Working Group Draft                                     S. Probasco, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                  G. Bajko                                                  B. Patil
Intended status: Informational                                  B. Patil                                     Nokia
Expires: March 12, May 3, 2012                                            Nokia
                                                                B. Rosen
                                                                 Neustar
                                                       September 9,                                    October 31, 2011

    Protocol to Access White Space database: PS, use cases and rqmts
             draft-ietf-paws-problem-stmt-usecases-rqmts-00
             draft-ietf-paws-problem-stmt-usecases-rqmts-01

Abstract

   Portions of the radio spectrum that are allocated to a licensed,
   primary user but are unused or unoccupied at specific locations and
   times are defined as "white space".  The concept of allowing
   secondary transmissions (licensed or unlicensed) in white space is a
   technique to "unlock" existing spectrum for new use.  An obvious
   requirement is that these secondary transmissions do not interfere
   with the primary use of the spectrum.  One approach to using the
   white space spectrum at a given time and location is to verify with a
   database available channels.

   This document describes the concept of TV White Spaces.  It also
   describes the problems that need to be addressed for enabling the use
   of the primary user owned white space spectrum for secondary users,
   without causing interference, by querying a database which knows the
   channel availability at any given location and time.  A number of
   possible use cases of this spectrum and derived requirements are also
   described.

Status of this Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on March 12, May 3, 2012.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3  4
     1.1.  Introduction to TV white space . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.2.  Scope  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       1.2.1.  In Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       1.2.2.  Out of Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   2.  Conventions and Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5  6
     2.1.  Conventions Used in This Document  . . . . . . . . . . . .  5  7
     2.2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5  7
   3.  Prior Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6  8
     3.1.  The concept of Cognitive Radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6  8
     3.2.  Background information on white space in US  . . . . . . .  6  8
     3.3.  Air Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7  9
   4.  Use cases  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7  9
     4.1.  TVWS database discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7  9
     4.2.  Device registration with trusted Database  . . . . . . . . 10
     4.3.  Hotspot: urban internet connectivity service . . . . . . .  8
     4.3. 11
     4.4.  Wide-Area or Rural internet broadband access . . . . . . . 10
     4.4. 13
     4.5.  Offloading: moving traffic to a white space network  . . . 12
     4.5. 15
     4.6.  TVWS for backhaul  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     4.6.  Location based service usage 17
     4.7.  Rapid deployed network for emergency scenario  . . . . . . 18
     4.8.  Mobility . . . . 15
     4.7.  Rapid deployed network for emergency scenario . . . . . . 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     4.9.  Indoor Networking  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     4.10. Machine to Machine (M2M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
   5.  Problem Statement  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 24
     5.1.  Global applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 25
     5.2.  Database discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 26
     5.3.  Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 27
     5.4.  Data model definition  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 27
   6.  Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 27
   7.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 30
   8.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 30
   9.  Summary and Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 31
   10. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 31
   11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 31
     11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 31
     11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 32
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 33

1.  Introduction

1.1.  Introduction to TV white space

   Wireless spectrum is a commodity that is regulated by governments.
   The spectrum is used for various purposes, which include
   entertainment (e.g. radio and television), communication (telephony
   and Internet access), military (radars etc.) and, navigation
   (satellite communication, GPS).  Portions of the radio spectrum that
   are allocated to a licensed, primary user but are unused or
   unoccupied at specific locations and times are defined as "white
   space".  The concept of allowing secondary transmissions (licensed or
   unlicensed) in white space is a technique to "unlock" existing
   spectrum for new use.  An obvious requirement is that these secondary
   transmissions do not interfere with the primary use of the spectrum.
   One interesting observation is that often, in a given physical
   location, the primary user(s) may not be using the entire band
   allocated to them.  The available spectrum for a secondary use would
   then depend on the location of the secondary user.  The fundamental
   issue is how to determine for a specific location and specific time,
   if any of the primary spectrum is available for secondary use.
   Academia and Industry have studied multiple cognitive radio
   mechanisms for use in such a scenario.  One simple mechanism is to
   use a geospatial database that records the primary users occupation,
   and require the secondary users to check the database prior to
   selecting what part of the spectrum they use.  Such databases could
   be available on the Internet for query by secondary users.

   Spectrum useable for data communications, especially wireless
   Internet communications, is scarce.  One area which has received much
   attention globally is the TV white space: portions of the TV band
   that are not used by broadcasters in a given area.  In 2008 the
   United States regulator (the FCC) took initial steps when they
   published their first ruling on the use of TV white space, and then
   followed it up with a final ruling in 2010 [FCC Ruling].  Finland
   passed an Act in 2009 enabling testing of cognitive radio systems in
   the TV white space.  The ECC has completed Report 159 [ECC Report
   159] containing requirements for operation of cognitive radio systems
   in the TV white space.  Ofcom published in 2004 their Spectrum
   Framework Review [Spectrum Framework Review] and their Digital
   Dividend Review [DDR] in 2005, and have followed up with a proposal
   to access TV white space.  More countries are expected to provide
   access to their TV spectrum in similar ways.  Any entity holding
   spectrum that is not densely used may be asked to give it up in one
   way or another for more intensive use.  Providing a mechanism by
   which secondary users share the spectrum with the primary user is
   attractive in many bands in many countries.

   Television transmission until now has primarily been analog.  The
   switch to digital transmission has begun.  As a result the spectrum
   allocated for television transmission can now be more effectively
   used.  Unused channels and bands between channels can be used as long
   as they do not interfere with the primary service for which that
   channel is allocated.  While urban areas tend to have dense usage of
   spectrum and a number of TV channels, the same is not true in rural
   and semi-urban areas.  There can be a number of unused TV channels in
   such areas that can be used for other services.  The figure below
   shows TV white space within the lower UHF band:

        Avg  |
        usage|                             |-------------- White Space
             |                    |    |   |   |  |
          0.6|                   ||    ||  V   V  ||
             |                   ||   |||    |    ||
          0.4|                   ||   ||||   |    ||
             |                   ||   ||||   |    ||<----TV transmission
          0.2|                   ||   ||||   |    ||
             |----------------------------------------
             400     500       600      700       800
                      Frequency in MHz ->

                Figure 1: High level view of TV White Space

   The fundamental issue is how to determine for a specific location and
   specific time if any of the spectrum is available for secondary use.
   There are two dimensions of use that may be interesting: space (the
   area in which a secondary user would not interfere with a primary
   user, and time: when the secondary use would not interfere with the
   primary use.  In this discussion, we consider the time element to be
   relatively long term (hours in a day) rather than short term
   (fractions of a second).  Location in this discussion is geolocation:
   where the transmitters (and sometimes receivers) are located relative
   to one another.  In operation, the database records the existing
   user's transmitter (and some times receiver) locations along with
   basic transmission characteristics such as antenna height, and
   sometimes power.  Using rules established by the regulator, the
   database calculates an exclusion zone for each authorized primary
   user, and attaches a time schedule to that use.  The secondary user
   queries the database with its location.  The database intersects the
   exclusion zones with the queried location, and returns the portion of
   the spectrum not in any exclusion zone.  Such methods of geospatial
   database query to avoid interference have been shown to achieve
   favorable results, and are thus the basis for rulings by the FCC and
   reports from ECC and Ofcom.  In any country, the rules for which
   primary entities are entitled to protection, how the exclusion zones
   are calculated, and what the limits of use by secondary entities are
   may vary.  However, the fundamental notion of recording primary
   users, calculating exclusion zones, querying by location and
   returning available spectrum (and the schedule for that spectrum) are
   common

   This document includes the problem statement, use cases and
   requirements associated with the use of white space spectrum by
   secondary users via a database query protocol.

2.  Conventions and Terminology

2.1.  Conventions Used in

1.2.  Scope

1.2.1.  In Scope

   This Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", document applies only to communications required for basic
   service in TV white space.  The protocol will enable a white space
   radio device to complete the following tasks:

   1.  Determine the relevant white space database to query.

   2.  Connect to the database using a well-defined access method.

   3.  Register with the database using a well-defined protocol.

   4.  Provide its geolocation and perhaps other data to the database
       using a well-defined format for querying the database.

   5.  Receive in return a list of currently available white space using
       a well-defined format for returning information.

   As a result, some of the scenarios described in the following section
   are out of scope for this specification (although they might be
   addressed by future specifications).

1.2.2.  Out of Scope

   The following topics are out of scope for this specification:

   TBD

2.  Conventions and Terminology
2.1.  Conventions Used in This Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

2.2.  Terminology

   Database

      In the context of white space and cognitive radio technologies,
      the database is an entity which contains current information about
      available spectrum at any given location and other types of
      information.

   Device ID

      A unique number for each master device and slave device that
      identifies the manufacturer, model number and serial number.

   Location Based Service

      An application or device which provides data, information or
      service to a user based on their location.

   Master Device

      A device which queries the WS Database to find out the available
      operating channels.

   Protected Entity

      A primary user of white space spectrum which is afforded
      protection against interference by secondary users (white space
      devices) for its use in a given area and time.

