area on the composed of network segments, where a network segment covers a floor,
floor, or a given functionality (e.g., security cameras). an area on the floor, or a given functionality (e.g., security
cameras).
Some of the sensors in Building Automation Systems (for example fire Some of the sensors in Building Automation Systems (for example fire
alarms or security systems) register, record and transfer critical alarms or security systems) register, record and transfer critical
alarm information and therefore must be resilient to events like loss alarm information and therefore must be resilient to events like loss
of power or security attacks. This leads to the need that some of power or security attacks. This leads to the need to certify
components and subsystems operate in constrained conditions and are components and subsystems operating in such constrained conditions
separately certified. Also in some environments, the malfunctioning based on specific requirements. Also in some environments, the
of a control system (like temperature control) needs to be reported malfunctioning of a control system (like temperature control) needs
in the shortest possible time. Complex control systems can to be reported in the shortest possible time. Complex control
misbehave, and their critical status reporting and safety algorithms systems can misbehave, and their critical status reporting and safety
need to be basic and robust and perform even in critical conditions. algorithms need to be basic and robust and perform even in critical
conditions.
Building Automation solutions are deployed in some cases in newly Building Automation solutions are deployed in some cases in newly
designed buildings, in other cases it might be over existing designed buildings, in other cases it might be over existing
infrastructures. In the first case, there is a broader range of infrastructures. In the first case, there is a broader range of
possible solutions, which can be planned for the infrastructure of possible solutions, which can be planned for the infrastructure of
the building. In the second case the solution needs to be deployed the building. In the second case the solution needs to be deployed
over an existing structure taking into account factors like existing over an existing infrastructure taking into account factors like
wiring, distance limitations, the propagation of radio signals over existing wiring, distance limitations, the propagation of radio
walls and floors. As a result, some of the existing WLAN solutions signals over walls and floors, thereby making deployment difficult.
(e.g., IEEE 802.11 or IEEE 802.15) may be deployed. In mission- As a result, some of the existing WLAN solutions (e.g., IEEE 802.11
critical or security sensitive environments and in cases where link or IEEE 802.15) may be deployed. In mission-critical or security
failures happen often, topologies that allow for reconfiguration of sensitive environments and in cases where link failures happen often,
the network and connection continuity may be required. Some of the topologies that allow for reconfiguration of the network and
sensors deployed in building automation may be very simple connection continuity may be required. Some of the sensors deployed
constrained devices for which class 0 or class 1 may be assumed. in building automation may be very simple constrained devices for
which class 0 or class 1 may be assumed.
For lighting applications, groups of lights must be defined and For lighting applications, groups of lights must be defined and
managed. Commands to a group of light must arrive within 200 ms at managed. Commands to a group of light must arrive within 200 ms at
all destinations. The installation and operation of a building all destinations. The installation and operation of a building
network has different requirements. During the installation, many network has different requirements. During the installation, many
stand-alone networks of a few to 100 nodes co-exist without a stand-alone networks of a few to 100 nodes co-exist without a
connection to the backbone. During this phase, the nodes are connection to the backbone. During this phase, the nodes are
identified with a network identifier related to their physical identified with a network identifier related to their physical
location. Devices are accessed from an installation tool to connect location. Devices are accessed from an installation tool to connect
them to the network in a secure fashion. During installation, the them to the network in a secure fashion. During installation, the
setting of parameters to common values to enable interoperability may setting of parameters of common values to enable interoperability may
occur (e.g., Trickle parameter values). During operation, the be required. During operation, the networks are connected to the
networks are connected to the backbone while maintaining the network backbone while maintaining the network identifier to physical
identifier to physical location relation. Network parameters like location relation. Network parameters like address and name are
address and name are stored in DNS. The names can assist in stored in DNS. The names can assist in determining the physical
determining the physical location of the device. location of the device.
3.7. Home Automation 3.7. Home Automation
Home automation includes the control of lighting, heating, Home automation includes the control of lighting, heating,
ventilation, air conditioning, appliances, entertainment and home ventilation, air conditioning, appliances, entertainment and home
security devices to improve convenience, comfort, energy efficiency, security devices to improve convenience, comfort, energy efficiency,
and security. It can be seen as a residential extension of building and security. It can be seen as a residential extension of building
automation. However, unlike a building automation system, the automation. However, unlike a building automation system, the
infrastructure in a home is operated in a considerably more ad-hoc infrastructure in a home is operated in a considerably more ad-hoc
manner, with no centralized management system akin to a Building manner. While in some installations it is likely that there is no
Automation System (BAS) available. centralized management system, akin to a Building Automation System
(BAS), available, in other situations outsourced and cloud based
systems responsible for managing devices in the home might be used.
