draft-ietf-p2psip-concepts-02.txt   draft-ietf-p2psip-concepts-03.txt 
P2PSIP Working Group D. Bryan P2PSIP Working Group D. Bryan
Internet-Draft SIPeerior Technologies Internet-Draft Cogent Force, LLC
Intended status: Informational P. Matthews Intended status: Informational P. Matthews
Expires: January 8, 2009 Unaffiliated Expires: April 28, 2011 Alcatel-Lucent
E. Shim E. Shim
Locus Telecommunications Avaya, Inc.
D. Willis D. Willis
Softarmor Systems Softarmor Systems
S. Dawkins S. Dawkins
Huawei (USA) Huawei (USA)
July 7, 2008 October 25, 2010
Concepts and Terminology for Peer to Peer SIP Concepts and Terminology for Peer to Peer SIP
draft-ietf-p2psip-concepts-02 draft-ietf-p2psip-concepts-03
Abstract
This document defines concepts and terminology for the use of the
Session Initiation Protocol in a peer-to-peer environment where the
traditional proxy-registrar and message routing functions are
replaced by a distributed mechanism. These mechansims may be
implemented using a distributed hash table or other distributed data
mechanism with similar external properties. This document includes a
high-level view of the functional relationships between the network
elements defined herein, a conceptual model of operations, and an
outline of the related problems addressed by the P2PSIP working group
and the RELOAD protocol ([I-D.ietf-p2psip-base],
[I-D.ietf-p2psip-sip]) defined by the working group.
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
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This document defines concepts and terminology for use of the Session This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
Initiation Protocol in a peer-to-peer environment where the Contributions published or made publicly available before November
traditional proxy-registrar and message routing functions are 10, 2008. The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this
replaced by a distributed mechanism implemented using a distributed material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow
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a conceptual model of operations, and an outline of the related open outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may
problems being addressed by the P2PSIP working group. As this not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format
document matures, it is expected to define the general framework for it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
P2PSIP. than English.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Author's Notes and Changes To This Version . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Editor's Notes and Changes To This Version . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1. Author's Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2. Changes from Previous Version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. High Level Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. High Level Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1. Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1. Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.2. Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.2. Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.3. Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.3. Relationship Between P2PSIP and RELOAD . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.4. Relationship of Peer and Client Protocols . . . . . . . . 7 3.4. Relationship Between P2PSIP and SIP . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.5. Relationship Between P2PSIP and SIP . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.5. Relationship Between P2PSIP and Other AoR
3.6. Relationship Between P2PSIP and Other AoR
Dereferencing Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Dereferencing Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.7. NAT Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.6. NAT Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4. Reference Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4. Reference Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5. Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
6. Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5. Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6.1. The Distributed Database Function . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6.2. Using the Distributed Database Function . . . . . . . . . 14
6. Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6.3. NAT Traversal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6.1. The Distributed Database Function . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6.4. Locating and Joining an Overlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6.2. Using the Distributed Database Function . . . . . . . . . 16 6.5. Clients and Connecting Unmodified SIP Devices . . . . . . 16
6.3. NAT Traversal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6.6. Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
6.4. Locating and Joining an Overlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 7. Open Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
6.5. Possible Client Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 8. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
6.6. Interacting with non-P2PSIP entities . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6.7. Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
7. Additional Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
7.1. Selecting between Multiple Peers offering the Same
Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
7.2. Visibility of Messages to Intermediate Peers . . . . . . . 25
7.3. Using C/S SIP and P2PSIP Simultaneously in a Single UA . . 25
7.4. Clients, Peers, and Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
7.5. Relationships of Domains to Overlays . . . . . . . . . . . 25
8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
10. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 30
1. Author's Notes and Changes To This Version
1.1. Author's Notes
The editors are currently considering a rather substantial revision
to this document to better reflect the evolving direction of the
working group. This version incorporates only minor revisions from
the -01 version of the document.
In particular, the authors intend to make the following more
substantial changes, and solicit the opinion of the WG on these
changes, as well as to solicit suggestions for text for the new
sections:
o Document the current view of the working group that the protocols
being developed in P2PSIP should be more broadly applicable than
just for peer-to-peer networks of SIP endpoints.
o The authors plan to add a section that documents the history of
various design decisions, and at the same time remove this
discussion from other parts of the text. The authors feel that
this historical information is important, but also feel that a
reader needs to be able to quickly see what the current state of
the P2PSIP work is today. An exception would be an early
explanation of the fact that P2PSIP doesn't use SIP for the peer
protocol, a frequent source of confusion to many people new to the
WG.
o The definition text is somewhat out of date, and should be revised
(with some terms added and others eliminated, as appropriate)
o Incorporate the descriptions of the applications scenarios 1. Editor's Notes and Changes To This Version
currently described in draft-bryan-p2psip-app-scenarios-00 into
this document.
1.2. Changes from Previous Version This version of the draft represents a substantial revision from the
previous version. Until -02, this work was tracking open questions
and being used to help reach consensus on a draft. With the
eselection of RELOAD as the protocol for this WG, the focus of the
group turned to completing the RELOAD drafts, and the WG directed the
editors to update the document to reflect the decisions made in
RELOAD upon completion.
Changes to this version include removal of the prefix "P2PSIP" before Please see Section 7 for the list of major open issues.
each definition, and clarification on the issue of clients,
reflecting the consensus of the WG.
2. Background 2. Background
One of the fundamental problems in multimedia communication between One of the fundamental problems in multimedia communication between
Internet nodes is that of discovering the host at which a given user Internet nodes is discovering the host at which a given user can be
can be reached. In the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) [RFC3261] reached. In the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) [RFC3261] this
this problem is expressed as the problem of mapping an Address of problem is expressed as the problem of mapping an Address of Record
Record (AoR) for a user into one or more Contact URIs [RFC3986]. The (AoR) for a user into one or more Contact URIs [RFC3986]. The AoR is
AoR is a name for the user that is independent of the host or hosts a name for the user that is independent of the host or hosts where
where the user can be contacted, while a Contact URI indicates the the user can be contacted, while a Contact URI indicates the host
host where the user can be contacted. where the user can be contacted.
In the common SIP-using architectures that we refer to as In the common SIP-using architectures that we refer to as
"Conventional SIP" or "Client/Server SIP", there is a relatively "Conventional SIP" or "Client/Server SIP", there is a relatively
fixed hierarchy of SIP routing proxies and SIP user agents. To fixed hierarchy of SIP routing proxies and SIP user agents. To
deliver a SIP INVITE to the host or hosts at which the user can be deliver a SIP INVITE to the host or hosts at which the user can be
contacted, a SIP UA follows the procedures specified in [RFC3263] to contacted, a SIP UA follows the procedures specified in [RFC3263] to
determine the IP address of a SIP proxy, and then sends the INVITE to determine the IP address of a SIP proxy, and then sends the INVITE to
that proxy. The proxy will then, in turn, deliver the SIP INVITE to that proxy. The proxy will then, in turn, deliver the SIP INVITE to
the hosts where the user can be contacted. the hosts where the user can be contacted.
This document gives a high-level description of an alternative This document gives a high-level description of an alternative
solution to this problem. In this alternative solution, the solution to this problem. In this alternative solution, the
relatively fixed hierarchy of Client/Server SIP is replaced by a relatively fixed hierarchy of Client/Server SIP is replaced by a
peer-to-peer overlay network. In this peer-to-peer overlay network, peer-to-peer overlay network. In this peer-to-peer overlay network,
the various AoR to Contact URI mappings are not centralized at proxy/ the various AoR to Contact URI mappings are not centralized at proxy/
registrar nodes but are instead distributed amongst the peers in the registrar nodes but are instead distributed amongst the peers in the
overlay. overlay.
The details of this alternative solution are currently being worked The details of this alternative solution are specified by the RELOAD
out in the P2PSIP working group. This document describes the basic protocol. The RELOAD base draft [I-D.ietf-p2psip-base] defines a
concepts of such a peer-to-peer overlay, and lists the open questions mechanism to distribute using a Distributed Hash Table (DHT) and
that still need to be resolved. As the work proceeds, it is expected specifies the wire protocol, security, and authentication mechanisms
that this document will develop into a high-level architecture needed to convey this information. This DHT protocol was designed
document for the solution. specifically with the purpose of enabling a distributed SIP registrar
in mind. While designing the protocol other applications were
considered, and when possible design decisions were made that allow
RELOAD to be used in other instances where a DHT is desirable, but
only when making such decisions did not add undue complexity to the
RELOAD protocol. The RELOAD sip draft [I-D.ietf-p2psip-sip]
specifies how RELOAD is used with the SIP protocol to enable a
distributed, server-less SIP solution.
