draft-ietf-opsawg-ipfix-bgp-community-12.txt   rfc8549.txt 
opsawg Z. Li Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Z. Li
Internet-Draft R. Gu Request for Comments: 8549 R. Gu
Intended status: Standards Track China Mobile Category: Standards Track China Mobile
Expires: June 19, 2019 J. Dong ISSN: 2070-1721 J. Dong
Huawei Technologies Huawei Technologies
December 16, 2018 April 2019
Export BGP community information in IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX) Export of BGP Community Information in
draft-ietf-opsawg-ipfix-bgp-community-12 IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX)
Abstract Abstract
By introducing new Information Elements (IEs), this draft extends the By introducing new Information Elements (IEs), this document extends
existing BGP-related IEs to enable IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX) the existing BGP-related IEs to enable IP Flow Information Export
to export BGP community information, including BGP standard (IPFIX) to export BGP community information, including the BGP
communities defined in RFC1997, BGP extended communities defined in Standard Communities defined in RFC 1997, BGP Extended Communities
RFC4360, and BGP large communities defined in RFC8092. Network defined in RFC 4360, and BGP Large Communities defined in RFC 8092.
According to the network operator's BGP community planning, network
traffic information can then be accumulated and analyzed at the BGP traffic information can then be accumulated and analyzed at the BGP
community granularity, which represents the traffic of different community granularity, which represents the traffic of different
kinds of customers, services, or geographical regions according to kinds of customers, services, or geographical regions. Network
the network operator's BGP community planning. Network traffic traffic information at the BGP community granularity is useful for
information at the BGP community granularity is useful for network network traffic analysis and engineering.
traffic analysis and engineering.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
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provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
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Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841.
This Internet-Draft will expire on June 19, 2019. Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
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https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8549.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction ....................................................3
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Terminology .....................................................5
3. BGP Community-based Traffic Collection . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Traffic Collection Based on BGP Community .......................6
4. IEs for BGP Standard Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. IEs for BGP Standard Community ..................................7
5. IEs for BGP Extended Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5. IEs for BGP Extended Community ..................................8
6. IEs for BGP Large Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 6. IEs for BGP Large Community .....................................8
7. Operational Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 7. Operational Considerations ......................................9
8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 8. Security Considerations ........................................10
9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 9. IANA Considerations ............................................11
10. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 10. References ....................................................13
11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 10.1. Normative References .....................................13
11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 10.2. Informative References ...................................14
11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Appendix A. Encoding Example .....................................16
Appendix A. Encoding Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 A.1. Template Record ...........................................16
A.1. Template Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 A.2. Data Set ..................................................17
A.2. Data Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Acknowledgements ..................................................18
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Authors' Addresses ................................................18
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX) [RFC7011] provides network IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX) [RFC7011] provides network
administrators with traffic flow information using the Information administrators with traffic flow information using the Information
Elements (IEs) defined in [IANA-IPFIX] registries. Based on the Elements (IEs) defined in the "IPFIX Information Elements" registry
traffic flow information, network administrators know the amount and [IANA-IPFIX]. Based on the traffic flow information, network
direction of the traffic in their network, and can then optimize administrators know the amount and direction of the traffic in their
their network when needed. For example, the collected information network and can then optimize the network when needed. For example,
could be used for traffic monitoring, and could optionally be used the collected information could be used for traffic monitoring and,
for traffic optimization according to operator's policy. optionally, for traffic optimization according to the operator's
policy.
[IANA-IPFIX] has already defined the following IEs for traffic flow The "IPFIX Information Elements" registry [IANA-IPFIX] defines the
information exporting in different granularities: sourceIPv4Address, following IEs for traffic flow information export in different
sourceIPv4Prefix, destinationIPv4Address, destinationIPv4Prefix, granularities: sourceIPv4Address, sourceIPv4Prefix,
bgpSourceAsNumber, bgpDestinationAsNumber, bgpNextHopIPv4Address, destinationIPv4Address, destinationIPv4Prefix, bgpSourceAsNumber,
etc. In some circumstances, however, especially when traffic bgpDestinationAsNumber, bgpNextHopIPv4Address, etc. In some
circumstances, however, traffic flow information based on these IEs
may not be completely suitable or sufficient, especially when traffic
engineering and optimization are executed in Tier 1 or Tier 2 engineering and optimization are executed in Tier 1 or Tier 2
operators' backbone networks, traffic flow information based on these operators' backbone networks. For example, flow information based on
IEs may not be completely suitable or sufficient. For example, flow IP address or IP prefix may provide much too fine granularity for a
information based on IP address or IP prefix may provide much too large network. On the contrary, flow information based on Autonomous
fine granularity for a large network. On the contrary, flow System Number (ASN) may be too coarse.
information based on AS number may be too coarse.
BGP community is a BGP path attribute that includes standard BGP community is a BGP path attribute that includes Standard
communities [RFC1997], extended communities [RFC4360], and large Communities [RFC1997], Extended Communities [RFC4360], and Large
communities [RFC8092]. The BGP community attribute has a variety of Communities [RFC8092]. The BGP community attribute has a variety of
use cases, one of which is to use BGP community with planned specific use cases, one of which is to use BGP community with planned specific
values to represent groups of customers, services, and geographical values to represent groups of customers, services, and geographical
or topological regions, as used by operators in their networks. or topological regions, as used by operators in their networks.
Detailed examples can be found in [RFC4384], [RFC8195] and Section 3 Detailed examples can be found in [RFC4384], [RFC8195], and Section 3
of this document. To understand the traffic generated by different of this document. To understand the traffic generated 1) by
kinds of customers, from different geographical or topological different kinds of customers, 2) from different geographical or
regions, by different kinds of customers in different regions, we topological regions, or 3) by different kinds of customers from
need the corresponding community information related to the traffic different regions, we need the community information corresponding to
flow information exported by IPFIX. Network traffic statistics at the traffic flow information exported by IPFIX. Network traffic
the BGP community granularity are useful not only for the traffic statistics at the BGP community granularity are useful not only for
analyzing, but also can then be used by other applications, such as traffic analysis, but also for use by other applications, such as
traffic optimization applications located in an IPFIX Collector, SDN traffic optimization applications located in an IPFIX Collector,
controller or PCE. [Community-TE] also states that analyzing network Software-Defined Networking (SDN) controller, or PCE. [COMMUNITY-TE]
traffic information at the BGP community granularity is preferred for also states that analyzing network traffic information at the BGP
inbound traffic engineering. However, [IANA-IPFIX] lacks IEs defined community granularity is preferred for inbound traffic engineering.
for the BGP community attribute. However, the "IPFIX Information Elements" registry [IANA-IPFIX]
lacked IEs defined for the BGP community attribute.
