draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-05.txt   rfc7548.txt 
Internet Engineering Task Force M. Ersue, Ed. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) M. Ersue, Ed.
Internet-Draft Nokia Networks Request for Comments: 7548 Nokia Networks
Intended status: Informational D. Romascanu Category: Informational D. Romascanu
Expires: September 2, 2015 Avaya ISSN: 2070-1721 Avaya
J. Schoenwaelder J. Schoenwaelder
A. Sehgal A. Sehgal
Jacobs University Bremen Jacobs University Bremen
March 1, 2015 May 2015
Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Use Cases Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Use Cases
draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-05
Abstract Abstract
This document discusses use cases concerning the management of This document discusses use cases concerning the management of
networks, where constrained devices are involved. A problem networks in which constrained devices are involved. A problem
statement, deployment options and the requirements on the networks statement, deployment options, and the requirements on the networks
with constrained devices can be found in the companion document on with constrained devices can be found in the companion document on
"Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Problem Statement "Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Problem Statement
and Requirements". and Requirements" (RFC 7547).
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. published for informational purposes.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference received public review and has been approved for publication by the
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Not all documents
approved by the IESG are a candidate for any level of Internet
Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 5741.
This Internet-Draft will expire on September 2, 2015. Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7548.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction ....................................................3
2. Access Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Access Technologies .............................................4
2.1. Constrained Access Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1. Constrained Access Technologies ............................4
2.2. Cellular Access Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2. Cellular Access Technologies ...............................5
3. Device Lifecycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. Device Life Cycle ...............................................6
3.1. Manufacturing and Initial Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1. Manufacturing and Initial Testing ..........................6
3.2. Installation and Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.2. Installation and Configuration .............................6
3.3. Operation and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.3. Operation and Maintenance ..................................7
3.4. Recommissioning and Decommissioning . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.4. Recommissioning and Decommissioning ........................7
4. Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4. Use Cases .......................................................8
4.1. Environmental Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1. Environmental Monitoring ...................................8
4.2. Infrastructure Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.2. Infrastructure Monitoring ..................................9
4.3. Industrial Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.3. Industrial Applications ...................................10
4.4. Energy Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.4. Energy Management .........................................12
4.5. Medical Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.5. Medical Applications ......................................14
4.6. Building Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.6. Building Automation .......................................15
4.7. Home Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4.7. Home Automation ...........................................17
4.8. Transport Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 4.8. Transport Applications ....................................18
4.9. Community Network Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4.9. Community Network Applications ............................20
4.10. Field Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4.10. Field Operations .........................................22
5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 5. Security Considerations ........................................23
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 6. Informative References .........................................24
7. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Acknowledgments ...................................................25
8. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Contributors ......................................................26
9. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Authors' Addresses ................................................26
Appendix A. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
A.1. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-04 - draft-ietf-opsawg-
coman-use-cases-05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
A.2. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-03 - draft-ietf-opsawg-
coman-use-cases-04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
A.3. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-02 - draft-ietf-opsawg-
coman-use-cases-03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
A.4. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-01 - draft-ietf-opsawg-
coman-use-cases-02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
A.5. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-00 - draft-ietf-opsawg-
coman-use-cases-01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
A.6. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-03 - draft-ersue-opsawg-
coman-use-cases-00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
A.7. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-02-03 . . . . . . . . . . . 28
A.8. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-01-02 . . . . . . . . . . . 29
A.9. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-00-01 . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Small devices with limited CPU, memory, and power resources, so Constrained devices (also known as sensors, smart objects, or smart
called constrained devices (aka. sensor, smart object, or smart devices) with limited CPU, memory, and power resources can be
device) can be connected to a network. Such a network of constrained connected to a network. Such a network of constrained devices itself
devices itself may be constrained or challenged, e.g., with may be constrained or challenged, e.g., with unreliable or lossy
unreliable or lossy channels, wireless technologies with limited channels, wireless technologies with limited bandwidth and a dynamic
bandwidth and a dynamic topology, needing the service of a gateway or topology, needing the service of a gateway or proxy to connect to the
proxy to connect to the Internet. In other scenarios, the Internet. In other scenarios, the constrained devices can be
constrained devices can be connected to a non-constrained network connected to a unconstrained network using off-the-shelf protocol
using off-the-shelf protocol stacks. Constrained devices might be in stacks. Constrained devices might be in charge of gathering
charge of gathering information in diverse settings including natural information in diverse settings including natural ecosystems,
ecosystems, buildings, and factories and send the information to one buildings, and factories and sending the information to one or more
or more server stations. server stations.
Network management is characterized by monitoring network status, Network management is characterized by monitoring network status,
detecting faults, and inferring their causes, setting network detecting faults (and inferring their causes), setting network
parameters, and carrying out actions to remove faults, maintain parameters, and carrying out actions to remove faults, maintain
normal operation, and improve network efficiency and application normal operation, and improve network efficiency and application
performance. The traditional network management application performance. The traditional network management application
periodically collects information from a set of elements that are periodically collects information from a set of managed network
needed to manage, processes the data, and presents them to the elements, it processes the collected data, and it presents the
network management users. Constrained devices, however, often have results to the network management users. Constrained devices,
limited power, low transmission range, and might be unreliable. Such however, often have limited power, have low transmission range, and
unreliability might arise from device itself (e.g., battery might be unreliable. Such unreliability might arise from device
exhausted) or from the channel being constrained (i.e., low-capacity itself (e.g., battery exhausted) or from the channel being
and high-latency). They might also need to work in hostile constrained (i.e., low-capacity and high-latency). They might also
environments with advanced security requirements or need to be used need to work in hostile environments with advanced security
in harsh environments for a long time without supervision. Due to requirements or need to be used in harsh environments for a long time
such constraints, the management of a network with constrained without supervision. Due to such constraints, the management of a
devices offers different type of challenges compared to the network with constrained devices offers different types of challenges
management of a traditional IP network. compared to the management of a traditional IP network.
This document aims to understand use cases for the management of a This document aims to understand use cases for the management of a
network, where constrained devices are involved. The document lists network in which constrained devices are involved. It lists and
and discusses diverse use cases for the management from the network discusses diverse use cases for management from the network as well
as well as from the application point of view. The list of discussed as from the application point of view. The list of discussed use
use cases is not an exhaustive one since other scenarios, currently cases is not an exhaustive one since other scenarios, currently
unknown to the authors, are possible. The application scenarios unknown to the authors, are possible. The application scenarios
discussed aim to show where networks of constrained devices are discussed aim to show where networks of constrained devices are
expected to be deployed. For each application scenario, we first expected to be deployed. For each application scenario, we first
briefly describe the characteristics followed by a discussion on how briefly describe the characteristics followed by a discussion on how
network management can be provided, who is likely going to be network management can be provided, who is likely going to be
responsible for it, and on which time-scale management operations are responsible for it, and on which time-scale management operations are
likely to be carried out. likely to be carried out.
A problem statement, deployment and management topology options as A problem statement, deployment and management topology options as
well as the requirements on the networks with constrained devices can well as the requirements on the networks with constrained devices can
be found in the companion document [COM-REQ]. be found in the companion document [RFC7547].
This documents builds on the terminology defined in [RFC7228] and This documents builds on the terminology defined in [RFC7228] and
[COM-REQ]. [RFC7228] is a base document for the terminology [RFC7547]. [RFC7228] is a base document for the terminology
concerning constrained devices and constrained networks. Some use concerning constrained devices and constrained networks. Some use
cases specific to IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks cases specific to IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks
(6LoWPANs) can be found in [RFC6568]. (6LoWPANs) can be found in [RFC6568].
2. Access Technologies 2. Access Technologies
Besides the management requirements imposed by the different use Besides the management requirements imposed by the different use
cases, the access technologies used by constrained devices can impose cases, the access technologies used by constrained devices can impose
restrictions and requirements upon the Network Management System restrictions and requirements upon the Network Management System
(NMS) and protocol of choice. (NMS) and protocol of choice.
It is possible that some networks of constrained devices might It is possible that some networks of constrained devices might
utilize traditional non-constrained access technologies for network utilize traditional unconstrained access technologies for network
access, e.g., local area networks with plenty of capacity. In such access, e.g., local area networks with plenty of capacity. In such
scenarios, the constrainedness of the device presents special scenarios, the constrainedness of the device presents special
management restrictions and requirements rather than the access management restrictions and requirements rather than the access
technology utilized. technology utilized.
However, in other situations constrained or cellular access However, in other situations, constrained or cellular access
technologies might be used for network access, thereby causing technologies might be used for network access, thereby causing
management restrictions and requirements to arise as a result of the management restrictions and requirements to arise as a result of the
underlying access technologies. underlying access technologies.
A discussion regarding the impact of cellular and constrained access A discussion regarding the impact of cellular and constrained access
technologies is provided in this section since they impose some technologies is provided in this section since they impose some
special requirements on the management of constrained networks. On special requirements on the management of constrained networks. On
the other hand, fixed line networks (e.g., power line communications) the other hand, fixed-line networks (e.g., power-line communications)
are not discussed here since tend to be quite static and do not are not discussed here since tend to be quite static and do not
typically impose any special requirements on the management of the typically impose any special requirements on the management of the
network. network.
2.1. Constrained Access Technologies 2.1. Constrained Access Technologies
Due to resource restrictions, embedded devices deployed as sensors Due to resource restrictions, embedded devices deployed as sensors
and actuators in the various use cases utilize low-power low data- and actuators in the various use cases utilize low-power, low-data-
rate wireless access technologies such as IEEE 802.15.4, DECT ULE or rate wireless access technologies such as [IEEE802.15.4], Digital
Enhanced Cordless Telecommunication (DECT) Ultra Low Energy (ULE), or
Bluetooth Low-Energy (BT-LE) for network connectivity. Bluetooth Low-Energy (BT-LE) for network connectivity.
In such scenarios, it is important for the NMS to be aware of the In such scenarios, it is important for the NMS to be aware of the
restrictions imposed by these access technologies to efficiently restrictions imposed by these access technologies to efficiently
manage these constrained devices. Specifically, such low-power low manage these constrained devices. Specifically, such low-power, low-
data-rate access technologies typically have small frame sizes. So data-rate access technologies typically have small frame sizes. So
it would be important for the NMS and management protocol of choice it would be important for the NMS and management protocol of choice
to craft packets in a way that avoids fragmentation and reassembly of to craft packets in a way that avoids fragmentation and reassembly of
packets since this can use valuable memory on constrained devices. packets since this can use valuable memory on constrained devices.
Devices using such access technologies might operate via a gateway Devices using such access technologies might operate via a gateway
that translates between these access technologies and more that translates between these access technologies and more
traditional Internet protocols. A hierarchical approach to device traditional Internet protocols. A hierarchical approach to device
management in such a situation might be useful, wherein the gateway management in such a situation might be useful, wherein the gateway
device is in-charge of devices connected to it, while the NMS device is in-charge of devices connected to it, while the NMS
conducts management operations only to the gateway. conducts management operations only to the gateway.
2.2. Cellular Access Technologies 2.2. Cellular Access Technologies
Machine to machine (M2M) services are increasingly provided by mobile Machine-to-machine (M2M) services are increasingly provided by mobile
service providers as numerous devices, home appliances, utility service providers as numerous devices, home appliances, utility
meters, cars, video surveillance cameras, and health monitors, are meters, cars, video surveillance cameras, and health monitors are
connected with mobile broadband technologies. Different connected with mobile broadband technologies. Different
applications, e.g., in a home appliance or in-car network, use applications, e.g., in a home appliance or in-car network, use
Bluetooth, Wi-Fi or ZigBee locally and connect to a cellular module Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, or ZigBee locally and connect to a cellular module
acting as a gateway between the constrained environment and the acting as a gateway between the constrained environment and the
mobile cellular network. mobile cellular network.
