draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-02.txt   draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-03.txt 
Internet Engineering Task Force M. Ersue, Ed. Internet Engineering Task Force M. Ersue, Ed.
Internet-Draft Nokia Networks Internet-Draft Nokia Networks
Intended status: Informational D. Romascanu Intended status: Informational D. Romascanu
Expires: January 5, 2015 Avaya Expires: April 30, 2015 Avaya
J. Schoenwaelder J. Schoenwaelder
A. Sehgal A. Sehgal
Jacobs University Bremen Jacobs University Bremen
July 4, 2014 October 27, 2014
Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Use Cases Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Use Cases
draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-02 draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-03
Abstract Abstract
This document discusses use cases concerning the management of This document discusses use cases concerning the management of
networks, where constrained devices are involved. A problem networks, where constrained devices are involved. A problem
statement, deployment options and the requirements on the networks statement, deployment options and the requirements on the networks
with constrained devices can be found in the companion document on with constrained devices can be found in the companion document on
"Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Problem Statement "Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Problem Statement
and Requirements". and Requirements".
skipping to change at page 1, line 39 skipping to change at page 1, line 39
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on January 5, 2015. This Internet-Draft will expire on April 30, 2015.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Access Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Access Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1. Constrained Access Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1. Constrained Access Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.2. Cellular Access Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.2. Cellular Access Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Device Lifecycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.1. Environmental Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1. Manufacturing and Initial Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.2. Infrastructure Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.2. Installation and Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.3. Industrial Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.3. Operation and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.4. Energy Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.4. Recommissioning and Decommissioning . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.5. Medical Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4. Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.6. Building Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.1. Environmental Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.7. Home Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.2. Infrastructure Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.8. Transport Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.3. Industrial Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.9. Community Network Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4.4. Energy Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.10. Field Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 4.5. Medical Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 4.6. Building Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 4.7. Home Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 4.8. Transport Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
7. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4.9. Community Network Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
8. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4.10. Field Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Appendix A. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
A.1. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-01 - draft-ietf-opsawg- 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
coman-use-cases-02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 7. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
A.2. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-00 - draft-ietf-opsawg- 8. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
coman-use-cases-01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 9. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
A.3. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-03 - draft-ersue-opsawg- Appendix A. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
coman-use-cases-00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 A.1. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-02 - draft-ietf-opsawg-
A.4. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-02-03 . . . . . . . . . . . 23 coman-use-cases-03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
A.5. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-01-02 . . . . . . . . . . . 24 A.2. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-01 - draft-ietf-opsawg-
A.6. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-00-01 . . . . . . . . . . . 25 coman-use-cases-02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 A.3. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-00 - draft-ietf-opsawg-
coman-use-cases-01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
A.4. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-03 - draft-ersue-opsawg-
coman-use-cases-00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
A.5. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-02-03 . . . . . . . . . . . 27
A.6. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-01-02 . . . . . . . . . . . 28
A.7. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-00-01 . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Small devices with limited CPU, memory, and power resources, so Small devices with limited CPU, memory, and power resources, so
called constrained devices (aka. sensor, smart object, or smart called constrained devices (aka. sensor, smart object, or smart
device) can be connected to a network. Such a network of constrained device) can be connected to a network. Such a network of constrained
devices itself may be constrained or challenged, e.g., with devices itself may be constrained or challenged, e.g., with
unreliable or lossy channels, wireless technologies with limited unreliable or lossy channels, wireless technologies with limited
bandwidth and a dynamic topology, needing the service of a gateway or bandwidth and a dynamic topology, needing the service of a gateway or
proxy to connect to the Internet. In other scenarios, the proxy to connect to the Internet. In other scenarios, the
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or more server stations. or more server stations.
Network management is characterized by monitoring network status, Network management is characterized by monitoring network status,
detecting faults, and inferring their causes, setting network detecting faults, and inferring their causes, setting network
parameters, and carrying out actions to remove faults, maintain parameters, and carrying out actions to remove faults, maintain
normal operation, and improve network efficiency and application normal operation, and improve network efficiency and application
performance. The traditional network management application performance. The traditional network management application
periodically collects information from a set of elements that are periodically collects information from a set of elements that are
needed to manage, processes the data, and presents them to the needed to manage, processes the data, and presents them to the
network management users. Constrained devices, however, often have network management users. Constrained devices, however, often have
limited power, low transmission range, and might be unreliable. They limited power, low transmission range, and might be unreliable. Such
might also need to work in hostile environments with advanced unreliability might arise from device itself (e.g., battery
security requirements or need to be used in harsh environments for a exhausted) or from the channel being constrained (i.e., low-capacity
long time without supervision. Due to such constraints, the and high-latency). They might also need to work in hostile
management of a network with constrained devices offers different environments with advanced security requirements or need to be used
type of challenges compared to the management of a traditional IP in harsh environments for a long time without supervision. Due to
network. such constraints, the management of a network with constrained
devices offers different type of challenges compared to the
management of a traditional IP network.
This document aims to understand use cases for the management of a This document aims to understand use cases for the management of a
network, where constrained devices are involved. The document lists network, where constrained devices are involved. The document lists
and discusses diverse use cases for the management from the network and discusses diverse use cases for the management from the network
as well as from the application point of view. The list of discussed as well as from the application point of view. The list of discussed
use cases is not an exhaustive one since other scenarios, currently use cases is not an exhaustive one since other scenarios, currently
unknown to the authors, are possible. are The application scenarios unknown to the authors, are possible. The application scenarios
discussed aim to show where networks of constrained devices are discussed aim to show where networks of constrained devices are
expected to be deployed. For each application scenario, we first expected to be deployed. For each application scenario, we first
briefly describe the characteristics followed by a discussion on how briefly describe the characteristics followed by a discussion on how
network management can be provided, who is likely going to be network management can be provided, who is likely going to be
responsible for it, and on which time-scale management operations are responsible for it, and on which time-scale management operations are
likely to be carried out. likely to be carried out.
A problem statement, deployment and management topology options as A problem statement, deployment and management topology options as
well as the requirements on the networks with constrained devices can well as the requirements on the networks with constrained devices can
be found in the companion document [COM-REQ]. be found in the companion document [COM-REQ].
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access, e.g., local area networks with plenty of capacity. In such access, e.g., local area networks with plenty of capacity. In such
scenarios, the constrainedness of the device presents special scenarios, the constrainedness of the device presents special
management restrictions and requirements rather than the access management restrictions and requirements rather than the access
technology utilized. technology utilized.
However, in other situations constrained or cellular access However, in other situations constrained or cellular access
technologies might be used for network access, thereby causing technologies might be used for network access, thereby causing
management restrictions and requirements to arise as a result of the management restrictions and requirements to arise as a result of the
underlying access technologies. underlying access technologies.
A discussion regarding the impact of cellular and constrained access
technologies is provided in this section since they impose some
special requirements on the management of constrained networks. On
the other hand, fixed line networks (e.g., power line communications)
are not discussed here since tend to be quite static and do not
typically impose any special requirements on the management of the
network.
2.1. Constrained Access Technologies 2.1. Constrained Access Technologies
Due to resource restrictions, embedded devices deployed as sensors Due to resource restrictions, embedded devices deployed as sensors
and actuators in the various use cases utilize low-power low data- and actuators in the various use cases utilize low-power low data-
rate wireless access technologies such as IEEE 802.15.4, DECT ULE or rate wireless access technologies such as IEEE 802.15.4, DECT ULE or
BT-LE for network connectivity. Bluetooth Low-Energy (BT-LE) for network connectivity.
In such scenarios, it is important for the NMS to be aware of the In such scenarios, it is important for the NMS to be aware of the
restrictions imposed by these access technologies to efficiently restrictions imposed by these access technologies to efficiently
manage these constrained devices. Specifically, such low-power low manage these constrained devices. Specifically, such low-power low
data-rate access technologies typically have small frame sizes. So data-rate access technologies typically have small frame sizes. So
it would be important for the NMS and management protocol of choice it would be important for the NMS and management protocol of choice
to craft packets in a way that avoids fragmentation and reassembly of to craft packets in a way that avoids fragmentation and reassembly of
packets since this can use valuable memory on constrained devices. packets since this can use valuable memory on constrained devices.
Devices using such access technologies might operate via a gateway Devices using such access technologies might operate via a gateway
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device is in-charge of devices connected to it, while the NMS device is in-charge of devices connected to it, while the NMS
conducts management operations only to the gateway. conducts management operations only to the gateway.
2.2. Cellular Access Technologies 2.2. Cellular Access Technologies
Machine to machine (M2M) services are increasingly provided by mobile Machine to machine (M2M) services are increasingly provided by mobile
service providers as numerous devices, home appliances, utility service providers as numerous devices, home appliances, utility
meters, cars, video surveillance cameras, and health monitors, are meters, cars, video surveillance cameras, and health monitors, are
connected with mobile broadband technologies. Different connected with mobile broadband technologies. Different
applications, e.g., in a home appliance or in-car network, use applications, e.g., in a home appliance or in-car network, use
Bluetooth, Wi-Fi or Zigbee locally and connect to a cellular module Bluetooth, Wi-Fi or ZigBee locally and connect to a cellular module
acting as a gateway between the constrained environment and the acting as a gateway between the constrained environment and the
mobile cellular network. mobile cellular network.