Flow information based on BGP community may be collected by an IPFIX Flow information based on the BGP community attribute may be
Mediator defined in [RFC6183]. IPFIX Mediator is responsible for the collected by an IPFIX Mediator (defined in [RFC6183]). The IPFIX
correlation between flow information and BGP community. However, no Mediator is responsible for the correlation between flow information
IEs are defined in [RFC6183] for exporting BGP community information and the BGP community attribute. However, no IEs are defined in
in IPFIX. Furthermore, to correlate the BGP community with the flow [RFC6183] for exporting BGP community information in IPFIX.
Furthermore, to correlate the BGP community attribute with the flow
information, the IPFIX Mediator needs to learn BGP routes and perform information, the IPFIX Mediator needs to learn BGP routes and perform
lookups in the BGP routing table to get the matching entry for a lookups in the BGP routing table to get the matching entry for a
specific flow. Neither BGP route learning nor routing table lookup specific flow. BGP route learning and routing table lookup are not
are trivial for an IPFIX Mediator. The IPFIX Mediator is mainly trivial for an IPFIX Mediator. The IPFIX Mediator is mainly
introduced to reduce the performance requirement for the Exporter introduced to reduce the performance requirement for the Exporter
[RFC5982]. In fact, to obtain the information for the already [RFC5982]. In fact, to obtain information for the already-defined
defined BGP related IEs, such as bgpSourceAsNumber, BGP-related IEs, such as bgpSourceAsNumber, bgpDestinationAsNumber,
bgpDestinationAsNumber, and bgpNextHopIPv4Address, etc, the Exporter and bgpNextHopIPv4Address, etc., the Exporter has to hold the up-to-
has to hold the up-to-date BGP routing table and perform lookups in date BGP routing table and perform lookups in the table. The
the table. The Exporter can obtain the BGP community information in Exporter can obtain the BGP community information in the same
the same procedure, thus the additional load added by exporting BGP procedure; thus, the additional load added by exporting BGP community
community information is minimal if the Exporter is already exporting information is minimal if the Exporter is already exporting the
the existing BGP-related IEs. It is RECOMMENDED that the BGP existing BGP-related IEs. It is RECOMMENDED that the BGP community
community information be exported by the Exporter directly using information be exported by the Exporter directly using IPFIX.
IPFIX.
Through running BGP [RFC4271] or BMP [RFC7854] and performing lookups By running BGP [RFC4271] or the BGP Monitoring Protocol (BMP)
in the BGP routing table to correlate the matching entry for a [RFC7854] and performing lookups in the BGP routing table to
specific flow, IPFIX Collectors and other applications, such as SDN correlate the matching entry for a specific flow, IPFIX Collectors
controller or PCE, can determine the network traffic at the BGP and other applications, such as an SDN controller or PCE, can
community granularity. However, neither running BGP or BMP protocol determine the network traffic at the BGP community granularity.
nor routing table lookup are trivial for the IPFIX Collectors and However, running BGP or BMP and performing routing table lookup are
other applications. Moreover, correlation between IPFIX flow not trivial for the IPFIX Collectors and other applications.
information and the BGP RIB on the Exporter (such as a router) is Moreover, correlation between IPFIX flow information and the BGP RIB
more accurate, compared to the correlation on a Collector, since the on the Exporter (such as a router) is more accurate compared to the
BGP routing table may be updated when the IPFIX Collectors and other correlation on a Collector, since the BGP routing table may be
applications receive the IPFIX flow information. And as stated updated when the IPFIX Collectors and other applications receive the
above, the Exporter can obtain the BGP community information during IPFIX flow information. As stated above, the Exporter can obtain the
the same procedure when it obtains other BGP related information. So BGP community information during the same procedure when it obtains
exporting the BGP community information directly by the Exporter to other BGP-related information. Therefore, exporting the BGP
the Collector is both efficient and accurate. If the IPFIX community information directly by the Exporter to the Collector is
Collectors and other applications only want to determine the network both efficient and accurate. If the IPFIX Collectors and other
traffic at the BGP community granularity, they do not need to run the applications only want to determine the network traffic at the BGP
full BGP or BMP protocols when the BGP community information can be community granularity, they do not need to run the full BGP or BMP
obtained by IPFIX. However, the BMP protocol has its own application protocols when the BGP community information can be obtained by
scenario, and the mechanism introduced in this document is not meant IPFIX. However, BMP has its own application scenario, and the
to replace it. mechanism introduced in this document is not meant to replace it.
By introducing new IEs, this draft extends the existing BGP-related By introducing new IEs, this document extends the existing BGP-
IEs to enable IPFIX [RFC7011] to export BGP community information, related IEs to enable IPFIX [RFC7011] to export BGP community
including the BGP standard communities [RFC1997], BGP extended information, including the BGP Standard Communities [RFC1997], BGP
communities [RFC4360], and BGP large communities [RFC8092]. Flow Extended Communities [RFC4360], and BGP Large Communities [RFC8092].
information, including packetDeltaCount, octetDeltaCount [RFC7012], Flow information (including packetDeltaCount [RFC7011] [RFC7012],
etc., can then be accumulated and analyzed by the Collector or other octetDeltaCount [RFC7011] [RFC7012], etc.) can then be accumulated
applications, such as an SDN controller or PCE [RFC4655], at the BGP and analyzed by the Collector or other applications, such as an SDN
community granularity, which is useful for measuring the traffic controller or PCE [RFC4655], at the BGP community granularity. This
generated by different kinds of customers, from different is useful for measuring the traffic generated 1) by different kinds
geographical or topological regions according to the operator's BGP of customers or 2) from different geographical or topological regions
community plan, and can then be used by the traffic engineering or according to the operator's BGP community plan. Flow information can
traffic optimization applications, especially in the backbone then be used by the traffic engineering or traffic optimization
network. applications, especially in the backbone network.