Such a gateway might provide different options for the connectivity Such a gateway might provide different options for the connectivity
of mobile networks and constrained devices: of mobile networks and constrained devices:
o a smart phone with 3G/4G and WLAN radio might use BT-LE to connect o a smartphone with 3G/4G and WLAN radio might use BT-LE to connect
to the devices in a home area network, to the devices in a home area network,
o a femtocell might be combined with home gateway functionality o a femtocell might be combined with home gateway functionality
acting as a low-power cellular base station connecting smart acting as a low-power cellular base station connecting smart
devices to the application server of a mobile service provider, devices to the application server of a mobile service provider,
o an embedded cellular module with LTE radio connecting the devices o an embedded cellular module with LTE radio connecting the devices
in the car network with the server running the telematics service, in the car network with the server running the telematics service,
o an M2M gateway connected to the mobile operator network supporting o an M2M gateway connected to the mobile operator network supporting
diverse IoT connectivity technologies including ZigBee and CoAP diverse Internet of Things (IoT) connectivity technologies
over 6LoWPAN over IEEE 802.15.4. including ZigBee and Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) over
6LoWPAN over IEEE 802.15.4.
Common to all scenarios above is that they are embedded in a service Common to all scenarios above is that they are embedded in a service
and connected to a network provided by a mobile service provider. and connected to a network provided by a mobile service provider.
Usually there is a hierarchical deployment and management topology in Usually, there is a hierarchical deployment and management topology
place where different parts of the network are managed by different in place where different parts of the network are managed by
management entities and the count of devices to manage is high (e.g. different management entities and the count of devices to manage is
many thousands). In general, the network is comprised by manifold high (e.g., many thousands). In general, the network is comprised of
type and size of devices matching to different device classes. As manifold types and sizes of devices matching to different device
such, the managing entity needs to be prepared to manage devices with classes. As such, the managing entity needs to be prepared to manage
diverse capabilities using different communication or management devices with diverse capabilities using different communication or
protocols. In case the devices are directly connected to a gateway management protocols. In the case in which the devices are directly
they most likely are managed by a management entity integrated with connected to a gateway, they most likely are managed by a management
the gateway, which itself is part of the Network Management System entity integrated with the gateway, which itself is part of the NMS
(NMS) run by the mobile operator. Smart phones or embedded modules run by the mobile operator. Smartphones or embedded modules
connected to a gateway might be themselves in charge to manage the connected to a gateway might themselves be in charge of managing the
devices on their level. The initial and subsequent configuration of devices on their level. The initial and subsequent configuration of
such a device is mainly based on self-configuration and is triggered such a device is mainly based on self-configuration and is triggered
by the device itself. by the device itself.
The gateway might be in charge of filtering and aggregating the data The gateway might be in charge of filtering and aggregating the data
received from the device as the information sent by the device might received from the device as the information sent by the device might
be mostly redundant. be mostly redundant.
3. Device Lifecycle 3. Device Life Cycle
Since constrained devices deployed in a network might go through Since constrained devices deployed in a network might go through
multiple phases in their lifetime, it is possible for different multiple phases in their lifetime, it is possible for different
managers of networks and/or devices to exist during different parts managers of networks and/or devices to exist during different parts
of the device lifetimes. An in-depth discussion regarding the of the device lifetimes. An in-depth discussion regarding the
possible device lifecycles can be found in [IOT-SEC]. possible device life cycles can be found in [IOT-SEC].
3.1. Manufacturing and Initial Testing 3.1. Manufacturing and Initial Testing
Typically, the lifecycle of a device begins at the manufacturing Typically, the life cycle of a device begins at the manufacturing
stage. During this phase the manufacturer of the device is stage. During this phase, the manufacturer of the device is
responsible for the management and configuration of the devices. It responsible for the management and configuration of the devices. It
is also possible that a certain use case might utilize multiple types is also possible that a certain use case might utilize multiple types
of constrained devices (e.g., temperature sensors, lighting of constrained devices (e.g., temperature sensors, lighting
controllers, etc.) and these could be manufactured by different controllers, etc.) and these could be manufactured by different
entities. As such, during the manufacturing stage different managers entities. As such, during the manufacturing stage, different
can exist for different devices. Similarly, during the initial managers can exist for different devices. Similarly, during the
testing phase, where device quality assurance tasks might be initial testing phase, where device quality-assurance tasks might be
performed, the manufacturer remains responsible for the management of performed, the manufacturer remains responsible for the management of
devices and networks that might comprise them. devices and networks that might comprise them.
3.2. Installation and Configuration 3.2. Installation and Configuration
The responsibility of managing the devices must be transferred to the The responsibility of managing the devices must be transferred to the
installer during the installation phase. There must exist procedures installer during the installation phase. There must exist procedures
for transferring management responsibility between the manufacturer for transferring management responsibility between the manufacturer
and installer. The installer may be the customer or an intermediary and installer. The installer may be the customer or an intermediary
contracted to setup the devices and their networks. It is important contracted to set up the devices and their networks. It is important
that the NMS utilized allows devices originating at different vendors that the NMS that is utilized allows devices originating at different
to be managed, ensuring interoperability between them and the vendors to be managed, ensuring interoperability between them and the
configuration of trust relationships between them as well. configuration of trust relationships between them as well.
It is possible that the installation and configuration It is possible that the installation and configuration
responsibilities might lie with different entities. For example, the responsibilities might lie with different entities. For example, the
installer of a device might only be responsible for cabling a installer of a device might only be responsible for cabling a
network, physically installing the devices and ensuring initial network, physically installing the devices, and ensuring initial
network connectivity between them (e.g., configuring IP addresses). network connectivity between them (e.g., configuring IP addresses).
Following such an installation, the customer or a sub-contractor Following such an installation, the customer or a subcontractor might
might actually configure the operation of the device. As such, actually configure the operation of the device. As such, during
during installation and configuration multiple parties might be installation and configuration multiple parties might be responsible
responsible for managing a device and appropriate methods must be for managing a device and appropriate methods must be available to
available to ensure that this management responsibility is ensure that this management responsibility is transferred suitably.
transferred suitably.
3.3. Operation and Maintenance 3.3. Operation and Maintenance
At the outset of the operation phase, the operational responsibility At the outset of the operation phase, the operational responsibility
of a device and network should be passed on to the customer. It is of a device and network should be passed on to the customer. It is
possible that the customer, however, might contract the maintenance possible that the customer, however, might contract the maintenance
of the devices and network to a sub-contractor. In this case, the of the devices and network to a subcontractor. In this case, the NMS
NMS and management protocol should allow for configuring different and management protocol should allow for configuring different levels
levels of access to the devices. Since different maintenance vendors of access to the devices. Since different maintenance vendors might
might be used for devices that perform different functions (e.g., be used for devices that perform different functions (e.g., HVAC,
HVAC, lighting, etc.) it should also be possible to restrict lighting, etc.), it should also be possible to restrict management
management access to devices based on the currently responsible access to devices based on the currently responsible manager.
manager.
3.4. Recommissioning and Decommissioning 3.4. Recommissioning and Decommissioning
The owner of a device might choose to replace, repurpose or even The owner of a device might choose to replace, repurpose, or even
decommission it. In each of these cases, either the customer or the decommission it. In each of these cases, either the customer or the
contracted maintenance agency must ensure that appropriate steps are contracted maintenance agency must ensure that appropriate steps are
taken to meet the end goal. taken to meet the end goal.
In case the devices needs to be replaced, the manager of the network In case the devices needs to be replaced, the manager of the network
(customer or contractor responsible) must detach the device from the (customer or contractor responsible) must detach the device from the
network, remove all appropriate configuration and discard the device. network, remove all appropriate configuration, and discard the
A new device must then be configured to replace it. The NMS should device. A new device must then be configured to replace it. The NMS
allow for transferring configuration from and replacing an existing should allow for the transferring of the configuration and replacing
device. The management responsibility of the operation/maintenance an existing device. The management responsibility of the operation/
manager would end once the device is removed from the network. maintenance manager would end once the device is removed from the
During the installation of the new replacement device, the same network. During the installation of the new replacement device, the
responsibilities would apply as those during the Installation and same responsibilities would apply as those during the Installation
Configuration phases. and Configuration phases.
The device being replaced may not have yet reached end-of-life, and The device being replaced may not have yet reached end-of-life, and
as such, instead of being discarded it may be installed in a new as such, instead of being discarded, it may be installed in a new
location. In this case, the management responsibilities are once location. In this case, the management responsibilities are once
again resting in the hands of the entities responsible for the again resting in the hands of the entities responsible for the
Installation and Configuration phases at the new location. Installation and Configuration phases at the new location.
If a device is repurposed, then it is possible that the management If a device is repurposed, then it is possible that the management
responsibility for this device changes as well. For example, a responsibility for this device changes as well. For example, a
device might be moved from one building to another. In this case, device might be moved from one building to another. In this case,
the managers responsible for devices and networks in each building the managers responsible for devices and networks in each building
could be different. As such, the NMS must not only allow for could be different. As such, the NMS must not only allow for
changing configuration but also transferring management changing configuration but also the transferring of management
responsibilities. responsibilities.
In case a device is decommissioned, the management responsibility In case a device is decommissioned, the management responsibility
typically ends at that point. typically ends at that point.
4. Use Cases 4. Use Cases
4.1. Environmental Monitoring 4.1. Environmental Monitoring
Environmental monitoring applications are characterized by the Environmental monitoring applications are characterized by the
deployment of a number of sensors to monitor emissions, water deployment of a number of sensors to monitor emissions, water
quality, or even the movements and habits of wildlife. Other quality, or even the movements and habits of wildlife. Other
applications in this category include earthquake or tsunami early- applications in this category include earthquake or tsunami early-
warning systems. The sensors often span a large geographic area, warning systems. The sensors often span a large geographic area;
they can be mobile, and they are often difficult to replace. they can be mobile; and they are often difficult to replace.
Furthermore, the sensors are usually not protected against tampering. Furthermore, the sensors are usually not protected against tampering.
Management of environmental monitoring applications is largely Management of environmental-monitoring applications is largely
concerned with the monitoring whether the system is still functional concerned with monitoring whether the system is still functional and
and the roll-out of new constrained devices in case the system looses the roll out of new constrained devices in case the system loses too
too much of its structure. The constrained devices themselves need much of its structure. The constrained devices themselves need to be
to be able to establish connectivity (auto-configuration) and they able to establish connectivity (autoconfiguration), and they need to
need to be able to deal with events such as loosing neighbors or be able to deal with events such as losing neighbors or being moved
being moved to other locations. to other locations.
Management responsibility typically rests with the organization Management responsibility typically rests with the organization
running the environmental monitoring application. Since these running the environmental-monitoring application. Since these
monitoring applications must be designed to tolerate a number of monitoring applications must be designed to tolerate a number of
failures, the time scale for detecting and recording failures is for failures, the time scale for detecting and recording failures is, for
some of these applications likely measured in hours and repairs might some of these applications, likely measured in hours and repairs
easily take days. In fact, in some scenarios it might be more cost- might easily take days. In fact, in some scenarios it might be more
and time-effective to not repair such devices at all. However, for cost- and time-effective not to repair such devices at all. However,
certain environmental monitoring applications, much tighter time for certain environmental monitoring applications, much tighter time
scales may exist and might be enforced by regulations (e.g., scales may exist and might be enforced by regulations (e.g.,
monitoring of nuclear radiation). monitoring of nuclear radiation).
Since many applications of environmental monitoring sensors are Since many applications of environmental-monitoring sensors are
likely to be in areas that are important to safety (flood monitoring, likely to be in areas that are important to safety (flood monitoring,
nuclear radiation monitoring, etc.) it is important for management nuclear radiation monitoring, etc.), it is important for management
protocols and network management systems (NMS) to ensure appropriate protocols and NMSs to ensure appropriate security protections. These
security protections. These protections include not only access protections include not only access control, integrity, and
control, integrity and availability of data, but also provide availability of data, but also provide appropriate mechanisms that
appropriate mechanisms that can deal with situations that might be can deal with situations that might be categorized as emergencies or
categorized as emergencies or when tampering with sensors/data might when tampering with sensors/data might be detected.
be detected.