Such a gateway might provide different options for the connectivity Such a gateway might provide different options for the connectivity
of mobile networks and constrained devices: of mobile networks and constrained devices:
o a smart phone with 3G/4G and WLAN radio might use BT-LE to connect o a smart phone with 3G/4G and WLAN radio might use BT-LE to connect
to the devices in a home area network, to the devices in a home area network,
o a femtocell might be combined with home gateway functionality o a femtocell might be combined with home gateway functionality
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(NMS) run by the mobile operator. Smart phones or embedded modules (NMS) run by the mobile operator. Smart phones or embedded modules
connected to a gateway might be themselves in charge to manage the connected to a gateway might be themselves in charge to manage the
devices on their level. The initial and subsequent configuration of devices on their level. The initial and subsequent configuration of
such a device is mainly based on self-configuration and is triggered such a device is mainly based on self-configuration and is triggered
by the device itself. by the device itself.
The gateway might be in charge of filtering and aggregating the data The gateway might be in charge of filtering and aggregating the data
received from the device as the information sent by the device might received from the device as the information sent by the device might
be mostly redundant. be mostly redundant.
3. Use Cases 3. Device Lifecycle
3.1. Environmental Monitoring
Since constrained devices deployed in a network might go through
multiple phases in their lifetime, it is possible for different
managers of networks and/or devices to exist during different parts
of the device lifetimes. An in-depth discussion regarding the
possible device lifecycles can be found in [IOT-SEC].
3.1. Manufacturing and Initial Testing
Typically, the lifecycle of a device begins at the manufacturing
stage. During this phase the manufacturer of the device is
responsible for the management and configuration of the devices. It
is also possible that a certain use case might utilize multiple types
of constrained devices (e.g., temperature sensors, lighting
controllers, etc.) and these could be manufactured by different
entities. As such, during the manufacturing stage different managers
can exist for different devices. Similarly, during the initial
testing phase, where device quality assurance tasks might be
performed, the manufacturer remains responsible for the management of
devices and networks that might comprise them.
3.2. Installation and Configuration
The responsibility of managing the devices must be transferred to the
installer during the installation phase. There must exist procedures
for transferring management responsibility between the manufacturer
and installer. The installer may be the customer or an intermediary
contracted to setup the devices and their networks. It is important
that the NMS utilized allows devices originating at different vendors
to be managed, ensuring interoperability between them and the
configuration of trust relationships between them as well.
It is possible that the installation and configuration
responsibilities might lie with different entities. For example, the
installer of a device might only be responsible for cabling a
network, physically installing the devices and ensuring initial
network connectivity between them (e.g., configuring IP addresses).
Following such an installation, the customer or a sub-contractor
might actually configure the operation of the device. As such,
during installation and configuration multiple parties might be
responsible for managing a device and appropriate methods must be
available to ensure that this management responsibility is
transferred suitably.
3.3. Operation and Maintenance
At the outset of the operation phase, the operational responsibility
of a device and network should be passed on to the customer. It is
possible that the customer, however, might contract the maintenance
of the devices and network to a sub-contractor. In this case, the
NMS and management protocol should allow for configuring different
levels of access to the devices. Since different maintenance vendors
might be used for devices that perform different functions (e.g.,
HVAC, lighting, etc.) it should also be possible to restrict
management access to devices based on the currently responsible
manager.
3.4. Recommissioning and Decommissioning
The owner of a device might choose to replace, repurpose or even
decommission it. In each of these cases, either the customer or the
contracted maintenance agency must ensure that appropriate steps are
taken to meet the end goal.
In case the devices needs to be replaced, the manager of the network
(customer or contractor responsible) must detach the device from the
network, remove all appropriate configuration and discard the device.
A new device must then be configured to replace it. The NMS should
allow for transferring configuration from and replacing an existing
device. The management responsibility of the operation/maintenance
manager would end once the device is removed from the network.
During the installation of the new replacement device, the same
responsibilities would apply as those during the Installation and
Configuration phases.
The device being replaced may not have yet reached end-of-life, and
as such, instead of being discarded it may be installed in a new
location. In this case, the management responsibilities are once
again resting in the hands of the entities responsible for the
Installation and Configuration phases at the new location.
If a device is repurposed, then it is possible that the management
responsibility for this device changes as well. For example, a
device might be moved from one building to another. In this case,
the managers responsible for devices and networks in each building
could be different. As such, the NMS must not only allow for
changing configuration but also transferring management
responsibilities.
In case a device is decommissioned, the management responsibility
typically ends at that point.
4. Use Cases
4.1. Environmental Monitoring
Environmental monitoring applications are characterized by the Environmental monitoring applications are characterized by the
deployment of a number of sensors to monitor emissions, water deployment of a number of sensors to monitor emissions, water
quality, or even the movements and habits of wildlife. Other quality, or even the movements and habits of wildlife. Other
applications in this category include earthquake or tsunami early- applications in this category include earthquake or tsunami early-
warning systems. The sensors often span a large geographic area, warning systems. The sensors often span a large geographic area,
they can be mobile, and they are often difficult to replace. they can be mobile, and they are often difficult to replace.
Furthermore, the sensors are usually not protected against tampering. Furthermore, the sensors are usually not protected against tampering.
Management of environmental monitoring applications is largely Management of environmental monitoring applications is largely
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running the environmental monitoring application. Since these running the environmental monitoring application. Since these
monitoring applications must be designed to tolerate a number of monitoring applications must be designed to tolerate a number of
failures, the time scale for detecting and recording failures is for failures, the time scale for detecting and recording failures is for
some of these applications likely measured in hours and repairs might some of these applications likely measured in hours and repairs might
easily take days. In fact, in some scenarios it might be more cost- easily take days. In fact, in some scenarios it might be more cost-
and time-effective to not repair such devices at all. However, for and time-effective to not repair such devices at all. However, for
certain environmental monitoring applications, much tighter time certain environmental monitoring applications, much tighter time
scales may exist and might be enforced by regulations (e.g., scales may exist and might be enforced by regulations (e.g.,
monitoring of nuclear radiation). monitoring of nuclear radiation).
3.2. Infrastructure Monitoring 4.2. Infrastructure Monitoring
Infrastructure monitoring is concerned with the monitoring of Infrastructure monitoring is concerned with the monitoring of
infrastructures such as bridges, railway tracks, or (offshore) infrastructures such as bridges, railway tracks, or (offshore)
windmills. The primary goal is usually to detect any events or windmills. The primary goal is usually to detect any events or
changes of the structural conditions that can impact the risk and changes of the structural conditions that can impact the risk and
safety of the infrastructure being monitored. Another secondary goal safety of the infrastructure being monitored. Another secondary goal
is to schedule repair and maintenance activities in a cost effective is to schedule repair and maintenance activities in a cost effective
manner. manner.
The infrastructure to monitor might be in a factory or spread over a The infrastructure to monitor might be in a factory or spread over a
wider area but difficult to access. As such, the network in use wider area but difficult to access. As such, the network in use
might be based on a combination of fixed and wireless technologies, might be based on a combination of fixed and wireless technologies,
which use robust networking equipment and support reliable which use robust networking equipment and support reliable
communication via application layer transactions. It is likely that communication via application layer transactions. It is likely that
constrained devices in such a network are mainly C2 devices and have constrained devices in such a network are mainly C2 devices [RFC7228]
to be controlled centrally by an application running on a server. In and have to be controlled centrally by an application running on a
case such a distributed network is widely spread, the wireless server. In case such a distributed network is widely spread, the
devices might use diverse long-distance wireless technologies such as wireless devices might use diverse long-distance wireless
WiMAX, or 3G/LTE, e.g. based on embedded hardware modules. In cases, technologies such as WiMAX, or 3G/LTE. In cases, where an in-
where an in-building network is involved, the network can be based on building network is involved, the network can be based on Ethernet or
Ethernet or wireless technologies suitable for in-building usage. wireless technologies suitable for in-building usage.
The management of infrastructure monitoring applications is primarily The management of infrastructure monitoring applications is primarily
concerned with the monitoring of the functioning of the system. concerned with the monitoring of the functioning of the system.
Infrastructure monitoring devices are typically rolled out and Infrastructure monitoring devices are typically rolled out and
installed by dedicated experts and changes are rare since the installed by dedicated experts and changes are rare since the
infrastructure itself changes rarely. However, monitoring devices infrastructure itself changes rarely. However, monitoring devices
are often deployed in unsupervised environments and hence special are often deployed in unsupervised environments and hence special
attention must be given to protecting the devices from being attention must be given to protecting the devices from being
modified. modified.