The IEs introduced in this document are applicable for both IPv4 and The IEs introduced in this document are applicable to both IPv4 and
IPv6 traffic. Both the Exporter and the IPFIX Mediator can use these IPv6 traffic. Both the Exporter and the IPFIX Mediator can use these
IEs to export BGP community information in IPFIX. When needed, the IEs to export BGP community information in IPFIX. When needed, the
IPFIX Mediator or Collector can use these IEs to report BGP community IPFIX Mediator or Collector can use these IEs to report BGP
related traffic flow information it gets either from Exporters or community-related traffic flow information it gets either from
through local correlation to other IPFIX devices. Exporters or through local correlation to other IPFIX devices.
As stated above, the method introduced in this document is not the As stated above, the method introduced in this document is not the
definitive and the only one to obtain BGP community information sole, definitive one for obtaining BGP community information related
related to a specific traffic flow, but a possible, efficient and to a specific traffic flow, but it is possible, efficient, and
accurate one. accurate.
No new BGP community attributes are defined in this document. No new BGP community attributes are defined in this document.
Note that this document does not update the IPFIX specification Note that this document does not update the IPFIX specification
[RFC7011] and the Information Model [RFC7012]. Rather, IANA's IPFIX [RFC7011] or information model [RFC7012]. Rather, the "IPFIX
registry [IANA-IPFIX] contains the current complete Information Information Elements" registry [IANA-IPFIX] contains the current
Element reference, per Section 1 of [RFC7012]. complete reference for IPFIX Information Elements, per Section 1 of
[RFC7012].
Please refer to [IANA-IPFIX] for the complete list of BGP-related Please refer to the "IPFIX Information Elements" registry
IEs. [IANA-IPFIX] for the complete list of BGP-related IEs.
Please refer to Appendix A of this document for the encoding example Please refer to Appendix A of this document for the encoding example
and Section 3 for a detailed use case. and Section 3 for a detailed use case.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
"OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
capitals, as shown here. capitals, as shown here.
IPFIX-specific terminology used in this document is defined in The IPFIX-specific terminology used in this document is defined in
Section 2 of [RFC7011] and Section 2 of [RFC6183]. Section 2 of [RFC7011] and Section 2 of [RFC6183].
BGP standard community: The BGP Communities attribute defined in This document uses the term "BGP Standard Community" to refer to the
[RFC1997]. In order to distinguish it from BGP extended communities BGP community attribute defined in [RFC1997] in order to distinguish
[RFC4360], and large communities [RFC8092], BGP Communities attribute it from BGP Extended Community [RFC4360] and Large Community
is called BGP standard community in this document. [RFC8092].
3. BGP Community-based Traffic Collection 3. Traffic Collection Based on BGP Community
[RFC4384] introduces the mechanism of using BGP standard community [RFC4384] introduces the mechanism of using BGP Standard Community
and extended community to collect the geographical and topological and Extended Community to collect geographical and topological
related information in the BGP routing system. [RFC8195] gives some information in the BGP routing system. [RFC8195] gives some examples
examples of the application of BGP large communities to represent the of the application of BGP Large Communities to represent the
geographical regions. Since the network traffic at the BGP community geographical regions. Since the network traffic at the BGP community
granularity represents the traffic generated by different kinds of granularity represents the traffic generated 1) by different kinds of
customers, from different geographical regions according to the customers or 2) from different geographical regions according to the
network operator's BGP community plan, it is useful for network network operator's BGP community plan, it is useful for network
operators to analyze and optimize the network traffic among different operators to analyze and optimize the network traffic among different
customers and regions. This section gives a use case in which the customers and regions. This section gives a use case in which the
network operator uses the BGP community-based traffic information to network operator uses traffic information based on BGP community to
adjust the network paths for different traffic flows. adjust the network paths for different traffic flows.
Consider the following scenario, AS C provides a transit connection Consider the following scenario. Autonomous System (AS) C provides a
between ASes A and B. By tagging with different BGP communities, the transit connection between ASes A and B. By tagging different BGP
routes of AS A and B are categorized into several groups respectively communities, the routes of AS A and B are categorized into several
in the operator's plan. For example, communities A:X and A:Y are groups in the operator's plan. For example, communities A:X and A:Y
used for the routes originated from different geographical regions in are used for routes that originated from different geographical
AS A, and communities B:M and B:N are used for the routes regions in AS A, and communities B:M and B:N are used for routes
representing the different kinds of customers in AS B, such as B:M is representing the different kinds of customers in AS B (e.g., B:M is
for the mobile customers and B:N is for the fixed line customers. By for mobile customers and B:N is for fixed line customers). By
default, all traffic originating from AS A and destined to AS B (we default, all traffic originating from AS A and destined for AS B
call it traffic A-B) goes through path C1-C2-C3 (call it Path-1) in (i.e., traffic A-B) goes through path C1-C2-C3 (i.e., Path-1) in AS
AS C. When the link between C1 and C2 is congested, we cannot simply C. When the link between C1 and C2 is congested, we cannot simply
steer all the traffic A-B from Path-1 to Path C1-C4-C3 (call it Path- steer all the traffic A-B from Path-1 to Path C1-C4-C3 (i.e., Path-2)
2), because it will cause congestion in Path-2. because it will cause congestion in Path-2.