Home automation networks need a certain amount of configuration Home automation networks need a certain amount of configuration
(associating switches or sensors to actors) that is either provided (associating switches or sensors to actors) that is either provided
by electricians deploying home automation solutions, by third party by electricians deploying home automation solutions, by third party
home automation service providers (e.g., small specialized companies home automation service providers (e.g., small specialized companies
or home automation device manufacturers) or by residents by using the or home automation device manufacturers) or by residents by using the
application user interface provided by home automation devices to application user interface provided by home automation devices to
configure (parts of) the home automation solution. Similarly, configure (parts of) the home automation solution. Similarly,
failures may be reported via suitable interfaces to residents or they failures may be reported via suitable interfaces to residents or they
might be recorded and made available to services providers in charge might be recorded and made available to services providers in charge
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3.8. Transport Applications 3.8. Transport Applications
Transport Application is a generic term for the integrated Transport Application is a generic term for the integrated
application of communications, control, and information processing in application of communications, control, and information processing in
a transportation system. Transport telematics or vehicle telematics a transportation system. Transport telematics or vehicle telematics
are used as a term for the group of technologies that support are used as a term for the group of technologies that support
transportation systems. Transport applications running on such a transportation systems. Transport applications running on such a
transportation system cover all modes of the transport and consider transportation system cover all modes of the transport and consider
all elements of the transportation system, i.e. the vehicle, the all elements of the transportation system, i.e. the vehicle, the
infrastructure, and the driver or user, interacting together infrastructure, and the driver or user, interacting together
dynamically. The overall aim is to improve decision making, often in dynamically. Examples for transport applications are inter and intra
real time, by transport network controllers and other users, thereby vehicular communication, smart traffic control, smart parking,
improving the operation of the entire transport system. As such, electronic toll collection systems, logistic and fleet management,
transport applications can be seen as one of the important M2M vehicle control, and safety and road assistance.
service scenarios with the involvement of manifold small devices.
The definition encompasses a broad array of techniques and approaches
that may be achieved through stand-alone technological applications
or as enhancements to other transportation communication schemes.
Examples for transport applications are inter and intra vehicular
communication, smart traffic control, smart parking, electronic toll
collection systems, logistic and fleet management, vehicle control,
and safety and road assistance.
As a distributed system, transport applications require an end-to-end As a distributed system, transport applications require an end-to-end
management of different types of networks. It is likely that management of different types of networks. It is likely that
constrained devices in a network (e.g. a moving in-car network) have constrained devices in a network (e.g. a moving in-car network) have
to be controlled by an application running on an application server to be controlled by an application running on an application server
in the network of a service provider. Such a highly distributed in the network of a service provider. Such a highly distributed
network including mobile devices on vehicles is assumed to include a network including cellular devices on vehicles is assumed to include
wireless access network using diverse long distance wireless a wireless access network using diverse long distance wireless
technologies such as WiMAX, 3G/LTE or satellite communication, e.g. technologies such as WiMAX, 3G/LTE or satellite communication, e.g.
based on an embedded hardware module. As a result, the management of based on an embedded hardware module. As a result, the management of
constrained devices in the transport system might be necessary to constrained devices in the transport system might be necessary to
plan top-down and might need to use data models obliged from and plan top-down and might need to use data models obliged from and
defined on the application layer. The assumed device classes in use defined on the application layer. The assumed device classes in use
are mainly C2 devices. In cases, where an in-vehicle network is are mainly C2 devices. In cases, where an in-vehicle network is
involved, C1 devices with limited capabilities and a short-distance involved, C1 devices with limited capabilities and a short-distance
constrained radio network, e.g. IEEE 802.15.4 might be used constrained radio network, e.g. IEEE 802.15.4 might be used
additionally. additionally.