4.2. Infrastructure Monitoring 4.2. Infrastructure Monitoring
Infrastructure monitoring is concerned with the monitoring of Infrastructure monitoring is concerned with the monitoring of
infrastructures such as bridges, railway tracks, or (offshore) infrastructures such as bridges, railway tracks, or (offshore)
windmills. The primary goal is usually to detect any events or windmills. The primary goal is usually to detect any events or
changes of the structural conditions that can impact the risk and changes of the structural conditions that can impact the risk and
safety of the infrastructure being monitored. Another secondary goal safety of the infrastructure being monitored. Another secondary goal
is to schedule repair and maintenance activities in a cost effective is to schedule repair and maintenance activities in a cost-effective
manner. manner.
The infrastructure to monitor might be in a factory or spread over a The infrastructure to monitor might be in a factory or spread over a
wider area but difficult to access. As such, the network in use wider area (but difficult to access). As such, the network in use
might be based on a combination of fixed and wireless technologies, might be based on a combination of fixed and wireless technologies,
which use robust networking equipment and support reliable which use robust networking equipment and support reliable
communication via application layer transactions. It is likely that communication via application-layer transactions. It is likely that
constrained devices in such a network are mainly C2 devices [RFC7228] constrained devices in such a network are mainly C2 devices [RFC7228]
and have to be controlled centrally by an application running on a and have to be controlled centrally by an application running on a
server. In case such a distributed network is widely spread, the server. In case such a distributed network is widely spread, the
wireless devices might use diverse long-distance wireless wireless devices might use diverse long-distance wireless
technologies such as WiMAX, or 3G/LTE. In cases, where an in- technologies such as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
building network is involved, the network can be based on Ethernet or (WiMAX) or 3G/LTE. In cases, where an in-building network is
wireless technologies suitable for in-building usage. involved, the network can be based on Ethernet or wireless
technologies suitable for in-building use.
The management of infrastructure monitoring applications is primarily The management of infrastructure monitoring applications is primarily
concerned with the monitoring of the functioning of the system. concerned with the monitoring of the functioning of the system.
Infrastructure monitoring devices are typically rolled out and Infrastructure monitoring devices are typically rolled out and
installed by dedicated experts and changes are rare since the installed by dedicated experts, and updates are rare since the
infrastructure itself changes rarely. However, monitoring devices infrastructure itself does not change often. However, monitoring
are often deployed in unsupervised environments and hence special devices are often deployed in unsupervised environments; hence,
attention must be given to protecting the devices from being special attention must be given to protecting the devices from being
modified. modified.
Management responsibility typically rests with the organization Management responsibility typically rests with the organization
owning the infrastructure or responsible for its operation. The time owning the infrastructure or responsible for its operation. The time
scale for detecting and recording failures is likely measured in scale for detecting and recording failures is likely measured in
hours and repairs might easily take days. However, certain events hours and repairs might easily take days. However, certain events
(e.g., natural disasters) may require that status information be (e.g., natural disasters) may require that status information be
obtained much more quickly and that replacements of failed sensors obtained much more quickly and that replacements of failed sensors
can be rolled out quickly (or redundant sensors are activated can be rolled out quickly (or redundant sensors are activated
quickly). In case the devices are difficult to access, a self- quickly). In case the devices are difficult to access, a self-
healing feature on the device might become necessary. Since healing feature on the device might become necessary. Since
infrastructure monitoring is closely related to ensuring safety, infrastructure monitoring is closely related to ensuring safety,
management protocols and systems must provide appropriate security management protocols and systems must provide appropriate security
protections to ensure confidentiality, integrity and availability of protections to ensure confidentiality, integrity, and availability of
data. data.
4.3. Industrial Applications 4.3. Industrial Applications
Industrial Applications and smart manufacturing refer to tasks such Industrial Applications and smart manufacturing refer to tasks such
as networked control and monitoring of manufacturing equipment, asset as networked control and monitoring of manufacturing equipment, asset
and situation management, or manufacturing process control. For the and situation management, or manufacturing process control. For the
management of a factory it is becoming essential to implement smart management of a factory, it is becoming essential to implement smart
capabilities. From an engineering standpoint, industrial capabilities. From an engineering standpoint, industrial
applications are intelligent systems enabling rapid manufacturing of applications are intelligent systems enabling rapid manufacturing of
new products, dynamic response to product demands, and real-time new products, dynamic response to product demands, and real-time
optimization of manufacturing production and supply chain networks. optimization of manufacturing production and supply-chain networks.
Potential industrial applications (e.g., for smart factories and Potential industrial applications (e.g., for smart factories and
smart manufacturing) are: smart manufacturing) are:
o Digital control systems with embedded, automated process controls, o Digital control systems with embedded, automated process controls;
operator tools, as well as service information systems optimizing operator tools; and service information systems optimizing plant
plant operations and safety. operations and safety.
o Asset management using predictive maintenance tools, statistical o Asset management using predictive maintenance tools, statistical
evaluation, and measurements maximizing plant reliability. evaluation, and measurements maximizing plant reliability.
o Smart sensors detecting anomalies to avoid abnormal or o Smart sensors detecting anomalies to avoid abnormal or
catastrophic events. catastrophic events.
o Smart systems integrated within the industrial energy management o Smart systems integrated within the industrial energy-management
system and externally with the smart grid enabling real-time system and externally with the smart grid enabling real-time
energy optimization. energy optimization.
Management of Industrial Applications and smart manufacturing may in Management of Industrial Applications and smart manufacturing may, in
some situations involve Building Automation tasks such as control of some situations, involve Building Automation tasks such as control of
energy, HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning), lighting, energy, HVAC, lighting, or access control. Interacting with
or access control. Interacting with management systems from other management systems from other application areas might be important in
application areas might be important in some cases (e.g., some cases (e.g., environmental monitoring for electric energy
environmental monitoring for electric energy production, energy production, energy management for dynamically scaling manufacturing,
management for dynamically scaling manufacturing, vehicular networks vehicular networks for mobile asset tracking). Management of
for mobile asset tracking). Management of constrained devices and constrained devices and networks may not only refer to the management
networks may not only refer to the management of their network of their network connectivity. Since the capabilities of constrained
connectivity. Since the capabilities of constrained devices are devices are limited, it is quite possible that a management system
limited, it is quite possible that a management system would even be would even be required to configure, monitor, and operate the primary
required to configure, monitor and operate the primary functions that functions for which a constrained device is utilized, besides
a constrained device is utilized for, besides managing its network managing its network connectivity.
connectivity.
Sensor networks are an essential technology used for smart Sensor networks are an essential technology used for smart
manufacturing. Measurements, automated controls, plant optimization, manufacturing. Measurements, automated controls, plant optimization,
health and safety management, and other functions are provided by a health and safety management, and other functions are provided by a
large number of networked sectors. Data interoperability and large number of networked sectors. Data interoperability and
seamless exchange of product, process, and project data are enabled seamless exchange of product, process, and project data are enabled
through interoperable data systems used by collaborating divisions or through interoperable data systems used by collaborating divisions or
business systems. Intelligent automation and learning systems are business systems. Intelligent automation and learning systems are
vital to smart manufacturing but must be effectively integrated with vital to smart manufacturing, but they must be effectively integrated
the decision environment. The NMS utilized must ensure timely with the decision environment. The NMS utilized must ensure timely
delivery of sensor data to the control unit so it may take delivery of sensor data to the control unit so it may take
appropriate decisions. Similarly, relaying of commands must also be appropriate decisions. Similarly, the relaying of commands must also
monitored and managed to ensure optimal functioning. Wireless sensor be monitored and managed to ensure optimal functioning. Wireless
networks (WSN) have been developed for machinery Condition-based sensor networks (WSNs) have been developed for machinery Condition-
Maintenance (CBM) as they offer significant cost savings and enable based Maintenance (CBM) as they offer significant cost savings and
new functionalities. Inaccessible locations, rotating machinery, enable new functionalities. Inaccessible locations, rotating
hazardous areas, and mobile assets can be reached with wireless machinery, hazardous areas, and mobile assets can be reached with
sensors. WSNs can provide today wireless link reliability, real-time wireless sensors. Today, WSNs can provide wireless link reliability,
capabilities, and quality-of-service and enable industrial and real-time capabilities, and quality-of-service and they can enable
related wireless sense and control applications. industrial and related wireless sense and control applications.
Management of industrial and factory applications is largely focused Management of industrial and factory applications is largely focused
on monitoring whether the system is still functional, real-time on monitoring whether the system is still functional, real-time
continuous performance monitoring, and optimization as necessary. continuous performance monitoring, and optimization as necessary.
The factory network might be part of a campus network or connected to The factory network might be part of a campus network or connected to
the Internet. The constrained devices in such a network need to be the Internet. The constrained devices in such a network need to be
able to establish configuration themselves (auto-configuration) and able to establish configuration themselves (autoconfiguration) and
might need to deal with error conditions as much as possible locally. might need to deal with error conditions as much as possible locally.
Access control has to be provided with multi-level administrative Access control has to be provided with multi-level administrative
access and security. Support and diagnostics can be provided through access and security. Support and diagnostics can be provided through
remote monitoring access centralized outside of the factory. remote monitoring access centralized outside of the factory.
Factory automation tasks require that continuous monitoring be used Factory-automation tasks require that continuous monitoring be used
to optimize production. Groups of manufacturing and monitoring to optimize production. Groups of manufacturing and monitoring
devices could be defined to establish relationships between them. To devices could be defined to establish relationships between them. To
ensure timely optimization of processes, commands from the NMS must ensure timely optimization of processes, commands from the NMS must
arrive at all destination within an appropriate duration. This arrive at all destination within an appropriate duration. This
duration could change based on the manufacturing task being duration could change based on the manufacturing task being
performed. Installation and operation of factory networks have performed. Installation and operation of factory networks have
different requirements. During the installation phase many networks, different requirements. During the installation phase, many
usually distributed along different parts of the factory/assembly networks, usually distributed along different parts of the factory/
line, co-exist without a connection to a common backbone. A assembly line, coexist without a connection to a common backbone. A
specialized installation tool is typically used to configure the specialized installation tool is typically used to configure the
functions of different types of devices, in different factory functions of different types of devices, in different factory
location, in a secure manner. At the end of the installation phase, locations, in a secure manner. At the end of the installation phase,
interoperability between these stand-alone networks and devices must interoperability between these stand-alone networks and devices must
be enabled. During the operation phase, these stand-alone networks be enabled. During the operation phase, these stand-alone networks
are connected to a common backbone so that they may retrieve control are connected to a common backbone so that they may retrieve control
information from and send commands to appropriate devices. information from and send commands to appropriate devices.
Management responsibility is typically owned by the organization Management responsibility is typically owned by the organization
running the industrial application. Since the monitoring running the industrial application. Since the monitoring
applications must handle a potentially large number of failures, the applications must handle a potentially large number of failures, the
time scale for detecting and recording failures is for some of these time scale for detecting and recording failures is, for some of these
applications likely measured in minutes. However, for certain applications, likely measured in minutes. However, for certain
industrial applications, much tighter time scales may exist, e.g. in industrial applications, much tighter time scales may exist, e.g., in
real-time, which might be enforced by the manufacturing process or real-time, which might be enforced by the manufacturing process or
the use of critical material. Management protocols and NMSs must the use of critical material. Management protocols and NMSs must
ensure appropriate access control since different users of industrial ensure appropriate access control since different users of industrial
control systems will have varying levels of permissions. E.g., while control systems will have varying levels of permissions. For
supervisors might be allowed to change production parameters, they example, while supervisors might be allowed to change production
should not be allowed to modify the functional configuration of parameters, they should not be allowed to modify the functional
devices like a technician should. It is also important to ensure configuration of devices like a technician should. It is also
integrity and availability of data since malfunctions can potentially important to ensure integrity and availability of data since
become safety issues. This also implies that management systems must malfunctions can potentially become safety issues. This also implies
be able to react to situations that may pose dangers to worker that management systems must be able to react to situations that may
safety. pose dangers to worker safety.