+----------+ +----------+
| PCE/SDN | | PCE/SDN |
+-------|Controller|-------+ +-------|Controller|-------+
| +----------+ | | +----------+ |
| | | |
| AS C | | AS C |
| | +----------+ | | | | +----------+ | |
| | +---|Router C2 |---+ | | | | +---|Router C2 |---+ | |
| | | +----------+ | | | | | | +----------+ | | |
AS A | | |100 50| | | AS B AS A | | |100 50| | | AS B
+--------+ | +---------+ +---------+ | +--------+ +--------+ | +---------+ +---------+ | +--------+
|Router A|--|--|Router C1| |Router C3|--|--|Router B| |Router A|--|--|Router C1| |Router C3|--|--|Router B|
+--------+ | +---------+ +---------+ | +--------+ +--------+ | +---------+ +---------+ | +--------+
Community: | |100 100| | Community: Community: | |100 100| | Community:
A:X | | +----------+ | | B:M A:X | | +----------+ | | B:M
A:Y | +---|Router C4 |---+ | B:N A:Y | +---|Router C4 |---+ | B:N
+----------+ +----------+
Figure 1: BGP Community based Traffic Collection Figure 1: Traffic Collection Based on BGP Community
If the PCE/SDN controller in AS C can obtain the network traffic If the PCE/SDN controller in AS C can obtain network traffic
information at the BGP community granularity, it can steer some information at the BGP community granularity, it can steer some
traffic related to some BGP communities (when we consider only the traffic related to some BGP communities (when we consider only the
source or destination of the traffic), or some BGP community pairs source or destination of the traffic) or some BGP community pairs
(when we consider both the source and the destination of the traffic) (when we consider both the source and the destination of the traffic)
from Path-1 to Path-2 according to the utilization of different from Path-1 to Path-2 according to the utilization of different
paths. For instance, steer the traffic generated by community A:X paths. For instance, it can steer the traffic generated by community
from Path-1 to Path-2 by deploying a route policy at Router C1, or A:X from Path-1 to Path-2 by deploying a route policy at Router C1 or
steer the traffic from community A:Y to community B:M from Path-1 to steer the traffic from community A:Y to community B:M from Path-1 to
Path-2. Using the IEs defined in this document, IPFIX can export the Path-2. Using the IEs defined in this document, IPFIX can export the
BGP community information related to a specific traffic flow together BGP community information related to a specific traffic flow together
with other flow information. The traffic information can then be with other flow information. The traffic information can then be
accumulated at the BGP community granularity and used by the PCE/SDN accumulated at the BGP community granularity and used by the PCE/SDN
controller to steer the appropriate traffic from Path-1 to Path-2. controller to steer the appropriate traffic from Path-1 to Path-2.
4. IEs for BGP Standard Community 4. IEs for BGP Standard Community
[RFC1997] defines the BGP Communities attribute, called BGP Standard [RFC1997] defines the BGP community attribute (referred to as "BGP
Community in this document, which describes a group of routes sharing Standard Community" in this document), which describes a group of
some common properties. BGP Standard Community is treated as 32 bit routes sharing some common properties. BGP Standard Community is
value as stated in [RFC1997]. treated as a 32-bit value, as stated in [RFC1997].
In order to export BGP standard community information along with In order to export BGP Standard Community information along with
other flow information defined by IPFIX, three new IEs are other flow information defined by IPFIX, this document introduces
introduced. One is bgpCommunity, which is used to identify that the three new IEs:
value in this IE is a BGP standard community. The other two are
bgpSourceCommunityList and bgpDestinationCommunityList, which are
both basicList [RFC6313] of bgpCommunity, and are used to export BGP
standard community information corresponding to a specific flow's
source and destination IP address respectively.
The detailed information of the three new IEs are shown in Section 9, o bgpCommunity - used to identify that the value in this IE is a BGP
IANA Considerations. Standard Community.
o bgpSourceCommunityList - a basicList [RFC6313] of bgpCommunity
used to export BGP Standard Community information corresponding to
a specific flow's source IP address.
o bgpDestinationCommunityList - a basicList [RFC6313] of
bgpCommunity used to export BGP Standard Community information
corresponding to a specific flow's destination IP address.
See Section 9 ("IANA Considerations") for detailed information about
these three new IEs.
5. IEs for BGP Extended Community 5. IEs for BGP Extended Community
[RFC4360] defines the BGP Extended Communities attribute, which [RFC4360] defines the BGP Extended Communities attribute, which
provides a mechanism for labeling the information carried in BGP. provides a mechanism for labeling the information carried in BGP.
Each Extended Community is encoded as an 8-octet quantity with the Each Extended Community is encoded as an 8-octet quantity with the
format defined in [RFC4360]. format defined in [RFC4360].
In order to export BGP Extended Community information together with In order to export BGP Extended Community information together with
other flow information by IPFIX, three new IEs are introduced. The other flow information by IPFIX, this document introduces three new
first one is bgpExtendedCommunity, which is used to identify that the IEs:
value in this IE is a BGP Extended Community. The other two are
bgpSourceExtendedCommunityList and
bgpDestinationExtendedCommunityList, which are both basicList
[RFC6313] of bgpExtendedCommunity, and are used to export the BGP
Extended Community information corresponding to a specific flow's
source and destination IP address respectively.
The detailed information of the three new IEs are shown in Section 9, o bgpExtendedCommunity - used to identify that the value in this IE
IANA Considerations. is a BGP Extended Community.
o bgpSourceExtendedCommunityList - a basicList [RFC6313] of
bgpExtendedCommunity used to export the BGP Extended Community
information corresponding to a specific flow's source IP address.
o bgpDestinationExtendedCommunityList - a basicList [RFC6313] of
bgpExtendedCommunity used to export the BGP Extended Community
information corresponding to a specific flow's destination IP
address.
See Section 9 ("IANA Considerations") for detailed information about
these three new IEs.
6. IEs for BGP Large Community 6. IEs for BGP Large Community
[RFC8092] defines the BGP Large Communities attribute, which is [RFC8092] defines the BGP Large Communities attribute, which is
suitable for use with all Autonomous System Numbers (ASNs) including suitable for use with all Autonomous System Numbers (ASNs), including
four-octet ASNs. Each BGP Large Community is encoded as a 12-octet 4-octet ASNs. Each BGP Large Community is encoded as a 12-octet
quantity with the format defined in [RFC8092]. quantity with the format defined in [RFC8092].
In order to export BGP Large Community information together with In order to export BGP Large Community information together with
other flow information by IPFIX, three new IEs are introduced. The other flow information by IPFIX, this document introduces three new
first one is bgpLargeCommunity, which is used to identify that the IEs:
value in this IE is a BGP Large Community. The other two are
bgpSourceLargeCommunityList and bgpDestinationLargeCommunityList,
which are both basicList [RFC6313] of bgpLargeCommunity, and are used
to export the BGP Large Community information corresponding to a
specific flow's source and destination IP address respectively.
The detailed information of the three new IEs are shown in Section 9, o bgpLargeCommunity - used to identify that the value in this IE is
IANA Considerations. a BGP Large Community.
o bgpSourceLargeCommunityList - a basicList [RFC6313] of
bgpLargeCommunity used to export the BGP Large Community
information corresponding to a specific flow's source IP address.
o bgpDestinationLargeCommunityList - a basicList [RFC6313] of
bgpLargeCommunity used to export the BGP Large Community
information corresponding to a specific flow's destination IP
address.