   Protected Contour

      The exclusion area for a Protected Entity, held in the database
      and expressed as a polygon with geospatial points as the vertices.

   Slave Device

      A device which uses the spectrum made available by a master
      device.

   TV White Space

      TV white space refers specifically to radio spectrum which has
      been allocated for TV broadcast, but is not occupied by a TV
      broadcast, or other licensed user (such as a wireless microphone),
      at a specific location and time.

   White Space

      Radio spectrum which has been allocated for some primary use, but
      is not fully occupied by that primary use at a specific location
      and time.

   White Space Device (WSD)

      A device which is a secondary user of some part of white space
      spectrum.  A white space device can be an access point, base
      station, a portable device or similar.  In this context, a white
      space device is required to query a database with its location to
      obtain information about available spectrum.

3.  Prior Work

3.1.  The concept of Cognitive Radio

   A cognitive radio uses knowledge of the local radio environment to
   dynamically adapt its own configuration and function properly in a
   changing radio environment.  Knowledge of the local radio environment
   can come from various technology mechanisms including sensing
   (attempting to ascertain primary users by listening for them within
   the spectrum), location determination and internet connectivity to a
   database to learn the details of the local radio environment.  TV
   White Space is one implementation of cognitive radio.  Because a
   cognitive radio adapts itself to the available spectrum in a manner
   that prevents the creation of harmful interference, the spectrum can
   be shared among different radio users.

3.2.  Background information on white space in US

   Television transmission in the United States has moved to the use of
   digital signals as of June 12, 2009.  Since June 13, 2009, all full-
   power U.S. television stations have broadcast over-the-air signals in
   digital only.  An important benefit of the switch to all-digital
   broadcasting is that it freed up parts of the valuable broadcast
   spectrum.  More information about the switch to digital transmission
   is at : [DTV].

   With the switch to digital transmission for TV, the guard bands that
   existed to protect the signals between stations can now be used for
   other purposes.  The FCC has made this spectrum available for
   unlicensed use and this is generally referred to as white space.
   Please see the details of the FCC ruling and regulations in [FCC
   Ruling].  The spectrum can be used to provide wireless broadband as
   an example.  The term "Super-Wifi" is also used to describe this
   spectrum and potential for providing wifi type of service.

3.3.  Air Interfaces

   Efforts are ongoing to specify air-interfaces for use in white space
   spectrum.  IEEEs 802.11af task group is currently working on one such
   specification.  IEEE 802.22 is another example.  Other air interfaces
   could be specified in the future such as LTE.

4.  Use cases

   There are many potential use cases that could be considered for the
   TV white space spectrum.  Providing broadband internet access in
   hotspots, rural and underserved areas are examples.  Available
   channels may also be used to provide internet 'backhaul' for
   traditional Wi-Fi hotspots, or by towns and cities to monitor/control
   traffic lights or read utility meters.  Still other use cases include
   the ability to offload data traffic from another internet access
   network (e.g. 3G cellular network) or to deliver location based
   services.  Some of these use cases are described in the following
   sections.

4.1.  TVWS database discovery

   This use case is preliminary to creating a radio network using TV
   white space; it is a prerequisite to other use cases.  The radio
   network is created by a master device which can be an access point
   that establishes Hotspot coverage, a base station that establish
   cellular coverage, or a device that establishes a peer-to-peer or ad-
   hoc network. device.  Before the master device can
   transmit in TV white space spectrum, it must contact a trusted
   database where the device can learn if any channels are available for
   it to use.

   In the simplest case the radio device is pre-programmed with the
   internet address of at least one trusted database.  The master device can
   establish contact with will need to discover a trusted
   database in the relvant regulatory domain, using one of the pre-
   programmed following steps:

   1.  The master device is connected to the internet addresses and establish a by any means other
       than using the TV white space network
   (as described in one radio.

   2.  The master device constructs and sends a service request over the
       Internet to discover availability of trusted databases in the following use cases).

   If the radio device (master) does not have a pre-programmed address
   for a trusted white space database, or if the trusted database at the
   pre-programmed address is not responsive, or perhaps the trusted
   database does not provide service for the radio device's current
   location, or at the user's choice, the device may attempt to
   "discover" a trusted database which provides service at the current
   location.

   1.  The master is connected to the internet by any means other than
       using the TV white space radio.

   2.  The master constructs and broadcasts a query message over the
       internet and waits for responses.

   3.
       local domain and waits for responses.

   3.  If no acceptable response is received within a pre-configured
       time limit, the master device concludes that no trusted database
       is available.  If at least one or more response is received, the master
       device evaluates the response response(s) to determine if a trusted
       database can be identified where the master device is able to
       register and receive service from the database.

4.2.  Hotspot: urban internet connectivity service

   In this use case internet connectivity service is provided in a
   "hotspot" to local users.  Typical deployment scenarios include urban
   areas where internet connectivity is provided to local businesses and
   residents, and campus environments where internet connectivity is
   provided to local buildings and relatively small outdoor areas.  This
   deployment scenario

   Optionally the radio device is typically characterized by multiple masters
   (APs or hotspots) in close proximity, with low antenna height, cells pre-programmed with relatively small radius (a few kilometers or less), and limited
   numbers the internet
   address of available radio channels.  Many at least one trusted database.  The device can establish
   contact with a trusted database using one of the masters/APs are
   assumed to be individually deployed pre-programmed
   internet addresses and operated, i.e. there is no
   coordination between many establish a TV white space network (as
   described in one of the masters/APs.  The masters/APs in
   this scenario following use cases).

   Optionally the initial query will be made to a TDD radio technology and transmit at listing approved by
   the national regulator for the domain of operation (e.g. a website
   either hosted by or below under control of the national regulator) which
   maintains a
   relatively low list of TVWS databases and their internet addresses.  The
   query results in the list of databases and their internet addresses
   being sent to the master, which then evaluates the repsonse to
   determine if a trusted database can be identified where the master
   device is able to register and receive service from the database.

4.2.  Device registration with trusted Database

   This use case is preliminary to creating a radio network using TV
   white space; it is a prerequisite to other use cases.  The radio
   network is created by a master device.  Before the master device can
   transmit power threshold.  Each master/AP has in TV white space spectrum, it must contact a
   connection trusted
   database where the device can learn if any channels are available for
   it to use.  Before the internet database will provide information on available
   TV channels, the master device must register with the trusted
   database.  Specific requirements for registration come from
   individual regulatory domains and provides internet connectivity to
   multiple end user or slave devices. may be different.

   The figure below shows an example deployment of this scenario.

    -------
    |Slave|\

                              \|/                            ----------
    |Dev 1| (TDD AirIF)
                               |                             |Database|
    -------            \
                               |                     .---.   /---------
       o                \
                             |-|---------|          (     ) /
       o
     \|/                     |  Master   |         /       \
       o
      |                   /  |           |========( Internet )
       o
      |                  /   |-----------|         \        /
    -------
    +-|----+   (TDD AirIF)                          (      )
    |Slave|
    |Master|  /                                      (----)
    |Dev n|
    -------
    |      | /
    +------+

     Figure 2: Hotspot service using Example illustration of registration requirement in TV
                           white space spectrum

   Once a master/AP has been correctly installed and configured, a use-case

   A simplified power up and operation operational scenario utilizing TV White Space
   to provide Internet connectivity service showing registration consists of
   the following steps:

   1.  The master/AP powers up; however its WS radio master device must register with the most current and all other WS
       capable devices up-to-
       date information.  Typically the master device will power up register
       prior to operating in idle/listen only mode (no active
       transmissions on TV white space for the WS frequency band). first time after
       power up, after changing location by a predetermined distance,
       and after regular time intervals.

   2.  The master/AP has Internet connectivity and establishes a
       connection master device shall provide to a trusted white space database (see use case "TVWS
       database discovery" above).

   3.  The master/AP registers its geolocation, address, contact
       information, etc. associated with the owner/operator database during
       registration a minimum of the
       master/AP with the trusted database administrator (if not
       currently registered).  Depending upon local regulator policy, Device ID, serial number assigned
       by the DB administrator may be required to store manufacturer and forward the
       registration information to the device's location.

   3.  Depending upon regulatory authority.

   4.  Following the registration process, the master/AP will send a
       query to domain requirements, the trusted database requesting a list device may
       also provide device antenna height above ground, name of available WS
       channels based upon its geolocation.

   5.  If the master/AP has been previously authenticated, the database
       responds with a list of available white space channels
       individual or business that owns the
       master may use, and optionally a duration device, name of time a contact
       person responsible for their use.

   6.  Once the master/AP authenticates the WS channel list response
       message from device's operation, address for the database,
       contact person, email address for the AP selects an available WS
       channel(s) from contact person and phone
       number of the list.

   7.  The master/AP acknowledges contact person to the database which of the available
       WS channels it has selected for its operation.  The database during registration.

4.3.  Hotspot: urban internet connectivity service

   In this use case internet connectivity service is
       updated with the information provided by the master/AP.

   8.  The slave or user device scans the TV bands to locate in a master/AP
       transmission, and associates with the AP.  The slave/user device
       queries the master for a channel list, based on the slaves'
       geolocation.

   9.  The master provides the list of channels locally available
   "hotspot" to the
       slave/user device.  If the channel that the user terminal is
       currently using is not included in the list of locally available
       channels, the slave/user device ceases all operation on its
       current channel.  The slave/user device may scan for another AP
       transmission on a different channel.

4.3.  Wide-Area or Rural internet broadband access

   In this use case, internet broadband access is provided as a Wide-
   Area Network (WAN) or Wireless Regional Area Network (WRAN).  A
   typical local users.  Typical deployment scenario is a wide area or rural area, scenarios include urban
   areas where internet broadband access connectivity is provided to local businesses and
   residents from a master (i.e.  BS) connected
   residents, and campus environments where internet connectivity is
   provided to the internet. local buildings and relatively small outdoor areas.  This
   deployment scenario is typically characterized by one multiple masters
   (APs or more fixed
   master(s)/BS(s), hotspots) in close proximity, with low antenna height, cells
   with relatively large small radius (tens of
   kilometers, up to 100 km), (a few kilometers or less), and a number limited
   numbers of available radio channels.
   Some  Many of the masters/BSs may masters/APs are
   assumed to be individually deployed and operated by a single
   entity, operated, i.e. there can be centralized is no
   coordination between these
   masters/BSs, whereas other masters/BSs may be deployed and operated
   by operators competing for the radio channels in a license-exempt
   TVWS environment where decentralized coordination using many of the air-
   interface would be required. masters/APs.  The BS masters/APs in
   this scenario use a TDD radio technology and transmit at or below a
   relatively low transmit power limit
   established by the local regulator. threshold.  Each base station master/AP has a
   connection to the internet and provides internet connectivity to
   multiple slave/end-user devices.  End user terminals or devices may
   be fixed master and or portable. slave devices.

   The figure below shows an example deployment of this scenario.

      -------
      |Slave|\

    --------
    |Device|\                 \|/                            ----------
      |Dev 1|
    |  1   | (TDD AirIF)       |                             |Database|
      -------
    --------           \       |                     .---.   /----------   /---------
       o                \    |-|---------|          (     ) /
       o                     |  Master   |         /       \
       o                 /   |   (BS)           |========( Internet )
       o                /    |-----------|         \        /
      -------
    -------- (TDD AirIF)                            (      )
      |Slave|
    |Device| /                                       (----)
      |Dev n|
      -------
    |  n   |
    --------

          Figure 3: Rural internet broadband access Hotspot service using TV white space spectrum

   Once the master/BS a master/AP has been professionally correctly installed and configured, a
   simplified power up and operation scenario utilizing TV White Space
   to provide rural internet broadband access Internet connectivity service consists of the following
   steps:

   1.  The master/BS master/AP powers up; however its WS radio and all other WS
       capable devices will power up in idle/listen only mode (No (no active
       transmissions on the WS frequency band) band).

   2.  The master/BS master/AP has internet Internet connectivity and establishes a
       connection to a trusted white space database (see use case "TVWS
       database discovery" above). Section 4.1).

   3.  The master/BS master/AP registers its geolocation, address, contact
       information, etc. associated with the owner/operator of the
       master/BS with the trusted database service (if not currently
       registered).  Meanwhile the DB administrator may be required to
       store and forward the registration information to the regulatory
       authority.  If a trusted white space database administrator is
       not discovered, further operation of the WRAN may be allowed according to local regulator policy (in this case operation of
       the WRAN is outside the scope of the PAWS protocol).
       regulatory domain requirements (see Section 4.2).

   4.  Following the registration process, the master/BS master/AP will send a
       query to the trusted database requesting a list of available WS
       channels based upon its geolocation.

   5.  If the master/BS master/AP has met all regulatory domain requirements (e.g.
       been previously authenticated, etc), the database responds with a
       list of available white space channels that the master may
       be used use,
       and optionally a maximum transmit power (EIRP) for each
       channel and a duration of time the channel may be used. for their use.

   6.  Once the master/BS authenticates master/AP has met all regulatory domain requirements
       (e.g. authenticated the WS channel list response message from the
       database, etc), the master/BS AP selects an available WS channel(s) from
       the list.  The operator may disallow some
       channels from the list to suit local needs if required.

   7.  The master/BS acknowledges to the database which of the available
       WS channels the BS has selected for its operation.  The database
       is updated with the information provided by the BS.

   8.  The slave or user device scans the TV bands to locate a WRAN master/AP
       transmission, and associates with the master/BS. AP.  The slave/user device provides its geolocation to the BS which, in turn,
       queries the database master for a list of channels available at channel list, providing to the master
       the slaves' Device ID and geolocation.

   9.

   8.  Once this list of available channels is received from the
       database by master/AP has met all regulatory domain requirements
       (e.g. validating the master, Device ID with the latter will decide, based on trusted database, etc)
       the master provides the list of available channels for all its other associated slaves whether
       it should continue operation on its current channel or change
       channel to accommodate the new slave in case this channel is not locally available at its location.  The master will notify all its
       associated slaves/user devices of the new channel to move to if
       operation needs to change channel. the
       slave/user device.  If the channel that the user terminal is
       currently using is not included in the list of locally available
       channels, the master will drop its association
       with the slave/user device so that it ceases all operation on its
       current channel and indicate the new operating channel before
       dropping the link if a change has been decided. channel.  The slave/user device may move to the indicated new channel if so indicated or scan for another WRAN AP
       transmission on a different channel.

4.4.  Offloading: moving traffic to a white space network  Wide-Area or Rural internet broadband access

   In this use case case, internet connectivity service broadband access is provided over TV
   white space as a supplemental or alternative datapath to a 3G Wide-
   Area Network (WAN) or
   other internet connection.  In a Wireless Regional Area Network (WRAN).  A
   typical deployment scenario an end
   user has a primary internet connection such as a 3G cellular packet
   data subscription.  The user wants to use is a widget wide area or application rural area, where
   internet broadband access is provided to
   stream video local businesses and
   residents from an online service (e.g. youtube) a master (i.e.  BS) connected to their device.
   Before the widget starts the streaming connection it checks
   connectivity options available at the current time and location.
   Both 3G cellular data is available as well as TVWS connectivity (the
   user is within coverage of a TVWS master -- hotspot, WAN, WRAN or
   similar).  The user may decide for many and various reasons such as
   cost, RF coverage, data caps, etc. to prefer the TVWS connection over
   the 3G cellular data connection.  Either by user selection,
   preconfigured preferences, or other algorithm, the streaming session
   is started over the TVWS internet connection instead of the 3G
   cellular connection.  This deployment scenario internet.  This
   deployment scenario is typically characterized by one or more fixed
   master(s)/BS(s), cells with relatively large radius (tens of
   kilometers, up to 100 km), and a TVWS master/AP providing local coverage in number of available radio channels.
   Some of the
   same geographical area as a 3G cellular system.  The master/AP is
   assumed to masters/BSs may be individually deployed and operated, operated by a single
   entity, i.e. the master/AP
   is there can be centralized coordination between these
   masters/BSs, whereas other masters/BSs may be deployed and operated
   by operators competing for the user radio channels in a license-exempt
   TVWS environment where decentralized coordination using the air-
   interface would be required.  The BS in this scenario use a TDD radio
   technology and transmit at his home or perhaps by a
   small business such as below a coffee shop.  The master/AP transmit power limit
   established by the local regulator.  Each base station has a
   connection to the internet and provides internet connectivity to the slave/
   end-user's device.
   multiple slave/end-user devices.  End user terminals or devices may
   be fixed or portable.

   The figure below shows an example deployment of this scenario.

      -------
      |Slave|\                \|/                             ----------
      |Dev 1| (TDD AirIF)      |                              |Database|
      -------          \       |                     .---.   /----------
         o              \    |-|---------|          (     ) /
         o                   | Master/AP |\
                            /| Router   Master  | \
                  Streaming/ |-----------|  \
       --------         /       \               -----------
       |Slave/|
         o               /                             \      (----)  | Database   |
       |WS Dev|                                \    (      ) /----------
        ------- \                               \  /        \
                 \                               X(   (BS)    |========( Internet )
                  \
         o              /    |-----------|         \        /
                   Signaling  \|/              /
      -------  (TDD AirIF)                          (      )\
                          \    |      )
      |Slave| /                                      (----)  \----------
                           \   |             /                | YouTube |
                            \|-|---------|  /                 ----------
                             | Master /  | /
                             | 3G BTS    |/
                             |-----------|
      |Dev n|
      -------

      Figure 4: Offloading: moving traffic to a Rural internet broadband access using TV white space network
                                 spectrum

   Once a dual or multi mode device (3G + TVWS) is connected to a 3G
   network, the master/BS has been professionally installed and configured,
   a simplified power up and operation scenario of offloading selected
   content such as video stream from the 3G connection utilizing TV White Space
   to the TWVS
   connection provide rural internet broadband access consists of the following
   steps:

   1.  The dual master/BS powers up; however its WS radio and all other WS
       capable devices will power up in idle/listen only mode (or multi mode) device (3G + TVWS) is connected to
       a 3G network. (No active
       transmissions on the WS frequency band)

   2.  The device master/BS has contacted internet connectivity and establishes a
       connection to a trusted white space database to
       discover the list of available TV channels at its current
       location. (see use case "TVWS
       database discovery" above).

   3.  The device has located a TVWS master/AP operating on
       an available channel and has master/BS registers its geolocation, address, contact
       information, etc. associated or connected with the
       TVWS master/AP.

   2.  The user activates a widget or application that streams video
       from YouTube.  The widget connects to YouTube over 3G cellular
       data.  The user browses content and searches for video
       selections.

   3.  The user selects a video for streaming using owner/operator of the widget's
       controls.  Before
       master/BS with the widget initiates a streaming session, trusted database service (if not currently
       registered, see Section 4.2).  Meanwhile the
       widget checks DB administrator may
       be required to store and forward the available connections in registration information to
       the dual mode device
       and finds regulatory authority.  If a TVWS master/AP trusted white space database
       administrator is connected.

   4.  Using either input from the user or pre-defined profile
       preferences, the widget selects the TVWS master/AP as not discovered, further operation of the
       connection WRAN
       may be allowed according to stream the video.

4.5.  TVWS for backhaul

   In local regulator policy (in this use case internet connectivity service is provided to users
   over a traditional wireless protocol, one common example
       operation of the WRAN is Wi-Fi.
   The TV white space network provides outside the "backhaul" or connection from scope of the Wi-Fi PAWS protocol).

   4.  Following the registration process, the master/BS will send a
       query to the internet.  In trusted database requesting a typical deployment scenario an end
   user list of available WS
       channels based upon its geolocation.

   5.  If the master/BS has a device been previously authenticated, the database
       responds with a radio such as Wi-Fi.  A service provider or
   shop owner wants to provide Wi-Fi internet service for their
   customers.  The location where the service provider wants to provide
   Wi-Fi is within range list of a TVWS master (e.g.  Hotspot or Wide-Area/
   Rural network).  The service provider installs a TVWS slave device available white space channels that may
       be used and connects this slave to optionally a Wi-Fi access point.  This deployment
   scenario is typically characterized by maximum transmit power (EIRP) for each
       channel and a TVWS master/AP/BS providing
   local coverage. duration of time the channel may be used.

   6.  Once the master/BS authenticates the WS channel list response
       message from the database, the master/BS selects an available WS
       channel(s) from the list.  The master/AP has a connection to operator may disallow some
       channels from the internet and
   provides internet connectivity list to the slave device. suit local needs if required.

   7.  The slave or user device
   is then 'bridged' to a Wi-Fi network

   The figure below shows an example deployment of this scenario.

                        \|/     white    \|/    \|/   WiFi  \|/
                         |      space     |      |           |
                         |                |      |         |-|----|
       |--------|      |-|---------|    |-|------|-|       | WiFi |
       |        |      | Master    |    |  Slave   |       | Dev  |
       |internet|------| (AP/BS)   |    |  Bridge  |       |------|
       |        |      |           |    | to WiFi  |
       |--------|      |-----------|    |----------|        \|/
                                                             |
                                                           |-|----|
                                                           | WiFi |
                                                           | Dev  |
                                                           |------|

                        Figure 5: TVWS for backhaul

   Once scans the bridged device (TVWS+WiFi) is connected TV bands to locate a master WRAN
       transmission, and TVWS
   network, a simplified operation scenario of backhaul for WiFi
   consists of associates with the following steps:

   1.  A bridged master/BS.  The slave/user
       device (TVWS+WiFi) is connected provides its geolocation to a master device
       operating the BS which, in turn, queries
       the TVWS.  The bridged device operates as database for a slave
       device in either Hotspot or Wide-Area/Rural internet use cases
       described above.

   2.  Once list of channels available at the slave device slaves'
       geolocation.

   8.  Once this list of available channels is connected to received from the
       database by the master, the Wi-Fi
       access point configures its internet settings automatically latter will decide, based on the backhaul connection (i.e. it uses DHCP).

   3.  End users connect their WiFi device to the bridged device and
       receive internet connectivity.

4.6.  Location based service usage scenario

   The owner list
       of a shopping mall wants to provide internet access available channels for all its other associated slaves whether
       it should continue operation on its current channel or change
       channel to
   customers when they are at accommodate the shopping mall.  His internet service
   provider (ISP) recommends using master/AP devices new slave in the TV white
   space frequency band since these radios will have good propagation
   characteristics, and thus will require fewer devices, and also
   because the frequency band used by traditional Wi-Fi case this channel is crowded with
   users such as individual stores operating their own Wi-Fi network and
   also Bluetooth devices. not
       available at its location.  The ISP installs APs in each large store in
   the mall, and several other APs throughout the mall building.  For
   each AP, the professional installer programs the location (latitude
   and longitude) master will notify all its
       associated slaves/user devices of the device.  Special tools are required new channel to
   determine move to if
       operation needs to change channel.  If the location, since typical GPS receivers do not function
   indoors.  When each AP is powered on, channel that the radio does not transmit
   initially.  The AP contacts a white space database, user
       terminal is currently using its wired
   internet connection, and provides its programmed location coordinates
   plus other information required by the database.  A reply is received
   by the AP from not included in the database containing a list of
       locally available channels
   where channels, the AP can operate master will drop its transmitter.  The AP selects a channel
   for association
       with the slave/user device so that it ceases all operation on its
       current channel and notifies the database, which records information
   about the AP including indicate the identity of new operating channel before
       dropping the AP and its location
   coordinates. link if a change has been decided.  The AP activates its radio and begins slave/user
       device may move to function as the indicated new channel if so indicated or
       scan for another WRAN transmission on a
   typical wireless AP, providing internet access different channel.

4.5.  Offloading: moving traffic to connected devices.

   A user has a slave device that white space network

   In this use case internet connectivity service is capable of operating in the provided over TV
   white spaces frequency band.  A space as a supplemental or alternative datapath to a 3G or
   other internet connection.  In a typical device would be deployment scenario an end
   user has a smartphone
   with multiple radios, including primary internet connection such as a 3G cellular radio, a Wi-Fi radio, and
   TV white space radio. packet
   data subscription.  The user arrives at wants to use a widget or application to
   stream video from an online service (e.g. youtube) to their device.
   Before the shopping mall and
   enters widget starts the building.  The white space radio in streaming connection it checks
   connectivity options available at the smartphone is on, current time and location.
   Both 3G cellular data is scanning for available as well as TVWS connectivity (the
   user is within coverage of a master/AP.  As the TVWS master -- hotspot, WAN, WRAN or
   similar).  The user gets near the entrance may decide for many and various reasons such as
   cost, RF coverage, data caps, etc. to prefer the shopping mall, TVWS connection over
   the smartphone locates one of 3G cellular data connection.  Either by user selection,
   preconfigured preferences, or other algorithm, the APs in streaming session
   is started over the
   building and connects to it.  The smartphone begins to use this TVWS
   radio for internet access.  This internet access does not count
   against connection instead of the users 3G
   cellular data cap (the mall owner connection.  This deployment scenario is typically
   characterized by a TVWS master/AP providing local coverage in the
   internet access) and also the data rates are better than
   same geographical area as a 3G cellular
   data.  As the user walks throughout the mall the smartphone moves
   between coverage of different APs, and the smartphone connects system.  The master/AP is
   assumed to a
   new AP when the user be individually deployed and smartphone move near it.

   In order to encourage customers to come to the shopping mall, operated, i.e. the
   mall owner has a loyalty program where members register, build
   points, and receive coupons master/AP
   is deployed and other notices from the shops in the
   mall.  Before installing the internet service in the mall, all
   loyalty program information was mailed to the user, at an address
   which was provided operated by the user when joining the loyalty program.

   The ISP provider describes to the mall owner how the loyalty program
   can be improved using the internet service provided at his home or perhaps by the APs in the
   TV white space.  A new app is developed for this loyalty program, and
   promoted to users, asking them to install the app on their
   smartphone. a
   small business such as a coffee shop.  The app is provisioned with the user's loyalty program
   information.  When the user comes to the shopping mall, the
   smartphone locates the master/AP providing internet service and
   connects to the AP.  The app in the smartphone sees that has a radio connection
   to an AP in the TV white space frequency band is now
   active.  The app registers the identity of the AP internet and forwards this
   to the home server for the loyalty program, using the provides internet
   connection provided by the AP in connectivity to the TV white space band. slave/
   end-user's device.

   The
   loyalty program server registers the identity of the user from the
   loyalty program credentials and also the identity of the AP.  Next
   the loyalty program server contacts the TV white space database and
   requests the location of the master/AP having the identity forwarded
   by the app and smartphone.  When the TV white space database replies
   with the location coordinates of the AP, the loyalty program server
   knows the approximate location figure below shows an example deployment of the user and smartphone.  With this
   location information, the loyalty program server can now forward
   loyalty program information to the user.  As the user moves through
   the mall, the smartphone connects scenario.

                              \|/
                               |
                               |
                             |-|---------|
                             | Master/AP |\
                            /| Router    | \
                  Streaming/ |-----------|  \
       --------  /                           \               -----------
       |Slave/| /                             \      (----)  | Database |
       |WS Dev|                                \    (      ) /----------
        ------- \                               \  /        \
                 \                               X( Internet )
                  \                             /  \        /
                   Signaling  \|/              /    (      )\
                          \    |              /      (----)  \----------
                           \   |             /                | YouTube |
                            \|-|---------|  /                 ----------
                             |           | /
                             | 3G BTS    |/
                             |-----------|

       Figure 5: Offloading: moving traffic to different APs.  The process a white space network

   Once a dual or multi mode device (3G + TVWS) is
   repeated, allowing the loyalty program to delivery current location
   based information connected to the user.

   1.  The master create a TVWS network 3G
   network, a simplified operation scenario of offloading selected
   content such as described in use case
       "Hotspot: urban internet connectivity service."

   2.  An application running on video stream from the user's slave device (e.g.
       smartphone) determines that a network 3G connection exists in to the
       TVWS band.  The identify TWVS
   connection consists of the master/AP following steps:

   1.  The dual mode (or multi mode) device (3G + TVWS) is recorded by the
       application and forwarded connected to
       a server in the internet cloud.

   3.  The server queries the trusted white space database with the
       master identity provided by the application in the user's
       smartphone.

   4. 3G network.  The device has contacted a trusted white space database replies to
       discover the server with the
       location list of the master device.

   5. available TV channels at its current
       location.  The server uses the location of the device has located a TVWS master/AP to determine the
       approximate location of operating on
       an available channel and has associated or connected with the user's smartphone.  The server
       provides location-specific service
       TVWS master/AP.

   2.  The user activates a widget or application that streams video
       from YouTube.  The widget connects to the YouTube over 3G cellular
       data.  The user via browses content and searches for video
       selections.

   3.  The user selects a video for streaming using the
       application running widget's
       controls.  Before the widget initiates a streaming session, the
       widget checks the available connections in the smartphone.

4.7.  Rapid deployed dual mode device
       and finds a TVWS master/AP is connected.

   4.  Using either input from the user or pre-defined profile
       preferences, the widget selects the TVWS master/AP as the
       connection to stream the video.

4.6.  TVWS for backhaul

   In this use case internet connectivity service is provided to users
   over a traditional wireless protocol, one common example is Wi-Fi.
   The TV white space network provides the "backhaul" or connection from
   the Wi-Fi to the internet.  In a typical deployment scenario an end
   user has a device with a radio such as Wi-Fi.  A service provider or
   shop owner wants to provide Wi-Fi internet service for emergency their
   customers.  The location where the service provider wants to provide
   Wi-Fi is within range of a TVWS master (e.g.  Hotspot or Wide-Area/
   Rural network).  The service provider installs a TVWS slave device
   and connects this slave to a Wi-Fi access point.  This deployment
   scenario

   Organizations involved in handling emergency operations often have is typically characterized by a
   fully owned TVWS master/AP/BS providing
   local coverage.  The master/AP has a connection to the internet and controlled infrastructure,
   provides internet connectivity to the slave device.  The slave device
   is then 'bridged' to a Wi-Fi network

   The figure below shows an example deployment of this scenario.

                        \|/     white    \|/    \|/   WiFi  \|/
                         |      space     |      |           |
                         |                |      |         |-|----|
       |--------|      |-|---------|    |-|------|-|       | WiFi |
       |        |      | Master    |    |  Slave   |       | Dev  |
       |internet|------| (AP/BS)   |    |  Bridge  |       |------|
       |        |      |           |    | to WiFi  |
       |--------|      |-----------|    |----------|        \|/
                                                             |
                                                           |-|----|
                                                           | WiFi |
                                                           | Dev  |
                                                           |------|

                        Figure 6: TVWS for backhaul

   Once the bridged device (TVWS+WiFi) is connected to a master and TVWS
   network, a simplified operation scenario of backhaul for WiFi
   consists of the following steps:

   1.  A bridged device (TVWS+WiFi) is connected to a master device
       operating in the TVWS.  The bridged device operates as a slave
       device in either Hotspot or Wide-Area/Rural internet use cases
       described above.

   2.  Once the slave device is connected to the master, the Wi-Fi
       access point configures its internet settings automatically based
       on the backhaul connection (i.e. it uses DHCP).

   3.  End users connect their WiFi device to the bridged device and
       receive internet connectivity.

4.7.  Rapid deployed network for emergency scenario

   Organizations involved in handling emergency operations often have a
   fully owned and controlled infrastructure, with dedicated spectrum,
   for day to day operation.  However, lessons learned from recent
   disasters show such infrastructures are often highly affected by the
   disaster itself.  To set up a replacement quickly, there is a need
   for fast reallocation of spectrum, where in certain cases spectrum
   can be freed for disaster relief.  To utilize free or freed spectrum
   quickly and reliable, automation of allocation, assignment and
   configuration is needed.  A preferred option is make use of a robust
   protocol, already adopted by radio manufacturers.  This approach does
   in no way imply such organizations for disaster relief must compete
   on spectrum allocation with other white spaces users, but they can.
   A typical network topology would include wireless access links to the
   public Internet or private network, wireless ad hoc network radios
   working independent of a fixed infrastructure and satellite links for
   backup where lack of coverage, overload or outage of wireless access
   links occur.

   The figure below shows an example deployment of this scenario.

                              \|/
                               | ad hoc
                               |
                             |-|-------------|
                             | Master node   |       |------------|
     \|/                     | with          |       | Whitespace |
      | ad hoc              /| backhaul link |       | Database   |
      |             /------/ |---------------|       |------------|
   ---|------------/                |      \           /
   | Master node   |                |       |      (--/--)
   | without       |                |       ------(       )
   | backhaul link |                |  Wireless  / Private \
   ----------------\                |    Access (   net or  )
                    \                |            \ Internet )
                     \    \|/        |      -------(        /\
                      \    | ad hoc  |      |       (------)  \---------
                       \   |         |      /                 | Other  |
                        \--|-------------  /Satellite         | nodes  |
                        | Master node   | / Link              ----------
                        | with          |/
                        | backhaul link |
                        -----------------

       Figure 7: Rapid deployed network with partly connected nodes

   In the ad hoc network, all nodes are master nodes in a way that they
   allocate RF channels from the white space database.  However, the
   backhaul link may not be available to all nodes, such as depicted for
   the left node in the figure.  To handle RF channel allocation for
   such nodes, a master node with a backhaul link relays or proxies the
   database query for them.  So master nodes without a backhaul link
   follow the procedure as defined for clients.  The ad hoc network
   radios utilise the provided RF channels.  Details on forming and
   maintenance of the ad hoc network, including repair of segmented
   networks caused by segments operating on different RF channels, is
   out of scope of spectrum allocation.

4.8.  Mobility

   In this use case, the user has a non-fixed (portable or mobile)
   device and is riding in a vehicle.  The user wants to have
   connectivity to another device which is also moving.  Typical
   deployment scenarios include urban areas and rural areas where the
   user may connect to other users in peer-to-peer or ad-hoc networks.
   This deployment scenario is typically characterized by a master
   device with low antenna height, internet connectivity by some
   connection that does not utilize TV white space, and some means to
   predict its path of mobility.  This knowledge of mobility could be
   simple (GPS plus accelerometer), sophisticated (GPS plus routing and
   mapping function) or completely specified by the user via user-
   interface.

   The figure below shows an example deployment of this scenario.

                  \|/                            \|/
                   |       TDD Air Interface      |
                   |                              |
                 +-|---------+                  +-|---------+
                 |   TVWS    |                  |   TVWS    |
                 |Master Dev |                  |Master Dev |
                 +-----------+                  +-----------+
                              \     (----)     /
                               \   (      )   /
                                \ /        \ /
                                 ( Internet )
                                  \        /
                                   (      )\----------+
                                    (----) | Database |
                                           +----------+

   Figure 8: Example illustration of mobility in TV white space use-case

   A simplified operational scenario utilizing TV whitespace to provide
   peer-to-peer connectivity service in a mobility environment consists
   of the following steps:

   1.  The mobile master device powers up with its WS radio in idle or
       listen mode only (no active transmission on the WS frequency
       band).

   2.  The mobile master has internet connectivity and establishes a
       connection to a trusted white space database (see Section 4.1).

   3.  The mobile master registers with the trusted database according
       to regulatory domain requirements (see Section 4.2).

   4.  Following the registration process, the mobile master will send a
       query to the trusted database requesting a list of available WS
       channels based upon its current location and a prediction of its
       future location, extrapolated from the motion or mobility of the
       device.  The current location is specified in latitude and
       longitude.  The method to specify the future location is TBD,
       potential methods include movement vector (direction and
       velocity), a set of latitude/longitude points which specify a
       closed polygon where the future location is within the polygon,
       or similar.

   5.  If the mobile master has met all regulatory domain requirements
       (e.g. been previously authenticated, etc), the database responds
       with a list of available white space channels that the mobile
       master may use, and optional information which may include (1) a
       duration of time for the use of each channel (2) a maximum
       transmit power for each channel.

   6.  Once the mobile master has met all regulatory domain requirements
       (e.g. authenticated the WS channel list response message from the
       database, etc), the master selects an available WS channel(s)
       from the list for use.

   7.  The other user device in the peer-to-peer connection scans the TV
       bands to locate a mobile master transmission, and associates with
       the mobile master.  The slave/user device queries the master for
       a channel list, based on the slave's device identification,
       geolocation and optionally a prediction of its future location.

   8.  If required by local regulation, the master device verifies the
       slave's device identification with the database.

   9.  If allowed by local regulation (e.g. the slave's device
       identification is verified by the database), the mobile master
       provides the list of channels locally available to the slave/user
       device.  If the channel that the slave/user terminal is currently
       using is not included in the list of locally available channels,
       the slave/user device ceases all operation on its current
       channel.  The slave/user device may scan for another Master's
       transmission on a different channel.

4.9.  Indoor Networking

   In this use case, the users are inside a house or office.  The users
   want to have connectivity to the internet or to equipment in the same
   or other houses / offices.  This deployment scenario is typically
   characterized by master devices within buildings, that are connected
   to the Internet using a method that does not utilise TV whitespace.
   The master devices can establish TV whitespace links between
   themselves, or between themselves and one or more user devices.

   The figure below shows an example deployment of this scenario.

                             \|/
                              |
      +-------+               |
      |TVWS   |\            +-|---------+
      |Usr Dev|  WS AirIF \ |   TVWS    |\
      +-------+            X|Master Dev | \
                          / +-----------+  \
      +-------+  WS AirIF          |        \               +----------+
      |TVWS   |/                   |         \      (----)  | Database |
      |Usr Dev|                    |          \    (      ) /----------+
      +-------+                WS AirIF        \  /        \
                                   |            X( Internet )
                                   |           /  \        /
      +-------+              \|/   |          /    (      )
      |TVWS   |\              |    |         /      (----)
      |Usr Dev|  WS AirIF     |    |        /
      +-------+          \  +-|---------+  /
                          \ |   TVWS    | /
                            |Master Dev |/
                            +-----------+

     Figure 9: Example illustration of indoor TV white space use-case

   A simplified operational scenario utilizing TV whitespace to provide
   indoor networking consists of the following steps:

   1.  The master device powers up with its whitespace radio in idle or
       listen mode only (no active transmission on the whitespace
       frequency band).

   2.  The master device has internet connectivity and establishes a
       connection to a trusted white space database (see Section 3.1
       above).

   3.  The master device sends its geolocation and location uncertainty
       information, and optionally additional information which may
       include (1) device ID and (2) antenna characteristics, to a
       trusted database, requesting a list of available whitespace
       channels based upon this information.

   4.  The database responds with a list of available white space
       channels that the master device may use, and optional information
       which may include inter alia (1) a duration of time for the use
       of each channel (channel validity time) (2) a maximum radiated
       power for each channel, (3) an indication of the quality of the
       spectrum for each channel and (4) directivity and other antenna
       information.

   5.  Once the master device authenticates the whitespace channel list
       response message from the database, the master device selects one
       or more available whitespace channels from the list.

   6.  The user device(s) scan(s) the TV white space bands to locate the
       master device transmissions, and associates with the master.

4.10.  Machine to Machine (M2M)

   In this use case, each "machine" includes a white space slave device
   and can be located anywhere, fixed or on the move.  Each machine
   needs to have connectivity to the internet and or to other machines
   in the vicinity.  Machine communication over a TVWS channel, whether
   to a master device or to another machine (slave device), is under the
   control of a master device.  This deployment scenario is typically
   characterized by a master device with internet connectivity by some
   connection that does not utilize TV white space.

   The figure below shows an example deployment of this scenario.

                             \|/
                              |
                              |
                            +-|---------+
                            |   TVWS    |\
                           /|Master Dev | \
                          / +-----------+  \
                 WS AirIF                   \               +----------+
      +-------+ /                            \      (----)  | Database |
      |Machine|                               \    (      ) /----------+
      +-------+                                \  /        \
          |                                     X( Internet )
       WS AirIF                                   \        /
          |                                        (      )
      +-------+                                     (----)
      |Machine|
      +-------+ \           +-------+
                 WS AirIF-- |Machine|
                            +-------+

      Figure 10: Example illustration of M2M TV white space use-case

   A simplified operational scenario utilizing TV whitespace to provide
   machine to machine connectivity consists of the following steps:

   1.  The master device powers up with its whitespace radio in idle or
       listen mode only (no active transmission on the whitespace
       frequency band).

   2.  The master device has internet connectivity and establishes a
       connection to a trusted white space database (see Section 3.1
       above).

   3.  The master device sends its geolocation and location uncertainty
       information, and optionally additional information which may
       include (1) device ID and (2) antenna characteristics, to a
       trusted database, requesting a list of available whitespace
       channels based upon this information.

   4.  The database responds with a list of available white space
       channels that the master device may use, and optional information
       which may include inter alia (1) a duration of time for the use
       of each channel (channel validity time) (2) a maximum radiated
       power for each channel, (3) an indication of the quality of the
       spectrum for each channel and (4) directivity and other antenna
       information.

   5.  Once the master device authenticates the whitespace channel list
       response message from the database, the master device selects one
       or more available whitespace channels from the list.

   6.  The slave devices fitted to the machines scan the TV bands to
       locate the master transmissions, and associate with the master
       device.  Further signaling can take place outside scope of PAWS
       to establish direct links among those slave devices that have
       associated with dedicated spectrum,
   for day to day operation.  However, lessons learned from recent
   disasters show such infrastructures are often highly affected by the
   disaster itself.  To set up a replacement quickly, there is a need
   for fast reallocation master device.

5.  Problem Statement

   The use of spectrum, where in certain cases spectrum
   can be freed for disaster relief.  To utilize free or freed white space spectrum
   quickly and reliable, automation of allocation, assignment and
   configuration is needed.  A preferred option is make use enabled via the capability of a robust
   protocol, already adopted by radio manufacturers.  This approach does
   in no way imply such organizations for disaster relief must compete
   on spectrum allocation with other white spaces users, but they can.
   A typical network topology would include wireless access links
   device to query a database and obtain information about the
   public Internet or private network, wireless ad hoc network radios
   working independent
   availability of spectrum for use at a fixed infrastructure given location.  The databases
   are reachable via the Internet and satellite links for
   backup where lack the devices querying these
   databases are expected to have some form of coverage, overload Internet connectivity,
   directly or outage of wireless access
   links occur. indirectly.  The figure below shows an databases may be country specific since
   the available spectrum and regulations may vary, but the fundamental
   operation of the protocol should be country independent.

   An example deployment high-level architecture of this scenario.

                              \|/
                               | ad hoc
                               |
                             |-|-------------|
                             | Master node   |       |------------|
     \|/                     | with          |       | Whitespace |
      | ad hoc              /| backhaul link |       | Database   |
      |             /------/ |---------------|       |------------|
   ---|------------/ the devices and white space
   databases is shown in the figure below:

           -----------
           |WS Device|                              ------------
           |Lat: X   |\           .---.    /--------|Database X|
           |Long: Y  | \           /
   | Master node   |                |       |      (--/--)
   | without       |                |       ------(         (     )
   | backhaul link |                |  Wireless  / Private \
   ----------------\                |    Access         ------------
           -----------  \-------/       \/               o
                              (   net or  )
                    \                |            \ Internet )
                     \    \|/        |      -------(        /\
                      \    | ad hoc  |      |       (------)  \---------
                       \   |         |      /                 | Other  |
                        \--|-------------  /Satellite         | nodes  |
                        | Master node   |               o
           -----------  /------(        )\               o
           |WS Device| / Link              ----------
                        | with         (_____)  \         ------------
           |Lat: X   |/                    \--------|Database Y|
           |Long: Y  | backhaul link |
                        -----------------                              ------------
           -----------

    Figure 6: Rapid deployed network with partly connected nodes 11: High level view of the White space database architecture

   In the ad hoc network, all nodes are master nodes in a way figure above, note that they
   allocate RF channels from the there could be multiple databases
   serving white space database.  However, devices.  The databases are country specific
   since the
   backhaul link may not be regulations and available to all nodes, such as depicted spectrum may vary.  In some
   countries, for example, the left node in U.S., the figure.  To handle RF channel allocation for
   such nodes, a master node with a backhaul link relays or proxies regulator has determined that
   multiple, competing databases may provide service to White Space
   Devices.

   A messaging interface between the white space devices and the
   database query is required for them.  So master nodes without operating a backhaul link
   follow the procedure as defined for clients.  The ad hoc network
   radios utilise network using the provided RF channels.  Details on forming and
   maintenance white space
   spectrum.  The following sections discuss various aspects of such an
   interface and the ad hoc network, including repair need for a standard.  Other aspects of segmented
   networks caused by segments operating on different RF channels, is a solution
   including provisioning the database, and calculating protected
   contours are considered out of scope of the initial effort, as there
   are significant differences between countries and spectrum allocation.

5.  Problem Statement bands.

5.1.  Global applicability

   The use of TV white space spectrum is enabled via currently approved by the capability FCC
   in the United States.  However regulatory bodies in other countries
   are also considering similar use of available spectrum.  The
   principles of cognitive radio usage for such spectrum is generally
   the same.  Some of the regulatory details may vary on a
   device country
   specific basis.  However the need for devices that intend to query use the
   spectrum to communicate with a database and obtain information about remains a common feature.
   The database provides a known, specifiable Protection Contour for the
   availability
   primary user, not dependent on the characteristics of spectrum for use at the White Space
   Device or it's ability to sense the primary use.  It also provides a given location.  The databases
   are reachable via
   way to specify a schedule of use, because some primary users (for
   example, wireless microphones) only operate in limited time slots.

   Devices need to be able to query a database, directly or indirectly
   over the public Internet and the devices querying these
   databases and/or private IP networks prior to
   operating in available spectrum.  Information about available
   spectrum, schedule, power, etc. are expected provided by the database as a
   response to have some form of Internet connectivity,
   directly or indirectly. the query from a device.  The databases may be country specific since messaging interface needs
   to be:

   1.  Radio/air interface agnostic - The radio/air interface technology
       used by the white space device in available spectrum and regulations may vary, but can be
       802.11af, 802.16, 802.22, LTE etc.  However the fundamental
   operation of messaging
       interface between the protocol white space device and the database should
       be country independent.

   An example high-level architecture agnostic to the air interface while being cognizant of the devices
       characteristics of various air-interface technologies and white space
   databases is shown in the figure below:

           -----------
           |WS Device|                              ------------
           |Lat: X   |\           .---.    /--------|Database X|
           |Long: Y  | \         (     )  /         ------------
           -----------  \-------/       \/               o
                              ( Internet )               o
           -----------  /------(        )\               o
           |WS Device| /         (_____)  \         ------------
           |Lat: X   |/                    \--------|Database Y|
           |Long: Y  |                              ------------
           -----------

    Figure 7: High level view of
       need to include relevant attributes in the White space database architecture

   In query to the figure above, note that there could be multiple databases
   serving white space devices.  The databases are country specific
   since database.

   2.  Spectrum agnostic - the regulations spectrum used by primary and available secondary
       users varies by country.  Some spectrum may vary.  In some
   countries, for example, the U.S., the regulator has determined an explicit notion of
       a "channel" a defined swath of spectrum within a band that
   multiple, competing databases has
       some assigned identifier.  Other spectrum bands may provide service be subject to
       white space sharing, but only have actual frequency low/high
       parameters to define protected entity use.  The protocol should
       be able to White Space
   Devices. be used in any spectrum band where white space sharing
       is permitted.

   3.  Globally applicable - A common messaging interface between the white
       space devices and databases will enable the
   database is required use of such spectrum
       for operating a network using the white space
   spectrum.  The following sections discuss various aspects of purposes on a global basis.  Devices can operate in
       any country where such an spectrum is available and a common
       interface ensures uniformity in implementations and deployment.
       Since the need for a standard.  Other aspects of White Space device must know it's geospatial location
       to do a solution
   including provisioning the query, it is possible to determine which database, and calculating protected
   contours
       which rules, are considered out of scope of the initial effort, as there applicable, even though they are significant differences between countries and spectrum bands.

5.1.  Global applicability country
       specific.

   4.  Address regulatory requirements - Each country will likely have
       regulations that are unique to that country.  The use messaging
       interface needs to be flexible to accommodate the specific needs
       of TV a regulatory body in the country where the white space spectrum device
       is currently approved by the FCC
   in operating and connecting to the United States.  However regulatory bodies in other countries
   are also considering similar use of available spectrum.  The
   principles relevant database.

5.2.  Database discovery

   Another aspect of cognitive radio usage for such spectrum the problem space is generally the same.  Some of need to discover the regulatory details may vary
   database.  A white space device needs to find the relevant database
   to query based on a its current location or for another location.
   Since the spectrum and databases are country
   specific basis.  However specific, the device
   will need for devices that intend to use discover the
   spectrum to communicate with a database remains a common feature. relevant database.  The database provides a known, specifiable Protection Contour for the
   primary user, not dependent on device needs to
   obtain the characteristics IP address of the White Space
   Device or it's ability specific database to sense which it can send
   queries in addition to registering itself for operation and using the primary use.  It also provides
   available spectrum.

5.3.  Protocol

   A protocol that enables a
   way white space device to specify query a schedule of use, because database to
   obtain information about available channels is needed.  A device may
   be required to register with the database with some primary users (for
   example, wireless microphones) only operate credentials prior
   to being allowed to query.  The requirements for such a protocol are
   specified in limited time slots.

   Devices this document.

5.4.  Data model definition

   The contents of the queries and response need to be able specified.  A
   data model is required which enables the white space device to query a database, directly or indirectly
   over
   the public Internet and/or private IP networks prior to
   operating in available spectrum.  Information about available
   spectrum, schedule, power, database while including all the relevant information such as
   geolocation, radio technology, power characteristics, etc. which may
   be country and spectrum and regulatory dependent.  All databases are provided
   able to interpret the data model and respond to the queries using the
   same data model that is understood by all devices.

   Use of XML for specifying a data model is an attractive option.  The
   intent is to evaluate the best option that meets the need for use
   between white space devices and databases.

6.  Requirements

   This section is the database as a
   response to placeholder for the query requirements derived from a device. the
   use cases.

      D. Data Model Requirements:

      D.1:  The messaging interface needs
   to be:

   1.  Radio/air interface agnostic - Data Model MUST support specifying the antenna height
            parameter of the subject.

      D.2:  The radio/air interface technology
       used by Data Model MUST support specifying an ID of the white space device in available spectrum can subject.
            This ID would be
       802.11af, 802.16, 802.22, LTE etc.  However the messaging
       interface between ID of the white space device and the database should
       be agnostic used to be certified
            by a regulatory body for a regulatory domain.

      D.3:  The Data Model MUST support specifying the air interface while being cognizant location of the
       characteristics of various air-interface technologies
            subject and the
       need to include relevant attributes in uncertainty by which the query to location was
            determined, when confidence level is considered 95%.

      D.4:  The Data Model MUST support specifying the database.

   2.  Spectrum agnostic - location of the spectrum used by primary
            subject and secondary
       users varies by country.  Some spectrum has an explicit notion accuracy of location determination.

      D.5:  The Data Model MUST support specifying a "channel" list of available
            channel list and time constrains for the channel list
            availability.

      D.6:  The Data Model MUST support specifying the maximum output
            power of the subject.

      D.7:  The Data Model MUST support specifying channel availability
            information for multiple locations.

      D.8:  The Data Model MUST support specifying channel availability
            information for an area around a specified location.

      D.9:  The Data Model MUST support specifying multiple spectrum
            masks, each containing (1) the lowest applicable frequency
            in MHz, (2) the highest possible frequency in MHz, (3) the
            maximum total EIRP over the frequency range defined swath of by the
            spectrum within a band that has
       some assigned identifier.  Other mask, (4) the general spectrum bands may be mask in dBr from
            peak transmit power in EIRP, with specific power limit at
            any frequency linearly interpolated between adjacent points
            of the spectrum mask expressed as in [80211P] or
            [FCC47CFR90.210], and (5) measurement resolution bandwidth
            for EIRP measurements.

      P. Protocol Requirements:

      P.1:   The protocol MUST provide a mechanism for the subject to
       white space sharing, but only have actual frequency low/high
       parameters
             discover the WS Database it has to define protected entity use. use at a given location.

      P.2:   The protocol MUST support regulatory domain discovery.

      P.3:   The protocol should
       be able to be used in any spectrum band where white space sharing
       is permitted.

   3.  Globally applicable - A common messaging interface between white
       space devices the master device and databases will enable the use of such spectrum
       for various purposes on a global basis.  Devices can operate WS Database
             MUST support pushing updates in
       any country where such spectrum is available channel availability
             changes to subjects.

      P.4:   The protocol between the master device and a common
       interface ensures uniformity in implementations the WS Database
             MUST support mutual authentication and deployment.
       Since authorization.

      P.5:   The protocol between the White Space master device must know it's geospatial location
       to do and the WS Database
             MUST support integrity and confidentiality protection.

      P.6:   The protocol MUST support both username/password and
             digital certificates based authentication.

      P.7:   A master device MAY register with a query, trusted white space
             database.

      P.8:   A master device MUST place its location into the query it is possible
             makes to determine which database, the whitespace database.

      P.9:   A master device MUST be able to query the whitespace
             database for channel availability information for a
             specific expected coverage area around its current
             location.

      P.10:  A master device MUST send Device ID, searial number and
       which rules, are applicable, even though they are country
       specific.

   4.  Address regulatory requirements - Each country will likely have
       regulations that are unique
             device location in the query it makes to that country.  The messaging
       interface needs the database.

      P.11:  A master device MAY send additional information in the
             query it makes to the database such as antenna height above
             ground level or antenna characteristics.

      P.12:  A master device MUST be flexible to accommodate capable of validating the specific needs digital
             certificate of the WS Database.

      P.13:  A master device MUST be capable of a regulatory body in checking the country where validity of
             the white space device
       is operating WS Database certificate and connecting to whether it has been revoked
             or not.

      O. Operational Requirements:

      O.1:   A master device MUST query the relevant database.

5.2. WS Database discovery

   Another aspect of for the problem space is
             available channels as often as required by the need regulation
             (eg, FCC requires once per day) to discover verify that the
   database.
             operating channels continue to remain available.

      O.2:   A white space master device needs to find MUST determine its location with the relevant database
   to
             accuracy required by the regulation (eg, FCC requires +/-
             100m) before placing a query based on to the DB.

      O.3:   A master device which changes its current location or during its
             operation, MUST query the WS Database for another location.
   Since available
             operating channels each time it moves more than the spectrum
             distance specified by the regulation (eg FCC specifies
             100m) from the location it previously made the query from.

      O.4:   The WS Database MUST provide the available channel list
             when requested from an authenticated and databases are country specific, authorized device
             and MAY also provide time constraints for the channel list,
             maximum output power and start and stop frequencies for
             each channel to the master device.

      O.5:   A master device MUST query the WS Database and include the
             FCC ID of the slave device in the query before allowing the
             slave device
   will need to discover use the relevant database.  The available channel.

      O.6:   A master device needs MUST be capable to
   obtain validate the IP address digital
             certificate of the specific database WS Database.

      O.7:   A master device MUST be capable to which check the validity of
             the WS Database certificate and whether it can send
   queries in addition has been revoked
             or not.

      O.8:   A master device MUST be able to registering itself for operation and determine its location
             using the
   available spectrum.

5.3.  Protocol latitude-longitude coordinates.

      O.9:   A protocol that enables a white space master device to query MUST make a fresh query of the whitespace
             database to
   obtain information about for the available channels is needed.  A device may
   be required to register with within a particular
             time interval, using a parameter sent by the database with some credentials prior
   to being allowed in
             response to the previous query.  The requirements for such  On expiry of the time
             interval then a protocol are
   specified master device MUST cease transmission in this document.

5.4.  Data model definition

   The contents of
             the queries and response need to be specified.  A
   data model is required which enables TVWS band if no successful query attempt has been made
             or a query has been made but the white space database has not
             responded.

      O.10:  If slave devices change their location during operation,
             the master device to MUST query the whitespace database while including all for
             available operating channels each time a slave device moves
             outside the relevant information such as
   geolocation, radio technology, power characteristics, etc. which may reported coverage location area.

      O.11:  A master device MAY be country and spectrum and regulatory dependent.  All databases are able to interpret the data model and respond to the queries using the
   same data model that is understood by all devices.

   Use of XML for specifying a data model is an attractive option.  The
   intent is indicate to evaluate the best option that meets slave devices
             the need start and stop frequencies it has available for use
   between white space devices
             operation and databases.

6.  Requirements

   This section is the placeholder maximum permitted powers for the requirements derived from the
   use cases. slave
             devices, and MAY be able to send additional optional
             information.

7.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no requests to IANA.

8.  Security Considerations

   The messaging interface between the white space device and the
   database needs to be secured.  Both the queries and the responses
   need to be delivered securely.  The device must be certain it is
   talking to a bona fide database authoritative for the location and
   spectrum band the device operates on.  The database may need to
   restrict interactions to devices that it has some prior relationship
   with, or may be restricted from providing service to devices that are
   not authorized in some manner.

   As the device will query with it's location, the location must be
   protected against eavesdropping.  Some regulations include personally
   identifiable information as required elements of registration and/or
   query and must similarly be protected.

   All communications between the device and the database will require
   integrity protection.

   Man-in-the-middle attacks could modify the content of a response
   which can cause problems for other networks or devices operating at a
   given location.  Interference as well as total loss of service could
   result from malicious information being delivered to a white space
   device.

9.  Summary and Conclusion

   Wireless spectrum is a scarce resource.  As the demand for spectrum
   grows, there is a need to more efficiently utilize the available and
   allocated spectrum.  Cognitive radio technologies enable the
   efficient usage of spectrum via means such as sensing or by querying
   a database to determine available spectrum at a given location for
   secondary use.  White space is the general term used to refer to the
   bands within the spectrum which is available for secondary use at a
   given location.  In order to use this spectrum a device needs to
   query a database which maintains information about the available
   channels within a band.  A protocol is necessary for communication
   between the devices and databases which would be globally applicable.

   The document describes some examples of the role of the white space
   database in the operation of a radio network and also shows an
   examples of a services provided to the user of a TVWS device.  From
   these use cases requirements are determined.  These requirements are
   to be used as input to the definition of a Protocol to Access White
   Space database (PAWS).

10.  Acknowledgements

   The authors acknowledge Gerald Chouinard and Teco Boot as
   contributors to this document.

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [80211P]   IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Information technology -
              Telecommunications and information exchange between
              systems - Local and metropolitan area networks - Specific
              requirements; Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control
              (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications; Amendment
              6: Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments; http://
              standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.11p-2010.pdf",
              July 2010.

   [FCC47CFR90.210]
              FCC, "Title 47 Telecommunication CFR Chapter I - Federal
              Communication Commission Part 90 - Private Land Mobile
              Radio Services - Section 210 Emission masks; http://
              edocket.access.gpo.gov/cfr_2010/octqtr/pdf/
              47cfr90.210.pdf", October 2010.

   [PAWS-PS]  IETF, "Protocol to Access White Space database: Problem
              statement; https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/
              draft-patil-paws-problem-stmt/", July 2011.

   [RFC2119]  IETF, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
              Levels;
              http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/pdfrfc/rfc2119.txt.pdf",
              March 1997.

11.2.  Informative References

   [DDR]      Ofcom - Independent regulator and competition authority
              for the UK communications industries, "Digital Dividend
              Review; http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/spectrum/
              project-pages/ddr/".

   [DTV]      "Digital TV Transition; http://www.dtv.gov".

   [ECC Report 159]
              Electronic Communications Committee (ECC) within the
              European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications
              Administrations (CEPT), "TECHNICAL AND OPERATIONAL
              REQUIREMENTS FOR THE POSSIBLE OPERATION OF COGNITIVE RADIO
              SYSTEMS IN THE 'WHITE SPACES' OF THE FREQUENCY BAND 470-
              590 MHZ; http://www.erodocdb.dk/Docs/doc98/official/pdf/
              ECCREP159.PDF", January 2011.

   [FCC Ruling]
              FCC, "Federal Communications Commission, "Unlicensed
              Operation in the TV Broadcast Bands;
              http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2010/pdf/2010-30184.pdf"",
              December 2010.

   [Ofcom Implementing]
              Ofcom, "Ofcom, "Implementing Geolocation; http://
              stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/consultations/geolocation/
              statement/
              ?utm_source=updates&utm_medium=email&
              utm_campaign=geolocation-statement"", September 2011.

   [RFC5222]  IETF, Hardie, T., Netwon, A., Schulzrinne, H., and H.
              Tschofenig, "LoST: A Location-to-Service Translation Proto
              col;http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/pdfrfc/rfc5222.txt.pdf",
              August 2008.

   [Spectrum Framework Review]
              Ofcom - Independent regulator and competition authority
              for the UK communications industries, "Spectrum Framework
              Review;
              http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/consultations/sfr/",
              February 2005.

   [TV Whitespace Tutorial Intro]
              IEEE 802 Executive Committee Study Group on TV White
              Spaces, "TV Whitespace Tutorial Intro; http://
              grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/802_tutorials/2009-03/
              2009-03-10%20TV%20Whitespace%20Tutorial%20r0.pdf",
              March 2009.

Authors' Addresses

   Scott Probasco (editor)
   Nokia
   6021 Connection drive
   Irving, TX  75039
   USA

   Email: scott.probasco@nokia.com

   Gabor Bajko
   Nokia
   200 South Mathilda Ave
   Sunnyvale, CA  94086
   USA

   Email: gabor.bajko@nokia.com

   Basavaraj Patil
   Nokia
   6021 Connection drive
   Irving, TX  75039
   USA

   Email: basavaraj.patil@nokia.com
   Brian Rosen
   Neustar
   470 Conrad Dr
   Mars, PA  16046
   USA

   Email: brian.rosen@neustar.biz