4.4. Energy Management 4.4. Energy Management
The EMAN working group developed an energy management framework The EMAN working group developed an energy-management framework
[RFC7326] for devices and device components within or connected to [RFC7326] for devices and device components within or connected to
communication networks. This document observes that one of the communication networks. This document observes that one of the
challenges of energy management is that a power distribution network challenges of energy management is that a power distribution network
is responsible for the supply of energy to various devices and is responsible for the supply of energy to various devices and
components, while a separate communication network is typically used components, while a separate communication network is typically used
to monitor and control the power distribution network. Devices in to monitor and control the power distribution network. Devices in
the context of energy management can be monitored for parameters like the context of energy management can be monitored for parameters like
power, energy, demand and power quality. If a device contains power, energy, demand and power quality. If a device contains
batteries, they can be also monitored and managed. batteries, they can be also monitored and managed.
Energy devices differ in complexity and may include basic sensors or Energy devices differ in complexity and may include basic sensors or
switches, specialized electrical meters, or power distribution units switches, specialized electrical meters, or power distribution units
(PDU), and subsystems inside the network devices (routers, network (PDU), and subsystems inside the network devices (routers, network
switches) or home or industrial appliances. The operators of an switches) or home or industrial appliances. The operators of an
Energy Management System are either the utility providers or energy-management system are either the utility providers or
customers that aim to control and reduce the energy consumption and customers that aim to control and reduce the energy consumption and
the associated costs. The topology in use differs and the deployment the associated costs. The topology in use differs and the deployment
can cover areas from small surfaces (individual homes) to large can cover areas from small surfaces (individual homes) to large
geographical areas. The EMAN requirements document [RFC6988] geographical areas. The EMAN requirements document [RFC6988]
discusses the requirements for energy management concerning discusses the requirements for energy management concerning
monitoring and control functions. monitoring and control functions.
It is assumed that energy management will apply to a large range of It is assumed that energy management will apply to a large range of
devices of all classes and networks topologies. Specific resource devices of all classes and networks topologies. Specific resource
monitoring like battery utilization and availability may be specific monitoring, like battery utilization and availability, may be
to devices with lower physical resources (device classes C0 or C1 specific to devices with lower physical resources (device classes C0
[RFC7228]). or C1 [RFC7228]).
Energy management is especially relevant to the Smart Grid. A Smart Energy management is especially relevant to the Smart Grid. A Smart
Grid is an electrical grid that uses data networks to gather and to Grid is an electrical grid that uses data networks to gather and act
act on energy and power-related information in an automated fashion on energy and power-related information in an automated fashion with
with the goal to improve the efficiency, reliability, economics, and the goal to improve the efficiency, reliability, economics, and
sustainability of the production and distribution of electricity. sustainability of the production and distribution of electricity.
Smart Metering is a good example of Smart Grid based energy Smart Metering is a good example of an energy-management application
management applications. Different types of possibly wireless small based on Smart Grid. Different types of possibly wireless small
meters produce all together a large amount of data, which is meters all together produce a large amount of data, which is
collected by a central entity and processed by an application server, collected by a central entity and processed by an application server,
which may be located within the customer's residence or off-site in a which may be located within the customer's residence or off site in a
data-center. The communication infrastructure can be provided by a data center. The communication infrastructure can be provided by a
mobile network operator as the meters in urban areas will have most mobile network operator as the meters in urban areas will most likely
likely a cellular or WiMAX radio. In case the application server is have a cellular or WiMAX radio. In case the application server is
located within the residence, such meters are more likely to use Wi- located within the residence, such meters are more likely to use
Fi protocols to interconnect with an existing network. Wi-Fi protocols to interconnect with an existing network.
An Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) network is another example An Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) network is another example
of the Smart Grid that enables an electric utility to retrieve of the Smart Grid that enables an electric utility to retrieve
frequent electric usage data from each electric meter installed at a frequent electric usage data from each electric meter installed at a
customer's home or business. Unlike Smart Metering, in which case customer's home or business. Unlike Smart Metering, in which case
the customer or their agents install appliance level meters, an AMI the customer or their agents install appliance-level meters, an AMI
infrastructure is typically managed by the utility providers and is typically managed by the utility providers and could also include
could also include other distribution automation devices like other distribution automation devices like transformers and
transformers and reclosers. Meters in AMI networks typically contain reclosers. Meters in AMI networks typically contain constrained
constrained devices that connect to mesh networks with a low- devices that connect to mesh networks with a low-bandwidth radio.
bandwidth radio. Usage data and outage notifications can be sent by Usage data and outage notifications can be sent by these meters to
these meters to the utility's headend systems, via aggregation points the utility's headend systems, via aggregation points of higher-end
of higher-end router devices that bridge the constrained network to a router devices that bridge the constrained network to a less
less constrained network via cellular, WiMAX, or Ethernet. Unlike constrained network via cellular, WiMAX, or Ethernet. Unlike meters,
meters, these higher-end devices might be installed on utility poles these higher-end devices might be installed on utility poles owned
owned and operated by a separate entity. and operated by a separate entity.
It thereby becomes important for a management application to not only It thereby becomes important for a management application not only to
be able to work with diverse types of devices, but also over multiple be able to work with diverse types of devices, but also to work over
links that might be operated and managed by separate entities, each multiple links that might be operated and managed by separate
having divergent policies for their own devices and network segments. entities, each having divergent policies for their own devices and
During management operations, like firmware updates, it is important network segments. During management operations, like firmware
that the management system performs robustly in order to avoid updates, it is important that the management systems perform robustly
accidental outages of critical power systems that could be part of in order to avoid accidental outages of critical power systems that
AMI networks. In fact, since AMI networks must also report on could be part of AMI networks. In fact, since AMI networks must also
outages, the management system might have to manage the energy report on outages, the management system might have to manage the
properties of battery operated AMI devices themselves as well. energy properties of battery-operated AMI devices themselves as well.
A management system for home based Smart Metering solutions is likely A management system for home-based Smart Metering solutions is likely
to have devices laid out in a simple topology. However, AMI networks to have devices laid out in a simple topology. However, AMI network
installations could have thousands of nodes per router, i.e., higher- installations could have thousands of nodes per router, i.e., higher-
end device, which organize themselves in an ad-hoc manner. As such, end device, which organize themselves in an ad hoc manner. As such,
a management system for AMI networks will need to discover and a management system for AMI networks will need to discover and
operate over complex topologies as well. In some situations, it is operate over complex topologies as well. In some situations, it is
possible that the management system might also have to setup and possible that the management system might also have to set up and
manage the topology of nodes, especially critical routers. manage the topology of nodes, especially critical routers.
Encryption key management and sharing in both types of networks is Encryption-key management and sharing in both types of networks are
also likely to be important for providing confidentiality for all also likely to be important for providing confidentiality for all
data traffic. In AMI networks the key may be obtained by a meter data traffic. In AMI networks, the key may be obtained by a meter
only after an end-to-end authentication process based on only after an end-to-end authentication process based on
certificates. Smart Metering solution could adopt a similar approach certificates. The Smart Metering solution could adopt a similar
or the security may be implied due to the encrypted Wi-Fi networks approach or the security may be implied due to the encrypted Wi-Fi
they become part of. networks they become part of.
The management of such a network requires end-to-end management of The management of such a network requires end-to-end management of
and information exchange through different types of networks. and information exchange through different types of networks.
However, as of today there is no integrated energy management However, as of today, there is no integrated energy-management
approach and no common information model available. Specific energy approach and no common information model available. Specific energy-
management applications or network islands use their own management management applications or network islands use their own management
mechanisms. mechanisms.
4.5. Medical Applications 4.5. Medical Applications
Constrained devices can be seen as an enabling technology for Constrained devices can be seen as an enabling technology for
advanced and possibly remote health monitoring and emergency advanced and possibly remote health-monitoring and emergency-
notification systems, ranging from blood pressure and heart rate notification systems, ranging from monitors for blood pressure and
monitors to advanced devices capable of monitoring implanted heart rate to advanced devices capable of monitoring implanted
technologies, such as pacemakers or advanced hearing aids. Medical technologies, such as pacemakers or advanced hearing aids. Medical
sensors may not only be attached to human bodies, they might also sensors may not only be attached to human bodies, they might also
exist in the infrastructure used by humans such as bathrooms or exist in the infrastructure used by humans such as bathrooms or
kitchens. Medical applications will also be used to ensure kitchens. Medical applications will also be used to ensure
treatments are being applied properly and they might guide people treatments are being applied properly, and they might guide people
losing orientation. Fitness and wellness applications, such as losing orientation. Fitness and wellness applications, such as
connected scales or wearable heart monitors, encourage consumers to connected scales or wearable heart monitors, encourage consumers to
exercise and empower self-monitoring of key fitness indicators. exercise and empower self-monitoring of key fitness indicators.
Different applications use Bluetooth, Wi-Fi or ZigBee connections to Different applications use Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, or ZigBee connections to
access the patient's smartphone or home cellular connection to access access the patient's smartphone or home cellular connection to access
the Internet. the Internet.
Constrained devices that are part of medical applications are managed Constrained devices that are part of medical applications are managed
either by the users of those devices or by an organization providing either by the users of those devices or by an organization providing
medical (monitoring) services for physicians. In the first case, medical (monitoring) services for physicians. In the first case,
management must be automatic and/or easy to install and setup by management must be automatic and/or easy to install and set up by
average people. In the second case, it can be expected that devices laypeople. In the second case, it can be expected that devices will
be controlled by specially trained people. In both cases, however, be controlled by specially trained people. In both cases, however,
it is crucial to protect the safety and privacy of the people to it is crucial to protect the safety and privacy of the people who use
which medical devices are attached. Security precautions to protect medical devices. Security precautions to protect access
access (authentication, encryption, integrity protections, etc.) to (authentication, encryption, integrity protections, etc.) to such
such devices may be critical to safeguarding the individual. The devices may be critical to safeguarding the individual. The level of
level of access granted to different users also may need to be access granted to different users also may need to be regulated. For
regulated. For example, an authorized surgeon or doctor must be example, an authorized surgeon or doctor must be allowed to configure
allowed to configure all necessary options on the devices, however, a all necessary options on the devices; however, a nurse or technician
nurse or technician may only be allowed to retrieve data that can may only be allowed to retrieve data that can assist in diagnosis.
assist in diagnosis. Even though the data collected by a heart beat Even though the data collected by a heart monitor might be protected,
monitor might be protected, the pure fact that someone carries such a the pure fact that someone carries such a device may need protection.
device may need protection. As such, certain medical appliances may As such, certain medical appliances may not want to participate in
not want to participate in discovery and self-configuration protocols discovery and self-configuration protocols in order to remain
in order to remain invisible. invisible.
Many medical devices are likely to be used (and relied upon) to Many medical devices are likely to be used (and relied upon) to
provide data to physicians in critical situations since the biggest provide data to physicians in critical situations in which the
market is likely elderly and handicapped people. Timely delivery of patient might not be able to report such data themselves. Timely
data can be quite important in certain applications like patient delivery of data can be quite important in certain applications like
mobility monitoring in old-age homes. Data must reach the physician patient-mobility monitoring in nursing homes. Data must reach the
and/or emergency services within specified limits of time in order to physician and/or emergency services within specified limits of time
be useful. As such, fault detection of the communication network or in order to be useful. As such, fault detection of the communication
the constrained devices becomes a crucial function of the management network or the constrained devices becomes a crucial function of the
system that must be carried out with high reliability and, depending management system that must be carried out with high reliability and,
on the medical appliance and its application, within seconds. depending on the medical appliance and its application, within
seconds.