See Section 9 ("IANA Considerations") for detailed information about
these three new IEs.
7. Operational Considerations 7. Operational Considerations
The maximum length of an IPFIX message is 65535 bytes as per The maximum length of an IPFIX message is 65535 bytes as per
[RFC7011] , and the maximum length of a normal BGP message is 4096 [RFC7011], and the maximum length of a normal BGP message is 4096
bytes as per [RFC4271]. Since BGP communities, including standard, bytes as per [RFC4271]. Since BGP communities, including Standard,
extended, and large communities, are BGP path attributes carried in Extended, and Large Communities, are BGP path attributes carried in
BGP Update messages, the total length of these attributes can not BGP Update messages, the total length of these attributes cannot
exceed the length of a BGP message, i.e. 4096 bytes. So one IPFIX exceed the length of a BGP message, i.e., 4096 bytes. Therefore, one
message with a maximum length of 65535 bytes has enough space to fit IPFIX message with a maximum length of 65535 bytes has enough space
all the communities related to a specific flow, relating to both the to fit all the communities relating to a specific flow's source and
source and destination IP addresses. destination IP address.
[I-D.ietf-idr-bgp-extended-messages] extends the maximum size of a [EXT-MSG] extends the maximum size of a BGP Update message to 65535
BGP Update message to 65535 bytes. In that case, the BGP community bytes. In that case, the BGP community information related to a
information related to a specific flow could theoretically exceed the specific flow could theoretically exceed the length of one IPFIX
length of one IPFIX message. However, according to information message. However, according to information regarding actual networks
regarding actual networks in the field, the number of BGP communities in the field, the number of BGP communities in one BGP route is
in one BGP route is usually no more than ten. Nevertheless, BGP usually no more than ten. Nevertheless, BGP speakers that support
speakers that support the extended message SHOULD only convey as many the extended message SHOULD only convey as many communities as
communities as possible without exceeding the 65536-byte limit of an possible without exceeding the 65535-byte limit of an IPFIX message.
IPFIX message. The Collector which receives an IPFIX message with The Collector, which receives an IPFIX message with the maximum
maximum length and BGP communities contained in its data set SHOULD length and BGP communities contained in its data set, SHOULD generate
generate a warning or log message to indicate that the BGP a warning or log message to indicate that the BGP communities may be
communities may be truncated due to limited message space. In this truncated due to limited message space. In this case, it is
case, it is recommended to configure the export policy of BGP recommended that the export policy of BGP communities be configured
communities to limit the BGP communities by including or excluding to limit the BGP communities by including or excluding specific
specific communities. communities.
If needed, the IPFIX message length could be extended from 16 bits to If needed, the IPFIX message length can be extended from 16 bits to
32 bits to solve this problem completely. The details of increasing 32 bits to solve this problem completely. The details about
the IPFIX message length is out of scope of this document. increasing the IPFIX message length is out of scope of this document.
To align with the size of the BGP extended community and large To align with the sizes of the BGP Extended Community and Large
community attributes, the size of IE bgpExtendedCommunity and Community attributes, the sizes of bgpExtendedCommunity and
bgpLargeCommunity is 8 octets and 12 octets respectively. In the bgpLargeCommunity are 8 octets and 12 octets, respectively. In the
event that the bgpExtendedCommunity or bgpLargeCommunity IE is not of event that the bgpExtendedCommunity or bgpLargeCommunity IE is not
its expected size, the IPFIX Collector SHOULD ignore it. This is the expected size, the IPFIX Collector SHOULD ignore it. This is
intended to protect implementations using BGP logic from calling intended to protect implementations using BGP logic from calling
their parsing routines with invalid lengths. their parsing routines with invalid lengths.
For the proper processing of the Exporter when it receives the To properly process the Exporter when it receives the template
template requesting to report the BGP community information (refer to requesting to report the BGP community information (refer to
Appendix A for an example), the Exporter SHOULD obtain the Appendix A for an example), the Exporter SHOULD obtain the
corresponding BGP community information through BGP lookup using the corresponding BGP community information through a BGP lookup using
corresponding source or destination IP address of the specific the corresponding source or destination IP address of the specific
traffic flow. When exporting the IPFIX information to the Collector, traffic flow. When exporting the IPFIX information to the Collector,
the Exporter SHOULD include the corresponding BGP communities in the the Exporter SHOULD include the corresponding BGP communities in the
IPFIX message. IPFIX message.
8. Security Considerations 8. Security Considerations
This document defines new IEs for IPFIX. The same security This document defines new IEs for IPFIX. The same security
considerations as for the IPFIX Protocol Specification [RFC7011] and considerations as for the IPFIX protocol specification [RFC7011] and
Information Model [RFC7012] apply. information model [RFC7012] apply.
Systems processing BGP community information collected by IPFIX Systems processing BGP community information collected by IPFIX
collectors need to be aware of the use of communities as an attack Collectors need to be aware of the use of communities as an attack
vector [Weaponizing-BGP], and only include BGP community information vector [WEAPONIZING-BGP] and only include BGP community information
in their decisions where they are confident of its validity. Thus we in decisions where they are confident of its validity. Thus, we
can not assume that all BGP community information collected by IPFIX cannot assume that all BGP community information collected by IPFIX
collectors is credible and accurate. It is RECOMMENDED to use only Collectors is credible and accurate. It is RECOMMENDED to use only
the IPFIX collected BGP community information that the processing the IPFIX-collected BGP community information that the processing
system can trust, for example the BGP communities generated by the system can trust, for example, the BGP communities generated by the
consecutive neighboring ASs within the same trust domain as the consecutive neighboring ASes within the same trust domain as the
processing system (for instance, the consecutive neighboring ASs and processing system (i.e., the consecutive neighboring ASes and the
the processing system are operated by one carrier). processing system are operated by one carrier).