Management responsibility typically rests with the organization Management responsibility typically rests with the organization
owning the infrastructure or responsible for its operation. The time owning the infrastructure or responsible for its operation. The time
scale for detecting and recording failures is likely measured in scale for detecting and recording failures is likely measured in
hours and repairs might easily take days. However, certain events hours and repairs might easily take days. However, certain events
(e.g., natural disasters) may require that status information be (e.g., natural disasters) may require that status information be
obtained much more quickly and that replacements of failed sensors obtained much more quickly and that replacements of failed sensors
can be rolled out quickly (or redundant sensors are activated can be rolled out quickly (or redundant sensors are activated
quickly). In case the devices are difficult to access, a self- quickly). In case the devices are difficult to access, a self-
healing feature on the device might become necessary. healing feature on the device might become necessary.
3.3. Industrial Applications 4.3. Industrial Applications
Industrial Applications and smart manufacturing refer to tasks such Industrial Applications and smart manufacturing refer to tasks such
as networked control and monitoring of manufacturing equipment, asset as networked control and monitoring of manufacturing equipment, asset
and situation management, or manufacturing process control. For the and situation management, or manufacturing process control. For the
management of a factory it is becoming essential to implement smart management of a factory it is becoming essential to implement smart
capabilities. From an engineering standpoint, industrial capabilities. From an engineering standpoint, industrial
applications are intelligent systems enabling rapid manufacturing of applications are intelligent systems enabling rapid manufacturing of
new products, dynamic response to product demands, and real-time new products, dynamic response to product demands, and real-time
optimization of manufacturing production and supply chain networks. optimization of manufacturing production and supply chain networks.
Potential industrial applications (e.g., for smart factories and Potential industrial applications (e.g., for smart factories and
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system and externally with the smart grid enabling real-time system and externally with the smart grid enabling real-time
energy optimization. energy optimization.
Management of Industrial Applications and smart manufacturing may in Management of Industrial Applications and smart manufacturing may in
some situations involve Building Automation tasks such as control of some situations involve Building Automation tasks such as control of
energy, HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning), lighting, energy, HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning), lighting,
or access control. Interacting with management systems from other or access control. Interacting with management systems from other
application areas might be important in some cases (e.g., application areas might be important in some cases (e.g.,
environmental monitoring for electric energy production, energy environmental monitoring for electric energy production, energy
management for dynamically scaling manufacturing, vehicular networks management for dynamically scaling manufacturing, vehicular networks
for mobile asset tracking). for mobile asset tracking). Management of constrained devices and
networks may not only refer to the management of their network
connectivity. Since the capabilities of constrained devices are
limited, it is quite possible that a management system would even be
required to configure, monitor and operate the primary functions that
a constrained device is utilized for, besides managing its network
connectivity.
Sensor networks are an essential technology used for smart Sensor networks are an essential technology used for smart
manufacturing. Measurements, automated controls, plant optimization, manufacturing. Measurements, automated controls, plant optimization,
health and safety management, and other functions are provided by a health and safety management, and other functions are provided by a
large number of networked sectors. Data interoperability and large number of networked sectors. Data interoperability and
seamless exchange of product, process, and project data are enabled seamless exchange of product, process, and project data are enabled
through interoperable data systems used by collaborating divisions or through interoperable data systems used by collaborating divisions or
business systems. Intelligent automation and learning systems are business systems. Intelligent automation and learning systems are
vital to smart manufacturing but must be effectively integrated with vital to smart manufacturing but must be effectively integrated with
the decision environment. Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have been the decision environment. The NMS utilized must ensure timely
developed for machinery Condition-based Maintenance (CBM) as they delivery of sensor data to the control unit so it may take
offer significant cost savings and enable new functionalities. appropriate decisions. Similarly, relaying of commands must also be
Inaccessible locations, rotating machinery, hazardous areas, and monitored and managed to ensure optimal functioning. Wireless sensor
mobile assets can be reached with wireless sensors. WSNs can provide networks (WSN) have been developed for machinery Condition-based
today wireless link reliability, real-time capabilities, and quality- Maintenance (CBM) as they offer significant cost savings and enable
of-service and enable industrial and related wireless sense and new functionalities. Inaccessible locations, rotating machinery,
control applications. hazardous areas, and mobile assets can be reached with wireless
sensors. WSNs can provide today wireless link reliability, real-time
capabilities, and quality-of-service and enable industrial and
related wireless sense and control applications.
Management of industrial and factory applications is largely focused Management of industrial and factory applications is largely focused
on the monitoring whether the system is still functional, real-time on monitoring whether the system is still functional, real-time
continuous performance monitoring, and optimization as necessary. continuous performance monitoring, and optimization as necessary.
The factory network might be part of a campus network or connected to The factory network might be part of a campus network or connected to
the Internet. The constrained devices in such a network need to be the Internet. The constrained devices in such a network need to be
able to establish configuration themselves (auto-configuration) and able to establish configuration themselves (auto-configuration) and
might need to deal with error conditions as much as possible locally. might need to deal with error conditions as much as possible locally.
Access control has to be provided with multi-level administrative Access control has to be provided with multi-level administrative
access and security. Support and diagnostics can be provided through access and security. Support and diagnostics can be provided through
remote monitoring access centralized outside of the factory. remote monitoring access centralized outside of the factory.
Factory automation tasks require that continuous monitoring be used
to optimize production. Groups of manufacturing and monitoring
devices could be defined to establish relationships between them. To
ensure timely optimization of processes, commands from the NMS must
arrive at all destination within an appropriate duration. This
duration could change based on the manufacturing task being
performed. Installation and operation of factory networks have
different requirements. During the installation phase many networks,
usually distributed along different parts of the factory/assembly
line, co-exist without a connection to a common backbone. A
specialized installation tool is typically used to configure the
functions of different types of devices, in different factory
location, in a secure manner. At the end of the installation phase,
interoperability between these stand-alone networks and devices must
be enabled. During the operation phase, these stand-alone networks
are connected to a common backbone so that they may retrieve control
information from and send commands to appropriate devices.
Management responsibility is typically owned by the organization Management responsibility is typically owned by the organization
running the industrial application. Since the monitoring running the industrial application. Since the monitoring
applications must handle a potentially large number of failures, the applications must handle a potentially large number of failures, the
time scale for detecting and recording failures is for some of these time scale for detecting and recording failures is for some of these
applications likely measured in minutes. However, for certain applications likely measured in minutes. However, for certain
industrial applications, much tighter time scales may exist, e.g. in industrial applications, much tighter time scales may exist, e.g. in
real-time, which might be enforced by the manufacturing process or real-time, which might be enforced by the manufacturing process or
the use of critical material. the use of critical material.
3.4. Energy Management 4.4. Energy Management
The EMAN working group developed an energy management framework The EMAN working group developed an energy management framework
[I-D.ietf-eman-framework] for devices and device components within or [RFC7326] for devices and device components within or connected to
connected to communication networks. This document observes that one communication networks. This document observes that one of the
of the challenges of energy management is that a power distribution challenges of energy management is that a power distribution network
network is responsible for the supply of energy to various devices is responsible for the supply of energy to various devices and
and components, while a separate communication network is typically components, while a separate communication network is typically used
used to monitor and control the power distribution network. Devices to monitor and control the power distribution network. Devices in
in the context of energy management can be monitored for parameters the context of energy management can be monitored for parameters like
like Power, Energy, Demand and Power Quality. If a device contains Power, Energy, Demand and Power Quality. If a device contains
batteries, they can be also monitored and managed. batteries, they can be also monitored and managed.
Energy devices differ in complexity and may include basic sensors or Energy devices differ in complexity and may include basic sensors or
switches, specialized electrical meters, or power distribution units switches, specialized electrical meters, or power distribution units
(PDU), and subsystems inside the network devices (routers, network (PDU), and subsystems inside the network devices (routers, network
switches) or home or industrial appliances. The operators of an switches) or home or industrial appliances. The operators of an
Energy Management System are either the utility providers or Energy Management System are either the utility providers or
customers that aim to control and reduce the energy consumption and customers that aim to control and reduce the energy consumption and
the associated costs. The topology in use differs and the deployment the associated costs. The topology in use differs and the deployment
can cover areas from small surfaces (individual homes) to large can cover areas from small surfaces (individual homes) to large
geographical areas. The EMAN requirements document [RFC6988] geographical areas. The EMAN requirements document [RFC6988]
discusses the requirements for energy management concerning discusses the requirements for energy management concerning
monitoring and control functions. monitoring and control functions.
It is assumed that Energy Management will apply to a large range of It is assumed that Energy Management will apply to a large range of
devices of all classes and networks topologies. Specific resource devices of all classes and networks topologies. Specific resource
monitoring like battery utilization and availability may be specific monitoring like battery utilization and availability may be specific
to devices with lower physical resources (device classes C0 or C1). to devices with lower physical resources (device classes C0 or C1
[RFC7228]).
Energy Management is especially relevant to the Smart Grid. A Smart Energy Management is especially relevant to the Smart Grid. A Smart
Grid is an electrical grid that uses data networks to gather and to Grid is an electrical grid that uses data networks to gather and to
act on energy and power-related information in an automated fashion act on energy and power-related information in an automated fashion
with the goal to improve the efficiency, reliability, economics, and with the goal to improve the efficiency, reliability, economics, and
sustainability of the production and distribution of electricity. sustainability of the production and distribution of electricity.