4.6. Building Automation 4.6. Building Automation
Building automation comprises the distributed systems designed and Building automation comprises the distributed systems designed and
deployed to monitor and control the mechanical, electrical and deployed to monitor and control the mechanical, electrical, and
electronic systems inside buildings with various destinations (e.g., electronic systems inside buildings with various destinations (e.g.,
public and private, industrial, institutions, or residential). public and private, industrial, institutions, or residential).
Advanced Building Automation Systems (BAS) may be deployed Advanced Building Automation Systems (BASs) may be deployed
concentrating the various functions of safety, environmental control, concentrating the various functions of safety, environmental control,
occupancy, security. More and more the deployment of the various occupancy, and security. Increasingly, the deployment of the various
functional systems is connected to the same communication functional systems is connected to the same communication
infrastructure (possibly Internet Protocol based), which may involve infrastructure (possibly IP-based), which may involve wired or
wired or wireless communications networks inside the building. wireless communication networks inside the building.
Building automation requires the deployment of a large number Building automation requires the deployment of a large number (10 to
(10-100.000) of sensors that monitor the status of devices, and 100,000) of sensors that monitor the status of devices, parameters
parameters inside the building and controllers with different inside the building, and controllers with different specialized
specialized functionality for areas within the building or the functionality for areas within the building or the totality of the
totality of the building. Inter-node distances between neighboring building. Inter-node distances between neighboring nodes vary from 1
nodes vary between 1 to 20 meters. The NMS must, as a result, be to 20 meters. The NMS must, as a result, be able to manage and
able to manage and monitor a large number of devices, which may be monitor a large number of devices, which may be organized in multi-
organized in multi-hop meshed networks. Distances between the nodes, hop meshed networks. Distances between the nodes, and the use of
and the use of constrained protocols, means that networks of nodes constrained protocols, means that networks of nodes might be
might be segmented. The management of such network segments and segmented. The management of such network segments and nodes in
nodes in these segments should be possible. Contrary to home these segments should be possible. Contrary to home automation, in
automation, in building management the devices are expected to be building management the devices are expected to be managed assets and
managed assets and known to a set of commissioning tools and a data known to a set of commissioning tools and a data storage, such that
storage, such that every connected device has a known origin. This every connected device has a known origin. This requires the
requires the management system to be able to discover devices on the management system to be able to discover devices on the network and
network and ensure that the expected list of devices is currently ensure that the expected list of devices is currently matched.
matched. Management here includes verifying the presence of the Management here includes verifying the presence of the expected
expected devices and detecting the presence of unwanted devices. devices and detecting the presence of unwanted devices.
Examples of functions performed by controllers in building automation Examples of functions performed by controllers in building automation
are regulating the quality, humidity, and temperature of the air are regulating the quality, humidity, and temperature of the air
inside the building and lighting. Other systems may report the inside the building as well as regulating the lighting. Other
status of the machinery inside the building like elevators, or inside systems may report the status of the machinery inside the building
the rooms like projectors in meeting rooms. Security cameras and like elevators or inside the rooms like projectors in meeting rooms.
sensors may be deployed and operated on separate dedicated Security cameras and sensors may be deployed and operated on separate
infrastructures connected to the common backbone. The deployment dedicated infrastructures connected to the common backbone. The
area of a BAS is typically inside one building (or part of it) or deployment area of a BAS is typically inside one building (or part of
several buildings geographically grouped in a campus. A building it) or several buildings geographically grouped in a campus. A
network can be composed of network segments, where a network segment building network can be composed of network segments, where a network
covers a floor, an area on the floor, or a given functionality (e.g., segment covers a floor, an area on the floor, or a given
security cameras). It is possible that the management tasks of functionality (e.g., security cameras). It is possible that the
different types of some devices might be separated from others (e.g, management tasks of different types of some devices might be
security cameras might operate and be managed via a separate network separated from others (e.g, security cameras might operate and be
to the HVAC in a building). managed via a network separate from that of the HVAC in a building).
Some of the sensors in Building Automation Systems (for example fire Some of the sensors in BASs (for example, fire alarms or security
alarms or security systems) register, record and transfer critical systems) register, record, and transfer critical alarm information;
alarm information and therefore must be resilient to events like loss therefore, they must be resilient to events like loss of power or
of power or security attacks. A management system must be able to security attacks. A management system must be able to deal with
deal with unintentional segmentation of networks due to power loss or unintentional segmentation of networks due to power loss or channel
channel unavailability. It must also be able to detect security unavailability. It must also be able to detect security events. Due
events. Due to specific operating conditions required from certain to specific operating conditions required from certain devices, there
devices, there might be a need to certify components and subsystems might be a need to certify components and subsystems operating in
operating in such constrained conditions based on specific such constrained conditions based on specific requirements. Also, in
requirements. Also in some environments, the malfunctioning of a some environments, the malfunctioning of a control system (like
control system (like temperature control) needs to be reported in the temperature control) needs to be reported in the shortest possible
shortest possible time. Complex control systems can misbehave, and time. Complex control systems can misbehave, and their critical
their critical status reporting and safety algorithms need to be status reporting and safety algorithms need to be basic and robust
basic and robust and perform even in critical conditions. Providing and perform even in critical conditions. Providing this monitoring,
this monitoring, configuration and notification service is an configuration and notification service is an important task of the
important task of the management system used in building automation. management system used in building automation.
Building automation solutions are deployed in some cases in newly In some cases, building automation solutions are deployed in newly
designed buildings, in other cases it might be over existing designed buildings; in other cases, it might be over existing
infrastructures. In the first case, there is a broader range of infrastructures. In the first case, there is a broader range of
possible solutions, which can be planned for the infrastructure of possible solutions, which can be planned for the infrastructure of
the building. In the second case the solution needs to be deployed the building. In the second case, the solution needs to be deployed
over an existing infrastructure taking into account factors like over an existing infrastructure taking into account factors like
existing wiring, distance limitations, the propagation of radio existing wiring, distance limitations, and the propagation of radio
signals over walls and floors, thereby making deployment difficult. signals over walls and floors, thereby making deployment difficult.
As a result, some of the existing WLAN solutions (e.g., IEEE 802.11 As a result, some of the existing WLAN solutions (e.g., [IEEE802.11]
or IEEE 802.15) may be deployed. In mission-critical or security or [IEEE802.15]) may be deployed. In mission-critical or security-
sensitive environments and in cases where link failures happen often, sensitive environments and in cases where link failures happen often,
topologies that allow for reconfiguration of the network and topologies that allow for reconfiguration of the network and
connection continuity may be required. Some of the sensors deployed connection continuity may be required. Some of the sensors deployed
in building automation may be very simple constrained devices for in building automation may be very simple constrained devices for
which C0 or C1 [RFC7228] may be assumed. which C0 or C1 [RFC7228] may be assumed.
For lighting applications, groups of lights must be defined and For lighting applications, groups of lights must be defined and
managed. Commands to a group of light must arrive within 200 ms at managed. Commands to a group of light must arrive within 200 ms at
all destinations. The installation and operation of a building all destinations. The installation and operation of a building
network has different requirements. During the installation, many network has different requirements. During the installation, many
stand-alone networks of a few to 100 nodes co-exist without a stand-alone networks of a few to 100 nodes coexist without a
connection to the backbone. During this phase, the nodes are connection to the backbone. During this phase, the nodes are
identified with a network identifier related to their physical identified with a network identifier related to their physical
location. Devices are accessed from an installation tool to connect location. Devices are accessed from an installation tool to connect
them to the network in a secure fashion. During installation, the them to the network in a secure fashion. During installation, the
setting of parameters of common values to enable interoperability may setting of parameters of common values to enable interoperability may
be required. During operation, the networks are connected to the be required. During operation, the networks are connected to the
backbone while maintaining the network identifier to physical backbone while maintaining the network identifier to physical
location relation. Network parameters like address and name are location relation. Network parameters like address and name are
stored in DNS. The names can assist in determining the physical stored in the DNS. The names can assist in determining the physical
location of the device. location of the device.
It is also important for a building automation NMS to take safety and It is also important for a building automation NMS to take safety and
security into account. Ensuring privacy and confidentiality of data, security into account. Ensuring privacy and confidentiality of data,
such that unauthorized parties do not get access to it, is likely to such that unauthorized parties do not get access to it, is likely to
be important since users' individual behaviors could be potentially be important since users' individual behaviors could be potentially
understood via their settings. Appropriate security considerations understood via their settings. Appropriate security considerations
for authorization and access control to the NMS is also important for authorization and access control to the NMS is also important
since different users are likely to have varied levels of operational since different users are likely to have varied levels of operational
permissions in the system. E.g., while end users should be able to permissions in the system. For example, while end users should be
control lighting systems, HVACs, etc., only qualified technicians able to control lighting systems, HVAC systems, etc., only qualified
should be able to configure parameters that change the fundamental technicians should be able to configure parameters that change the
operation of a device. It is also important for devices and the NMS fundamental operation of a device. It is also important for devices
to be able to detect and report any tampering they might detect, and the NMS to be able to detect and report any tampering they might
since these could lead to potential user safety concerns, e.g., if find, since these could lead to potential user safety concerns, e.g.,
sensors controlling air quality are tampered with such that the if sensors controlling air quality are tampered with such that the
levels of Carbon Monoxide become life threatening. This implies that levels of carbon monoxide become life threatening. This implies that
a NMS should also be able to deal with and appropriately prioritize an NMS should also be able to deal with and appropriately prioritize
situations that might potentially lead to safety concerns. situations that might potentially lead to safety concerns.
4.7. Home Automation 4.7. Home Automation
Home automation includes the control of lighting, heating, Home automation includes the control of lighting, heating,
ventilation, air conditioning, appliances, entertainment and home ventilation, air conditioning, appliances, entertainment and home
security devices to improve convenience, comfort, energy efficiency, security devices to improve convenience, comfort, energy efficiency,
and safety. It can be seen as a residential extension of building and safety. It can be seen as a residential extension of building
automation. However, unlike a building automation system, the automation. However, unlike a BAS, the infrastructure in a home is
infrastructure in a home is operated in a considerably more ad-hoc operated in a considerably more ad hoc manner. While in some
manner. While in some installations it is likely that there is no installations it is likely that there is no centralized management
centralized management system, akin to a Building Automation System system akin to a BAS available, in other situations outsourced and
(BAS), available, in other situations outsourced and cloud based cloud-based systems responsible for managing devices in the home
systems responsible for managing devices in the home might be used. might be used.
Home automation networks need a certain amount of configuration Home-automation networks need a certain amount of configuration
(associating switches or sensors to actuators) that is either (associating switches or sensors to actuators) that is either
provided by electricians deploying home automation solutions, by provided by electricians deploying home-automation solutions, by
third party home automation service providers (e.g., small third-party home-automation service providers (e.g., small
specialized companies or home automation device manufacturers) or by specialized companies or home-automation device manufacturers) or by
residents by using the application user interface provided by home residents by using the application user interface provided by home-
automation devices to configure (parts of) the home automation automation devices to configure (parts of) the home-automation
solution. Similarly, failures may be reported via suitable solution. Similarly, failures may be reported via suitable
interfaces to residents or they might be recorded and made available interfaces to residents or they might be recorded and made available
to services providers in charge of the maintenance of the home to services providers in charge of the maintenance of the home-
automation infrastructure. automation infrastructure.
The management responsibility lies either with the residents or it The management responsibility either lies with the residents or is
may be outsourced to electricians and/or third parties providing outsourced to electricians and/or third parties providing management
management of home automation solutions as a service. A varying of home-automation solutions as a service. A varying combination of
combination of electricians, service providers or the residents may electricians, service providers, or the residents may be responsible
be responsible for different aspects of managing the infrastructure. for different aspects of managing the infrastructure. The time scale
The time scale for failure detection and resolution is in many cases for failure detection and resolution is, in many cases, likely
likely counted in hours to days. counted in hours to days.