[RFC7011] says that the storage of the information collected by IPFIX [RFC7011] notes that the storage of the information collected by
must be protected and confined its visibility to authorized users via IPFIX must be protected and its visibility confined to authorized
technical as well as policy means to ensure the privacy of the users via technical as well as policy means to ensure the privacy of
information collected. [RFC7011] also provides mechanisms to ensure the information collected. [RFC7011] also provides mechanisms to
the confidentiality and integrity of IPFIX data transferred from an ensure the confidentiality and integrity of IPFIX data transferred
Exporting Process to a Collecting Proces. The mechanism to from an Exporting Process to a Collecting Process. The mechanism to
authenticate IPFIX Collecting and Exporting Processes is provided in authenticate IPFIX Collecting and Exporting Processes is also
[RFC7011], too. If sensitive information is contained in the provided in [RFC7011]. If sensitive information is contained in the
community information, the above recommendations and mechanisms are community information, the above recommendations and mechanisms are
recommended to be used. No additional privacy risks are introduced recommended. No additional privacy risks are introduced by this
by this standard. document.
9. IANA Considerations 9. IANA Considerations
This draft specifies the following IPFIX IEs to export BGP community This document specifies IPFIX IEs to enable export of BGP community
information along with other flow information. information along with other flow information. IANA has assigned the
following ElementIDs for these IEs in the "IPFIX Information
The Element IDs for these IEs are requested to be assigned by IANA. Elements" registry [IANA-IPFIX]:
The following table is for IANA's use to place in each field in the
registry.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
|ElementID| Name | Data Type|Data Type Semantics|
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|
| TBA1 | bgpCommunity |unsigned32| identifier |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|
| TBA2 | bgpSourceCommunityList | basicList| list |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|
| TBA3 |bgpDestinationCommunityList| basicList| list |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|
| TBA4 | bgpExtendedCommunity |octetArray| default |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|
| TBA5 | bgpSourceExtended | | |
| | CommunityList | basicList| list |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|
| TBA6 | bgpDestinationExtended | | |
| | CommunityList | basicList| list |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|
| TBA7 | bgpLargeCommunity |octetArray| default |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|
| TBA8 |bgpSourceLargeCommunityList| basicList| list |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|
| TBA9 | bgpDestinationLarge | | |
| | CommunityList | basicList| list |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|
----------------------------------------------------------------------
|ElementID| Description | Units |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|
| TBA1 | BGP community as defined in [RFC1997] | |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|
| | basicList of zero or more bgpCommunity IEs, | |
| TBA2 | containing the BGP communities corresponding| |
| | with source IP address of a specific flow | |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|
| | basicList of zero or more bgpCommunity IEs, | |
| TBA3 |containing the BGP communities corresponding | |
| |with destination IP address of a specific flow| |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|
| TBA4 |BGP Extended Community as defined in [RFC4360]| |
| |The size of this IE MUST be 8 octets | |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|
| |basicList of zero or more bgpExtendedCommunity| |
| TBA5 |IEs, containing the BGP Extended Communities | |
| |corresponding with source IP address of | |
| | a specific flow | |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|
| |basicList of zero or more bgpExtendedCommunity| |
| TBA6 |IEs, containing the BGP Extended Communities | |
| | corresponding with destination IP address | |
| | of a specific flow | |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|
| TBA7 | BGP Large Community as defined in [RFC8092] | |
| | The size of this IE MUST be 12 octets. | |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|
| | basicList of zero or more bgpLargeCommunity | |
| | IEs, containing the BGP Large Communities | |
| TBA8 | corresponding with source IP address | |
| | of a specific flow | |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|
| | basicList of zero or more bgpLargeCommunity | |
| | IEs, containing the BGP Large Communities | |
| TBA9 | corresponding with destination IP address | |
| | of a specific flow | |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|
---------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|ElementID| Range | References | Requester | Revision | date | |ElementID| Name |Abstract | Data Type |
| | |Data Type | Semantics |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------| |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
| TBA1 | | RFC1997 |this draft | 0 | | | 483 | bgpCommunity |unsigned32 | identifier |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------| |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
| TBA2 | |RFC6313,RFC1997|this draft | 0 | | | 484 | bgpSourceCommunityList | basicList | list |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------| |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
| TBA3 | |RFC6313,RFC1997|this draft | 0 | | | 485 |bgpDestinationCommunityList| basicList | list |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------| |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
| TBA4 | | RFC4360 |this draft | 0 | | | 486 | bgpExtendedCommunity |octetArray | default |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------| |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
| TBA5 | |RFC6313,RFC4360|this draft | 0 | | | 487 | bgpSourceExtended | | |
| | CommunityList | basicList | list |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------| |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
| TBA6 | |RFC6313,RFC4360|this draft | 0 | | | 488 | bgpDestinationExtended | | |
| | CommunityList | basicList | list |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------| |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
| TBA7 | | RFC8092 |this draft | 0 | | | 489 | bgpLargeCommunity |octetArray | default |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------| |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
| TBA8 | |RFC6313,RFC8092|this draft | 0 | | | 490 |bgpSourceLargeCommunityList| basicList | list |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------| |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
| TBA9 | |RFC6313,RFC8092|this draft | 0 | | | 491 | bgpDestinationLarge | | |
| | CommunityList | basicList | list |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------| |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
----------------------------------------------------------
|ElementID| Description |
|---------------------------------------------------------
| 483 | BGP community as defined in [RFC1997] |
|---------------------------------------------------------
| | basicList of zero or more bgpCommunity IEs, |
| 484 | containing the BGP communities corresponding|
| | with source IP address of a specific flow |
|---------------------------------------------------------
| | basicList of zero or more bgpCommunity IEs, |