Management responsibility typically rests within the organization All Transport Applications will require an IT infrastructure to run
running the transport application. The constrained devices in a on top of, e.g., in public transport scenarios like trains, bus or
moving transport network might be initially configured in a factory metro network infrastructure might be provided, maintained and
and a reconfiguration might be needed only rarely. New devices might operated by third parties like mobile network or satellite network
be integrated in an ad-hoc manner based on self-management and operators. However, the management responsibility of the transport
-configuration capabilities. Monitoring and data exchange might be application typically rests within the organization running the
necessary to do via a gateway entity connected to the back-end transport application (in the public transport scenario, this would
transport infrastructure. The devices and entities in the transport typically be the public transport operator). Different aspects of
infrastructure need to be monitored more frequently and can be able the infrastructure might also be managed by different entities. For
to communicate with a higher data rate. The connectivity of such example, the in-car devices are likely to be installed and managed by
entities does not necessarily need to be wireless. The time scale the manufacturer, while the public works might be responsible for the
for detecting and recording failures in a moving transport network is on-road vehicular communication infrastructure used by these devices.
likely measured in hours and repairs might easily take days. It is The back-end infrastructure is also likely to be maintained by third
likely that a self-healing feature would be used locally. party operators. As such, the NMS must be able to deal with
different network segments, each being operated and controlled by
3.9. Vehicular Networks separate entities, and enable appropriate access control and security
as well.
Networks involving mobile nodes, especially transport vehicles, are
emerging. Such networks are used to provide inter-vehicle
communication services, or even tracking of mobile assets, to develop
intelligent transportation systems and drivers and passengers
assistance services. Constrained devices are deployed within a
larger single entity, the vehicle, and must be individually managed.
Vehicles can be either private, belonging to individuals or private
companies, or public transportation. Scenarios consisting of
vehicle-to-vehicle ad-hoc networks, a wired backbone with wireless
last hops, and hybrid vehicle-to-road communications are expected to
be common.
Besides the access control and security, depending on the type of
vehicle and service being provided, it would be important for a NMS
to be able to function with different architectures, since different
manufacturers might have their own proprietary systems.
Unlike some mobile networks, most vehicular networks are expected to
have specific patterns in the mobility of the nodes. Such patterns
could possibly be exploited, managed and monitored by the NMS.
The challenges in the management of vehicles in a mobile application Depending on the type of application domain (vehicular or stationary)
are manifold. Firstly, the issues caused through the device mobility and service being provided, it would be important for the NMS to be
need to be taken into consideration. The up-to-date position of each able to function with different architectures, since different
node in the network should be reported to the corresponding manufacturers might have their own proprietary systems relying on a
management entities, since the nodes could be moving within or specific Management Topology Option, as described in [COM-REQ].
roaming between different networks. Secondly, a variety of Moreover, constituents of the network can be either private,
troubleshooting information, including sensitive location belonging to individuals or private companies, or owned by public
information, needs to be reported to the management system in order institutions leading to different legal and organization
to provide accurate service to the customer. requirements. Across the entire infrastructure, a variety of
constrained devices are likely to be used, and must be individually
managed. The NMS must be able to either work directly with different
types of devices, or have the ability to interoperate with multiple
different systems.
The NMS must also be able to handle partitioned networks, which would The challenges in the management of vehicles in a mobile transport
arise due to the dynamic nature of traffic resulting in large inter- application are manifold. The up-to-date position of each node in
vehicle gaps in sparsely populated scenarios. Constant changes in the network should be reported to the corresponding management
topology must also be contended with. entities, since the nodes could be moving within or roaming between
different networks. Secondly, a variety of troubleshooting
information, including sensitive location information, needs to be
reported to the management system in order to provide accurate
service to the customer. Management systems dealing with mobile
nodes could possibly exploit specific patterns in the mobility of the
nodes. These patterns emerge due to repetitive vehicular usage in
scenarios like people commuting to work, logistics supply vehicles
transporting shipments between warehouses and etc. The NMS must also
be able to handle partitioned networks, which would arise due to the
dynamic nature of traffic resulting in large inter-vehicle gaps in
sparsely populated scenarios. Since mobile nodes might roam in
remote networks, the NMS should be able to provide operating
configuration updates regardless of node location.