Smart Metering is a good example of Smart Grid based Energy Smart Metering is a good example of Smart Grid based Energy
Management applications. Different types of possibly wireless small Management applications. Different types of possibly wireless small
meters produce all together a large amount of data, which is meters produce all together a large amount of data, which is
collected by a central entity and processed by an application server, collected by a central entity and processed by an application server,
which may be located within the customer's residence or off-site in a which may be located within the customer's residence or off-site in a
data-center. The communication infrastructure can be provided by a data-center. The communication infrastructure can be provided by a
mobile network operator as the meters in urban areas will have most mobile network operator as the meters in urban areas will have most
likely a cellular or WiMAX radio. In case the application server is likely a cellular or WiMAX radio. In case the application server is
located within the residence, such meters are more likely to use WiFi located within the residence, such meters are more likely to use Wi-
protocols to interconnect with an existing network. Fi protocols to interconnect with an existing network.
An Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) network is another example An Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) network is another example
of the Smart Grid that enables an electric utility to retrieve of the Smart Grid that enables an electric utility to retrieve
frequent electric usage data from each electric meter installed at a frequent electric usage data from each electric meter installed at a
customer's home or business. Unlike Smart Metering, in which case customer's home or business. Unlike Smart Metering, in which case
the customer or their agents install appliance level meters, an AMI the customer or their agents install appliance level meters, an AMI
infrastructure is typically managed by the utility providers and infrastructure is typically managed by the utility providers and
could also include other distribution automation devices like could also include other distribution automation devices like
transformers and reclosers. Meters in AMI networks typically contain transformers and reclosers. Meters in AMI networks typically contain
constrained devices that connect to mesh networks with a low- constrained devices that connect to mesh networks with a low-
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links that might be operated and managed by separate entities, each links that might be operated and managed by separate entities, each
having divergent policies for their own devices and network segments. having divergent policies for their own devices and network segments.
During management operations, like firmware updates, it is important During management operations, like firmware updates, it is important
that the management system performs robustly in order to avoid that the management system performs robustly in order to avoid
accidental outages of critical power systems that could be part of accidental outages of critical power systems that could be part of
AMI networks. In fact, since AMI networks must also report on AMI networks. In fact, since AMI networks must also report on
outages, the management system might have to manage the energy outages, the management system might have to manage the energy
properties of battery operated AMI devices themselves as well. properties of battery operated AMI devices themselves as well.
A management system for home based Smart Metering solutions is likely A management system for home based Smart Metering solutions is likely
to have few devices laid out in a simple topology. However, AMI to have devices laid out in a simple topology. However, AMI networks
networks installations could have thousands of nodes per router, installations could have thousands of nodes per router, i.e., higher-
i.e., higher-end device, which organize themselves in an ad-hoc end device, which organize themselves in an ad-hoc manner. As such,
manner. As such, a management system for AMI networks will need to a management system for AMI networks will need to discover and
discover and operate over complex topologies as well. In some operate over complex topologies as well. In some situations, it is
situations, it is possible that the management system might also have possible that the management system might also have to setup and
to setup and manage the topology of nodes, especially critical manage the topology of nodes, especially critical routers.
routers. Encryption key management and sharing in both types of Encryption key management and sharing in both types of networks is
network is also likely to be important for providing confidentiality also likely to be important for providing confidentiality for all
for all data traffic. In AMI networks the key may be obtained by a data traffic. In AMI networks the key may be obtained by a meter
meter only after an end-to-end authentication process based on only after an end-to-end authentication process based on
certificates. Smart Metering solution could adopt a similar approach certificates. Smart Metering solution could adopt a similar approach
or the security may be implied due to the encrypted WiFi networks or the security may be implied due to the encrypted Wi-Fi networks
they become part of. they become part of.
The management of such a network requires end-to-end management of The management of such a network requires end-to-end management of
and information exchange through different types of networks. and information exchange through different types of networks.
However, as of today there is no integrated energy management However, as of today there is no integrated energy management
approach and no common information model available. Specific energy approach and no common information model available. Specific energy
management applications or network islands use their own management management applications or network islands use their own management
mechanisms. mechanisms.
3.5. Medical Applications 4.5. Medical Applications
Constrained devices can be seen as an enabling technology for Constrained devices can be seen as an enabling technology for
advanced and possibly remote health monitoring and emergency advanced and possibly remote health monitoring and emergency
notification systems, ranging from blood pressure and heart rate notification systems, ranging from blood pressure and heart rate
monitors to advanced devices capable to monitor implanted monitors to advanced devices capable of monitoring implanted
technologies, such as pacemakers or advanced hearing aids. Medical technologies, such as pacemakers or advanced hearing aids. Medical
sensors may not only be attached to human bodies, they might also sensors may not only be attached to human bodies, they might also
exist in the infrastructure used by humans such as bathrooms or exist in the infrastructure used by humans such as bathrooms or
kitchens. Medical applications will also be used to ensure kitchens. Medical applications will also be used to ensure
treatments are being applied properly and they might guide people treatments are being applied properly and they might guide people
losing orientation. Fitness and wellness applications, such as losing orientation. Fitness and wellness applications, such as
connected scales or wearable heart monitors, encourage consumers to connected scales or wearable heart monitors, encourage consumers to
exercise and empower self-monitoring of key fitness indicators. exercise and empower self-monitoring of key fitness indicators.
Different applications use Bluetooth, Wi-Fi or Zigbee connections to Different applications use Bluetooth, Wi-Fi or ZigBee connections to
access the patient's smartphone or home cellular connection to access access the patient's smartphone or home cellular connection to access
the Internet. the Internet.
Constrained devices that are part of medical applications are managed Constrained devices that are part of medical applications are managed
either by the users of those devices or by an organization providing either by the users of those devices or by an organization providing
medical (monitoring) services for physicians. In the first case, medical (monitoring) services for physicians. In the first case,
management must be automatic and or easy to install and setup by management must be automatic and/or easy to install and setup by
average people. In the second case, it can be expected that devices average people. In the second case, it can be expected that devices
be controlled by specially trained people. In both cases, however, be controlled by specially trained people. In both cases, however,
it is crucial to protect the privacy of the people to which medical it is crucial to protect the privacy of the people to which medical
devices are attached. Even though the data collected by a heart beat devices are attached. Even though the data collected by a heart beat
monitor might be protected, the pure fact that someone carries such a monitor might be protected, the pure fact that someone carries such a
device may need protection. As such, certain medical appliances may device may need protection. As such, certain medical appliances may
not want to participate in discovery and self-configuration protocols not want to participate in discovery and self-configuration protocols
in order to remain invisible. in order to remain invisible.
Many medical devices are likely to be used (and relied upon) to Many medical devices are likely to be used (and relied upon) to
provide data to physicians in critical situations since the biggest provide data to physicians in critical situations since the biggest
market is likely elderly and handicapped people. Timely delivery of market is likely elderly and handicapped people. Timely delivery of
data can be quite important in certain applications like patient data can be quite important in certain applications like patient
mobility monitoring in oldage homes. Data must reach the physician mobility monitoring in old-age homes. Data must reach the physician
and/or emergency services within specified limits of time in order to and/or emergency services within specified limits of time in order to
be useful. As such, fault detection of the communication network or be useful. As such, fault detection of the communication network or
the constrained devices becomes a crucial function of the management the constrained devices becomes a crucial function of the management
system that must be carried out with high reliability and, depending system that must be carried out with high reliability and, depending
on the medical appliance and its application, within seconds. on the medical appliance and its application, within seconds.
3.6. Building Automation 4.6. Building Automation
Building automation comprises the distributed systems designed and Building automation comprises the distributed systems designed and
deployed to monitor and control the mechanical, electrical and deployed to monitor and control the mechanical, electrical and
electronic systems inside buildings with various destinations (e.g., electronic systems inside buildings with various destinations (e.g.,
public and private, industrial, institutions, or residential). public and private, industrial, institutions, or residential).
Advanced Building Automation Systems (BAS) may be deployed Advanced Building Automation Systems (BAS) may be deployed
concentrating the various functions of safety, environmental control, concentrating the various functions of safety, environmental control,
occupancy, security. More and more the deployment of the various occupancy, security. More and more the deployment of the various
functional systems is connected to the same communication functional systems is connected to the same communication
infrastructure (possibly Internet Protocol based), which may involve infrastructure (possibly Internet Protocol based), which may involve
wired or wireless communications networks inside the building. wired or wireless communications networks inside the building.