| 485 |containing the BGP communities corresponding |
| |with destination IP address of a specific flow|
|---------------------------------------------------------
| 486 |BGP Extended Community as defined in RFC 4360;|
| |the size of this IE MUST be 8 octets |
|---------------------------------------------------------
| |basicList of zero or more bgpExtendedCommunity|
| 487 |IEs, containing the BGP Extended Communities |
| |corresponding with source IP address of |
| | a specific flow |
|---------------------------------------------------------
| |basicList of zero or more bgpExtendedCommunity|
| 488 |IEs, containing the BGP Extended Communities |
| | corresponding with destination IP address |
| | of a specific flow |
|---------------------------------------------------------
| 489 | BGP Large Community as defined in [RFC8092]; |
| | the size of this IE MUST be 12 octets |
|---------------------------------------------------------
| | basicList of zero or more bgpLargeCommunity |
| | IEs, containing the BGP Large Communities |
| 490 | corresponding with source IP address |
| | of a specific flow |
|---------------------------------------------------------
| | basicList of zero or more bgpLargeCommunity |
| | IEs, containing the BGP Large Communities |
| 491 | corresponding with destination IP address |
| | of a specific flow |
|---------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------
|ElementID| References | Requester | Revision |
|---------------------------------------------------------
| 483 | RFC 1997 | RFC 8549 | 0 |
|---------------------------------------------------------
| 484 | RFC 6313, RFC 1997 | RFC 8549 | 0 |
|---------------------------------------------------------
| 485 | RFC 6313, RFC 1997 | RFC 8549 | 0 |
|---------------------------------------------------------
| 486 | RFC 4360 | RFC 8549 | 0 |
|---------------------------------------------------------
| 487 | RFC 6313, RFC 4360 | RFC 8549 | 0 |
|---------------------------------------------------------
| 488 | RFC 6313, RFC 4360 | RFC 8549 | 0 |
|---------------------------------------------------------
| 489 | RFC 8092 | RFC 8549 | 0 |
|---------------------------------------------------------
| 490 | RFC 6313, RFC 8092 | RFC 8549 | 0 |
|---------------------------------------------------------
| 491 | RFC 6313, RFC 8092 | RFC 8549 | 0 |
|---------------------------------------------------------
Figure 2: IANA Considerations Figure 2: Updates to "IPFIX Information Elements" Registry
10. Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Benoit Claise and Paul Aitken for
their comments and suggestions to promote this document. We also
thank Tianran Zhou, Warren Kumari, Jeffrey Haas, Ignas Bagdonas,
Stewart Bryant, Paolo Lucente, Job Snijders, Jared Mauch, Rudiger
Volk, and Andrew Malis for their discussion, comments, and
suggestions to improve this document..
11. References 10. References
11.1. Normative References 10.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC6313] Claise, B., Dhandapani, G., Aitken, P., and S. Yates, [RFC6313] Claise, B., Dhandapani, G., Aitken, P., and S. Yates,
"Export of Structured Data in IP Flow Information Export "Export of Structured Data in IP Flow Information Export
(IPFIX)", RFC 6313, DOI 10.17487/RFC6313, July 2011, (IPFIX)", RFC 6313, DOI 10.17487/RFC6313, July 2011,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6313>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6313>.
skipping to change at page 12, line 29 skipping to change at page 14, line 5
[RFC7011] Claise, B., Ed., Trammell, B., Ed., and P. Aitken, [RFC7011] Claise, B., Ed., Trammell, B., Ed., and P. Aitken,
"Specification of the IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX) "Specification of the IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX)
Protocol for the Exchange of Flow Information", STD 77, Protocol for the Exchange of Flow Information", STD 77,
RFC 7011, DOI 10.17487/RFC7011, September 2013, RFC 7011, DOI 10.17487/RFC7011, September 2013,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7011>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7011>.
[RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC [RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174, 2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>. May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.
11.2. Informative References 10.2. Informative References
[Community-TE] [COMMUNITY-TE]
Shao, W., Devienne, F., Iannone, L., and JL. Rougier, "On Shao, W., Devienne, F., Iannone, L., and J. Rougier, "On
the use of BGP communities for fine-grained inbound the use of BGP communities for fine-grained inbound
traffic engineering", Computer Science 27392(1):476-487, traffic engineering", Computer Science: Networking and
November 2015. Internet Architecture, November 2015,
<https://arxiv.org/abs/1511.08336>.
[I-D.ietf-idr-bgp-extended-messages] [EXT-MSG] Bush, R., Patel, K., and D. Ward, "Extended Message
Bush, R., Patel, K., and D. Ward, "Extended Message support for BGP", Work in Progress, draft-ietf-idr-bgp-
support for BGP", draft-ietf-idr-bgp-extended-messages-27 extended-messages-30, March 2019.
(work in progress), December 2018.
[IANA-IPFIX] [IANA-IPFIX]
"IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX) Entities", IANA, "IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX) Entities",
<http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipfix/>. <http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipfix/>.
[RFC1997] Chandra, R., Traina, P., and T. Li, "BGP Communities [RFC1997] Chandra, R., Traina, P., and T. Li, "BGP Communities
Attribute", RFC 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC1997, August 1996, Attribute", RFC 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC1997, August 1996,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1997>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1997>.
[RFC4271] Rekhter, Y., Ed., Li, T., Ed., and S. Hares, Ed., "A [RFC4271] Rekhter, Y., Ed., Li, T., Ed., and S. Hares, Ed., "A
Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4)", RFC 4271, Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4)", RFC 4271,
DOI 10.17487/RFC4271, January 2006, DOI 10.17487/RFC4271, January 2006,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4271>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4271>.
skipping to change at page 14, line 5 skipping to change at page 15, line 24
[RFC8092] Heitz, J., Ed., Snijders, J., Ed., Patel, K., Bagdonas, [RFC8092] Heitz, J., Ed., Snijders, J., Ed., Patel, K., Bagdonas,
I., and N. Hilliard, "BGP Large Communities Attribute", I., and N. Hilliard, "BGP Large Communities Attribute",
RFC 8092, DOI 10.17487/RFC8092, February 2017, RFC 8092, DOI 10.17487/RFC8092, February 2017,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8092>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8092>.
[RFC8195] Snijders, J., Heasley, J., and M. Schmidt, "Use of BGP [RFC8195] Snijders, J., Heasley, J., and M. Schmidt, "Use of BGP
Large Communities", RFC 8195, DOI 10.17487/RFC8195, June Large Communities", RFC 8195, DOI 10.17487/RFC8195, June
2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8195>. 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8195>.
[Weaponizing-BGP] [WEAPONIZING-BGP]
Streibelt, F., Lichtblau, F., Beverly, R., and et al., Streibelt, F., Lichtblau, F., Beverly, R., Pelsser, C.,
"Weaponizing BGP Using Communities", November 2018, Smaragdakis, G., Bush, R., and A. Feldmann, "Weaponizing
BGP Using Communities", November 2018,
<https://datatracker.ietf.org/meeting/103/materials/ <https://datatracker.ietf.org/meeting/103/materials/
slides-103-grow-bgp-communities-spread-their-wings-01>. slides-103-grow-bgp-communities-spread-their-wings-01>.