3. High Level Description 3. High Level Description
A P2PSIP Overlay is a collection of nodes organized in a peer-to-peer A P2PSIP Overlay is a collection of nodes organized in a peer-to-peer
fashion for the purpose of enabling real-time communication using the fashion for the purpose of enabling real-time communication using the
Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). Collectively, the nodes in the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). Collectively, the nodes in the
overlay provide a distributed mechanism for mapping names to overlay overlay provide a distributed mechanism for mapping names to overlay
locations. This provides for the mapping of Addresses of Record locations. This provides for the mapping of Addresses of Record
(AoRs) to Contact URIs, thereby providing the "location server" (AoRs) to Contact URIs, thereby providing the "location server"
function of [RFC3261]. An Overlay also provides a transport function function of [RFC3261]. An Overlay also provides a transport function
skipping to change at page 6, line 19 skipping to change at page 5, line 44
within each overlay that is an alternative to the location functions within each overlay that is an alternative to the location functions
described in [RFC3263]. However, the model of [RFC3263] is used described in [RFC3263]. However, the model of [RFC3263] is used
between overlays. between overlays.
3.1. Services 3.1. Services
The nature of peer-to-peer computing is that each peer offers The nature of peer-to-peer computing is that each peer offers
services to other peers to allow the overlay to collectively provide services to other peers to allow the overlay to collectively provide
larger functions. In P2PSIP, peers offer storage and transport larger functions. In P2PSIP, peers offer storage and transport
services to allow the distributed database function and distributed services to allow the distributed database function and distributed
transport function to be implemented. It is expected that individual transport function to be implemented. Additionally, the RELOAD
peers may also offer other services. Some of these additional protocol offers a simplistic discovery mechanism specific to the TURN
services (for example, a STUN server service [RFC5766] protocol used for NAT traversal. It is expected that
[I-D.ietf-behave-rfc3489bis]) may be required to allow the overlay to individual peers may also offer other services as an enhancement to
form and operate, while others (for example, a voicemail service) may P2PSIP functionality (for example to support voicemail) or to support
be enhancements to the basic P2PSIP functionality. other applications beyond SIP. To support these additional services,
peers may need to store additional information in the overlay.
To allow peers to offer these additional services, the distributed [I-D.ietf-p2psip-service-discovery] describes the mechanism used in
database may need to store information about services. For example, P2PSIP for resource discovery.
it may need to store information about which peers offer which
services, and perhaps what sort of capacity each peer has for
delivering each listed service.
3.2. Clients 3.2. Clients
An overlay may or may not also include one or more nodes called An overlay may or may not also include one or more nodes called
clients. The role of a client in the P2PSIP model is still under clients. Clients are supported in the RELOAD protocol as peers that
discussion, with a number of suggestions for roles being put forth. have not joined the overlay, and therefore do not route messages or
The group has reached consensus that clients will be able to store store information. Clients access the services of the RELOAD
and retrieve information from the overlay. Section 6.5 discusses the protocol by connecting to a peer which performs operations on the
possible roles of a client in more detail. behalf of the client. Note that in RELOAD there is no distinct
client protocol. Instead, a client connects using the same protocol,
3.3. Protocol but never joins the overlay as a peer. For more information, see
[I-D.ietf-p2psip-base].
Peers in an overlay need to speak some protocol between themselves to Note that in the context of P2PSIP, there is an additional entity
maintain the overlay and to store and retrieve data. Until a better that is sometimes referred to as a client. A special peer may be a
name is found, this protocol has been dubbed the P2PSIP Peer member of the in the P2PSIP overlay and may present the functionality
Protocol. While the use of SIP for this protocol was proposed as the of one or all of a SIP registrar, proxy or redirect server to
working group was forming, the group is currently working toward a conventional SIP devices (SIP clients). In this way, existing, non-
new protocol. modified SIP clients may connect to the network. These unmodified
SIP devices do not speak the RELOAD protocol, and this is a distinct
concept from the notion of client discussed in the previous
paragraph.
3.4. Relationship of Peer and Client Protocols 3.3. Relationship Between P2PSIP and RELOAD
To allow clients to communicate with peers, another protocol is The RELOAD protocol defined by the P2PSIP working group implements a
required. Until a better name is found, this protocol has been DHT primarily for use by server-less, peer-to-peer SIP deployments.
dubbed the P2PSIP Client Protocol. The details of this protocol are However, the RELOAD protocol could be used for other applications as
also very much under debate. However, if the client protocol exists, well. As such, a "P2PSIP" deployment is generally assumed to be a
then it is agreed that it should be a logical subset of the peer use of RELOAD to implement distributed SIP, but it is possible that
protocol. In other words, the syntax of the peer and client RELOAD is used as a mechanism to distribute other applications,
protocols may be completely different, but any operation supported by completely unrelated to SIP.
client protocol is also supported by the peer protocol. This implies
that clients cannot do anything that peers cannot also do.
3.5. Relationship Between P2PSIP and SIP 3.4. Relationship Between P2PSIP and SIP
Since P2PSIP is about peer-to-peer networks for real-time Since P2PSIP is about peer-to-peer networks for real-time
communication, it is expected that most (if not all) peers and communication, it is expected that most peers and clients will be
clients will be coupled with SIP entities. For example, one peer coupled with SIP entities (although RELOAD may be used for other
might be coupled with a SIP UA, another might be coupled with a SIP applications than P2PSIP). For example, one peer might be coupled
proxy, while a third might be coupled with a SIP-to-PSTN gateway. with a SIP UA, another might be coupled with a SIP proxy, while a
For such nodes, we think of the peer or client portion of the node as third might be coupled with a SIP-to-PSTN gateway. For such nodes,
being distinct from the SIP entity portion. However, there is no the peer or client portion of the node is logically distinct from the
hard requirement that every P2PSIP node (peer or client) be coupled SIP entity portion. However, there is no hard requirement that every
to a SIP entity, and some proposed architectures include peer nodes P2PSIP node (peer or client) be coupled to a SIP entity. As an
that have no SIP function whatsoever. example, additional peers could be placed in the overlay to provide
additional storage or redundancy for the RELOAD overlay, but might
not have any direct SIP capabilities.
3.6. Relationship Between P2PSIP and Other AoR Dereferencing Approaches 3.5. Relationship Between P2PSIP and Other AoR Dereferencing Approaches
OPEN ISSUE: Many of the "decisions" made have been moved out of the
main document. This one, however, seems to point out a difference.
Should this section be moved or removed?
As noted above, the fundamental task of P2PSIP is turning an AoR into As noted above, the fundamental task of P2PSIP is turning an AoR into
a Contact. This task might be approached using zeroconf techniques a Contact. This task might be approached using zeroconf techniques
such as multicast DNS and DNS Service Discovery (as in Apple's such as multicast DNS and DNS Service Discovery (as in Apple's
Bonjour protocol), link-local multicast name resolution [RFC4795], Bonjour protocol), link-local multicast name resolution [RFC4795],
and dynamic DNS [RFC2136]. and dynamic DNS [RFC2136].
These alternatives were discussed in the P2PSIP Working Group, and These alternatives were discussed in the P2PSIP Working Group, and
not pursued as a general solution for a number of reasons related to not pursued as a general solution for a number of reasons related to
scalability, the ability to work in a disconnected state, partition scalability, the ability to work in a disconnected state, partition
recovery, and so on. However, there does seem to be some continuing recovery, and so on. However, there does seem to be some continuing
interest in the possibility of using DNS-SD and mDNS for interest in the possibility of using DNS-SD and mDNS for
bootstrapping of P2PSIP overlays. bootstrapping of P2PSIP overlays.
3.7. NAT Issues 3.6. NAT Issues
Network Address Translators (NATs) are impediments to establishing Network Address Translators (NATs) are impediments to establishing
and maintaining peer-to-peer networks, since NATs hinder direct and maintaining peer-to-peer networks, since NATs hinder direct
communication between peers. Some peer-to-peer network architectures communication between peers. Some peer-to-peer network architectures
avoid this problem by insisting that all peers exist in the same avoid this problem by insisting that all peers exist in the same
address space. However, in the P2PSIP model, it has been agreed that address space. However, RELOAD provides capabilities that allow
peers can live in multiple address spaces interconnected by NATs. peers to be located in multiple address spaces interconnected by
NATs, to allow RELOAD messages to traverse NATs, and to assist in
This implies that Peer Protocol connections must be able to traverse transmitting application-level messages (for example SIP messages)
NATs. It also means that the peers must collectively provide a across NATs.
distributed transport function that allows a peer to send a SIP
message to any other peer in the overlay - without this function two
peers in different IP address spaces might not be able to exchange
SIP messages.