Building automation requires the deployment of a large number Building automation requires the deployment of a large number
(10-100.000) of sensors that monitor the status of devices, and (10-100.000) of sensors that monitor the status of devices, and
parameters inside the building and controllers with different parameters inside the building and controllers with different
specialized functionality for areas within the building or the specialized functionality for areas within the building or the
totality of the building. Inter-node distances between neighboring totality of the building. Inter-node distances between neighboring
nodes vary between 1 to 20 meters. Contrary to home automation, in nodes vary between 1 to 20 meters. The NMS must, as a result, be
building management the devices are expected to be managed assets and able to manage and monitor a large number of devices, which may be
known to a set of commissioning tools and a data storage, such that organized in multi-hop meshed networks. Distances between the nodes,
every connected device has a known origin. The management includes and the use of constrained protocols, means that networks of nodes
verifying the presence of the expected devices and detecting the might be segmented. The management of such network segments and
presence of unwanted devices. nodes in these segments should be possible. Contrary to home
automation, in building management the devices are expected to be
managed assets and known to a set of commissioning tools and a data
storage, such that every connected device has a known origin. This
requires the management system to be able to discover devices on the
network and ensure that the expected list of devices is currently
matched. Management here includes verifying the presence of the
expected devices and detecting the presence of unwanted devices.
Examples of functions performed by such controllers are regulating Examples of functions performed by controllers in building automation
the quality, humidity, and temperature of the air inside the building are regulating the quality, humidity, and temperature of the air
and lighting. Other systems may report the status of the machinery inside the building and lighting. Other systems may report the
inside the building like elevators, or inside the rooms like status of the machinery inside the building like elevators, or inside
projectors in meeting rooms. Security cameras and sensors may be the rooms like projectors in meeting rooms. Security cameras and
deployed and operated on separate dedicated infrastructures connected sensors may be deployed and operated on separate dedicated
to the common backbone. The deployment area of a BAS is typically infrastructures connected to the common backbone. The deployment
inside one building (or part of it) or several buildings area of a BAS is typically inside one building (or part of it) or
geographically grouped in a campus. A building network can be several buildings geographically grouped in a campus. A building
composed of network segments, where a network segment covers a floor, network can be composed of network segments, where a network segment
an area on the floor, or a given functionality (e.g., security covers a floor, an area on the floor, or a given functionality (e.g.,
cameras). security cameras). It is possible that the management tasks of
different types of some devices might be separated from others (e.g,
security cameras might operate and be managed via a separate network
to the HVAC in a building).
Some of the sensors in Building Automation Systems (for example fire Some of the sensors in Building Automation Systems (for example fire
alarms or security systems) register, record and transfer critical alarms or security systems) register, record and transfer critical
alarm information and therefore must be resilient to events like loss alarm information and therefore must be resilient to events like loss
of power or security attacks. This leads to the need to certify of power or security attacks. A management system must be able to
components and subsystems operating in such constrained conditions deal with unintentional segmentation of networks due to power loss or
based on specific requirements. Also in some environments, the channel unavailability. It must also be able to detect security
malfunctioning of a control system (like temperature control) needs events. Due to specific operating conditions required from certain
to be reported in the shortest possible time. Complex control devices, there might be a need to certify components and subsystems
systems can misbehave, and their critical status reporting and safety operating in such constrained conditions based on specific
algorithms need to be basic and robust and perform even in critical requirements. Also in some environments, the malfunctioning of a
conditions. control system (like temperature control) needs to be reported in the
shortest possible time. Complex control systems can misbehave, and
their critical status reporting and safety algorithms need to be
basic and robust and perform even in critical conditions. Providing
this monitoring, configuration and notification service is an
important task of the management system used in building automation.
Building Automation solutions are deployed in some cases in newly Building Automation solutions are deployed in some cases in newly
designed buildings, in other cases it might be over existing designed buildings, in other cases it might be over existing
infrastructures. In the first case, there is a broader range of infrastructures. In the first case, there is a broader range of
possible solutions, which can be planned for the infrastructure of possible solutions, which can be planned for the infrastructure of
the building. In the second case the solution needs to be deployed the building. In the second case the solution needs to be deployed
over an existing infrastructure taking into account factors like over an existing infrastructure taking into account factors like
existing wiring, distance limitations, the propagation of radio existing wiring, distance limitations, the propagation of radio
signals over walls and floors, thereby making deployment difficult. signals over walls and floors, thereby making deployment difficult.
As a result, some of the existing WLAN solutions (e.g., IEEE 802.11 As a result, some of the existing WLAN solutions (e.g., IEEE 802.11
or IEEE 802.15) may be deployed. In mission-critical or security or IEEE 802.15) may be deployed. In mission-critical or security
sensitive environments and in cases where link failures happen often, sensitive environments and in cases where link failures happen often,
topologies that allow for reconfiguration of the network and topologies that allow for reconfiguration of the network and
connection continuity may be required. Some of the sensors deployed connection continuity may be required. Some of the sensors deployed
in building automation may be very simple constrained devices for in building automation may be very simple constrained devices for
which class 0 or class 1 may be assumed. which C0 or C1 [RFC7228] may be assumed.
For lighting applications, groups of lights must be defined and For lighting applications, groups of lights must be defined and
managed. Commands to a group of light must arrive within 200 ms at managed. Commands to a group of light must arrive within 200 ms at
all destinations. The installation and operation of a building all destinations. The installation and operation of a building
network has different requirements. During the installation, many network has different requirements. During the installation, many
stand-alone networks of a few to 100 nodes co-exist without a stand-alone networks of a few to 100 nodes co-exist without a
connection to the backbone. During this phase, the nodes are connection to the backbone. During this phase, the nodes are
identified with a network identifier related to their physical identified with a network identifier related to their physical
location. Devices are accessed from an installation tool to connect location. Devices are accessed from an installation tool to connect
them to the network in a secure fashion. During installation, the them to the network in a secure fashion. During installation, the
setting of parameters of common values to enable interoperability may setting of parameters of common values to enable interoperability may
be required. During operation, the networks are connected to the be required. During operation, the networks are connected to the
backbone while maintaining the network identifier to physical backbone while maintaining the network identifier to physical
location relation. Network parameters like address and name are location relation. Network parameters like address and name are
stored in DNS. The names can assist in determining the physical stored in DNS. The names can assist in determining the physical
location of the device. location of the device.
3.7. Home Automation 4.7. Home Automation
Home automation includes the control of lighting, heating, Home automation includes the control of lighting, heating,
ventilation, air conditioning, appliances, entertainment and home ventilation, air conditioning, appliances, entertainment and home
security devices to improve convenience, comfort, energy efficiency, security devices to improve convenience, comfort, energy efficiency,
and security. It can be seen as a residential extension of building and safety. It can be seen as a residential extension of building
automation. However, unlike a building automation system, the automation. However, unlike a building automation system, the
infrastructure in a home is operated in a considerably more ad-hoc infrastructure in a home is operated in a considerably more ad-hoc
manner. While in some installations it is likely that there is no manner. While in some installations it is likely that there is no
centralized management system, akin to a Building Automation System centralized management system, akin to a Building Automation System
(BAS), available, in other situations outsourced and cloud based (BAS), available, in other situations outsourced and cloud based
systems responsible for managing devices in the home might be used. systems responsible for managing devices in the home might be used.
Home automation networks need a certain amount of configuration Home automation networks need a certain amount of configuration
(associating switches or sensors to actors) that is either provided (associating switches or sensors to actuators) that is either
by electricians deploying home automation solutions, by third party provided by electricians deploying home automation solutions, by
home automation service providers (e.g., small specialized companies third party home automation service providers (e.g., small
or home automation device manufacturers) or by residents by using the specialized companies or home automation device manufacturers) or by
application user interface provided by home automation devices to residents by using the application user interface provided by home
configure (parts of) the home automation solution. Similarly, automation devices to configure (parts of) the home automation
failures may be reported via suitable interfaces to residents or they solution. Similarly, failures may be reported via suitable
might be recorded and made available to services providers in charge interfaces to residents or they might be recorded and made available
of the maintenance of the home automation infrastructure. to services providers in charge of the maintenance of the home
automation infrastructure.
The management responsibility lies either with the residents or it The management responsibility lies either with the residents or it
may be outsourced to electricians and/or third parties providing may be outsourced to electricians and/or third parties providing
management of home automation solutions as a service. A varying management of home automation solutions as a service. A varying
combination of electricians, service providers or the residents may combination of electricians, service providers or the residents may
be responsible for different aspects of managing the infrastructure. be responsible for different aspects of managing the infrastructure.
The time scale for failure detection and resolution is in many cases The time scale for failure detection and resolution is in many cases
likely counted in hours to days. likely counted in hours to days.