Auto-configuration of nodes in a vehicular network remains a The constrained devices in a moving transport network might be
challenge since based on location, and access network, the vehicle initially configured in a factory and a reconfiguration might be
might have different configurations that must be obtained from its needed only rarely. New devices might be integrated in an ad-hoc
management system. Operating configuration updates, while in remote manner based on self-management and -configuration capabilities.
networks also needs to be considered in the design of a network Monitoring and data exchange might be necessary to do via a gateway
management system." entity connected to the back-end transport infrastructure. The
devices and entities in the transport infrastructure need to be
monitored more frequently and can be able to communicate with a
higher data rate. The connectivity of such entities does not
necessarily need to be wireless. The time scale for detecting and
recording failures in a moving transport network is likely measured
in hours and repairs might easily take days. It is likely that a
self-healing feature would be used locally. On the other hand,
failures in fixed transport application infrastructure (e.g.,
traffic-lights, digital signage displays) is likely to be measured in
minutes so as to avoid untoward traffic incidents. As such, the NMS
must be able to deal with differing timeliness requirements based on
the type of devices.
3.10. Community Network Applications 3.9. Community Network Applications
Community networks are comprised of constrained routers in a multi- Community networks are comprised of constrained routers in a multi-
hop mesh topology, communicating over a lossy, and often wireless hop mesh topology, communicating over a lossy, and often wireless
channel. While the routers are mostly non-mobile, the topology may channel. While the routers are mostly non-mobile, the topology may
be very dynamic because of fluctuations in link quality of the be very dynamic because of fluctuations in link quality of the
(wireless) channel caused by, e.g., obstacles, or other nearby radio (wireless) channel caused by, e.g., obstacles, or other nearby radio
transmissions. Depending on the routers that are used in the transmissions. Depending on the routers that are used in the
community network, the resources of the routers (memory, CPU) may be community network, the resources of the routers (memory, CPU) may be
more or less constrained - available resources may range from only a more or less constrained - available resources may range from only a
few kilobytes of RAM to several megabytes or more, and CPUs may be few kilobytes of RAM to several megabytes or more, and CPUs may be
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rooftops of the users. When new users want to connect to the rooftops of the users. When new users want to connect to the
network, they acquire a wireless router, install the appropriate network, they acquire a wireless router, install the appropriate
firmware and routing protocol, and mount the router on the rooftop. firmware and routing protocol, and mount the router on the rooftop.
IP addresses for the router are assigned manually from a list of IP addresses for the router are assigned manually from a list of
addresses (because of the lack of autoconfiguration standards for addresses (because of the lack of autoconfiguration standards for
mesh networks in the IETF). mesh networks in the IETF).
While the routers are non-mobile, fluctuations in link quality While the routers are non-mobile, fluctuations in link quality
require an ad hoc routing protocol that allows for quick convergence require an ad hoc routing protocol that allows for quick convergence
to reflect the effective topology of the network (such as NHDP to reflect the effective topology of the network (such as NHDP
[RFC6130] and OLSRv2 [I-D.ietf-manet-olsrv2] developed in the MANET [RFC6130] and OLSRv2 [RFC7181] developed in the MANET WG). Usually,
WG). Usually, no human interaction is required for these protocols, no human interaction is required for these protocols, as all variable
as all variable parameters required by the routing protocol are parameters required by the routing protocol are either negotiated in
either negotiated in the control traffic exchange, or are only of the control traffic exchange, or are only of local importance to each
local importance to each router (i.e. do not influence router (i.e. do not influence interoperability). However, external
interoperability). However, external management and monitoring of an management and monitoring of an ad hoc routing protocol may be
ad hoc routing protocol may be desirable to optimize parameters of desirable to optimize parameters of the routing protocol. Such an
the routing protocol. Such an optimization may lead to a more stable optimization may lead to a more stable perceived topology and to a
perceived topology and to a lower control traffic overhead, and lower control traffic overhead, and therefore to a higher delivery
therefore to a higher delivery success ratio of data packets, a lower success ratio of data packets, a lower end-to-end delay, and less
end-to-end delay, and less unnecessary bandwidth and energy usage. unnecessary bandwidth and energy usage.