4. Reference Model 4. Reference Model
The following diagram shows a P2PSIP Overlay consisting of a number The following diagram shows a P2PSIP Overlay consisting of a number
of Peers, one Client, and an ordinary SIP UA. It illustrates a of Peers, one Client, and an ordinary SIP UA. It illustrates a
typical P2PSIP overlay but does not limit other compositions or typical P2PSIP overlay but does not limit other compositions or
variations; for example, Proxy Peer P might also talk to a ordinary variations; for example, Proxy Peer P might also talk to a ordinary
SIP proxy as well. The figure is not intended to cover all possible SIP proxy as well. The figure is not intended to cover all possible
architecture variations in this document. architecture variations, but simply to show a deployment with many
common P2PSIP elements.
--->PSTN --->PSTN
+------+ N +------+ +---------+ / +------+ N +------+ +---------+ /
| | A | | | Gateway |-/ | | A | | | Gateway |-/
| UA |####T#####| UA |#####| Peer |######## | UA |####T#####| UA |#####| Peer |########
| Peer | N | Peer | | G | # P2PSIP | Peer | N | Peer | | G | # RELOAD
| E | A | F | +---------+ # Client | E | A | F | +---------+ # P2PSIP
| | T | | # Protocol | | T | | # Protocol
+------+ N +------+ # | +------+ N +------+ # |
# A # | # A # |
NATNATNATNAT # | NATNATNATNAT # |
# # | \__/ # # | \__/
NATNATNATNAT +-------+ v / \ NATNATNATNAT +-------+ v / \
# N | |=====/ UA \ # N | |#####/ UA \
+------+ A P2PSIP Overlay | Peer | /Client\ +------+ A P2PSIP Overlay | Peer | /Client\
| | T | Q | |___C__| | | T | Q | |___C__|
| UA | N | | | UA | N | |
| Peer | A +-------+ | Peer | A +-------+
| D | T # | D | T #
| | N # | | N #
+------+ A # P2PSIP +------+ A # RELOAD
# T # Peer # T # P2PSIP
# N +-------+ +-------+ # Protocol # N +-------+ +-------+ # Protocol
# A | | | | # # A | | | | #
#########T####| Proxy |########| Redir |####### #########T####| Proxy |########| Redir |#######
N | Peer | | Peer | N | Peer | | Peer |
A | P | | R | A | P | | R |
T +-------+ +-------+ T +-------+ +-------+
| / | /
| SIP / | SIP /
\__/ / / \__/ / /
/\ / ______________/ SIP /\ / ______________/ SIP
skipping to change at page 10, line 4 skipping to change at page 9, line 4
Here, the large perimeter depicted by "#" represents a stylized view Here, the large perimeter depicted by "#" represents a stylized view
of the Overlay (the actual connections could be a mesh, a ring, or of the Overlay (the actual connections could be a mesh, a ring, or
some other structure). Around the periphery of the Overlay some other structure). Around the periphery of the Overlay
rectangle, we have a number of Peers. Each peer is labeled with its rectangle, we have a number of Peers. Each peer is labeled with its
coupled SIP entity -- for example, "Proxy Peer P" means that peer P coupled SIP entity -- for example, "Proxy Peer P" means that peer P
which is coupled with a SIP proxy. In some cases, a peer or client which is coupled with a SIP proxy. In some cases, a peer or client
might be coupled with two or more SIP entities. In this diagram we might be coupled with two or more SIP entities. In this diagram we
have a PSTN gateway coupled with peer "G", three peers ("D", "E" and have a PSTN gateway coupled with peer "G", three peers ("D", "E" and
"F") which are each coupled with a UA, a peer "P" which is coupled "F") which are each coupled with a UA, a peer "P" which is coupled
with a SIP proxy, an ordinary peer "Q", and one peer "R" which is with a SIP proxy, an ordinary peer "Q" with no SIP capabilities, and
coupled with a SIP Redirector. Note that because these are all one peer "R" which is coupled with a SIP Redirector. Note that
Peers, each is responsible for storing Resource Records and because these are all Peers, each is responsible for storing Resource
transporting messages around the Overlay. Records and transporting messages around the Overlay.
To the left, two of the peers ("D" and "E") are behind network To the left, two of the peers ("D" and "E") are behind network
address translators (NATs). These peers are included in the P2PSIP address translators (NATs). These peers are included in the P2PSIP
overlay and thus participate in storing resource records and routing overlay and thus participate in storing resource records and routing
messages, despite being behind the NATs. messages, despite being behind the NATs.
On the right side, we have a client "C", which uses the RELOAD
Protocol to communicate with Proxy Peer "Q". The Client "C" uses
RELOAD to obtain information from the overlay, but has not inserted
itself into the overlay, and therefore does not participate in
routing messages or storing information.
Below the Overlay, we have a conventional SIP UA "A" which is not Below the Overlay, we have a conventional SIP UA "A" which is not
part of the Overlay, either directly as a peer or indirectly as a part of the Overlay, either directly as a peer or indirectly as a
client. It speaks neither the Peer nor Client protocols. Instead, client. It does not speak the RELOAD P2PSIP protocol, and is not
it uses SIP to interact with the Overlay. participating in the overlay as either a Peer nor Client. Instead,
it uses SIP to interact with the Overlay via an adapter peer or peers
On the right side, we have a client "C", which uses the Client which communicate with the overlay using RELOAD.
Protocol depicted by "=" to communicate with Proxy Peer "Q". The
Client "C" could communicate with a different peer, for example peer
"F", if it establishes a connection to "F" instead of or in addition
to "Q". The exact role that this client plays in the network is
still under discussion (see Section 6.5).
Both the SIP proxy coupled with peer "P" and the SIP redirector Both the SIP proxy coupled with peer "P" and the SIP redirector
coupled with peer "R" can serve as adapters between ordinary SIP coupled with peer "R" can serve as adapters between ordinary SIP
devices and the Overlay. Each accepts standard SIP requests and devices and the Overlay. Each accepts standard SIP requests and
resolves the next-hop by using the P2PSIP overlay Peer Protocol to resolves the next-hop by using the P2PSIP protocol to interact with
interact with the routing knowledge of the Overlay, then processes the routing knowledge of the Overlay, then processes the SIP requests
the SIP requests as appropriate (proxying or redirecting towards the as appropriate (proxying or redirecting towards the next-hop). Note
next-hop). Note that proxy operation is bidirectional - the proxy that proxy operation is bidirectional - the proxy may be forwarding a
may be forwarding a request from an ordinary SIP device to the request from an ordinary SIP device to the Overlay, or from the
Overlay, or from the P2PSIP overlay to an ordinary SIP device. P2PSIP overlay to an ordinary SIP device.
The PSTN Gateway at peer "G" provides a similar sort of adaptation to The PSTN Gateway at peer "G" provides a similar sort of adaptation to
and from the public switched telephone network (PSTN). and from the public switched telephone network (PSTN).
5. Definitions 5. Definitions
This section defines a number of concepts that are key to This section defines a number of concepts that are key to
understanding the P2PSIP work. understanding the P2PSIP work.
Overlay Network: An overlay network is a computer network which is Overlay Network: An overlay network is a computer network which is
skipping to change at page 11, line 14 skipping to change at page 10, line 15
network. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P2P_overlay> network. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P2P_overlay>
P2P Network: A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network P2P Network: A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network
that relies primarily on the computing power and bandwidth of the that relies primarily on the computing power and bandwidth of the
participants in the network rather than concentrating it in a participants in the network rather than concentrating it in a
relatively low number of servers. P2P networks are typically used relatively low number of servers. P2P networks are typically used
for connecting nodes via largely ad hoc connections. Such for connecting nodes via largely ad hoc connections. Such
networks are useful for many purposes. Sharing content files (see networks are useful for many purposes. Sharing content files (see
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File_sharing>) containing audio, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File_sharing>) containing audio,
video, data or anything in digital format is very common, and video, data or anything in digital format is very common, and
realtime data, such as telephony traffic, is also exchanged using real-time data, such as telephony traffic, is also exchanged using
P2P technology. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peer-to-peer>. A P2P technology. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peer-to-peer>. A
P2P Network may also be called a "P2P Overlay" or "P2P Overlay P2P Network may also be called a "P2P Overlay" or "P2P Overlay
Network" or "P2P Network Overlay", since its organization is not Network" or "P2P Network Overlay", since its organization is not
at the physical layer, but is instead "on top of" an existing at the physical layer, but is instead "on top of" an existing
Internet Protocol network. Internet Protocol network.
P2PSIP: A suite of communications protocols related to the Session P2PSIP: A suite of communications protocols related to the Session
Initiation Protocol (SIP) [RFC3261] that enable SIP to use peer- Initiation Protocol (SIP) [RFC3261] that enable SIP to use peer-
to-peer techniques for resolving the targets of SIP requests, to-peer techniques for resolving the targets of SIP requests,
providing SIP message transport, and providing other SIP-related providing SIP message transport, and providing other SIP-related
functions. The exact contents of this protocol suite are still functions. At present, these protocols include
under discussion, but is likely to include the P2PSIP Peer [I-D.ietf-p2psip-base], [I-D.ietf-p2psip-sip],
Protocol and may include a P2PSIP Client Protocol (see definitions [I-D.ietf-p2psip-diagnostics], [I-D.ietf-p2psip-service-discovery]
below). and [I-D.ietf-p2psip-self-tuning].
User: A human that interacts with the overlay through SIP UAs User: A human that interacts with the overlay through SIP UAs
located on peers and clients (and perhaps other ways). located on peers and clients (and perhaps other ways).
The following terms are defined here only within the scope of The following terms are defined here only within the scope of
P2PSIP. These terms may have conflicting definitions in other P2PSIP. These terms may have conflicting definitions in other
bodies of literature. Some earlier versions of this document bodies of literature. Some earlier versions of this document
prefixed each term with "P2PSIP" to clarify the term's scope. prefixed each term with "P2PSIP" to clarify the term's scope.
This prefixing has been eliminated from the text; however the This prefixing has been eliminated from the text; however the
scoping still applies. scoping still applies.
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on behalf of the overlay, putting information into the overlay, on behalf of the overlay, putting information into the overlay,
and getting information from the overlay. and getting information from the overlay.
Peer-ID: Information that uniquely identifies each Peer within a Peer-ID: Information that uniquely identifies each Peer within a
given Overlay. This value is not human-friendly -- in a DHT given Overlay. This value is not human-friendly -- in a DHT
approach, this is a numeric value in the hash space. These Peer- approach, this is a numeric value in the hash space. These Peer-
IDs are completely independent of the identifier of any user of a IDs are completely independent of the identifier of any user of a
user agent associated with a peer. (Note: This is often called a user agent associated with a peer. (Note: This is often called a
"Node-ID" in the P2P literature). "Node-ID" in the P2P literature).
Client: A node participating in a P2PSIP Overlay that is less Client: A node participating in a P2PSIP Overlay but that does not
capable than a Peer in some way. The role of a Client is still store information or forward messages. A client can also be
under debate, with a number of competing proposals (see the thought of as a peer that has not joined the overlay
discussion on this later in the document). It has been agreed
that they do have the ability to add, modify, inspect, and delete
information in the overlay. Note that the term client does not
imply that this node is a SIP UAC. Some have suggested that the
word 'client' be changed to something else to avoid both this
confusion and the implication of a client-server relationship.
User Name: A human-friendly name for a user. This name must be User Name: A human-friendly name for a user. This name must be
unique within the overlay, but may be unique in a wider scope. unique within the overlay, but may be unique in a wider scope.
User Names are formatted so that they can be used within a URI User Names are formatted so that they can be used within a URI
(likely a SIP URI), perhaps in combination with the Overlay Name. (likely a SIP URI), perhaps in combination with the Overlay Name.
Service: A capability contributed by a peer to an overlay or to the Service: A capability contributed by a peer to an overlay or to the
members of an overlay. It is expected that not all peers and members of an overlay. Not all peers and clients will offer the
clients will offer the same set of services, so a means of finding same set of services, and P2PSIP provides service discovery
peers (and perhaps clients) that offer a particular service is mechanisms to locate services.
required. Services might include routing of requests, storing of
routing data, storing of other data, STUN discovery, STUN relay,
and many other things. This model posits a requirement for a
service locator function, possibly including supporting
information such as the capacity of a peer to provide a specific
service or descriptions of the policies under which a peer will
provide that service. We currently expect that we will need to be
able to search for available service providers within each
overlay. We think we might need to be able to make searches based
on network locality or path minimalization.
Service Name: A unique, human-friendly, name for a service. Service Name: A unique, human-friendly, name for a service.
Resource: Anything about which information can be stored in the Resource: Anything about which information can be stored in the
overlay. Both Users and Services are examples of Resources. overlay. Both Users and Services are examples of Resources.
Resource-ID: A non-human-friendly value that uniquely identifies a Resource-ID: A non-human-friendly value that uniquely identifies a
resource and which is used as a key for storing and retrieving resource and which is used as a key for storing and retrieving
data about the resource. One way to generate a Resource-ID is by data about the resource. One way to generate a Resource-ID is by
applying a mapping function to some other unique name (e.g., User applying a mapping function to some other unique name (e.g., User
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resource records. Some may hold data about Users, and others may resource records. Some may hold data about Users, and others may
hold data about Services, and the working group may define other hold data about Services, and the working group may define other
types. The types, usages, and formats of the records are a types. The types, usages, and formats of the records are a
question for future study. question for future study.
Responsible Peer The Peer that is responsible for storing the Responsible Peer The Peer that is responsible for storing the
Resource Record for a Resource. In the literature, the term "Root Resource Record for a Resource. In the literature, the term "Root
Peer" is also used for this concept. Peer" is also used for this concept.
Peer Protocol: The protocol spoken between P2PSIP Overlay peers to Peer Protocol: The protocol spoken between P2PSIP Overlay peers to
share information and organize the P2PSIP Overlay Network. share information and organize the P2PSIP Overlay Network. In
P2PSIP, this is implemented using the RELOAD
[I-D.ietf-p2psip-base] protocol.
Client Protocol: The protocol spoken between Clients and Peers. It Client Protocol: The protocol spoken between Clients and Peers. In
is used to store and retrieve information from the P2P Overlay. P2PSIP and RELOAD, this is the same protocol syntactically as the
The nature of this protocol, and even its existence, is under Peer Protocol. The only difference is that Clients are not
discussion. However, if it exists, it has been agreed that the routing messages or routing information, and have not (or can not)
Client Protocol is a functional subset of the P2P Peer Protocol, insert themselves into the overlay.
but may differ in syntax and protocol implementation (i.e., may
not be syntactically related).
Peer Protocol Connection / P2PSIP Client Protocol Connection: The Peer Protocol Connection / P2PSIP Client Protocol Connection: The
TCP, UDP or other transport layer protocol connection over which TLS, DTLS, TCP, UDP or other transport layer protocol connection
the Peer Protocol (or respectively the Client protocol) is over which the RELOAD Peer Protocol messages are transported.
transported.
Neighbors: The set of P2PSIP Peers that either a Peer or Client know Neighbors: The set of P2PSIP Peers that a Peer or Client know of
of directly and can reach without further lookups. directly and can reach without further lookups.
Joining Peer: A node that is attempting to become a Peer in a Joining Peer: A node that is attempting to become a Peer in a
particular Overlay. particular Overlay.
Bootstrap Peer: A Peer in the Overlay that is the first point of Bootstrap Peer: A Peer in the Overlay that is the first point of
contact for a Joining Peer. It selects the peer that will serve contact for a Joining Peer. It selects the peer that will serve
as the Admitting Peer and helps the joining peer contact the as the Admitting Peer and helps the joining peer contact the
admitting peer. admitting peer.
Admitting Peer: A Peer in the Overlay which helps the Joining Peer Admitting Peer: A Peer in the Overlay which helps the Joining Peer
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For example, the admitting peer might be chosen as the peer which For example, the admitting peer might be chosen as the peer which
is "closest" in the logical structure of the overlay to the future is "closest" in the logical structure of the overlay to the future
position of the joining peer. The selection of the admitting peer position of the joining peer. The selection of the admitting peer
is typically done by the bootstrap peer. It is allowable for the is typically done by the bootstrap peer. It is allowable for the
bootstrap peer to select itself as the admitting peer. bootstrap peer to select itself as the admitting peer.
Bootstrap Server: A network node used by Joining Peers to locate a Bootstrap Server: A network node used by Joining Peers to locate a
Bootstrap Peer. A Bootstrap Server may act as a proxy for Bootstrap Peer. A Bootstrap Server may act as a proxy for
messages between the Joining Peer and the Bootstrap Peer. The messages between the Joining Peer and the Bootstrap Peer. The
Bootstrap Server itself is typically a stable host with a DNS name Bootstrap Server itself is typically a stable host with a DNS name
that is somehow communicated (for example, through configuration) that is somehow communicated (for example, through configuration,
to peers that want to join the overlay. A Bootstrap Server is NOT specification on a web page, or using DHCP) to peers that want to
required to be a peer or client, though it may be if desired. join the overlay. A Bootstrap Server is NOT required to be a peer
or client, though it may be if desired.
Peer Admission: The act of admitting a node (the "Joining Peer") Peer Admission: The act of admitting a node (the "Joining Peer")
into an Overlay as a Peer. After the admission process is over, into an Overlay as a Peer. After the admission process is over,
the joining peer is a fully-functional peer of the overlay. the joining peer is a fully-functional peer of the overlay.
During the admission process, the joining peer may need to present During the admission process, the joining peer may need to present
credentials to prove that it has sufficient authority to join the credentials to prove that it has sufficient authority to join the
overlay. overlay.
Resource Record Insertion: The act of inserting a P2PSIP Resource Resource Record Insertion: The act of inserting a P2PSIP Resource
Record into the distributed database. Following insertion, the Record into the distributed database. Following insertion, the
data will be stored at one or more peers. The data can be data will be stored at one or more peers. The data can be
retrieved or updated using the Resource-ID as a key. retrieved or updated using the Resource-ID as a key.
6. Discussion 6. Discussion
6.1. The Distributed Database Function 6.1. The Distributed Database Function
A P2PSIP Overlay functions as a distributed database. The database A P2PSIP Overlay functions as a distributed database. The database
serves as a way to store information about things called Resources. serves as a way to store information about Resources. A piece of
A piece of information, called a Resource Record, can be stored by information, called a Resource Record, can be stored by and retrieved
and retrieved from the database using a key associated with the from the database using a key associated with the Resource Record
Resource Record called its Resource-ID. Each Resource must have a called its Resource-ID. Each Resource must have a unique
unique Resource-ID. In addition to uniquely identifying the Resource-ID. In addition to uniquely identifying the Resource, the
Resource, the Resource-ID is also used by the distributed database Resource-ID is also used by the distributed database algorithm to
algorithm to determine the peer or peers that store the Resource determine the peer or peers that store the Resource Record in the
Record in the overlay. overlay.
It is expected that the P2PSIP working group will standardize the
way(s) certain types of resources are represented in the distributed
database.
One type of resource representation that the working group is Users are humans that can use the overlay to do things like making
expected to standardize is information about users. Users are humans and receiving calls. Information stored in the resource record
that can use the overlay to do things like making and receiving associated with a user can include things like the full name of the
calls. Information stored in the resource record associated with a user and the location of the UAs that the user is using (the users
user might include things like the full name of the user and the SIP AoR). Full details of how this is implemented using RELOAD are
location of the UAs that the user is using. provided in [I-D.ietf-p2psip-sip]
Before information about a user can be stored in the overlay, a user Before information about a user can be stored in the overlay, a user
needs a User Name. The User Name is a human-friendly identifier that needs a User Name. The User Name is a human-friendly identifier that
uniquely identifies the user within the overlay. The User Name is uniquely identifies the user within the overlay. In RELOAD, users
not a Resource-ID, rather the Resource-ID is derived from the User are issued certificates, which in the case of centrally signed
Name using some mapping function (often a cryptographic hash certificates, identify the User Name as well as a certain number of
function) defined by the distributed database algorithm used by the Resource-IDs where the user may store their information. For more
overlay. information, see [I-D.ietf-p2psip-base].
The overlay may also require that the user have a set of credentials.
Credentials may be required to authenticate the user and/or to show
that the user is authorized to use the overlay.
Another type of resource representation that the working group is The P2PSIP suite of protocols also standardizes information about how
expected to standardize is information about services. Services to locate services. Services represent actions that a peer (and
represent actions that a peer (and perhaps a client) can do to perhaps a client) can do to benefit other peers and clients in the
benefit other peers and clients in the overlay. Information that overlay. Information that might be stored in the resource record
might be stored in the resource record associated with a service associated with a service might include the peers (and perhaps
might include the peers (and perhaps clients) offering the service. clients) offering the service. Service discovery for P2PSIP is
defined in [I-D.ietf-p2psip-service-discovery].
Each service has a human-friendly Service Name that uniquely Each service has a human-friendly Service Name that uniquely
identifies the service. Like User Names, the Service Name is not a identifies the service. Like User Names, the Service Name is not a
resource-id, rather the resource-id is derived from the service name resource-id, rather the resource-id is derived from the service name
using some function defined by the distributed database algorithm using some function defined by the distributed database algorithm
used by the overlay. used by the overlay.
It is expected that the working group will standardize at least one
service. For each standardized service, the working group will
likely specify the service name, the nature and format of the
information stored in the resource record associated with the
service, and the protocol used to access the service.
The overlay may require that the peer (or client) have a set of
credentials for a service. For example, credentials might be
required to show that the peer (or client) is authorized to offer the
service, or to show that the peer (or client) is a providing a
trustworthy implementation of the service.
It is expected that the P2PSIP WG will not standardize how a User
Name is obtained, nor how the credentials associated with a User Name
or a Service Name are obtained, but merely standardize at least one
acceptable format for each. To ensure interoperability, it is
expected that at least one of these formats will be specified as
"mandatory-to-implement".
A class of algorithms known as Distributed Hash Tables A class of algorithms known as Distributed Hash Tables
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P2P_overlay> are one way to implement <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P2P_overlay> are one way to implement
the Distributed Database. In particular, both the Chord and Bamboo the Distributed Database. The RELOAD protocol is extensible and
algorithms have been suggested as good choices for the distributed allows many different DHTs to be implemented, but specifies a
database algorithm. However, no decision has been taken so far. mandatory to implement DHT in the form of a modified Chord DHT. For
more information, see [Chord]
6.2. Using the Distributed Database Function 6.2. Using the Distributed Database Function
There are a number of ways the distributed database described in the While there are a number of ways the distributed database described
previous section might be used to establish multimedia sessions using in the previous section can be used to establish multimedia sessions
SIP. In this section, we give four possibilities as examples. It using SIP, the basic mechanism defined in the RELOAD base draft and
seems likely that the working group will standardize at least one way SIP usage is summarized below. This is a very simplistic overview.
(not necessarily one of the four listed here), but no decisions have For more detailed information, please see the RELOAD base draft.
been taken yet.
The first option is to store the contact information for a user in Contact information for a user is stored in the resource record for
the resource record for the user. A peer Y that is a contact point that user. Assume that a user is using a device, here called peer A,
for this user adds contact information to this resource record. The which serves as the contact point for this user. The user adds
resource record itself is stored with peer Z in the network, where contact information to this resource record, as authorized by the
peer Z is chosen by the distributed database algorithm. RELOAD certificate mechanism. The resource record itself is stored
with peer Z in the network, where peer Z is chosen by the particular
distributed database algorithm in use by the overlay.
When the SIP entity coupled with peer X has an INVITE message When the SIP entity coupled with peer B has an INVITE message
addressed to this user, it retrieves the resource record from peer Z. addressed to this user, it retrieves the resource record from peer Z.
It then extracts the contact information for the various peers that It then extracts the contact information for the various peers that
are a contact point for the user, including peer Y, and forwards the are a contact point for the user, including peer A, and uses the
INVITE onward. overlay to establish a connection to peer A, including any
appropriate NAT traversal (the details of which are not shown).
This exchange is illustrated in the following figure. The notation
"Put(U@Y)" is used to show the distributed database operation of
updating the resource record for user U with the contract Y, and
"Get(U)" illustrates the distributed database operation of retrieving
the resource record for user U. Note that the messages between the
peers X, Y and Z may actually travel via intermediate peers (not
shown) as part of the distributed lookup process or so as to traverse
intervening NATs.
Peer X Peer Z Peer Y
| | |
| | Put(U@Y) |
| |<---------------|
| | Put-Resp(OK) |
| |--------------->|
| | |
| Get(U) | |
|---------------->| |
| Get-Resp(U@Y)| |
|<----------------| |
| INVITE(To:U) | |
|--------------------------------->|
| | |
The second option also involves storing the contact information for a
user in the resource record of the user. However, SIP entity at peer
X, rather than retrieving the resource record from peer Z, instead
forwards the INVITE message to the proxy at peer Z. The proxy at peer
Z then uses the information in the resource record and forwards the
INVITE onwards to the SIP entity at peer Y and the other contacts.
Peer X Peer Z Peer Y
| | |
| | Put(U@Y) |
| |<---------------|
| | Put-Resp(OK) |
| |--------------->|
| | |
| INVITE(To:U) | |
|-----------------| INVITE(To:U) |
| |--------------->|
| | |
The third option is for a single peer W to place its contact
information into the resource record for the user (stored with peer
Z). A peer Y that is a contact point for the user retrieves the
resource record from peer Z, extracts the contact information for
peer W, and then uses the standard SIP registration mechanism
[RFC3261] to register with peer W. When the SIP entity at peer X has
to forward an INVITE request, it retrieves the resource record and
extracts the contact information for W. It then forwards the INVITE
to the proxy at peer W, which proxies it onward to peer Y and the
other contacts.
Peer X Peer Z Peer Y Peer W
| | | |
| | Put(U@W) | |
| |<---------------------------------|
| | Put-Resp(OK) | |
| |--------------------------------->|
| | | |
| | | |
| | | REGISTER(To:U) |
| | |---------------->|
| | | 200 |
| | |<----------------|
| | | |
| | | |
| Get(U) | | |
|---------------->| | |
| Get-Resp(U@W)| | |
|<----------------| | |
| INVITE(To:U) | | |
|--------------------------------------------------->|
| | | INVITE(To:U) |
| | |<----------------|
| | | |
The fourth option works as in option 3, with the exception that, Note that RELOAD is used only to establish the connection. Once the
rather than X retrieving the resource record from Z, peer X forwards connection is established, messages between the peers are sent using
the INVITE to a SIP proxy at Z, which proxies it onward to W and ordinary SIP.
hence to Y.
Peer X Peer Z Peer Y Peer W This exchange is illustrated in the following figure. The notation
| | | | "Store(U@A)" is used to show the distributed database operation of
| | Put(U@W) | | updating the resource record for user U with the contract A, and
| |<---------------------------------| "Fetch(U)" illustrates the distributed database operation of
| | Put-Resp(OK) | | retrieving the resource record for user U. Note that the messages
| |--------------------------------->| between the peers A, B and Z may actually travel via intermediate
| | | | peers (not shown) as part of the distributed lookup process or so as
| | | | to traverse intervening NATs.
| | | REGISTER(To:U) |
| | |---------------->|
| | | 200 |
| | |<----------------|
| | | |
| | | |
| INVITE(To:U) | | |
|---------------->| INVITE(To:U) | |
| |--------------------------------->|
| | | INVITE(To:U) |
| | |<----------------|
| | | |
The pros and cons of option 1 and 3 are briefly discussed in Peer B Peer Z Peer A
[Using-an-External-DHT]. | | |
| | Store(U@Y)|
| |<------------------|
| |Store-Resp(OK) |
| |------------------>|
| | |
|Fetch(U) | |
|------------------->| |
| Fetch-Resp(U@Y)| |
|<-------------------| |
| | |
(RELOAD IS USED TO ESTABLISH CONNECTION)
| | |
| SIP INVITE(To:U) | |
|--------------------------------------->|
| | |
6.3. NAT Traversal 6.3. NAT Traversal
Two approaches to NAT Traversal for P2PSIP Peer Protocol have been NAT Traversal in P2PSIP using RELOAD treats all peers as equal and
suggested. The working group has not made any decision yet on the establishes a partial mesh of connections between them. Messages
approach that will be selected. from one peer to another are routed along the edges in the mesh of
connections until they reach their destination. To make the routing
The first, the traditional approach adopted by most peer-to-peer efficient and to avoid the use of standard Internet routing
networks today, divides up the peers in the network into two groups: protocols, the partial mesh is organized in a structured manner. If
those with public IP addresses and those without. The networks then the structure is based on any one of a number of common DHT
select a subset of the former group and elevate them to "super peer" algorithms, then the maximum number of hops between any two peers is
status, leaving the remaining peers as "ordinary peers". Since super log N, where N is the number of peers in the overlay. Existing
peers all have public IP addresses, there are no NAT problems when connections, along with the ICE NAT traversal techniques [RFC5245],
communicating between them. The network then associates each are used to establish new connections between peers, and also to
ordinary peer with (usually just one) super peer in a client-server allow the applications running on peers to establish a connection to
relationship. Once this is done, an ordinary peer X can communicate communicate with one another.
with another ordinary peer Y by sending the message to X's super
peer, which forwards it to Y's super peer, which forwards it to Y.
The connection between an ordinary peer and its super peer is
initiated by the ordinary peer, which makes it easy to traverse any
intervening NATs. In this approach, the number of hops between two
peers is at most 3.
The second approach treats all peers as equal and establishes a
partial mesh of connections between them. Messages from one peer to
another are then routed along the edges in the mesh of connections
until they reach their destination. To make the routing efficient
and to avoid the use of standard Internet routing protocols, the
partial mesh is organized in a structured manner. If the structure
is based on any one of a number of common DHT algorithms, then the
maximum number of hops between any two peers is log N, where N is the
number of peers in the overlay.
The first approach is significantly more efficient than the second in
overlays with large numbers of peers. However, the first approach
assumes there are a sufficient number of peers with public IP
addresses to serve as super peers. In some usage scenarios
envisioned for P2PSIP, this assumption does not hold. For example,
this approach fails completely in the case where every peer is behind
a distinct NAT.
The second approach, while less efficient in overlays with larger
numbers of peers, is efficient in smaller overlays and can be made to
work in many use cases where the first approach fails.
Both of these approaches assume a method of setting up Peer Protocol
connections between peers. Many such methods exist; the now expired
[I-D.iab-nat-traversal-considerations] is an attempt to give a fairly
comprehensive list along with a discussion of their pros and cons.
After a consideration of the various techniques, the P2PSIP working
group has decided to select the Unilateral Self-Address Fixing method
[RFC3424] of NAT Traversal, and in particular the ICE
[I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice] implementation of this approach.
The above discussion covers NAT traversal for Peer Protocol
connections. For Client Protocol connections, the approach depends
on the role adopted for clients and we defer the discussion on that
point until the role becomes clearer.
In addition to Peer Protocol and Client Protocol messages, a P2PSIP
Overlay must also provide a solution to the NAT Traversal problem for
SIP messages. If it does not, there is no reliable way for a peer
behind one NAT to send a SIP INVITE to a peer behind another NAT.
One way to solve this problem is to transport SIP messages along Peer
and Client Protocol connections: this could be done either by
encapsulating the SIP messages inside Peer and Client Protocol
messages or by multiplexing SIP with the Peer (resp.Client) Protocol
on a Peer (resp. Client) Protocol connection.
Finally, it should be noted that the NAT traversal problem for media
connections signaled using SIP is outside the scope of the P2PSIP
working group. As discussed in [I-D.ietf-sipping-nat-scenarios], the
current recommendation is to use ICE.
6.4. Locating and Joining an Overlay 6.4. Locating and Joining an Overlay
Before a peer can attempt to join a P2PSIP overlay, it must first Before a peer can attempt to join a P2PSIP overlay, it must first
obtain a Peer-ID and optionally a set of credentials. The Peer-ID is obtain a Peer-ID, configuration information, and optionally a set of
an identifier that will uniquely identify the peer within the credentials. The Peer-ID is an identifier that will uniquely
overlay, while the credentials show that the peer is allowed to join identify the peer within the overlay, while the credentials show that
the overlay. the peer is allowed to join the overlay.
The P2PSIP WG will not standardize how the peer-ID and the
credentials are obtained, but merely standardize at least one
acceptable format for each. To ensure interoperability, it is
expected that at least one of these formats will be specified as
"mandatory-to-implement".
Once a peer (the "joining peer") has a peer-ID and optionally a set
of credentials, it can attempt to join the overlay. To do this, it
needs to locate a bootstrap peer for the Overlay.
A bootstrap peer is a peer that serves as the first point of contact
for the joining peer. The joining peer uses a bootstrap mechanism to
locate a bootstrap peer. Locating a bootstrap peer might be done in
any one of a number of different ways:
o By remembering peers that were part of the overlay the last time
the peer was part of the overlay;
o Through a multicast discovery mechanism;
o Through manual configuration; or
o By contacting a P2PSIP Bootstrap Server, and using its help to The P2PSIP WG does not impose a particular mechanism for how the
locate a bootstrap peer. peer-ID and the credentials are obtained, but the RELOAD base draft
does specify the format for the configuration information, and
specifies how this information may be obtained, along with
credentials and a Peer-ID, from an offline enrollment server.
The joining peer might reasonably try each of the methods (and Once the configuration information is obtained, the RELOAD base draft
perhaps others) in some order or in parallel until it succeeds in specifies a mechanism whereby a peer may obtain a multicast-bootstrap
finding a bootstrap peer. address in the configuration file, and can broadcast to this address
to attempt to locate a bootstrap peer. Additionally, the peer may
store previous peers it has seen and attempt to use these as
bootstrap peers, or may obtain an address for a bootstrap peer by
some other mechanism. For more information, see the RELOAD base
draft.
The job of the bootstrap peer is simple: refer the joining peer to a The job of the bootstrap peer is simple: refer the joining peer to a
peer (called the "admitting peer") that will help the joining peer peer (called the "admitting peer") that will help the joining peer
join the network. The choice of admitting peer will often depend on join the network. The choice of admitting peer will often depend on
the joining node - for example, the admitting peer may be a peer that the joining node - for example, the admitting peer may be a peer that
will become a neighbor of the joining peer in the overlay. It is will become a neighbor of the joining peer in the overlay. It is
possible that the bootstrap peer might also serve as the admitting possible that the bootstrap peer might also serve as the admitting
peer. peer.
The admitting peer will help the joining peer learn about other peers The admitting peer will help the joining peer learn about other peers
in the overlay and establish connections to them as appropriate. The in the overlay and establish connections to them as appropriate. The
admitting peer and/or the other peers in the overlay will also do admitting peer and/or the other peers in the overlay will also do
whatever else is required to help the joining peer become a fully- whatever else is required to help the joining peer become a fully-
functional peer. The details of how this is done will depend on the functional peer. The details of how this is done will depend on the
distributed database algorithm used in the overlay. distributed database algorithm used by the overlay.
At various stages in this process, the joining peer may be asked to At various stages in this process, the joining peer may be asked to
present its credentials to show that it is authorized to join the present its credentials to show that it is authorized to join the
overlay. Similarly, the various peers contacted may be asked to overlay. Similarly, the various peers contacted may be asked to
present their credentials so the joining peer can verify that it is present their credentials so the joining peer can verify that it is
really joining the overlay it wants to. really joining the overlay it wants to.
6.5. Possible Client Behavior 6.5. Clients and Connecting Unmodified SIP Devices
As mentioned above, a number of people have proposed a second type of
P2PSIP entity, known as a "P2PSIP client". The consensus of the
group is that the need for entities to store and retrieve information
from the Overlay without participating is recognized, but that for
now, little time will spent. This section presents some of the
alternatives that have been suggested for the possible role of a
client.
In one approach, a client interacts with the P2PSIP overlay through As mentioned above, in RELOAD, from the perspective of the protocol,
an associated peer (or perhaps several such peers) using the Client clients are simply peers that do not store information, do not route
Protocol. The client does not run the distributed database messages, and which have not inserted themselves into the overlay.
algorithm, does not store resource records, and is not involved in The same protocol is used for the actual message exchanged. Note
routing messages to other peers or clients. Through interactions that while the protocol is the same, the client need not implement
with its associated peer, a client can insert, modify, examine, and all the capabilities of a peer. If, for example, it never routes
remove resource records. A client may also send SIP messages to its messages, it will not need to be capable of processing such messages,
associated peer for routing through the overlay. In this approach, a or understanding a DHT.
client is a node that wants to take advantage of the overlay, but is
unable or unwilling to contribute resources back to the overlay.
This may be achieved using a subset of the Peer Protocol. Such a
device need not speak SIP.
For SIP devices, another way to realize this functionality is for a For SIP devices, another way to realize this functionality is for a
Peer to behave as a [RFC3261] proxy/registrar. SIP devices then use Peer to behave as a [RFC3261] proxy/registrar. SIP devices then use
standard SIP mechanisms to add, update, and remove registrations and standard SIP mechanisms to add, update, and remove registrations and
to send SIP messages to peers and other clients. The authors here to send SIP messages to peers and other clients. The authors here
refer to these devices simply as a "SIP UA", not a "P2PSIP Client", refer to these devices simply as a "SIP UA", not a "P2PSIP Client",
to distinguish it from the concept described above. to distinguish it from the concept described above.
6.6. Interacting with non-P2PSIP entities 6.6. Architecture
It is possible for network nodes that are not peers or clients to
interact with a P2PSIP overlay. Such nodes would do this through
mechanisms not defined by the P2PSIP working group provided they can
find a peer or client that supports that mechanism and which will do
any related P2PSIP operations necessary. In this section, we briefly
describe two ways this might be done. (Note that these are just
examples and the descriptions here are not recommendations).
One example is a peer that also acts as a standard SIP proxy and
registrar. SIP UAs can interact with it using mechanisms defined in
[RFC3261]. The peer inserts registrations for users learned from
these UAs into the distributed database, and retrieves contact
information when proxying INVITE messages.
Another example is a peer that has a fully-qualified domain name
(FQDN) that matches the name of the overlay and acts as a SIP proxy
for calls coming into the overlay. A SIP INVITE addressed to
"user@overlay-name" arrives at the peer (using the mechanisms in
[RFC3263]) and this peer then looks up the user in the distributed
database and proxies the call onto it.
6.7. Architecture
There has been much debate in the group over what an appropriate
architecture for P2PSIP should be. Currently, the group is
investigating architectures that involve a P2P layer that is distinct
from the applications that run on the overlay.
__________________________
| |
| SIP, other apps... |
| ___________________|
| | P2P Layer |
|______|___________________|
| Transport Layer |
|__________________________|
The P2P layer implements the Peer Protocol (and the Client Protocol,
if such a protocol exists). Applications access this P2P layer for
various overlay-related services. Applications are also free to
bypass this layer and access the existing transport layer protocols
(e.g., TCP, UDP, etc.) directly.
A notable feature of this architecture is that it envisions the use
of protocols other than SIP in the overlay. Though the working group
is primarily focused on the use of SIP in peer-to-peer overlays, this
architecture envisions a future in which other protocols can play a
role.
The group initially considered another architecture. In this
alternative architecture, the Peer Protocol was defined as an
extension to SIP. That is, that the necessary operations for forming
and maintaining the overlay and for storing and retrieving resource
records in the distributed database were defined as extensions to
SIP. Each peer in the overlay was viewed as a SIP proxy that would
forward the overlay maintenance and distributed database query
messages (expressed in SIP) on behalf of other peers.
This architecture was eventually rejected by the working group for
the following reasons:
o The architecture was totally focused on SIP, and made it difficult
to use other protocols in the overlay.
o In SIP, proxies are assumed to be trusted parties. Relying on the
peers to route the message as proxies exposes the SIP messages to
attacks from untrusted proxies that SIP's design does not
anticipate. A design that does not allow the peers to modify the
SIP message and ideally prevents them from reading it is
preferable.
o SIP was seen as a "heavy-weight" protocol for this task. SIP uses
a text-based encoding which is very flexible, but leads to both
large messages and slow processing times at proxies. This was
seen to be a poor match for P2PSIP, where a distributed database
lookup operation requires O(log N) peers to receive, process and
forward the message.
More discussion on this alternate approach and why it was rejected
can be found on the P2PSIP mailing list in a thread that started on
20 March 2007.
7. Additional Questions
This section lists some additional questions that the proposed P2PSIP
Working Group may need to consider in the process of defining the
Peer and Client protocols.
7.1. Selecting between Multiple Peers offering the Same Service
If a P2PSIP network contains two or more peers that offer the same
service, then how does a peer or client that wishes to use that
service select the peer to use? This question comes up in a number
of contexts:
o When two or more peers are willing to serve as a STUN Relay, how
do we select a peer that is close in the netpath sense and is
otherwise appropriate for the call?
o When two or more peers are willing to serve as PSTN gateways, how
do we select an appropriate gateway for a call that is both
netpath efficient and provides good quality or inexpensive PSTN
routing?
It has been suggested that, at least initially, the working group
should restrict itself to defining a mechanism that can return a list
of peers offering a service and not define the mechanism for
selecting a peer from that list.
7.2. Visibility of Messages to Intermediate Peers
When transporting SIP messages through the overlay, are the headers
and/or bodies of the SIP messages visible to the peers that the
messages happen to pass through? If they are, what types of security
risks does this pose in the presence of peers that have been
compromised in some way?
7.3. Using C/S SIP and P2PSIP Simultaneously in a Single UA
If a given UA is capable of operating in both P2PSIP and conventional
SIP modalities (especially simultaneously), is it possible for it to
use and respond to the same AOR using both conventional and P2PSIP?
An example of such a topology might be a UA that registers an AOR
(say, "sip:alice@example.com") conventionally with a registrar and
then inserts a resource record for that resource into a P2PSIP
topology, such that both conventional SIP users and P2PSIP users
(within the overlay or a federation thereof) would be able to contact
the user without necessarily traversing some sort of gateway. Is
this something that we want to make work?
7.4. Clients, Peers, and Services
1. Do all peers providing routing, storage, and all other services,
or do only some peers provide certain services?
2. What services, if any, must all peers provide?
3. How we can we describe the capacity of a peer for delivering a
given service?
7.5. Relationships of Domains to Overlays The architecture adopted by RELOAD to implement P2PSIP is shown
below. An application, for example SIP (or another application using
RELOAD) uses RELOAD to locate other peers and (optionally) to
establish connections to those peers, potentially across NATs.
Messages may still be exchanged directly between the peers. The
overall block diagram for the architecture is as follows:
1. Can there be names from more than one domain in a single overlay? __________________________
| |
| SIP, other apps... |
| ___________________|
| | RELOAD Layer |
|______|___________________|
| Transport Layer |
|__________________________|
2. Can there be names from one domain in more than a single overlay? 7. Open Issues
If so, how do we route Client/Server SIP requests to the right
overlay?
3. Can the domain of an AoR be in more than one overlay? OPEN ISSUE: Should we include a section that documents previous
decisions made, to preserve the historical debate and prevent past
issues from being raised in the future, or simply rely on the mailing
list to address these concerns?
4. Should we have a "default overlay" to search for peers in many OPEN ISSUE: Should we include the use cases from
domains? draft-bryan-p2psip-app-scenarios-00 (now expired)? There was some
interest in doing so in previous versions, but no conclusion was
reached.
8. Security Considerations 8. Informative References
Building a P2PSIP system has many security considerations, many of [Chord] Singh, K., Stoica, I., Morris, R., Karger, D., Kaashock,
which we have only begun to consider. We anticipate that the M., Dabek, F., and H. Balakrishman, "Chord: A scalable
protocol documents describing the actual protocols will deal more peer-to-peer lookup protocol for internet applications",
thoroughly with security topics. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Neworking Volume 11 Issue 1, pp.
17-32, Feb. 2003.
One critical security issue that will need to be addressed is Copy available at
providing for the privacy and integrity of SIP messages being routed http://pdos.csail.mit.edu/chord/papers/paper-ton.pdf
by peer nodes, when those peer nodes might well be hostile. This is
a departure from Client/Server SIP, where the proxies are generally
operated by enterprises or service providers with whom the users of
SIP UAs have a trust relationship.
9. IANA Considerations [I-D.ietf-p2psip-base]
Jennings, C., Lowekamp, B., Rescorla, E., Baset, S., and
H. Schulzrinne, "REsource LOcation And Discovery (RELOAD)
Base Protocol", draft-ietf-p2psip-base-11 (work in
progress), October 2010.
This document presently raises no IANA considerations. [I-D.ietf-p2psip-diagnostics]
Yongchao, S., Jiang, X., Even, R., and D. Bryan, "P2PSIP
Overlay Diagnostics", draft-ietf-p2psip-diagnostics-04
(work in progress), July 2010.
10. Acknowledgements [I-D.ietf-p2psip-self-tuning]
Maenpaa, J., Camarillo, G., and J. Hautakorpi, "A Self-
tuning Distributed Hash Table (DHT) for REsource LOcation
And Discovery (RELOAD)", draft-ietf-p2psip-self-tuning-02
(work in progress), July 2010.
This document draws heavily from the contributions of many [I-D.ietf-p2psip-service-discovery]
participants in the P2PSIP Mailing List. Particular thanks to Maenpaa, J. and G. Camarillo, "Service Discovery Usage for
Henning Schulzrinne and Cullen Jennings who spent time on phone calls REsource LOcation And Discovery (RELOAD)",
related to this text. draft-ietf-p2psip-service-discovery-01 (work in progress),
July 2010.
11. References [I-D.ietf-p2psip-sip]
Jennings, C., Lowekamp, B., Rescorla, E., Baset, S., and
H. Schulzrinne, "A SIP Usage for RELOAD",
draft-ietf-p2psip-sip-05 (work in progress), July 2010.
11.1. Normative References [RFC2136] Vixie, P., Thomson, S., Rekhter, Y., and J. Bound,
"Dynamic Updates in the Domain Name System (DNS UPDATE)",
RFC 2136, April 1997.
[RFC3261] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston, [RFC3261] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E. A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261, Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
June 2002. June 2002.
[RFC3263] Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "Session Initiation [RFC3263] Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "Session Initiation
Protocol (SIP): Locating SIP Servers", RFC 3263, Protocol (SIP): Locating SIP Servers", RFC 3263,
June 2002. June 2002.
[RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform [RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
RFC 3986, January 2005. RFC 3986, January 2005.
11.2. Informative References
[I-D.bryan-p2psip-reload]
Jennings, C., Lowekamp, B., Rescorla, E., Baset, S., and
H. Schulzrinne, "REsource LOcation And Discovery
(RELOAD)", draft-bryan-p2psip-reload-04 (work in
progress), June 2008.
[I-D.camarillo-hip-bone]
Camarillo, G., Nikander, P., and J. Hautakorpi, "HIP BONE:
Host Identity Protocol (HIP) Based Overlay Networking
Environment", draft-camarillo-hip-bone-01 (work in
progress), February 2008.
[I-D.iab-nat-traversal-considerations]
Rosenberg, J., "Considerations for Selection of Techniques
for NAT Traversal",
draft-iab-nat-traversal-considerations-00 (work in
progress), October 2005.
[I-D.ietf-behave-rfc3489bis]
Rosenberg, J., Mahy, R., Matthews, P., and D. Wing,
"Session Traversal Utilities for (NAT) (STUN)",
draft-ietf-behave-rfc3489bis-16 (work in progress),
July 2008.
[I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice]
Rosenberg, J., "Interactive Connectivity Establishment
(ICE): A Protocol for Network Address Translator (NAT)
Traversal for Offer/Answer Protocols",
draft-ietf-mmusic-ice-19 (work in progress), October 2007.
[I-D.ietf-sipping-nat-scenarios]
Boulton, C., Rosenberg, J., and G. Camarillo, "Best
Current Practices for NAT Traversal for SIP",
draft-ietf-sipping-nat-scenarios-08 (work in progress),
April 2008.
[I-D.jiang-p2psip-sep]
Jiang, X. and H. Zhang, "Service Extensible P2P Peer
Protocol", draft-jiang-p2psip-sep-01 (work in progress),
February 2008.
[I-D.li-p2psip-node-types]
Wang, Y., "Different types of nodes in P2PSIP",
draft-li-p2psip-node-types-00 (work in progress),
December 2007.
[I-D.matthews-p2psip-id-loc]
Cooper, E., Johnston, A., and P. Matthews, "An ID/Locator
Architecture for P2PSIP", draft-matthews-p2psip-id-loc-01
(work in progress), February 2008.
[I-D.pascual-p2psip-clients]
Pascual, V., Matuszewski, M., Shim, E., Zhang, H., and S.
Yongchao, "P2PSIP Clients",
draft-pascual-p2psip-clients-01 (work in progress),
February 2008.
[I-D.zheng-p2psip-client-protocol]
Yongchao, S., Jiang, X., Zhang, H., and H. Deng, "P2PSIP
Client Protocol", draft-zheng-p2psip-client-protocol-01
(work in progress), February 2008.
[RFC2136] Vixie, P., Thomson, S., Rekhter, Y., and J. Bound,
"Dynamic Updates in the Domain Name System (DNS UPDATE)",
RFC 2136, April 1997.
[RFC3424] Daigle, L. and IAB, "IAB Considerations for UNilateral
Self-Address Fixing (UNSAF) Across Network Address
Translation", RFC 3424, November 2002.
[RFC4485] Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "Guidelines for Authors
of Extensions to the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)",
RFC 4485, May 2006.
[RFC4795] Aboba, B., Thaler, D., and L. Esibov, "Link-local [RFC4795] Aboba, B., Thaler, D., and L. Esibov, "Link-local
Multicast Name Resolution (LLMNR)", RFC 4795, Multicast Name Resolution (LLMNR)", RFC 4795,
January 2007. January 2007.
[Using-an-External-DHT] [RFC5245] Rosenberg, J., "Interactive Connectivity Establishment
Singh, K. and H. Schulzrinne, "Using an External DHT as a (ICE): A Protocol for Network Address Translator (NAT)
SIP Location Service", Columbia University Computer Traversal for Offer/Answer Protocols", RFC 5245,
Science Dept. Tech Report 388). April 2010.
Copy available at http://mice.cs.columbia.edu/ [RFC5766] Mahy, R., Matthews, P., and J. Rosenberg, "Traversal Using
getTechreport.php?techreportID=388/ Relays around NAT (TURN): Relay Extensions to Session
Traversal Utilities for NAT (STUN)", RFC 5766, April 2010.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
David A. Bryan David A. Bryan
SIPeerior Technologies Cogent Force, LLC
3000 Easter Circle Williamsburg, Virginia
Williamsburg, Virginia 23188
USA USA
Phone: +1 757 565 0101 Phone: +1 571 314 0256
Email: bryan@sipeerior.com Email: bryan@ethernot.org
Philip Matthews Philip Matthews
Unaffiliated Alcatel-Lucent
600 March Road
Ottawa, Ontario K2K 2E6
Canada
Phone: +1 613 592 4343 x224 Phone: +1 613 784 3139
Email: philip_matthews@magma.ca Email: philip_matthews@magma.ca
Eunsoo Shim Eunsoo Shim
Locus Telecommunications Avaya, Inc.
111 Sylvan Avenue 233 Mt. Airy Road
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632 Basking Ridge, New Jersey 07920
USA USA
Phone: unlisted
Email: eunsooshim@gmail.com Email: eunsooshim@gmail.com
Dean Willis Dean Willis
Softarmor Systems Softarmor Systems
3100 Independence Pkwy #311-164 3100 Independence Pkwy #311-164
Plano, Texas 75075 Plano, Texas 75075
USA USA
Phone: unlisted Phone: +1 214 504 1987
Email: dean.willis@softarmor.com Email: dean.willis@softarmor.com
Spencer Dawkins Spencer Dawkins
Huawei Technologies (USA) Huawei Technologies (USA)
Phone: +1 214 755 3870 Phone: +1 214 755 3870
Email: spencer@wonderhamster.org Email: spencer@wonderhamster.org
Full Copyright Statement
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