3.8. Transport Applications 4.8. Transport Applications
Transport Application is a generic term for the integrated Transport Application is a generic term for the integrated
application of communications, control, and information processing in application of communications, control, and information processing in
a transportation system. Transport telematics or vehicle telematics a transportation system. Transport telematics or vehicle telematics
are used as a term for the group of technologies that support are used as a term for the group of technologies that support
transportation systems. Transport applications running on such a transportation systems. Transport applications running on such a
transportation system cover all modes of the transport and consider transportation system cover all modes of the transport and consider
all elements of the transportation system, i.e. the vehicle, the all elements of the transportation system, i.e. the vehicle, the
infrastructure, and the driver or user, interacting together infrastructure, and the driver or user, interacting together
dynamically. Examples for transport applications are inter and intra dynamically. Examples for transport applications are inter and intra
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constrained devices in a network (e.g. a moving in-car network) have constrained devices in a network (e.g. a moving in-car network) have
to be controlled by an application running on an application server to be controlled by an application running on an application server
in the network of a service provider. Such a highly distributed in the network of a service provider. Such a highly distributed
network including cellular devices on vehicles is assumed to include network including cellular devices on vehicles is assumed to include
a wireless access network using diverse long distance wireless a wireless access network using diverse long distance wireless
technologies such as WiMAX, 3G/LTE or satellite communication, e.g. technologies such as WiMAX, 3G/LTE or satellite communication, e.g.
based on an embedded hardware module. As a result, the management of based on an embedded hardware module. As a result, the management of
constrained devices in the transport system might be necessary to constrained devices in the transport system might be necessary to
plan top-down and might need to use data models obliged from and plan top-down and might need to use data models obliged from and
defined on the application layer. The assumed device classes in use defined on the application layer. The assumed device classes in use
are mainly C2 devices. In cases, where an in-vehicle network is are mainly C2 [RFC7228] devices. In cases, where an in-vehicle
involved, C1 devices with limited capabilities and a short-distance network is involved, C1 devices [RFC7228] with limited capabilities
constrained radio network, e.g. IEEE 802.15.4 might be used and a short-distance constrained radio network, e.g. IEEE 802.15.4
additionally. might be used additionally.
All Transport Applications will require an IT infrastructure to run All Transport Applications will require an IT infrastructure to run
on top of, e.g., in public transport scenarios like trains, bus or on top of, e.g., in public transport scenarios like trains, bus or
metro network infrastructure might be provided, maintained and metro network infrastructure might be provided, maintained and
operated by third parties like mobile network or satellite network operated by third parties like mobile network or satellite network
operators. However, the management responsibility of the transport operators. However, the management responsibility of the transport
application typically rests within the organization running the application typically rests within the organization running the
transport application (in the public transport scenario, this would transport application (in the public transport scenario, this would
typically be the public transport operator). Different aspects of typically be the public transport operator). Different aspects of
the infrastructure might also be managed by different entities. For the infrastructure might also be managed by different entities. For
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application are manifold. The up-to-date position of each node in application are manifold. The up-to-date position of each node in
the network should be reported to the corresponding management the network should be reported to the corresponding management
entities, since the nodes could be moving within or roaming between entities, since the nodes could be moving within or roaming between
different networks. Secondly, a variety of troubleshooting different networks. Secondly, a variety of troubleshooting
information, including sensitive location information, needs to be information, including sensitive location information, needs to be
reported to the management system in order to provide accurate reported to the management system in order to provide accurate
service to the customer. Management systems dealing with mobile service to the customer. Management systems dealing with mobile
nodes could possibly exploit specific patterns in the mobility of the nodes could possibly exploit specific patterns in the mobility of the
nodes. These patterns emerge due to repetitive vehicular usage in nodes. These patterns emerge due to repetitive vehicular usage in
scenarios like people commuting to work, logistics supply vehicles scenarios like people commuting to work, logistics supply vehicles
transporting shipments between warehouses and etc. The NMS must also transporting shipments between warehouses, etc. The NMS must also be
be able to handle partitioned networks, which would arise due to the able to handle partitioned networks, which would arise due to the
dynamic nature of traffic resulting in large inter-vehicle gaps in dynamic nature of traffic resulting in large inter-vehicle gaps in
sparsely populated scenarios. Since mobile nodes might roam in sparsely populated scenarios. Since mobile nodes might roam in
remote networks, the NMS should be able to provide operating remote networks, the NMS should be able to provide operating
configuration updates regardless of node location. configuration updates regardless of node location.
The constrained devices in a moving transport network might be The constrained devices in a moving transport network might be
initially configured in a factory and a reconfiguration might be initially configured in a factory and a reconfiguration might be
needed only rarely. New devices might be integrated in an ad-hoc needed only rarely. New devices might be integrated in an ad-hoc
manner based on self-management and -configuration capabilities. manner based on self-management and -configuration capabilities.
Monitoring and data exchange might be necessary to do via a gateway Monitoring and data exchange might be necessary to do via a gateway
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necessarily need to be wireless. The time scale for detecting and necessarily need to be wireless. The time scale for detecting and
recording failures in a moving transport network is likely measured recording failures in a moving transport network is likely measured
in hours and repairs might easily take days. It is likely that a in hours and repairs might easily take days. It is likely that a
self-healing feature would be used locally. On the other hand, self-healing feature would be used locally. On the other hand,
failures in fixed transport application infrastructure (e.g., failures in fixed transport application infrastructure (e.g.,
traffic-lights, digital signage displays) is likely to be measured in traffic-lights, digital signage displays) is likely to be measured in
minutes so as to avoid untoward traffic incidents. As such, the NMS minutes so as to avoid untoward traffic incidents. As such, the NMS
must be able to deal with differing timeliness requirements based on must be able to deal with differing timeliness requirements based on
the type of devices. the type of devices.
3.9. Community Network Applications 4.9. Community Network Applications
Community networks are comprised of constrained routers in a multi- Community networks are comprised of constrained routers in a multi-
hop mesh topology, communicating over a lossy, and often wireless hop mesh topology, communicating over a lossy, and often wireless
channel. While the routers are mostly non-mobile, the topology may channels. While the routers are mostly non-mobile, the topology may
be very dynamic because of fluctuations in link quality of the be very dynamic because of fluctuations in link quality of the
(wireless) channel caused by, e.g., obstacles, or other nearby radio (wireless) channel caused by, e.g., obstacles, or other nearby radio
transmissions. Depending on the routers that are used in the transmissions. Depending on the routers that are used in the
community network, the resources of the routers (memory, CPU) may be community network, the resources of the routers (memory, CPU) may be
more or less constrained - available resources may range from only a more or less constrained - available resources may range from only a
few kilobytes of RAM to several megabytes or more, and CPUs may be few kilobytes of RAM to several megabytes or more, and CPUs may be
small and embedded, or more powerful general-purpose processors. small and embedded, or more powerful general-purpose processors.
Examples of such community networks are the FunkFeuer network Examples of such community networks are the FunkFeuer network
(Vienna, Austria), FreiFunk (Berlin, Germany), Seattle Wireless (Vienna, Austria), FreiFunk (Berlin, Germany), Seattle Wireless
(Seattle, USA), and AWMN (Athens, Greece). These community networks (Seattle, USA), and AWMN (Athens, Greece). These community networks
are public and non-regulated, allowing their users to connect to each are public and non-regulated, allowing their users to connect to each
other and - through an uplink to an ISP - to the Internet. No fee, other and - through an uplink to an ISP - to the Internet. No fee,
other than the initial purchase of a wireless router, is charged for other than the initial purchase of a wireless router, is charged for
these services. Applications of these community networks can be these services. Applications of these community networks can be
diverse, e.g., location based services, free Internet access, file diverse, e.g., location based services, free Internet access, file
sharing between users, distributed chat services, social networking sharing between users, distributed chat services, social networking,
etc, video sharing etc. video sharing, etc.
As an example of a community network, the FunkFeuer network comprises As an example of a community network, the FunkFeuer network comprises
several hundred routers, many of which have several radio interfaces several hundred routers, many of which have several radio interfaces
(with omnidirectional and some directed antennas). The routers of (with omnidirectional and some directed antennas). The routers of
the network are small-sized wireless routers, such as the Linksys the network are small-sized wireless routers, such as the Linksys
WRT54GL, available in 2011 for less than 50 Euros. These routers, WRT54GL, available in 2011 for less than 50 Euros. These routers,
with 16 MB of RAM and 264 MHz of CPU power, are mounted on the with 16 MB of RAM and 264 MHz of CPU power, are mounted on the
rooftops of the users. When new users want to connect to the rooftops of the users. When new users want to connect to the
network, they acquire a wireless router, install the appropriate network, they acquire a wireless router, install the appropriate
firmware and routing protocol, and mount the router on the rooftop. firmware and routing protocol, and mount the router on the rooftop.
IP addresses for the router are assigned manually from a list of IP addresses for the router are assigned manually from a list of
addresses (because of the lack of autoconfiguration standards for addresses (because of the lack of auto-configuration standards for
mesh networks in the IETF). mesh networks in the IETF).