Different use cases for the management of community networks are Different use cases for the management of community networks are
possible: possible:
o One single Network Management Station, e.g. a border gateway o One single Network Management Station, e.g. a border gateway
providing connectivity to the Internet, requires managing or providing connectivity to the Internet, requires managing or
monitoring routers in the community network, in order to monitoring routers in the community network, in order to
investigate problems (monitoring) or to improve performance by investigate problems (monitoring) or to improve performance by
changing parameters (managing). As the topology of the network is changing parameters (managing). As the topology of the network is
dynamic, constant connectivity of each router towards the dynamic, constant connectivity of each router towards the
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o Monitoring and management of a whole network or a group of o Monitoring and management of a whole network or a group of
routers. Monitoring the performance of a community network may routers. Monitoring the performance of a community network may
require more information than what can be acquired from a single require more information than what can be acquired from a single
router using a network management protocol. Statistics, such as router using a network management protocol. Statistics, such as
topology changes over time, data throughput along certain routing topology changes over time, data throughput along certain routing
paths, congestion etc., are of interest for a group of routers (or paths, congestion etc., are of interest for a group of routers (or
the routing domain) as a whole. As of 2012, no IETF standard the routing domain) as a whole. As of 2012, no IETF standard
allows for monitoring or managing whole networks, instead of allows for monitoring or managing whole networks, instead of
single routers. single routers.
3.11. Military Operations 3.10. Field Operations
The challenges of configuration and monitoring of networks faced by The challenges of configuration and monitoring of networks operated
military agencies can be different from the other use cases since the in the field by rescue and security agencies can be different from
requirements and operating conditions of military networks are quite the other use cases since the requirements and operating conditions
different. of such networks are quite different.
With technology advancements, military networks nowadays have become With technology advancements, field networks operated nowadays are
large and consist of varieties of different types of equipment that becomeing large and can consist of varieties of different types of
run different protocols and tools that obviously increase complexity equipment that run different protocols and tools that obviously
of the tactical networks. In many scenarios, configurations are, increase complexity of these mission critical networks. In many
most likely, manually performed. Furthermore, some legacy and even scenarios, configurations are, most likely, manually performed.
modern devices do not even support IP networking. Majority of Furthermore, some legacy and even modern devices do not even support
protocols and tools developed by vendors that are being used are IP networking. Majority of protocols and tools developed by vendors
proprietary which makes integration more difficult. that are being used are proprietary which makes integration more
difficult.
The main reason for this disjoint operation scenario is that most The main reason for this disjoint operation scenario is that most
military equipment is developed with specific tasks requirements in equipment is developed with specific task requirements in mind,
mind, rather than interoperability of the varied equipment types. rather than interoperability of the varied equipment types. For
For example, the operating conditions experienced by high altitude example, the operating conditions experienced by high altitude
equipment is significantly different from that used in desert security equipment is significantly different from that used in
conditions and interoperation of tactical equipment with desert conditions. Similarly, search and rescue operations equipment
telecommunication equipment was not an expected outcome. used in case of fire rescue has different requirements than flood
relief equipment. Furthermore, interoperation of equipment with
telecommunication equipment was not an expected outcome or in some
scenarios this may not even be desirable.
Currently, most military networks operate with a fixed Network Currently, field networks operate with a fixed Network Operations
Operations Center (NOC) that physically manages the configuration and Center (NOC) that physically manages the configuration and evaluation
evaluation of all field devices. Once configured, the devices might of all field devices. Once configured, the devices might be deployed
be deployed in fixed or mobile scenarios. Any configuration changes in fixed or mobile scenarios. Any configuration changes required
required would need to be appropriately encrypted and authenticated would need to be appropriately encrypted and authenticated to prevent
to prevent unauthorized access. unauthorized access.
Hierarchical management of devices is a common requirement of Hierarchical management of devices is a common requirement in such
military operations as well since local managers may need to respond scenarios since local managers or operators may need to respond to
to changing conditions within their platoon, regiment, brigade, changing conditions within their purview. The level of configuration
division or corps. The level of configuration management available management available at each hierarchy must also be closely governed.
at each hierarchy must also be closely governed.
Since most military networks operate in hostile environments, a high Since many field operation devices are used in hostile environments,
failure rate and disconnection rate should be tolerated by the NMS, a high failure and disconnection rate should be tolerated by the NMS,
which must also be able to deal with multiple gateways and disjoint which must also be able to deal with multiple gateways and disjoint
management protocols. management protocols.