4.8. Transport Applications 4.8. Transport Applications
Transport application is a generic term for the integrated "Transport application" is a generic term for the integrated
application of communications, control, and information processing in application of communications, control, and information processing in
a transportation system. Transport telematics or vehicle telematics a transportation system. "Transport telematics" and "vehicle
are used as a term for the group of technologies that support telematics" are both used as terms for the group of technologies that
transportation systems. Transport applications running on such a support transportation systems. Transport applications running on
transportation system cover all modes of the transport and consider such a transportation system cover all modes of the transport and
all elements of the transportation system, i.e. the vehicle, the consider all elements of the transportation system, i.e. the vehicle,
infrastructure, and the driver or user, interacting together the infrastructure, and the driver or user, interacting together
dynamically. Examples for transport applications are inter and intra dynamically. Examples for transport applications are inter- and
vehicular communication, smart traffic control, smart parking, intra-vehicular communication, smart traffic control, smart parking,
electronic toll collection systems, logistic and fleet management, electronic toll-collection systems, logistic and fleet management,
vehicle control, and safety and road assistance. vehicle control, and safety and roadside assistance.
As a distributed system, transport applications require an end-to-end As a distributed system, transport applications require an end-to-end
management of different types of networks. It is likely that management of different types of networks. It is likely that
constrained devices in a network (e.g. a moving in-car network) have constrained devices in a network (e.g., a moving in-car network) have
to be controlled by an application running on an application server to be controlled by an application running on an application server
in the network of a service provider. Such a highly distributed in the network of a service provider. Such a highly distributed
network including cellular devices on vehicles is assumed to include network including cellular devices on vehicles is assumed to include
a wireless access network using diverse long distance wireless a wireless access network using diverse long-distance wireless
technologies such as WiMAX, 3G/LTE or satellite communication, e.g. technologies such as WiMAX, 3G/LTE, or satellite communication, e.g.,
based on an embedded hardware module. As a result, the management of based on an embedded hardware module. As a result, the management of
constrained devices in the transport system might be necessary to constrained devices in the transport system might be necessary to
plan top-down and might need to use data models obliged from and plan top-down and might need to use data models obliged from and
defined on the application layer. The assumed device classes in use defined on the application layer. The assumed device classes in use
are mainly C2 [RFC7228] devices. In cases, where an in-vehicle are mainly C2 [RFC7228] devices. In cases, where an in-vehicle
network is involved, C1 devices [RFC7228] with limited capabilities network is involved, C1 devices [RFC7228] with limited capabilities
and a short-distance constrained radio network, e.g. IEEE 802.15.4 and a short-distance constrained radio network, e.g., IEEE 802.15.4
might be used additionally. might be used additionally.
All Transport Applications will require an IT infrastructure to run All Transport Applications will require an IT infrastructure to run
on top of, e.g., in public transport scenarios like trains, bus or on top of, e.g., in public-transport scenarios like trains, buses, or
metro network infrastructure might be provided, maintained and metro networks infrastructure might be provided, maintained, and
operated by third parties like mobile network or satellite network operated by third parties like mobile-network or satellite-network
operators. However, the management responsibility of the transport operators. However, the management responsibility of the transport
application typically rests within the organization running the application typically rests within the organization running the
transport application (in the public transport scenario, this would transport application (in the public-transport scenario, this would
typically be the public transport operator). Different aspects of typically be the public-transport operator). Different aspects of
the infrastructure might also be managed by different entities. For the infrastructure might also be managed by different entities. For
example, the in-car devices are likely to be installed and managed by example, the in-car devices are likely to be installed and managed by
the manufacturer, while the public works might be responsible for the the manufacturer, while the local government or transportation
on-road vehicular communication infrastructure used by these devices. authority might be responsible for the on-road vehicular
The back-end infrastructure is also likely to be maintained by third communication infrastructure used by these devices. The backend
party operators. As such, the NMS must be able to deal with infrastructure is also likely to be maintained by third-party
different network segments, each being operated and controlled by operators. As such, the NMS must be able to deal with different
separate entities, and enable appropriate access control and security network segments (each being operated and controlled by separate
as well. entities) and enable appropriate access control and security.
Depending on the type of application domain (vehicular or stationary) Depending on the type of application domain (vehicular or stationary)
and service being provided, it would be important for the NMS to be and service being provided, it is important for the NMS to be able to
able to function with different architectures, since different function with different architectures, since different manufacturers
manufacturers might have their own proprietary systems relying on a might have their own proprietary systems relying on a specific
specific Management Topology Option, as described in [COM-REQ]. management topology option, as described in [RFC7547]. Moreover,
Moreover, constituents of the network can be either private, constituents of the network can either be private, belong to
belonging to individuals or private companies, or owned by public individuals or private companies, or be owned by public institutions
institutions leading to different legal and organization leading to different legal and organization requirements. Across the
requirements. Across the entire infrastructure, a variety of entire infrastructure, a variety of constrained devices is likely to
constrained devices are likely to be used, and must be individually be used, and they must be individually managed. The NMS must be able
managed. The NMS must be able to either work directly with different to either work directly with different types of devices or have the
types of devices, or have the ability to interoperate with multiple ability to interoperate with multiple different systems.
different systems.
The challenges in the management of vehicles in a mobile transport The challenges in the management of vehicles in a mobile-transport
application are manifold. The up-to-date position of each node in application are manifold. The up-to-date position of each node in
the network should be reported to the corresponding management the network should be reported to the corresponding management
entities, since the nodes could be moving within or roaming between entities, since the nodes could be moving within or roaming between
different networks. Secondly, a variety of troubleshooting different networks. Secondly, a variety of troubleshooting
information, including sensitive location information, needs to be information, including sensitive location information, needs to be
reported to the management system in order to provide accurate reported to the management system in order to provide accurate
service to the customer. Management systems dealing with mobile service to the customer. Management systems dealing with mobile
nodes could possibly exploit specific patterns in the mobility of the nodes could possibly exploit specific patterns in the mobility of the
nodes. These patterns emerge due to repetitive vehicular usage in nodes. These patterns emerge due to repetitive vehicular usage in
scenarios like people commuting to work, logistics supply vehicles scenarios like people commuting to work and supply vehicles
transporting shipments between warehouses, etc. The NMS must also be transporting shipments between warehouses, etc. The NMS must also be
able to handle partitioned networks, which would arise due to the able to handle partitioned networks, which would arise due to the
dynamic nature of traffic resulting in large inter-vehicle gaps in dynamic nature of traffic resulting in large inter-vehicle gaps in
sparsely populated scenarios. Since mobile nodes might roam in sparsely populated scenarios. Since mobile nodes might roam in
remote networks, the NMS should be able to provide operating remote networks, the NMS should be able to provide operating
configuration updates regardless of node location. configuration updates regardless of node location.
The constrained devices in a moving transport network might be The constrained devices in a moving transport network might be
initially configured in a factory and a reconfiguration might be initially configured in a factory, and a reconfiguration might be
needed only rarely. New devices might be integrated in an ad-hoc needed only rarely. New devices might be integrated in an ad hoc
manner based on self-management and -configuration capabilities. manner based on self-management and self-configuration capabilities.
Monitoring and data exchange might be necessary to do via a gateway Monitoring and data exchange might be necessary via a gateway entity
entity connected to the back-end transport infrastructure. The connected to the backend transport infrastructure. The devices and
devices and entities in the transport infrastructure need to be entities in the transport infrastructure need to be monitored more
monitored more frequently and can be able to communicate with a frequently and may be able to communicate with a higher data rate.
higher data rate. The connectivity of such entities does not The connectivity of such entities does not necessarily need to be
necessarily need to be wireless. The time scale for detecting and wireless. The time scale for detecting and recording failures in a
recording failures in a moving transport network is likely measured moving transport network is likely measured in hours, and repairs
in hours and repairs might easily take days. It is likely that a might easily take days. It is likely that a self-healing feature
self-healing feature would be used locally. On the other hand, would be used locally. On the other hand, failures in fixed
failures in fixed transport application infrastructure (e.g., transport-application infrastructure (e.g., traffic lights, digital-
traffic-lights, digital signage displays) is likely to be measured in signage displays) are likely to be measured in minutes so as to avoid
minutes so as to avoid untoward traffic incidents. As such, the NMS untoward traffic incidents. As such, the NMS must be able to deal
must be able to deal with differing timeliness requirements based on with differing timeliness requirements based on the type of devices.
the type of devices.
Since transport applications of the constrained devices and networks Since transport applications of the constrained devices and networks
deal with automotive vehicles, malfunctions and misuse can deal with automotive vehicles, malfunctions and misuse can
potentially lead to safety concerns as well. As such, besides access potentially lead to safety concerns as well. As such, besides access
control, privacy of user data and timeliness management systems control, privacy of user data, and timeliness, management systems
should also be able to detect situations that are potentially should also be able to detect situations that are potentially
hazardous to safety. Some of these situations could be automatically hazardous to safety. Some of these situations could be automatically
mitigated, e.g., traffic lights with incorrect timing, but others mitigated, e.g., traffic lights with incorrect timing, but others
might require human intervention, e.g., failed traffic lights. The might require human intervention, e.g., failed traffic lights. The
management system should take appropriate actions in these management system should take appropriate actions in these
situations. Maintaining data confidentiality and integrity is also situations. Maintaining data confidentiality and integrity is also
an important security aspect of a management system since tampering an important security aspect of a management system since tampering
(or malfunction) can also lead to potentially dangerous situations. (or malfunction) can also lead to potentially dangerous situations.
4.9. Community Network Applications 4.9. Community Network Applications
Community networks are comprised of constrained routers in a multi- Community networks are comprised of constrained routers in a multi-
hop mesh topology, communicating over a lossy, and often wireless hop mesh topology, communicating over lossy, and often wireless,
channels. While the routers are mostly non-mobile, the topology may channels. While the routers are mostly non-mobile, the topology may
be very dynamic because of fluctuations in link quality of the be very dynamic because of fluctuations in link quality of the
(wireless) channel caused by, e.g., obstacles, or other nearby radio (wireless) channel caused by, e.g., obstacles, or other nearby radio
transmissions. Depending on the routers that are used in the transmissions. Depending on the routers that are used in the
community network, the resources of the routers (memory, CPU) may be community network, the resources of the routers (memory, CPU) may be
more or less constrained - available resources may range from only a more or less constrained -- available resources may range from only a
few kilobytes of RAM to several megabytes or more, and CPUs may be few kilobytes of RAM to several megabytes or more, and CPUs may be
small and embedded, or more powerful general-purpose processors. small and embedded, or more powerful general-purpose processors.
Examples of such community networks are the FunkFeuer network Examples of such community networks are the FunkFeuer network
(Vienna, Austria), FreiFunk (Berlin, Germany), Seattle Wireless (Vienna, Austria), FreiFunk (Berlin, Germany), Seattle Wireless
(Seattle, USA), and AWMN (Athens, Greece). These community networks (Seattle, USA), and AWMN (Athens, Greece). These community networks
are public and non-regulated, allowing their users to connect to each are public and non-regulated, allowing their users to connect to each
other and - through an uplink to an ISP - to the Internet. No fee, other and -- through an uplink to an ISP -- to the Internet. No fee,
other than the initial purchase of a wireless router, is charged for other than the initial purchase of a wireless router, is charged for
these services. Applications of these community networks can be these services. Applications of these community networks can be
diverse, e.g., location based services, free Internet access, file diverse, e.g., location-based services, free Internet access, file
sharing between users, distributed chat services, social networking, sharing between users, distributed chat services, social networking,
video sharing, etc. video sharing, etc.