While the routers are non-mobile, fluctuations in link quality While the routers are non-mobile, fluctuations in link quality
require an ad hoc routing protocol that allows for quick convergence require an ad hoc routing protocol that allows for quick convergence
to reflect the effective topology of the network (such as NHDP to reflect the effective topology of the network (such as NHDP
[RFC6130] and OLSRv2 [RFC7181] developed in the MANET WG). Usually, [RFC6130] and OLSRv2 [RFC7181] developed in the MANET WG). Usually,
no human interaction is required for these protocols, as all variable no human interaction is required for these protocols, as all variable
parameters required by the routing protocol are either negotiated in parameters required by the routing protocol are either negotiated in
the control traffic exchange, or are only of local importance to each the control traffic exchange, or are only of local importance to each
router (i.e. do not influence interoperability). However, external router (i.e. do not influence interoperability). However, external
skipping to change at page 17, line 43 skipping to change at page 20, line 43
Different use cases for the management of community networks are Different use cases for the management of community networks are
possible: possible:
o One single Network Management Station, e.g. a border gateway o One single Network Management Station, e.g. a border gateway
providing connectivity to the Internet, requires managing or providing connectivity to the Internet, requires managing or
monitoring routers in the community network, in order to monitoring routers in the community network, in order to
investigate problems (monitoring) or to improve performance by investigate problems (monitoring) or to improve performance by
changing parameters (managing). As the topology of the network is changing parameters (managing). As the topology of the network is
dynamic, constant connectivity of each router towards the dynamic, constant connectivity of each router towards the
management station cannot be guaranteed. Current network management station cannot be guaranteed. Current network
management protocols, such as SNMP and Netconf, may be used (e.g., management protocols, such as SNMP and NETCONF, may be used (e.g.,
using interfaces such as the NHDP-MIB [RFC6779]). However, when using interfaces such as the NHDP-MIB [RFC6779]). However, when
routers in the community network are constrained, existing routers in the community network are constrained, existing
protocols may require too many resources in terms of memory and protocols may require too many resources in terms of memory and
CPU; and more importantly, the bandwidth requirements may exceed CPU; and more importantly, the bandwidth requirements may exceed
the available channel capacity in wireless mesh networks. the available channel capacity in wireless mesh networks.
Moreover, management and monitoring may be unfeasible if the Moreover, management and monitoring may be unfeasible if the
connection between the network management station and the routers connection between the network management station and the routers
is frequently interrupted. is frequently interrupted.
o A distributed network monitoring, in which more than one o Distributed network monitoring, in which more than one management
management station monitors or manages other routers. Because station monitors or manages other routers. Because connectivity
connectivity to a server cannot be guaranteed at all times, a to a server cannot be guaranteed at all times, a distributed
distributed approach may provide a higher reliability, at the cost approach may provide a higher reliability, at the cost of
of increased complexity. Currently, no IETF standard exists for increased complexity. Currently, no IETF standard exists for
distributed monitoring and management. distributed monitoring and management.
o Monitoring and management of a whole network or a group of o Monitoring and management of a whole network or a group of
routers. Monitoring the performance of a community network may routers. Monitoring the performance of a community network may
require more information than what can be acquired from a single require more information than what can be acquired from a single
router using a network management protocol. Statistics, such as router using a network management protocol. Statistics, such as
topology changes over time, data throughput along certain routing topology changes over time, data throughput along certain routing
paths, congestion etc., are of interest for a group of routers (or paths, congestion etc., are of interest for a group of routers (or
the routing domain) as a whole. As of 2012, no IETF standard the routing domain) as a whole. As of 2014, no IETF standard
allows for monitoring or managing whole networks, instead of allows for monitoring or managing whole networks, instead of
single routers. single routers.
3.10. Field Operations 4.10. Field Operations
The challenges of configuration and monitoring of networks operated The challenges of configuration and monitoring of networks operated
in the field by rescue and security agencies can be different from in the field by rescue and security agencies can be different from
the other use cases since the requirements and operating conditions the other use cases since the requirements and operating conditions
of such networks are quite different. of such networks are quite different.
With technology advancements, field networks operated nowadays are With technology advancements, field networks operated nowadays are
becomeing large and can consist of varieties of different types of becoming large and can consist of varieties of different types of
equipment that run different protocols and tools that obviously equipment that run different protocols and tools that obviously
increase complexity of these mission critical networks. In many increase complexity of these mission-critical networks. In many
scenarios, configurations are, most likely, manually performed. scenarios, configurations are, most likely, manually performed.
Furthermore, some legacy and even modern devices do not even support Furthermore, some legacy and even modern devices do not even support
IP networking. Majority of protocols and tools developed by vendors IP networking. A majority of protocols and tools developed by
that are being used are proprietary which makes integration more vendors that are being used are proprietary, which makes integration
difficult. more difficult.
The main reason for this disjoint operation scenario is that most The main reason for this disjoint operation scenario is that most
equipment is developed with specific task requirements in mind, equipment is developed with specific task requirements in mind,
rather than interoperability of the varied equipment types. For rather than interoperability of the varied equipment types. For
example, the operating conditions experienced by high altitude example, the operating conditions experienced by high altitude
security equipment is significantly different from that used in security equipment is significantly different from that used in
desert conditions. Similarly, search and rescue operations equipment desert conditions. Similarly, search and rescue operations equipment
used in case of fire rescue has different requirements than flood used in case of fire rescue has different requirements than flood
relief equipment. Furthermore, interoperation of equipment with relief equipment. Furthermore, inter-operation of equipment with
telecommunication equipment was not an expected outcome or in some telecommunication equipment was not an expected outcome or in some
scenarios this may not even be desirable. scenarios this may not even be desirable.
Currently, field networks operate with a fixed Network Operations Currently, field networks operate with a fixed Network Operations
Center (NOC) that physically manages the configuration and evaluation Center (NOC) that physically manages the configuration and evaluation
of all field devices. Once configured, the devices might be deployed of all field devices. Once configured, the devices might be deployed
in fixed or mobile scenarios. Any configuration changes required in fixed or mobile scenarios. Any configuration changes required
would need to be appropriately encrypted and authenticated to prevent would need to be appropriately encrypted and authenticated to prevent
unauthorized access. unauthorized access.
Hierarchical management of devices is a common requirement in such Hierarchical management of devices is a common requirement in such
scenarios since local managers or operators may need to respond to scenarios since local managers or operators may need to respond to
changing conditions within their purview. The level of configuration changing conditions within their purview. The level of configuration
management available at each hierarchy must also be closely governed. management available at each hierarchy must also be closely governed.
Since many field operation devices are used in hostile environments, Since many field operation devices are used in hostile environments,
a high failure and disconnection rate should be tolerated by the NMS, a high failure and disconnection rate should be tolerated by the NMS,
which must also be able to deal with multiple gateways and disjoint which must also be able to deal with multiple gateways and disjoint
management protocols. management protocols.
Multi-national field operations invloving search, rescue and security Multi-national field operations involving search, rescue and security
are becoming increasingly common, requiring the interoperation of a are becoming increasingly common, requiring inter-operation of a
diverse set of equipment designed with different operating conditions diverse set of equipment designed with different operating conditions
in mind. Furthermore, different intra- and inter-governmental in mind. Furthermore, different intra- and inter-governmental
agencies are likely to have a different set of standards, best agencies are likely to have a different set of standards, best
practices, rules and regulation, and implementation approaches that practices, rules and regulation, and implementation approaches that
may contradict or conflict with each other. The NMS should be able may contradict or conflict with each other. The NMS should be able
to detect these and handle them in an acceptable manner, which may to detect these and handle them in an acceptable manner, which may
require human intervention. require human intervention.
4. IANA Considerations 5. IANA Considerations
This document does not introduce any new code-points or namespaces This document does not introduce any new code-points or namespaces
for registration with IANA. for registration with IANA.
Note to RFC Editor: this section may be removed on publication as an Note to RFC Editor: this section may be removed on publication as an
RFC. RFC.
5. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
This document discusses use cases for Management of Networks with This document discusses use cases for Management of Networks with
Constrained Devices. The security considerations described Constrained Devices. The security considerations described
throughout the companion document [COM-REQ] apply here as well. throughout the companion document [COM-REQ] apply here as well.
6. Contributors 7. Contributors
Following persons made significant contributions to and reviewed this Following persons made significant contributions to and reviewed this
document: document:
o Ulrich Herberg (Fujitsu Laboratories of America) contributed the o Ulrich Herberg (Fujitsu Laboratories of America) contributed the
Section 3.9 on Community Network Applications. Section 4.9 on Community Network Applications.
o Peter van der Stok contributed to Section 3.6 on Building o Peter van der Stok contributed to Section 4.6 on Building
Automation. Automation.
o Zhen Cao contributed to Section 2.2 Cellular Access Technologies. o Zhen Cao contributed to Section 2.2 Cellular Access Technologies.
o Gilman Tolle contributed the Section 3.4 on Automated Metering o Gilman Tolle contributed the Section 4.4 on Automated Metering
Infrastructure. Infrastructure.
o James Nguyen and Ulrich Herberg contributed to Section 3.10 on o James Nguyen and Ulrich Herberg contributed to Section 4.10 on
Military operations. Military operations.
7. Acknowledgments 8. Acknowledgments
Following persons reviewed and provided valuable comments to Following persons reviewed and provided valuable comments to
different versions of this document: different versions of this document:
Dominique Barthel, Carsten Bormann, Zhen Cao, Benoit Claise, Bert Dominique Barthel, Carsten Bormann, Zhen Cao, Benoit Claise, Bert
Greevenbosch, Ulrich Herberg, James Nguyen, Zach Shelby, and Peter Greevenbosch, Ulrich Herberg, James Nguyen, Zach Shelby, and Peter
van der Stok. van der Stok.
The editors would like to thank the reviewers and the participants on The editors would like to thank the reviewers and the participants on
the Coman maillist for their valuable contributions and comments. the Coman maillist for their valuable contributions and comments.
8. Informative References 9. Informative References
[RFC6130] Clausen, T., Dearlove, C., and J. Dean, "Mobile Ad Hoc [RFC6130] Clausen, T., Dearlove, C., and J. Dean, "Mobile Ad Hoc
Network (MANET) Neighborhood Discovery Protocol (NHDP)", Network (MANET) Neighborhood Discovery Protocol (NHDP)",
RFC 6130, April 2011. RFC 6130, April 2011.
[RFC6568] Kim, E., Kaspar, D., and JP. Vasseur, "Design and [RFC6568] Kim, E., Kaspar, D., and JP. Vasseur, "Design and
Application Spaces for IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Application Spaces for IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless
Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)", RFC 6568, April 2012. Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)", RFC 6568, April 2012.
[RFC6779] Herberg, U., Cole, R., and I. Chakeres, "Definition of [RFC6779] Herberg, U., Cole, R., and I. Chakeres, "Definition of
skipping to change at page 21, line 5 skipping to change at page 23, line 50
B. Claise, "Requirements for Energy Management", RFC 6988, B. Claise, "Requirements for Energy Management", RFC 6988,
September 2013. September 2013.
[RFC7181] Clausen, T., Dearlove, C., Jacquet, P., and U. Herberg, [RFC7181] Clausen, T., Dearlove, C., Jacquet, P., and U. Herberg,
"The Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2", RFC "The Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2", RFC
7181, April 2014. 7181, April 2014.
[RFC7228] Bormann, C., Ersue, M., and A. Keranen, "Terminology for [RFC7228] Bormann, C., Ersue, M., and A. Keranen, "Terminology for
Constrained-Node Networks", RFC 7228, May 2014. Constrained-Node Networks", RFC 7228, May 2014.
[I-D.ietf-eman-framework] [RFC7326] Parello, J., Claise, B., Schoening, B., and J. Quittek,
Claise, B., Schoening, B., and J. Quittek, "Energy "Energy Management Framework", RFC 7326, September 2014.
Management Framework", draft-ietf-eman-framework-19 (work
in progress), April 2014.
[COM-REQ] Ersue, M., Romascanu, D., and J. Schoenwaelder, [COM-REQ] Ersue, M., Romascanu, D., and J. Schoenwaelder,
"Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Problem "Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Problem
Statement and Requirements", draft-ietf-opsawg-coman- Statement and Requirements", draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-
probstate-reqs (work in progress), February 2014. probstate-reqs (work in progress), February 2014.
[IOT-SEC] Garcia-Morchon, O., Kumar, S., Keoh, S., Hummen, R., and
R. Struik, "Security Considerations in the IP-based
Internet of Things", draft-garcia-core-security-06 (work
in progress), September 2013.
Appendix A. Change Log Appendix A. Change Log
A.1. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-01 - draft-ietf-opsawg-coman- A.1. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-02 - draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-
use-cases-03
o Updated references to take into account RFCs that have now been
published
o Added text to the access technologies section explaining why fixed
line technologies (e.g., powerline communications) have not been
discussed.
o Created a new section, Device Lifecycle, discussing the impact of
different device lifecycle stages on the management of constrained
networks.
o Homogenized usage of device classes to form C0, C1 and C2.
o Ensured consistency in usage of Wi-Fi, ZigBee and other
terminologies.
o Added text clarifying the management aspects of the Building
Automation and Industrial Automation use cases.
o Clarified the meaning of unreliability in context of constrained
devices and networks.
o Added information regarding the configuration and operation of
factory automation use case, based on the type of information
provided in the building automation use case.
o Fixed editorial issues discovered by reviewers.
A.2. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-01 - draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-
use-cases-02 use-cases-02
o Renamed Mobile Access Technologies section to Cellular Access o Renamed Mobile Access Technologies section to Cellular Access
Technologies Technologies
o Changed references to mobile access technologies to now read o Changed references to mobile access technologies to now read
cellular access technologies. cellular access technologies.
o Added text to the introduction to point out that the list of use o Added text to the introduction to point out that the list of use
cases is not exhaustive since others unknown to the authors might cases is not exhaustive since others unknown to the authors might
skipping to change at page 22, line 37 skipping to change at page 26, line 25
* Expanded proprietary systems to "systems relying on a specific * Expanded proprietary systems to "systems relying on a specific
Management Topology Option, as described in [COM-REQ]." within Management Topology Option, as described in [COM-REQ]." within
Vehicular Networks section. Vehicular Networks section.
* Added text regarding mobility patterns to Vehicular Networks. * Added text regarding mobility patterns to Vehicular Networks.
o Changed the Military Operations use case to Field Operations and o Changed the Military Operations use case to Field Operations and
edited the text to be suitable to such scenarios. edited the text to be suitable to such scenarios.
A.2. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-00 - draft-ietf-opsawg-coman- A.3. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-00 - draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-
use-cases-01 use-cases-01
o Reordered some use cases to improve the flow. o Reordered some use cases to improve the flow.
o Added "Vehicular Networks". o Added "Vehicular Networks".
o Shortened the Military Operations use case. o Shortened the Military Operations use case.
o Started adding substance to the security considerations section. o Started adding substance to the security considerations section.
A.3. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-03 - draft-ersue-opsawg-coman-use- A.4. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-03 - draft-ersue-opsawg-coman-use-
cases-00 cases-00
o Reduced the terminology section for terminology addressed in the o Reduced the terminology section for terminology addressed in the
LWIG and Coman Requirements drafts. Referenced the other drafts. LWIG and Coman Requirements drafts. Referenced the other drafts.
o Checked and aligned all terminology against the LWIG terminology o Checked and aligned all terminology against the LWIG terminology
draft. draft.
o Spent some effort to resolve the intersection between the o Spent some effort to resolve the intersection between the
Industrial Application, Home Automation and Building Automation Industrial Application, Home Automation and Building Automation
use cases. use cases.
o Moved section section 3. Use Cases from the companion document o Moved section section 3. Use Cases from the companion document
[COM-REQ] to this draft. [COM-REQ] to this draft.
o Reformulation of some text parts for more clarity. o Reformulation of some text parts for more clarity.
A.4. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-02-03 A.5. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-02-03
o Extended the terminology section and removed some of the o Extended the terminology section and removed some of the
terminology addressed in the new LWIG terminology draft. terminology addressed in the new LWIG terminology draft.
Referenced the LWIG terminology draft. Referenced the LWIG terminology draft.
o Moved Section 1.3. on Constrained Device Classes to the new LWIG o Moved Section 1.3. on Constrained Device Classes to the new LWIG
terminology draft. terminology draft.
o Class of networks considering the different type of radio and o Class of networks considering the different type of radio and
communication technologies in use and dimensions extended. communication technologies in use and dimensions extended.
skipping to change at page 24, line 21 skipping to change at page 28, line 5
* Software distribution (group-based firmware update) and Group- * Software distribution (group-based firmware update) and Group-
based provisioning. based provisioning.
o Deleted the empty section on the gaps in network management o Deleted the empty section on the gaps in network management
standards, as it will be written in a separate draft. standards, as it will be written in a separate draft.
o Added links to mentioned external pages. o Added links to mentioned external pages.
o Added text on OMA M2M Device Classification in appendix. o Added text on OMA M2M Device Classification in appendix.
A.5. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-01-02 A.6. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-01-02
o Extended the terminology section. o Extended the terminology section.
o Added additional text for the use cases concerning deployment o Added additional text for the use cases concerning deployment
type, network topology in use, network size, network capabilities, type, network topology in use, network size, network capabilities,
radio technology, etc. radio technology, etc.
o Added examples for device classes in a use case. o Added examples for device classes in a use case.
o Added additional text provided by Cao Zhen (China Mobile) for o Added additional text provided by Cao Zhen (China Mobile) for
skipping to change at page 25, line 7 skipping to change at page 28, line 40
constrained management matched to management tasks like fault, constrained management matched to management tasks like fault,
monitoring, configuration management, Security and Access Control, monitoring, configuration management, Security and Access Control,
Energy Management, etc. Energy Management, etc.
o Solved nits and added references. o Solved nits and added references.
o Added Appendix A on the related development in other bodies. o Added Appendix A on the related development in other bodies.
o Added Appendix B on the work in related research projects. o Added Appendix B on the work in related research projects.
A.6. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-00-01 A.7. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-00-01
o Splitted the section on 'Networks of Constrained Devices' into the o Splitted the section on 'Networks of Constrained Devices' into the
sections 'Network Topology Options' and 'Management Topology sections 'Network Topology Options' and 'Management Topology
Options'. Options'.
o Added the use case 'Community Network Applications' and 'Mobile o Added the use case 'Community Network Applications' and 'Mobile
Applications'. Applications'.
o Provided a Contributors section. o Provided a Contributors section.
 End of changes. 72 change blocks. 
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