Multi-national military operations are becoming increasingly common, Multi-national field operations invloving search, rescue and security
requiring the interoperation of a diverse set of equipment designed are becoming increasingly common, requiring the interoperation of a
with different operating conditions in mind. Furthermore, different diverse set of equipment designed with different operating conditions
militaries are likely to have a different set of standards, best in mind. Furthermore, different intra- and inter-governmental
agencies are likely to have a different set of standards, best
practices, rules and regulation, and implementation approaches that practices, rules and regulation, and implementation approaches that
may contradict or conflict with each other. The NMS should be able may contradict or conflict with each other. The NMS should be able
to detect these and handle them in an acceptable manner, which may to detect these and handle them in an acceptable manner, which may
require human intervention. require human intervention.
4. IANA Considerations 4. IANA Considerations
This document does not introduce any new code-points or namespaces This document does not introduce any new code-points or namespaces
for registration with IANA. for registration with IANA.
Note to RFC Editor: this section may be removed on publication as an Note to RFC Editor: this section may be removed on publication as an
RFC. RFC.
5. Security Considerations 5. Security Considerations
In several use cases, constrained devices are deployed in unsafe This document discusses use cases for Management of Networks with
environments, where attackers can gain physical access to the Constrained Devices. The security considerations described
devices. As a consequence, it is crucial to properly protect any throughout the companion document [COM-REQ] apply here as well.
security credentials that may be stored on the device (e.g., by using
hardware protection mechanisms). Furthermore, it is important that
any credentials leeking from a single device do not simplify the
attack on other (similar) devices. In particular, security
credentials should never be shared.
Since constrained devices often have limited computational resources,
care should be taken in choosing efficient but cryptographically
strong crytographic algorithms. Designers of constrained devices
that have a long expected lifetime need to ensure that cryptographic
algorithms can be updated once devices have been deployed. The
ability to perform secure firmware and software updates is an
important management requirement.
Several use cases generate sensitive data or require the processing
of sensitive data. It is therefore an important requirement to
properly protect access to the data in order to protect the privacy
of humans using Internet-enabled devices. For certain types of data,
protection during the transmission over the network may not be
sufficient and methods should be investigated that provide protection
of data while it is cached or stored (e.g., when using a store-and-
forward transport mechanism).
6. Contributors 6. Contributors
Following persons made significant contributions to and reviewed this Following persons made significant contributions to and reviewed this
document: document:
o Ulrich Herberg (Fujitsu Laboratories of America) contributed the o Ulrich Herberg (Fujitsu Laboratories of America) contributed the
Section 3.10 on Community Network Applications. Section 3.9 on Community Network Applications.
o Peter van der Stok contributed to Section 3.6 on Building o Peter van der Stok contributed to Section 3.6 on Building
Automation. Automation.
o Zhen Cao contributed to Section 2.2 Mobile Access Technologies. o Zhen Cao contributed to Section 2.2 Cellular Access Technologies.
o Gilman Tolle contributed the Section 3.4 on Automated Metering o Gilman Tolle contributed the Section 3.4 on Automated Metering
Infrastructure. Infrastructure.
o James Nguyen and Ulrich Herberg contributed to Section 3.11 on o James Nguyen and Ulrich Herberg contributed to Section 3.10 on
Military operations. Military operations.
7. Acknowledgments 7. Acknowledgments
Following persons reviewed and provided valuable comments to Following persons reviewed and provided valuable comments to
different versions of this document: different versions of this document:
Dominique Barthel, Carsten Bormann, Zhen Cao, Benoit Claise, Bert Dominique Barthel, Carsten Bormann, Zhen Cao, Benoit Claise, Bert
Greevenbosch, Ulrich Herberg, James Nguyen, Zach Shelby, and Peter Greevenbosch, Ulrich Herberg, James Nguyen, Zach Shelby, and Peter
van der Stok. van der Stok.
skipping to change at page 25, line 23 skipping to change at page 20, line 43
Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)", RFC 6568, April 2012. Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)", RFC 6568, April 2012.
[RFC6779] Herberg, U., Cole, R., and I. Chakeres, "Definition of [RFC6779] Herberg, U., Cole, R., and I. Chakeres, "Definition of
Managed Objects for the Neighborhood Discovery Protocol", Managed Objects for the Neighborhood Discovery Protocol",
RFC 6779, October 2012. RFC 6779, October 2012.