As an example of a community network, the FunkFeuer network comprises As an example of a community network, the FunkFeuer network comprises
several hundred routers, many of which have several radio interfaces several hundred routers, many of which have several radio interfaces
(with omnidirectional and some directed antennas). The routers of (with omnidirectional and some directed antennas). The routers of
the network are small-sized wireless routers, such as the Linksys the network are small-sized wireless routers, such as the Linksys
WRT54GL, available in 2011 for less than 50 Euros. These routers, WRT54GL, available in 2011 for less than 50 euros. Each router, with
with 16 MB of RAM and 264 MHz of CPU power, are mounted on the 16 MB of RAM and 264 MHz of CPU power, is mounted on the rooftop of a
rooftops of the users. When new users want to connect to the user. When a new user wants to connect to the network, they acquire
network, they acquire a wireless router, install the appropriate a wireless router, install the appropriate firmware and routing
firmware and routing protocol, and mount the router on the rooftop. protocol, and mount the router on the rooftop. IP addresses for the
IP addresses for the router are assigned manually from a list of router are assigned manually from a list of addresses (because of the
addresses (because of the lack of auto-configuration standards for lack of autoconfiguration standards for mesh networks in the IETF).
mesh networks in the IETF).
While the routers are non-mobile, fluctuations in link quality While the routers are non-mobile, fluctuations in link quality
require an ad hoc routing protocol that allows for quick convergence require an ad hoc routing protocol that allows for quick convergence
to reflect the effective topology of the network (such as NHDP to reflect the effective topology of the network (such as
[RFC6130] and OLSRv2 [RFC7181] developed in the MANET WG). Usually, Neighborhood Discovery Protocol (NHDP) [RFC6130] and Optimized Link
no human interaction is required for these protocols, as all variable State Routing version 2 (OLSRv2) [RFC7181] developed in the MANET
parameters required by the routing protocol are either negotiated in WG). Usually, no human interaction is required for these protocols,
the control traffic exchange, or are only of local importance to each as all variable parameters required by the routing protocol are
router (i.e. do not influence interoperability). However, external either negotiated in the control traffic exchange or are only of
management and monitoring of an ad hoc routing protocol may be local importance to each router (i.e. do not influence
desirable to optimize parameters of the routing protocol. Such an interoperability). However, external management and monitoring of an
optimization may lead to a more stable perceived topology and to a ad hoc routing protocol may be desirable to optimize parameters of
lower control traffic overhead, and therefore to a higher delivery the routing protocol. Such an optimization may lead to a topology
success ratio of data packets, a lower end-to-end delay, and less that is perceived to be more stable and to a lower control traffic
unnecessary bandwidth and energy usage. overhead (and therefore to a higher delivery success ratio of data
packets, a lower end-to-end delay, and less unnecessary bandwidth and
energy use).
Different use cases for the management of community networks are Different use cases for the management of community networks are
possible: possible:
o One single Network Management Station, e.g. a border gateway o A single NMS, e.g., a border gateway providing connectivity to the
providing connectivity to the Internet, requires managing or Internet, requires managing or monitoring routers in the community
monitoring routers in the community network, in order to network, in order to investigate problems (monitoring) or to
investigate problems (monitoring) or to improve performance by improve performance by changing parameters (managing). As the
changing parameters (managing). As the topology of the network is topology of the network is dynamic, constant connectivity of each
dynamic, constant connectivity of each router towards the router towards the management station cannot be guaranteed.
management station cannot be guaranteed. Current network Current network management protocols, such as SNMP and Network
management protocols, such as SNMP and NETCONF, may be used (e.g., Configuration Protocol (NETCONF), may be used (e.g., use of
using interfaces such as the NHDP-MIB [RFC6779]). However, when interfaces such as the NHDP-MIB [RFC6779]). However, when routers
routers in the community network are constrained, existing in the community network are constrained, existing protocols may
protocols may require too many resources in terms of memory and require too many resources in terms of memory and CPU; and more
CPU; and more importantly, the bandwidth requirements may exceed importantly, the bandwidth requirements may exceed the available
the available channel capacity in wireless mesh networks. channel capacity in wireless mesh networks. Moreover, management
Moreover, management and monitoring may be unfeasible if the and monitoring may be unfeasible if the connection between the NMS
connection between the network management station and the routers and the routers is frequently interrupted.
is frequently interrupted.
o Distributed network monitoring, in which more than one management o Distributed network monitoring, in which more than one management
station monitors or manages other routers. Because connectivity station monitors or manages other routers. Because connectivity
to a server cannot be guaranteed at all times, a distributed to a server cannot be guaranteed at all times, a distributed
approach may provide a higher reliability, at the cost of approach may provide a higher reliability, at the cost of
increased complexity. Currently, no IETF standard exists for increased complexity. Currently, no IETF standard exists for
distributed monitoring and management. distributed monitoring and management.
o Monitoring and management of a whole network or a group of o Monitoring and management of a whole network or a group of
routers. Monitoring the performance of a community network may routers. Monitoring the performance of a community network may
require more information than what can be acquired from a single require more information than what can be acquired from a single
router using a network management protocol. Statistics, such as router using a network management protocol. Statistics, such as
topology changes over time, data throughput along certain routing topology changes over time, data throughput along certain routing
paths, congestion etc., are of interest for a group of routers (or paths, congestion, etc., are of interest for a group of routers
the routing domain) as a whole. As of 2014, no IETF standard (or the routing domain) as a whole. As of 2014, no IETF standard
allows for monitoring or managing whole networks, instead of allows for monitoring or managing whole networks instead of single
single routers. routers.
4.10. Field Operations 4.10. Field Operations
The challenges of configuration and monitoring of networks operated The challenges of configuring and monitoring networks operated in the
in the field by rescue and security agencies can be different from field by rescue and security agencies can be different from the other
the other use cases since the requirements and operating conditions use cases since the requirements and operating conditions of such
of such networks are quite different. networks are quite different.
With technology advancements, field networks operated nowadays are With technology advancements, field networks operated nowadays are
becoming large and can consist of varieties of different types of becoming large and can consist of a variety of different types of
equipment that run different protocols and tools that obviously equipment that run different protocols and tools that obviously
increase complexity of these mission-critical networks. In many increase complexity of these mission-critical networks. In many
scenarios, configurations are, most likely, manually performed. scenarios, configurations are, most likely, manually performed.
Furthermore, some legacy and even modern devices do not even support Furthermore, some legacy and even modern devices do not even support
IP networking. A majority of protocols and tools developed by IP networking. A majority of protocols and tools developed by
vendors that are being used are proprietary, which makes integration vendors that are being used are proprietary, which makes integration
more difficult. more difficult.
The main reason for this disjoint operation scenario is that most The main reason for this disjoint operation scenario is that most
equipment is developed with specific task requirements in mind, equipment is developed with specific task requirements in mind,
rather than interoperability of the varied equipment types. For rather than interoperability of the varied equipment types. For
example, the operating conditions experienced by high altitude example, the operating conditions experienced by high altitude
security equipment is significantly different from that used in security equipment is significantly different from that used in
skipping to change at page 23, line 12 skipping to change at page 23, line 15
Furthermore, some legacy and even modern devices do not even support Furthermore, some legacy and even modern devices do not even support
IP networking. A majority of protocols and tools developed by IP networking. A majority of protocols and tools developed by
vendors that are being used are proprietary, which makes integration vendors that are being used are proprietary, which makes integration
more difficult. more difficult.
The main reason for this disjoint operation scenario is that most The main reason for this disjoint operation scenario is that most
equipment is developed with specific task requirements in mind, equipment is developed with specific task requirements in mind,
rather than interoperability of the varied equipment types. For rather than interoperability of the varied equipment types. For
example, the operating conditions experienced by high altitude example, the operating conditions experienced by high altitude
security equipment is significantly different from that used in security equipment is significantly different from that used in
desert conditions. Similarly, search and rescue operations equipment desert conditions. Similarly, equipment used in fire rescue has
used in case of fire rescue has different requirements than flood different requirements than flood-relief equipment. Furthermore,
relief equipment. Furthermore, inter-operation of equipment with interoperation of equipment with telecommunication equipment was not
telecommunication equipment was not an expected outcome or in some an expected outcome or (in some scenarios) may not even be desirable.
scenarios this may not even be desirable.
Currently, field networks operate with a fixed Network Operations Currently, field networks operate with a fixed Network Operations
Center (NOC) that physically manages the configuration and evaluation Center (NOC) that physically manages the configuration and evaluation
of all field devices. Once configured, the devices might be deployed of all field devices. Once configured, the devices might be deployed
in fixed or mobile scenarios. Any configuration changes required in fixed or mobile scenarios. Any configuration changes required
would need to be appropriately encrypted and authenticated to prevent would need to be appropriately encrypted and authenticated to prevent
unauthorized access. unauthorized access.
Hierarchical management of devices is a common requirement in such Hierarchical management of devices is a common requirement in such
scenarios since local managers or operators may need to respond to scenarios since local managers or operators may need to respond to
changing conditions within their purview. The level of configuration changing conditions within their purview. The level of configuration
management available at each hierarchy must also be closely governed. management available at each hierarchy must also be closely governed.
Since many field operation devices are used in hostile environments, Since many field operation devices are used in hostile environments,
a high failure and disconnection rate should be tolerated by the NMS, a high failure and disconnection rate should be tolerated by the NMS,
which must also be able to deal with multiple gateways and disjoint which must also be able to deal with multiple gateways and disjoint
management protocols. management protocols.
Multi-national field operations involving search, rescue and security Multi-national field operations involving search, rescue, and
are becoming increasingly common, requiring inter-operation of a security are becoming increasingly common, requiring interoperation
diverse set of equipment designed with different operating conditions of a diverse set of equipment designed with different operating
in mind. Furthermore, different intra- and inter-governmental conditions in mind. Furthermore, different intra- and inter-
agencies are likely to have a different set of standards, best governmental agencies are likely to have a different set of
practices, rules and regulation, and implementation approaches that standards, best practices, rules and regulations, and implementation
may contradict or conflict with each other. The NMS should be able approaches that may contradict or conflict with each other. The NMS
to detect these and handle them in an acceptable manner, which may should be able to detect these and handle them in an acceptable
require human intervention. manner, which may require human intervention.
5. IANA Considerations
This document does not introduce any new code-points or namespaces
for registration with IANA.
Note to RFC Editor: this section may be removed on publication as an
RFC.
6. Security Considerations 5. Security Considerations
This document discusses use cases for management of networks with This document discusses use cases for management of networks with
constrained devices. The security considerations described constrained devices. The security considerations described
throughout the companion document [COM-REQ] apply here as well. throughout the companion document [RFC7547] apply here as well.
7. Contributors
Following persons made significant contributions to and reviewed this
document:
o Ulrich Herberg contributed the Section 4.9 on Community Network
Applications.
o Peter van der Stok contributed to Section 4.6 on Building
Automation.
o Zhen Cao contributed to Section 2.2 Cellular Access Technologies.
o Gilman Tolle contributed the Section 4.4 on Automated Metering
Infrastructure.
o James Nguyen and Ulrich Herberg contributed to Section 4.10 on
Military operations.
8. Acknowledgments
Following persons reviewed and provided valuable comments to
different versions of this document:
Dominique Barthel, Carsten Bormann, Zhen Cao, Benoit Claise, Bert
Greevenbosch, Ulrich Herberg, Ted Lemon, Kathleen Moriarty, James
Nguyen, Zach Shelby, Peter van der Stok, and Martin Thomson.
The editors would like to thank the reviewers and the participants on
the Coman maillist for their valuable contributions and comments.
9. Informative References 6. Informative References
[RFC6130] Clausen, T., Dearlove, C., and J. Dean, "Mobile Ad Hoc [RFC6130] Clausen, T., Dearlove, C., and J. Dean, "Mobile Ad Hoc
Network (MANET) Neighborhood Discovery Protocol (NHDP)", Network (MANET) Neighborhood Discovery Protocol (NHDP)",
RFC 6130, April 2011. RFC 6130, DOI 10.17487/RFC6130, April 2011,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6130>.