Appendix A. Encoding Example Appendix A. Encoding Example
In this section, we provide an example to show the encoding format In this section, we provide an example to show the encoding format
for the new introduced IEs. for the newly introduced IEs.
Flow information, including BGP communities, is shown in the Flow information, including BGP communities, is shown in the
following table. In this example, all the fields are reported by following table. In this example, all the fields are reported by
IPFIX. IPFIX.
---------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------
| Source |Destination| BGP community | BGP community | | Source |Destination| BGP community | BGP community |
| IP | IP | corresponding with | corresponding with | | IP | IP | corresponding with | corresponding with |
| | | Source IP | Destination IP | | | | Source IP | Destination IP |
---------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------
| 1.1.1.1 | 2.2.2.2 | 1:1001,1:1002,8:1001 | 2:1002,8:1001 | | 1.1.1.1 | 2.2.2.2 | 1:1001, 1:1002, 8:1001 | 2:1002, 8:1001 |
---------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------
| 3.3.3.3 | 4.4.4.4 | 3:1001,3:1002,8:1001 | 4:1001,8:1001 | | 3.3.3.3 | 4.4.4.4 | 3:1001, 3:1002, 8:1001 | 4:1001, 8:1001 |
---------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Figure 3: Flow information including BGP communities Figure 3: Flow Information Including BGP Communities
A.1. Template Record A.1. Template Record
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| SET ID = 2 | Length = 24 | | SET ID = 2 | Length = 24 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Template ID = 256 | Field Count = 4 | | Template ID = 256 | Field Count = 4 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|0| SourceIPv4Address = 8 | Field length = 4 | |0| SourceIPv4Address = 8 | Field Length = 4 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|0| DestinationIPv4Address = 12 | Field length = 4 | |0| DestinationIPv4Address = 12 | Field Length = 4 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|0| bgpSourceCommunityList= TBA2| Field length = 0xFFFF | |0| bgpSourceCommunityList=484 | Field Length = 0xFFFF |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|0| bgpDestinationCommunityList | Field length = 0xFFFF | |0| bgpDestinationCommunityList | Field Length = 0xFFFF |
| | = TBA3 | | | | = 485 | |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 4: Template Record Encoding Format Figure 4: Template Record Encoding Format
In this example, the Template ID is 256, which will be used in the In this example, the Template ID is 256, which will be used in the
Data Record. The field length for bgpSourceCommunityList and Data Record. The field length for bgpSourceCommunityList and
bgpDestinationCommunityList is 0xFFFF, which means the length of this bgpDestinationCommunityList is 0xFFFF, which means the length of this
IE is variable, and the actual length of this IE is indicated by the IE is variable, and the actual length of this IE is indicated by the
list length field in the basic list format as per [RFC6313]. List Length field in the basicList format as per [RFC6313].
A.2. Data Set A.2. Data Set
The data set is represented as follows: The data set is represented as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| SET ID = 256 | Length = 92 | | SET ID = 256 | Length = 92 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| SourceIPv4Address = 1.1.1.1 | | SourceIPv4Address = 1.1.1.1 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| DestinationIPv4Address = 2.2.2.2 | | DestinationIPv4Address = 2.2.2.2 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| 255 | List length = 17 |semantic=allof | | 255 | List Length = 17 |semantic=allof |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| bgpCommunity = TBA1 | Field Len = 4 | | bgpCommunity = 483 | Field Length = 4 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| BGP Source Community Value 1 = 1:1001 | | BGP Source Community Value 1 = 1:1001 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| BGP Source Community Value 2 = 1:1002 | | BGP Source Community Value 2 = 1:1002 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| BGP Source Community Value 3 = 8:1001 | | BGP Source Community Value 3 = 8:1001 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| 255 | List length = 13 |semantic =allof| | 255 | List Length = 13 |semantic=allof |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| bgpCommunity = TBA1 | Field Len = 4 | | bgpCommunity = 483 | Field Length = 4 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| BGP Destination Community Value 1 = 2:1002 | | BGP Destination Community Value 1 = 2:1002 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| BGP Destination Community Value 2 = 8:1001 | | BGP Destination Community Value 2 = 8:1001 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| SourceIPv4Address = 3.3.3.3 | | SourceIPv4Address = 3.3.3.3 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| DestinationIPv4Address = 4.4.4.4 | | DestinationIPv4Address = 4.4.4.4 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| 255 | List length = 17 |semantic =allof| | 255 | List Length = 17 | semantic=allof|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| bgpCommunity = TBA1 | Field Len = 4 | | bgpCommunity = 483 | Field Length = 4 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| BGP Source Community Value 1 = 3:1001 | | BGP Source Community Value 1 = 3:1001 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| BGP Source Community Value 2 = 3:1002 | | BGP Source Community Value 2 = 3:1002 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| BGP Source Community Value 3 = 8:1001 | | BGP Source Community Value 3 = 8:1001 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| 255 | List length = 13 |semantic =allof| | 255 | List Length = 13 | semantic=allof|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| bgpCommunity = TBA1 | Field Len = 4 | | bgpCommunity = 483 | Field Length = 4 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| BGP Destination Community Value 1 = 4:1001 | | BGP Destination Community Value 1 = 4:1001 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| BGP Destination Community Value 2 = 8:1001 | | BGP Destination Community Value 2 = 8:1001 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 5: Data Set Encoding Format Figure 5: Data Set Encoding Format
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Benoit Claise and Paul Aitken for
their comments and suggestions to promote this document. The authors
would also like thank Tianran Zhou, Warren Kumari, Jeffrey Haas,
Ignas Bagdonas, Stewart Bryant, Paolo Lucente, Job Snijders, Jared
Mauch, Rudiger Volk, and Andrew Malis for their discussion, comments,
and suggestions for improving this document.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Zhenqiang Li Zhenqiang Li
China Mobile China Mobile
32 Xuanwumen West Ave, Xicheng District 32 Xuanwumen West Ave, Xicheng District
Beijing 100053 Beijing 100053
China China
Email: li_zhenqiang@hotmail.com Email: li_zhenqiang@hotmail.com
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