[RFC6988] Quittek, J., Chandramouli, M., Winter, R., Dietz, T., and [RFC6988] Quittek, J., Chandramouli, M., Winter, R., Dietz, T., and
B. Claise, "Requirements for Energy Management", RFC 6988, B. Claise, "Requirements for Energy Management", RFC 6988,
September 2013. September 2013.
[I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology] [RFC7181] Clausen, T., Dearlove, C., Jacquet, P., and U. Herberg,
Bormann, C., Ersue, M., and A. Keranen, "Terminology for "The Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2", RFC
Constrained Node Networks", draft-ietf-lwig-terminology-07 7181, April 2014.
(work in progress), February 2014.
[RFC7228] Bormann, C., Ersue, M., and A. Keranen, "Terminology for
Constrained-Node Networks", RFC 7228, May 2014.
[I-D.ietf-eman-framework] [I-D.ietf-eman-framework]
Claise, B., Schoening, B., and J. Quittek, "Energy Claise, B., Schoening, B., and J. Quittek, "Energy
Management Framework", draft-ietf-eman-framework-15 (work Management Framework", draft-ietf-eman-framework-19 (work
in progress), February 2014. in progress), April 2014.
[I-D.ietf-manet-olsrv2] [COM-REQ] Ersue, M., Romascanu, D., and J. Schoenwaelder,
Clausen, T., Dearlove, C., Jacquet, P., and U. Herberg, "Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Problem
"The Optimized Link State Routing Protocol version 2", Statement and Requirements", draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-
draft-ietf-manet-olsrv2-19 (work in progress), March 2013. probstate-reqs (work in progress), February 2014.
[COM-REQ] Ersue, M., "Constrained Management: Problem statement and Appendix A. Change Log
Requirements", draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs
(work in progress), January 2014.
Appendix A. Open Issues A.1. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-01 - draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-
use-cases-02
o Section 3.11 should be replaced by a different use case motivating o Renamed Mobile Access Technologies section to Cellular Access
similar requirements or perhaps deleted if the IETF prefers to not Technologies
work on specific requirements coming from military use cases.
o Section 3.8 and Section 3.9 should be merged. o Changed references to mobile access technologies to now read
cellular access technologies.
Appendix B. Change Log o Added text to the introduction to point out that the list of use
cases is not exhaustive since others unknown to the authors might
exist.
B.1. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-00 - o Updated references to take into account RFCs that have been now
draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-01 published.
o Updated Environmental Monitoring section to make it clear that in
some scenarios it may not be prudent to repair devices.
o Added clarification in Infrastructure Monitoring section that
reliable communication is achieved via application layer
transactions
o Removed reference to Energy Devices from Energy Management
section, instead labeling them as devices within the context of
energy management.
o Reduced descriptive content in Energy Management section.
o Rewrote text in Energy Management section to highlight management
characteristics of Smart Meter and AMI networks.
o Added text regarding timely delivery of information, and related
management system characteristic, to the Medical Applications
section
o Changed subnets to network segment in Building Automation section.
o Changed structure to infrastructure in Building Automation
section, and added text to highlight associated deployment
difficulties.
o Removed Trickle timer as example of common values to be set in
Building Automation section.
o Added text regarding the possible availability of outsourced and
cloud based management systems for Home Automation.
o Added text to Transport Applications section to highlight the
requirement of IT infrastructure for such applications to function
on top of.
o Merged the Transport Applications and Vehicular Networks section
together. Following changes to the Vehicular Networks section
were merged back into Transport Applications
* Replaced wireless last hops with wireless access to vehicles in
Vehicular Networks.
* Expanded proprietary systems to "systems relying on a specific
Management Topology Option, as described in [COM-REQ]." within
Vehicular Networks section.
* Added text regarding mobility patterns to Vehicular Networks.
o Changed the Military Operations use case to Field Operations and
edited the text to be suitable to such scenarios.
A.2. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-00 - draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-
use-cases-01
o Reordered some use cases to improve the flow. o Reordered some use cases to improve the flow.
o Added "Vehicular Networks". o Added "Vehicular Networks".
o Shortened the Military Operations use case. o Shortened the Military Operations use case.
o Started adding substance to the security considerations section. o Started adding substance to the security considerations section.
B.2. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-03 - A.3. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-03 - draft-ersue-opsawg-coman-use-
draft-ersue-opsawg-coman-use-cases-00 cases-00
o Reduced the terminology section for terminology addressed in the o Reduced the terminology section for terminology addressed in the
LWIG and Coman Requirements drafts. Referenced the other drafts. LWIG and Coman Requirements drafts. Referenced the other drafts.
o Checked and aligned all terminology against the LWIG terminology o Checked and aligned all terminology against the LWIG terminology
draft. draft.
o Spent some effort to resolve the intersection between the o Spent some effort to resolve the intersection between the
Industrial Application, Home Automation and Building Automation Industrial Application, Home Automation and Building Automation
use cases. use cases.
o Moved section section 3. Use Cases from the companion document o Moved section section 3. Use Cases from the companion document
[COM-REQ] to this draft. [COM-REQ] to this draft.
o Reformulation of some text parts for more clarity. o Reformulation of some text parts for more clarity.
B.3. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-02-03 A.4. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-02-03
o Extended the terminology section and removed some of the o Extended the terminology section and removed some of the
terminology addressed in the new LWIG terminology draft. terminology addressed in the new LWIG terminology draft.
Referenced the LWIG terminology draft. Referenced the LWIG terminology draft.
o Moved Section 1.3. on Constrained Device Classes to the new LWIG o Moved Section 1.3. on Constrained Device Classes to the new LWIG
terminology draft. terminology draft.
o Class of networks considering the different type of radio and o Class of networks considering the different type of radio and
communication technologies in use and dimensions extended. communication technologies in use and dimensions extended.
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* Software distribution (group-based firmware update) and Group- * Software distribution (group-based firmware update) and Group-
based provisioning. based provisioning.
o Deleted the empty section on the gaps in network management o Deleted the empty section on the gaps in network management
standards, as it will be written in a separate draft. standards, as it will be written in a separate draft.
o Added links to mentioned external pages. o Added links to mentioned external pages.
o Added text on OMA M2M Device Classification in appendix. o Added text on OMA M2M Device Classification in appendix.
B.4. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-01-02 A.5. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-01-02
o Extended the terminology section. o Extended the terminology section.
o Added additional text for the use cases concerning deployment o Added additional text for the use cases concerning deployment
type, network topology in use, network size, network capabilities, type, network topology in use, network size, network capabilities,
radio technology, etc. radio technology, etc.
o Added examples for device classes in a use case. o Added examples for device classes in a use case.
o Added additional text provided by Cao Zhen (China Mobile) for o Added additional text provided by Cao Zhen (China Mobile) for
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constrained management matched to management tasks like fault, constrained management matched to management tasks like fault,
monitoring, configuration management, Security and Access Control, monitoring, configuration management, Security and Access Control,
Energy Management, etc. Energy Management, etc.
o Solved nits and added references. o Solved nits and added references.
o Added Appendix A on the related development in other bodies. o Added Appendix A on the related development in other bodies.
o Added Appendix B on the work in related research projects. o Added Appendix B on the work in related research projects.
B.5. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-00-01 A.6. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-00-01
o Splitted the section on 'Networks of Constrained Devices' into the o Splitted the section on 'Networks of Constrained Devices' into the
sections 'Network Topology Options' and 'Management Topology sections 'Network Topology Options' and 'Management Topology
Options'. Options'.
o Added the use case 'Community Network Applications' and 'Mobile o Added the use case 'Community Network Applications' and 'Mobile
Applications'. Applications'.
o Provided a Contributors section. o Provided a Contributors section.
o Extended the section on 'Medical Applications'. o Extended the section on 'Medical Applications'.
o Solved nits and added references. o Solved nits and added references.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Mehmet Ersue (editor) Mehmet Ersue (editor)
Nokia Solutions and Networks Nokia Networks
Email: mehmet.ersue@nsn.com Email: mehmet.ersue@nsn.com
Dan Romascanu Dan Romascanu
Avaya Avaya
Email: dromasca@avaya.com Email: dromasca@avaya.com
Juergen Schoenwaelder Juergen Schoenwaelder
Jacobs University Bremen Jacobs University Bremen
Email: j.schoenwaelder@jacobs-university.de Email: j.schoenwaelder@jacobs-university.de
Anuj Sehgal Anuj Sehgal
Jacobs University Bremen Jacobs University Bremen
Email: a.sehgal@jacobs-university.de Email: s.anuj@jacobs-university.de
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