[RFC6568] Kim, E., Kaspar, D., and JP. Vasseur, "Design and [RFC6568] Kim, E., Kaspar, D., and JP. Vasseur, "Design and
Application Spaces for IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Application Spaces for IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless
Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)", RFC 6568, April 2012. Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)", RFC 6568,
DOI 10.17487/RFC6568, April 2012,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6568>.
[RFC6779] Herberg, U., Cole, R., and I. Chakeres, "Definition of [RFC6779] Herberg, U., Cole, R., and I. Chakeres, "Definition of
Managed Objects for the Neighborhood Discovery Protocol", Managed Objects for the Neighborhood Discovery Protocol",
RFC 6779, October 2012. RFC 6779, DOI 10.17487/RFC6779, October 2012,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6779>.
[RFC6988] Quittek, J., Chandramouli, M., Winter, R., Dietz, T., and [RFC6988] Quittek, J., Ed., Chandramouli, M., Winter, R., Dietz, T.,
B. Claise, "Requirements for Energy Management", RFC 6988, and B. Claise, "Requirements for Energy Management",
September 2013. RFC 6988, DOI 10.17487/RFC6988, September 2013,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6988>.
[RFC7181] Clausen, T., Dearlove, C., Jacquet, P., and U. Herberg, [RFC7181] Clausen, T., Dearlove, C., Jacquet, P., and U. Herberg,
"The Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2", RFC "The Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2",
7181, April 2014. RFC 7181, DOI 10.17487/RFC7181, April 2014,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7181>.
[RFC7228] Bormann, C., Ersue, M., and A. Keranen, "Terminology for [RFC7228] Bormann, C., Ersue, M., and A. Keranen, "Terminology for
Constrained-Node Networks", RFC 7228, May 2014. Constrained-Node Networks", RFC 7228,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7228, May 2014,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7228>.
[RFC7326] Parello, J., Claise, B., Schoening, B., and J. Quittek, [RFC7326] Parello, J., Claise, B., Schoening, B., and J. Quittek,
"Energy Management Framework", RFC 7326, September 2014. "Energy Management Framework", RFC 7326,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7326, September 2014,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7326>.
[COM-REQ] Ersue, M., Romascanu, D., and J. Schoenwaelder, [RFC7547] Ersue, M., Ed., Romascanu, D., Schoenwaelder, J., and U.
"Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Problem Herberg, "Management of Networks with Constrained Devices:
Statement and Requirements", draft-ietf-opsawg-coman- Problem Statement and Requirements", RFC 7547,
probstate-reqs (work in progress), February 2014. DOI 10.17487/RFC7547, May 2015,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7547>.
[IOT-SEC] Garcia-Morchon, O., Kumar, S., Keoh, S., Hummen, R., and [IOT-SEC] Garcia-Morchon, O., Kumar, S., Keoh, S., Hummen, R., and
R. Struik, "Security Considerations in the IP-based R. Struik, "Security Considerations in the IP-based
Internet of Things", draft-garcia-core-security-06 (work Internet of Things", Work in Progress, draft-garcia-core-
in progress), September 2013. security-06, September 2013.
Appendix A. Change Log
A.1. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-04 - draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-
use-cases-05
o Added text regarding security and safety considerations to the
Environmental Monitoring, Infrastructure Monitoring, Industrial
Applications, Medical Applications, Building Automation and
Transport Applications section.
o Adopted text as per comments received from Kathleen Moriarty
during IESG review.
o Added security related text to use cases for addressing concerns
raised by Ted Lemon during the IESG review.
A.2. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-03 - draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-
use-cases-04
o Resolved Gen-ART review comments received from Martin Thomson.
o Deleted company name for the list of contributors.
o Added Martin Thomson to Acknowledgments section.
A.3. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-02 - draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-
use-cases-03
o Updated references to take into account RFCs that have now been
published
o Added text to the access technologies section explaining why fixed
line technologies (e.g., powerline communications) have not been
discussed.
o Created a new section, Device Lifecycle, discussing the impact of
different device lifecycle stages on the management of constrained
networks.
o Homogenized usage of device classes to form C0, C1 and C2.
o Ensured consistency in usage of Wi-Fi, ZigBee and other
terminologies.
o Added text clarifying the management aspects of the Building
Automation and Industrial Automation use cases.
o Clarified the meaning of unreliability in context of constrained
devices and networks.
o Added information regarding the configuration and operation of
factory automation use case, based on the type of information
provided in the building automation use case.
o Fixed editorial issues discovered by reviewers.
A.4. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-01 - draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-
use-cases-02
o Renamed Mobile Access Technologies section to Cellular Access
Technologies
o Changed references to mobile access technologies to now read
cellular access technologies.
o Added text to the introduction to point out that the list of use
cases is not exhaustive since others unknown to the authors might
exist.
o Updated references to take into account RFCs that have been now
published.
o Updated Environmental Monitoring section to make it clear that in
some scenarios it may not be prudent to repair devices.
o Added clarification in Infrastructure Monitoring section that
reliable communication is achieved via application layer
transactions
o Removed reference to Energy Devices from Energy Management
section, instead labeling them as devices within the context of
energy management.
o Reduced descriptive content in Energy Management section.
o Rewrote text in Energy Management section to highlight management
characteristics of Smart Meter and AMI networks.
o Added text regarding timely delivery of information, and related
management system characteristic, to the Medical Applications
section
o Changed subnets to network segment in Building Automation section.
o Changed structure to infrastructure in Building Automation
section, and added text to highlight associated deployment
difficulties.
o Removed Trickle timer as example of common values to be set in
Building Automation section.
o Added text regarding the possible availability of outsourced and
cloud based management systems for Home Automation.
o Added text to Transport Applications section to highlight the
requirement of IT infrastructure for such applications to function
on top of.
o Merged the Transport Applications and Vehicular Networks section
together. Following changes to the Vehicular Networks section
were merged back into Transport Applications
* Replaced wireless last hops with wireless access to vehicles in
Vehicular Networks.
* Expanded proprietary systems to "systems relying on a specific
Management Topology Option, as described in [COM-REQ]." within
Vehicular Networks section.
* Added text regarding mobility patterns to Vehicular Networks.
o Changed the Military Operations use case to Field Operations and
edited the text to be suitable to such scenarios.
A.5. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases-00 - draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-
use-cases-01
o Reordered some use cases to improve the flow.
o Added "Vehicular Networks".
o Shortened the Military Operations use case.
o Started adding substance to the security considerations section.
A.6. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-03 - draft-ersue-opsawg-coman-use-
cases-00
o Reduced the terminology section for terminology addressed in the
LWIG and Coman Requirements drafts. Referenced the other drafts.
o Checked and aligned all terminology against the LWIG terminology
draft.
o Spent some effort to resolve the intersection between the
Industrial Application, Home Automation and Building Automation
use cases.
o Moved section section 3. Use Cases from the companion document
[COM-REQ] to this draft.
o Reformulation of some text parts for more clarity.
A.7. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-02-03
o Extended the terminology section and removed some of the
terminology addressed in the new LWIG terminology draft.
Referenced the LWIG terminology draft.
o Moved Section 1.3. on Constrained Device Classes to the new LWIG
terminology draft.
o Class of networks considering the different type of radio and
communication technologies in use and dimensions extended.
o Extended the Problem Statement in Section 2. following the
requirements listed in Section 4.
o Following requirements, which belong together and can be realized
with similar or same kind of solutions, have been merged.
* Distributed Management and Peer Configuration,
* Device status monitoring and Neighbor-monitoring,
* Passive Monitoring and Reactive Monitoring,
* Event-driven self-management - Self-healing and Periodic self-
management,
* Authentication of management systems and Authentication of
managed devices,
* Access control on devices and Access control on management
systems,
* Management of Energy Resources and Data models for energy
management,
* Software distribution (group-based firmware update) and Group-
based provisioning.
o Deleted the empty section on the gaps in network management
standards, as it will be written in a separate draft.
o Added links to mentioned external pages.
o Added text on OMA M2M Device Classification in appendix.
A.8. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-01-02
o Extended the terminology section.
o Added additional text for the use cases concerning deployment
type, network topology in use, network size, network capabilities,
radio technology, etc.
o Added examples for device classes in a use case. [IEEE802.11]
IEEE, "Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC)
and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications", IEEE Standard
802.11, March 2012,
<http://standards.ieee.org/about/get/802/802.11.html>.
o Added additional text provided by Cao Zhen (China Mobile) for [IEEE802.15]
Mobile Applications and by Peter van der Stok for Building IEEE, "WIRELESS PERSONAL AREA NETWORKS (PANs)", IEEE
Automation. Standard 802.15, 2003-2014,
<https://standards.ieee.org/about/get/802/802.15.html>.
o Added the new use cases 'Advanced Metering Infrastructure' and [IEEE802.15.4]
'MANET Concept of Operations in Military'. IEEE, "Part 15.4: Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks
(LR-WPANs)", IEEE Standard 802.15.4, September 2011,
<https://standards.ieee.org/about/get/802/802.15.html>.
o Added the section 'Managing the Constrainedness of a Device or Acknowledgments
Network' discussing the needs of very constrained devices.
o Added a note that the requirements in [COM-REQ] need to be seen as The following persons reviewed and provided valuable comments during
standalone requirements and the current document does not the creation of this document:
recommend any profile of requirements.
o Added a section in [COM-REQ] for the detailed requirements on Dominique Barthel, Carsten Bormann, Zhen Cao, Benoit Claise, Bert
constrained management matched to management tasks like fault, Greevenbosch, Ulrich Herberg, Ted Lemon, Kathleen Moriarty, James
monitoring, configuration management, Security and Access Control, Nguyen, Zach Shelby, Peter van der Stok, and Martin Thomson.
Energy Management, etc.
o Solved nits and added references. The authors would like to thank the reviewers and the participants on
the Coman mailing list for their valuable contributions and comments.
o Added Appendix A on the related development in other bodies. Juergen Schoenwaelder and Anuj Sehgal were partly funded by Flamingo,
a Network of Excellence project (ICT-318488) supported by the
European Commission under its Seventh Framework Programme.
o Added Appendix B on the work in related research projects. Contributors
A.9. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-00-01 The following persons made significant contributions to and reviewed
this document:
o Splitted the section on 'Networks of Constrained Devices' into the o Ulrich Herberg contributed Section 4.9, "Community Network
sections 'Network Topology Options' and 'Management Topology Applications".
Options'.
o Added the use case 'Community Network Applications' and 'Mobile o Peter van der Stok contributed to Section 4.6, "Building
Applications'. Automation".
o Provided a Contributors section. o Zhen Cao contributed to Section 2.2, "Cellular Access
Technologies".
o Extended the section on 'Medical Applications'. o Gilman Tolle contributed Section 4.4 "Energy Management".
o Solved nits and added references. o James Nguyen and Ulrich Herberg contributed to Section 4.10 "Field
Operations".
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Mehmet Ersue (editor) Mehmet Ersue (editor)
Nokia Networks Nokia Networks
Email: mehmet.ersue@nsn.com EMail: mehmet.ersue@nokia.com
Dan Romascanu Dan Romascanu
Avaya Avaya
Email: dromasca@avaya.com EMail: dromasca@avaya.com
Juergen Schoenwaelder Juergen Schoenwaelder
Jacobs University Bremen Jacobs University Bremen
Email: j.schoenwaelder@jacobs-university.de EMail: j.schoenwaelder@jacobs-university.de
Anuj Sehgal Anuj Sehgal
Jacobs University Bremen Jacobs University Bremen
Email: s.anuj@jacobs-university.de EMail: s.anuj@jacobs-university.de
 End of changes. 160 change blocks. 
818 lines changed or deleted 573 lines changed or added

This html diff was produced by rfcdiff 1.42. The latest version is available from http://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcdiff/