Working Group Draft                                     S. Probasco, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                  B. Patil
Intended status: Informational                                     Nokia
Expires: July 30, September 1, 2012                                  January 27,                             February 29, 2012

    Protocol to Access White Space database: PS, use cases and rqmts
             draft-ietf-paws-problem-stmt-usecases-rqmts-02
             draft-ietf-paws-problem-stmt-usecases-rqmts-03

Abstract

   Portions of the radio spectrum that are allocated assigned to a licensed,
   primary user particular use
   but are unused or unoccupied at specific locations and times are
   defined as "white space".  The concept of allowing
   secondary additional
   transmissions (licensed (which may or unlicensed) may not be licensed) in white space is a
   technique to "unlock" existing spectrum for new use.  An obvious
   requirement is that these secondary additional transmissions do not interfere
   with the primary assigned use of the spectrum.  One approach to using the
   white space spectrum at a given time and location is to verify with a
   database for available channels.

   This document describes the concept of TV White Spaces.  It also
   describes the problems that need to be addressed for enabling the use
   of the primary user owned to enable white
   space spectrum for secondary users, additional uses, without causing interference, interference to
   currently assigned use, by querying a database which knows stores
   information about the channel availability at any given location and
   time.  A number of possible use cases of this white space spectrum and derived
   technology as well as a set of requirements for the database query
   protocol are also described.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.1.  Introduction to TV white space  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.2.  Scope  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       1.2.1.  In Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       1.2.2.  Out of Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   2.  Conventions and Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6  7
     2.1.  Conventions Used in This Document  . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     2.2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   3.  Prior Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.1.  The concept of Cognitive Radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.2.  Background information on white space in the US  . . . . . . .  8
     3.3.  Background information on white space in the UK  . . . . .  9
     3.4.  Air Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   4.  Use cases and protocol services  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     4.1.  Protocol services  . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.1.  TVWS database discovery . . . . . . . . . 10
       4.1.1.  White space database discovery . . . . . . . .  9
     4.2. . . . . 10
       4.1.2.  Device registration with trusted Database  . . . . . . 11
     4.2.  Use cases  . . . 10
     4.3.  Hotspot: urban internet connectivity service . . . . . . . 11
     4.4.  Wide-Area or Rural internet broadband access . . . . . . . 13
     4.5.  Offloading: moving traffic to a white space network . . . 15
     4.6.  TVWS for backhaul . . . . 12
       4.2.1.  Hotspot: urban Internet connectivity service . . . . . 12
       4.2.2.  Wide-Area or Rural Internet broadband access . . . . . 15
       4.2.3.  White space serving as backhaul  . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     4.7. 18
       4.2.4.  Rapid deployed network for emergency scenario  . . . . . . 18
     4.8. 19
       4.2.5.  Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     4.9. 20
       4.2.6.  Indoor Networking  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     4.10. 23
       4.2.7.  Machine to Machine (M2M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 24
   5.  Problem Statement  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 26
     5.1.  Global applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 27
     5.2.  Database discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 28
     5.3.  Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 29
     5.4.  Data model definition  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 29
   6.  Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 29
     6.1.  Normative Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
     6.2.  Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
   7.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 35
   8.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 35
   9.  Summary and Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 38
   10. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 39
   11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 39
     11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 39
     11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 40
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 41

1.  Introduction

1.1.  Introduction to TV white space

   Wireless spectrum is a commodity that is regulated by governments.
   The spectrum is used for various purposes, which include but are not
   limited to entertainment (e.g. radio and television), communication
   (telephony and Internet access), military (radars etc.) and,
   navigation (satellite communication, GPS).  Portions of the radio
   spectrum that are allocated assigned to a licensed, primary licensed user but are unused or
   unoccupied at specific locations and times are defined as "white
   space".  The concept of allowing secondary additional transmissions (licensed (which may
   or
   unlicensed) may not be licensed) in white space is a technique to "unlock"
   existing spectrum for new use.  An obvious requirement is that these secondary
   additional transmissions do not interfere with the primary assigned use of
   the spectrum.  One interesting observation is that often, in a given
   physical location, the primary assigned user(s) may not be using the entire
   band
   allocated assigned to them.  The available spectrum for a secondary use additional
   transmissions would then depend on the location of the secondary additional
   user.  The fundamental issue is how to determine for a specific
   location and specific time, if any of the primary assigned spectrum is
   available for secondary additional use.  Academia and Industry have studied
   multiple cognitive radio mechanisms for use in such a scenario.  One
   simple mechanism is to use a geospatial database that records the primary
   assigned users occupation, and require the secondary additional users to check
   the database prior to selecting what part of the spectrum they use.
   Such databases could be available on the Internet for query by secondary
   additional users.

   Spectrum useable for data communications, especially wireless
   Internet communications, is scarce.  One area which has received much
   attention globally is the TV white space: portions of the TV band
   that are not used by broadcasters in a given area.  In 2008 the
   United States regulator (the FCC) took initial steps when they
   published their first ruling on the use of TV white space, and then
   followed it up with a final ruling in 2010 [FCC Ruling].  Finland
   passed an Act in 2009 enabling testing of cognitive radio systems in
   the TV white space.  The ECC has completed Report 159 [ECC Report
   159] containing requirements for operation of cognitive radio systems
   in the TV white space.  Ofcom published in 2004 their Spectrum
   Framework Review [Spectrum Framework Review] and their Digital
   Dividend Review [DDR] in 2005, and have followed up with a proposal proposals from 2009 onwards to
   access TV white space. space, culminating in the 2011 Ofcom Statement
   Implementing Geolocation [Ofcom Implementing].  More countries are
   expected to provide access to their TV spectrum in similar ways.  Any
   entity holding that is assigned spectrum that is not densely used may be
   asked to give it up in one way or another for more intensive use.
   Providing a mechanism by which secondary additional users share the spectrum
   with the primary assigned user is attractive in many bands in many countries.

   Television transmission until now has primarily been analog.  The
   switch to digital transmission has begun.  As a result the spectrum
   allocated
   assigned for television transmission can now be more effectively
   used.  Unused channels and bands between channels can be used by
   additional users as long as they do not interfere with the primary service
   for which that channel is allocated. assigned.  While urban areas tend to have
   dense usage of spectrum and a number of TV channels, the same is not
   true in semi-rural, rural and semi-urban remote areas.  There can be a number of
   unused TV channels in such areas that can be used for other services.  The figure below
   Figure 1 shows TV white space within the lower UHF band:

        Avg  |
        usage|                             |-------------- White Space
             |                    |    |   |   |  |
          0.6|                   ||    ||  V   V  ||
             |                   ||   |||    |    ||
          0.4|                   ||   ||||   |    ||
             |                   ||   ||||   |    ||<----TV transmission
          0.2|                   ||   ||||   |    ||
             |----------------------------------------
             400     500       600      700       800
                      Frequency in MHz ->

                Figure 1: High level view of TV White Space

   The fundamental issue is how to determine for a specific location and
   specific time if any of the spectrum is available for secondary additional use.
   There are two dimensions of use that may be interesting: space (the
   area in which a secondary an additional user would not interfere with a primary
   user, the
   assigned use), and time: when the secondary use additional transmission would not
   interfere with the
   primary assigned use.  In this discussion, we consider the
   time element to be relatively long term (hours in a day) rather than
   short term (fractions of a second).  Location in this discussion is
   geolocation: where the transmitters (and sometimes receivers) are
   located relative to one another.  In operation, the database records
   the existing assigned user's transmitter (and some times receiver) locations
   along with basic transmission characteristics such as antenna height,
   and sometimes power.  Using rules established by the local regulator,
   the database calculates an exclusion zone for each authorized primary assigned user, and
   attaches a time schedule to that use.  The secondary additional user queries
   the database with its location.  The database intersects the
   exclusion zones with the queried location, and returns the portion of
   the spectrum not in any exclusion zone.  Such methods of geospatial
   database query to avoid interference have been shown to achieve
   favorable results, and are thus the basis for rulings by the FCC and
   reports from ECC and Ofcom.  In any country, the rules for which
   primary
   assigned entities are entitled to protection, how the exclusion zones
   are calculated, and what the limits of use by secondary entities are by additional users
   may vary.  However, the fundamental notion of recording primary assigned
   users, calculating exclusion zones, querying by location and
   returning available spectrum (and the schedule for that spectrum) are
   common
   common.

   This document includes the problem statement, use cases and
   requirements associated with the use of white space spectrum by
   secondary users via a database query protocol.

1.2.  Scope

1.2.1.  In Scope

   This document applies only to communications required for basic
   service in TV white space.  The protocol will enable a white space
   radio device to complete the following tasks:

   1.  Determine the relevant white space database to query.

   2.  Connect to the database using a well-defined access method.

   3.  Register with the database using a well-defined protocol.

   4.  Provide its geolocation and perhaps other data to the database
       using a well-defined format for querying the database.

   5.  Receive in return response to the query a list of currently available
       white space channels or frequencies using a well-defined format
       for returning the information.

   As a result, some of the scenarios described in the following section
   are out of scope for this specification (although they might be
   addressed by future specifications).

1.2.2.  Out of Scope

   The following topics are out of scope for this specification:

   TBD

      Co-existence and interference avoidance of white space devices
      within the same spectrum

      Provisioning (releasing new spectrum for white space use)

2.  Conventions and Terminology

2.1.  Conventions Used in This Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

2.2.  Terminology

   Database

      In the context of white space and cognitive radio technologies,
      the database is an entity which contains contains, but is not limited to,
      current information about available spectrum at any given location
      and other types of related (to the white space spectrum) or
      relevant information.

   Device ID

      A unique number for each master device and slave device that
      identifies the manufacturer, model number and serial number.

   Location Based Service

      An application or device which provides data, information or
      service to a user based on their location.

   Master Device

      A device which queries the WS Database to find out the available
      operating channels.

   Protected Entity

      A primary

      An assigned user of white space spectrum which is afforded
      protection against interference by secondary additional users (white space
      devices) for its use in a given area and time.

   Protected Contour

      The exclusion area for a Protected Entity, held in the database
      and expressed as a polygon with geospatial points as the vertices.

   Slave Device

      A device which uses the spectrum made available by a master
      device.

   TV White Space

      TV white space refers specifically to radio spectrum which has
      been allocated for TV broadcast, but is not occupied by a TV
      broadcast, or other licensed assigned user (such as a wireless microphone),
      at a specific location and time.

   TV White Space Device (TVWSD)

      A White Space Device that operates in the TV bands.

   White Space (WS)

      Radio spectrum which has been allocated for some primary use, but is not fully occupied by that primary use at a specific location
      and time.

   White Space Device (WSD)

      A device which is a secondary user of opportunistically uses some part of white space
      spectrum.  A white space device can be an access point, base
      station, a portable device or similar.  In this context, a  A white space device is may
      be required by local regulations to query a database with its
      location to obtain information about available spectrum.

3.  Prior Work

3.1.  The concept of Cognitive Radio

   A cognitive radio uses knowledge of the local radio environment to
   dynamically adapt its own configuration and function properly in a
   changing radio environment.  Knowledge of the local radio environment
   can come from various technology mechanisms including sensing
   (attempting to ascertain primary users by listening for them within
   the spectrum), location determination and internet Internet connectivity to a
   database to learn the details of the local radio environment.  TV  White
   Space is one implementation of cognitive radio.  Because a cognitive
   radio adapts itself to the available spectrum in a manner that
   prevents the creation of harmful interference, the spectrum can be
   shared among different radio users.

3.2.  Background information on white space in the US

   Television transmission in the United States has moved to the use of
   digital signals as of June 12, 2009.  Since June 13, 2009, all full-
   power U.S. television stations have broadcast over-the-air signals in
   digital only.  An important benefit of the switch to all-digital
   broadcasting is that it freed up parts of the valuable broadcast
   spectrum.  More information about the switch to digital transmission
   is at : [DTV].

   With

   Besides the switch to digital transmission for TV, the guard bands
   that
   existed exist to protect the signals between stations can now be used for
   other purposes.  The FCC has made this spectrum available for
   unlicensed use and this is generally referred to as white space.
   Please see the details of the FCC ruling and regulations in [FCC
   Ruling].  The spectrum can be used to provide wireless broadband as
   an example.  The term "Super-Wifi" is also used to describe this
   spectrum and potential for providing wifi type of service.

3.3.  Air Interfaces

   Efforts are ongoing to specify air-interfaces for use in  Background information on white space
   spectrum.  IEEEs 802.11af task group is currently working on one such
   specification.  IEEE 802.22 is another example.  Other air interfaces
   could be specified in the future such as LTE.

4.  Use cases

   There are many potential use cases that could be considered for the
   TV UK

   Background information on white space spectrum.  Providing broadband internet access in
   hotspots, rural and underserved areas are examples.  Available
   channels may also be used to provide internet 'backhaul' for
   traditional Wi-Fi hotspots, or by towns and cities UK Since its launch in 2005,
   Ofcom's Digital Dividend Review [DDR] has considered how to monitor/control
   traffic lights or read utility meters.  Still other use cases include make the ability to offload data traffic from another internet access
   network (e.g. 3G cellular network) or to deliver location based
   services.  Some of these use cases are described in
   spectrum freed up by digital switchover available for new uses,
   including the following
   sections.

4.1.  TVWS database discovery

   This use case capacity available within the spectrum that is preliminary retained
   to creating a radio network using TV
   white space; it is a prerequisite carry the digital terrestrial television service.  Similarly to other use cases.  The radio
   network is created by a master device.  Before
   the master device US, this interleaved or guard spectrum occurs because not all the
   spectrum in any particular location will be used for terrestrial
   television and so is available for other services, as long as they
   can
   transmit interleave their usage around the existing users.

   In its September 2011 Statement [Ofcom Implementing] Ofcom says that
   a key element in TV enabling white space spectrum, it must contact usage in the TV bands is the
   definition and provision of a trusted database where which, given a device's
   location, can tell the device can learn if any which frequency channels are available for and power
   levels it is able to use.  The master device will need use without causing harmful interference to discover a trusted
   database
   other licensed users in the relvant regulatory domain, using the following steps:

   1.  The master device is connected vicinity.  Ofcom will specify
   requirements to the internet be met by any means other
       than using the TV white space radio.

   2.  The master device constructs and sends a service request over such geolocation databases.  It also says
   that the
       Internet to discover availability technology has the possibility of trusted databases being usefully applied
   elsewhere in the
       local domain and waits for responses.

   3.  If no acceptable response is received within a pre-configured
       time limit, the master device concludes that no trusted database
       is available.  If at least one response radio spectrum to ensure it is received, the master
       device evaluates the response(s) used to determine if a trusted
       database can maximum
   benefit.  For example, it may have potential in making spectrum
   available for new uses following any switch to digital radio
   services.  Alternatively it may be identified where helpful in exploiting some of the master device is able
   public sector spectrum holdings.  Ofcom will continue to
       register and receive service from the database.

   Optionally consider
   other areas of the radio device is pre-programmed with the internet
   address of at least one trusted database.  The device can establish
   contact with a trusted database using one spectrum where white space usage may be of the pre-programmed
   internet addresses and establish a TV
   benefit.

3.4.  Air Interfaces

   Efforts are ongoing to specify air-interfaces for use in white space network (as
   described
   spectrum.  IEEE 802.11af, IEEE 802.15.4m and IEEE 802.22 are all
   examples.  Other air interfaces could be specified in one of the following future such
   as LTE.

4.  Use cases and protocol services

   There are many potential use cases).

   Optionally cases that could be considered for the initial query will
   TV white space spectrum.  Providing broadband Internet access in
   hotspots, rural and underserved areas are examples.  Available
   channels may also be made used to a listing approved by
   the national regulator provide Internet 'backhaul' for the domain of operation (e.g. a website
   either hosted
   traditional Wi-Fi hotspots, or by towns and cities to monitor/control
   traffic lights or under control of read utility meters.  Still other use cases include
   the national regulator) which
   maintains a list ability to offload data traffic from another Internet access
   network (e.g. 3G cellular network) or to deliver location based
   services.  Some of TVWS databases and their internet addresses.  The
   query results these use cases are described in the list of databases and their internet addresses
   being sent following
   sections.

4.1.  Protocol services

   A complete protocol solution must provide all services that are
   essential to enable the master, which then evaluates the repsonse to
   determine if white space paradigm.  Before a trusted database can be identified where the master white space
   device is able to register and receive can request service from a white space database, such as a
   query for a list of available channels, the white space device must
   first locate or "discover" a suitable database.

4.2.  Device registration  Additionally, some
   regulatory authorities require the white space device to register
   with trusted Database the database as a first step.  This use case section describes the
   services required from the protocol.

4.1.1.  White space database discovery

   White space database discovery is preliminary to creating a radio
   network using TV white space; it is a prerequisite to other the use cases. cases
   below.  The radio network is created by a master device.  Before the
   master device can transmit in TV white space spectrum, it must contact a
   trusted database where the device can learn if any channels are
   available for it to use.  Before the database  The master device will provide information on available
   TV channels, need to discover a
   trusted database in the relevant regulatory domain, using the
   following steps:

   1.  The master device must register with is connected to the trusted
   database.  Specific requirements for registration come from
   individual regulatory domains and Internet by any means other
       than using the white space radio.  A local regulator may be different. identify
       exception cases where a master may initialize over white space
       (e.g. the FCC allows a master to initialize over the TV white
       space in certain conditions).

   2.  The figure below shows an example deployment of this scenario.

                              \|/                            ----------
                               |                             |Database|
                               |                     .---.   /---------
                             |-|---------|          (     ) /
     \|/                     |  Master   |         /       \
      |                   /  |           |========( master device constructs and sends a service request over the
       Internet )
      |                  /   |-----------|         \        /
    +-|----+   (TDD AirIF)                          (      )
    |Master|  /                                      (----)
    |      | /
    +------+

     Figure 2: Example illustration to discover availability of registration requirement trusted databases in TV
                           white space use-case

   A simplified operational scenario showing registration consists of the following steps:

   1.  The
       local regulatory domain and waits for responses.

   3.  If no acceptable response is received within a pre-configured
       time limit, the master device must register with the most current and up-to-
       date information.  Typically concludes that no trusted database
       is available.  If at least one response is received, the master
       device will register
       prior to operating in TV white space for evaluates the first time after
       power up, after changing location by response(s) to determine if a predetermined distance,
       and after regular time intervals.

   2.  The trusted
       database can be identified where the master device shall provide is able to
       receive service from the database.

   Optionally the radio device is pre-programmed with the Internet
   address of at least one trusted database.  The device can establish
   contact with a trusted database during
       registration using one of the pre-programmed
   Internet addresses and establish a minimum white space network (as described
   in one of the Device ID, serial number assigned following use cases).

   Optionally the initial query will be made to a listing approved by
   the manufacturer and national regulator for the device's location.

   3.  Depending upon regulatory domain requirements, the device may
       also provide device antenna height above ground, name of the
       individual operation (e.g. a website
   either hosted by or business that owns the device, name under control of a contact
       person responsible for the device's operation, address for the
       contact person, email address for the contact person and phone
       number national regulator) which
   maintains a list of WS databases and their Internet addresses.  The
   query results in the contact person list of databases and their Internet addresses
   being sent to the database during registration.

4.3.  Hotspot: urban internet connectivity service

   In this use case internet connectivity service is provided in a
   "hotspot" to local users.  Typical deployment scenarios include urban
   areas where internet connectivity is provided master, which then evaluates the response to local businesses and
   residents, and campus environments
   determine if a trusted database can be identified where internet connectivity the master
   device is
   provided able to local buildings and relatively small outdoor areas.  This
   deployment scenario is typically characterized by multiple masters
   (APs or hotspots) in close proximity, with low antenna height, cells
   with relatively small radius (a few kilometers or less), register and limited
   numbers of available radio channels.  Many of receive service from the masters/APs are
   assumed to database.

4.1.2.  Device registration with trusted Database

   Registration may be individually deployed and operated, i.e. there preliminary to creating a radio network using
   white space; in some regulatory domains, for some device types, it is no
   coordination between many of
   a prerequisite to the masters/APs.  The masters/APs in
   this scenario use a TDD cases below.  The radio technology and transmit at or below network is created
   by a
   relatively low master device.  Before the master device can transmit power threshold.  Each master/AP has in white
   space spectrum, it must contact a
   connection to trusted database where the internet and provides internet connectivity device
   can learn if any channels are available for it to
   multiple use.  Before the
   database will provide information on available radio channels, the
   master device must register with the trusted database.  Specific
   requirements for registration come from individual regulatory domains
   and or slave devices.

   The figure below may be different.

   Figure 2 shows an example deployment of this scenario.

    --------
    |Device|\

                              \|/                            ----------
                               |  1   | (TDD AirIF)       |                             |Database|
    --------           \
                               |                     .---.   /---------
       o                \
                             |-|---------|          (     ) /
       o
     \|/                     |  Master   |         /       \
       o
      |                   /  |           |========( Internet )
       o
      |                  /   |-----------|         \        /
    --------
    +-|----+   (TDD AirIF)                          (      )
    |Device|
    |Master|  /                                      (----)
    |  n      |
    -------- /
    +------+

    Figure 3: Hotspot service using TV 2: Example illustration of registration requirement in white
                              space spectrum

   Once a master/AP has been correctly installed and configured, a use-case

   A simplified power up and operation operational scenario utilizing TV White Space
   to provide Internet connectivity service showing registration consists of
   the following steps:

   1.  The master/AP powers up; however master device must register with its WS radio most current and all other WS
       capable devices up-to-
       date information.  Typically the master device will power up register
       prior to operating in idle/listen only mode (no active
       transmissions on white space for the WS frequency band). first time after power
       up, after changing location by a predetermined distance, and
       after regular time intervals.

   2.  The master/AP has Internet connectivity and establishes a
       connection master device shall provide to a trusted white space database (see Section 4.1).

   3.  The master/AP registers with the trusted database during
       registration all information required according to local
       regulatory domain requirements (see Section 4.2).

   4.  Following requirements.  This information may include, but is
       not limited to, the registration process, Device ID, serial number assigned by the master/AP will send a
       query to
       manufacturer the trusted database requesting a list device's location, device antenna height above
       ground, name of available WS
       channels based upon its geolocation.

   5.  If the master/AP has met all regulatory domain requirements (e.g.
       been previously authenticated, etc), the database responds with a
       list of available white space channels individual or business that owns the master may use,
       and optionally a duration device,
       name of time a contact person responsible for their use.

   6.  Once the master/AP has met all regulatory domain requirements
       (e.g. authenticated the WS channel list response message from the
       database, etc), the AP selects an available WS channel(s) from device's operation
       address for the list.

   7.  The slave or user device scans contact person, email address for the TV bands to locate a master/AP
       transmission, contact
       person and associates with phone number of the AP. contact person.

   3.  The slave/user device
       queries the master for a channel list, providing database shall respond to the master
       the slaves' Device ID and geolocation.

   8.  Once the master/AP has met all regulatory domain requirements
       (e.g. validating the Device ID registration request with the trusted database, etc)
       the master provides the list of channels locally available an
       acknowledgement code to indicate the
       slave/user device.  If the channel that the user terminal is
       currently using is not included in the list success or failure of locally available
       channels, the slave/user device ceases all operation on its
       current channel.  The slave/user device
       registration request.  Additional information may scan for another AP
       transmission on a different channel.

4.4.  Wide-Area or Rural internet broadband access be provided
       according to local regulator requirements.

4.2.  Use cases

4.2.1.  Hotspot: urban Internet connectivity service

   In this use case, internet broadband access case Internet connectivity service is provided as in a Wide-
   Area Network (WAN) or Wireless Regional Area Network (WRAN).  A
   typical
   "hotspot" to local users.  Typical deployment scenario is a wide area or rural area, scenarios include urban
   areas where
   internet broadband access Internet connectivity is provided to local businesses and
   residents from a master (i.e.  BS) connected
   residents, and campus environments where Internet connectivity is
   provided to the internet. local buildings and relatively small outdoor areas.  This
   deployment scenario is typically characterized by one multiple masters
   (APs or more fixed
   master(s)/BS(s), hotspots) in close proximity, with low antenna height, cells
   with relatively large small radius (tens of
   kilometers, up to 100 km), (a few kilometers or less), and a number limited
   numbers of available radio channels.
   Some  Many of the masters/BSs may masters/APs are
   assumed to be individually deployed and operated by a single
   entity, operated, i.e. there can be centralized is no
   coordination between these
   masters/BSs, whereas other masters/BSs may be deployed and operated
   by operators competing for the radio channels in a license-exempt
   TVWS environment where decentralized coordination using many of the air-
   interface would be required. masters/APs.  The BS masters/APs in
   this scenario use a TDD radio
   technology and transmit at or below a transmit power limit
   established by the local regulator. technology.  Each base station master/AP has a
   connection to the internet Internet and provides internet may provide Internet connectivity to
   multiple slave/end-user
   other master and slave devices.  End user terminals or devices may
   be fixed or portable.

   The figure below

   Figure 3 shows an example deployment of this scenario.

      -------
      |Slave|\

    --------
    |Device|\                \|/                             ----------
      |Dev 1|
    |  1   | (TDD AirIF) AirIF)\     |                              |Database|
      -------
    --------             \    |                     .---.   /----------
         o                     (----)   /---------
          |               \ |-|---------|          (      ) /
         o
          |                \|  Master   |         /        \
         o               /   |   (BS)
    --------               /|           |========( Internet )
         o              /
    |Device|  /(TDD AirIF)/ |-----------|         \        /
      -------  (TDD AirIF)
    |  2   | /             /                       (      )
      |Slave|
    -------               /                         (----)
      |Dev n|
      -------
      o   |              /
      o   |   (TDD AirIF)
      o   |  /
    --------/
    |Device|
    |  n   |
    --------

          Figure 4: Rural internet broadband access 3: Hotspot service using TV white space spectrum

   Once the master/BS a master/AP has been professionally correctly installed and configured, a
   simplified power up and operation scenario utilizing TV White Space
   to provide rural internet broadband access Internet connectivity service to slave devices, including
   the ability to clear WSDs from select channels, is described.  This
   scenario consists of the following steps:

   1.   The master/BS master/AP powers up; however its WS radio and all other WS
        capable devices will power up in idle/listen only mode (No (no
        active transmissions on the WS frequency band)

   2.  The master/BS has internet connectivity band).  A local
        regulator may identify exception cases where a master may
        initialize over white space (e.g. the FCC allows a master to
        initialize over TV white space in certain conditions).

   2.   The master/AP has Internet connectivity, determines its location
        (either from location determination capability or from saved
        value that was set during installation), and establishes a
        connection to a trusted white space database (see use case "TVWS
       database discovery" above).
        Section 4.1.1).

   3.   The master/BS master/AP registers its geolocation, address, contact
       information, etc. associated with the owner/operator of the
       master/BS with the trusted database service (if not currently
       registered, see Section 4.2).  Meanwhile the DB administrator may
       be required to store and forward the registration information to
       the regulatory authority.  If a trusted white space database
       administrator is not discovered, further operation of the WRAN
       may be allowed according to local regulator policy (in this case
       operation of the WRAN is outside the scope of the PAWS protocol).
        regulatory domain requirements (see Section 4.1.2).

   4.   Following the successful registration process (if registration process,
        is required), the master/BS master/AP will send a query to the trusted
        database requesting a list of available WS channels based upon
        its geolocation.  The complete set of parameters to be provided
        from the master to the database is specified by the local
        regulator.  Parameters may include WSD location, accuracy of
        that location, device antenna height, device identifier of a
        slave device requesting channel information.

   5.   If the master/BS master/AP has met all regulatory domain requirements
        (e.g. been previously authenticated, etc), the database responds
        with a list of available white space channels that the master
        may
       be used use, and optionally a duration of time for their use,
        associated maximum transmit power (EIRP) for each
       channel and levels or a duration notification of time the channel may be used. any
        additional requirements for sensing.

   6.   Once the master/BS authenticates master/AP has met all regulatory domain requirements
        (e.g. authenticated the WS channel list response message from
        the database, etc), the master/BS AP selects an one or more available WS
       channel(s) from the list.  The operator may disallow some
        channels from the list to suit local needs if required. list.

   7.   The slave or user device scans the TV bands to locate a WRAN
        master/AP transmission, and associates with the master/BS. AP.

   8.   The slave/user device provides its geolocation to queries the BS which, in turn, queries
       the database master for a list of channels available at channel list.  In
        the query the slave/user device provides attributes that are
        defined by local regulations.  These may include the slaves'
        Device ID and its geolocation.

   8.

   9.   Once this list of available channels is received from the
       database by master/AP has met all regulatory domain requirements
        (e.g. validating the master, Device ID with the latter will decide, based on trusted database, etc)
        the master provides the list of available channels for all its other associated slaves whether
       it should continue operation on its current channel or change
       channel locally available to accommodate
        the new slave in case this channel is not
       available at its location. slave/user device.

   10.  The master will notify all its
       associated slaves/user devices of the new channel to move to if
       operation needs sends an enabling signal to change channel.  If the channel establish that the slave/
        user
       terminal is currently using device is not included in still within reception range of the master.  This
        signal shall be encoded to ensure that the signal originates
        from the master that provided the available list of
       locally available channels, channels.

   11.  Periodically, at an interval established by the master will drop its association
       with local regulator,
        the slave/user device so must receive an enabling signal from the
        master that it ceases all operation on its
       current channel and indicate provided the new operating channel before
       dropping available list of channels or contact a
        master to re-verify or re-establish the link if list of available
        channels.

   12.  The master/AP must periodically repeat the process to request a change has been decided.
        channel list from the database, steps 4 through 6 above.  The slave/user
       device may move
        frequency to repeat the indicated new process is determined by the local
        regulator.  If the response from the database indicates a
        channel if so indicated or
       scan for another WRAN transmission being used by the master/AP is not available, the
        master/AP must stop transmitting on a different channel.

4.5.  Offloading: moving traffic to a white space network that channel immediately.
        In this use case internet connectivity service is provided over TV
   white space as a supplemental addition or alternative datapath to optionally, the database may send a 3G message to
        the master/AP to rescind the availability of one or
   other internet connection.  In a typical deployment scenario an end
   user has a primary internet connection such as a 3G cellular packet
   data subscription. more
        channels.  The master/AP must stop transmitting on that channel
        immediately.

   13.  The slave or user wants device must periodically repeat the process to use
        request a widget or application to
   stream video channel list from an online service (e.g. youtube) to their device.
   Before the widget starts the streaming connection it checks
   connectivity options available at the current time master/AP, steps 8 and location.
   Both 3G cellular data is available as well as TVWS connectivity (the
   user is within coverage of a TVWS master -- hotspot, WAN, WRAN or
   similar). 9 above.
        The user may decide for many and various reasons such as
   cost, RF coverage, data caps, etc. frequency to prefer the TVWS connection over repeat the 3G cellular data connection.  Either process is determined by user selection,
   preconfigured preferences, or other algorithm, the streaming session
   is started over local
        regulator.  If the TVWS internet connection instead of response from the 3G
   cellular connection.  This deployment scenario is typically
   characterized by a TVWS master/AP providing local coverage in the
   same geographical area as indicates that a 3G cellular system.  The master/AP is
   assumed to be individually deployed and operated, i.e.
        channel being used by the master/AP slave or user device is deployed and operated by not available,
        the slave or user at his home device must stop transmitting on that channel
        immediately.  In addition or perhaps by a
   small business such as optionally, the database may send a coffee shop.  The
        message to the master/AP has a connection to rescind the internet availability of one or
        more channels.  The master/AP must then notify the slave or user
        device of the rescinded channels.  The slave or user device must
        stop transmitting on that channel immediately.

4.2.2.  Wide-Area or Rural Internet broadband access

   In this use case, Internet broadband access is provided as a Wide-
   Area Network (WAN) or Wireless Regional Area Network (WRAN).  A
   typical deployment scenario is a wide area or rural area, where
   Internet broadband access is provided to local businesses and provides internet connectivity
   residents from a master (i.e., BS) connected to the slave/
   end-user's device. Internet.  This
   deployment scenario is typically characterized by one or more fixed
   master(s)/BS(s), cells with relatively large radius (tens of
   kilometers, up to 100 km), and a number of available radio channels.
   Some of the masters/BSs may be deployed and operated by a single
   entity, i.e., there can be centralized coordination between these
   masters/BSs, whereas other masters/BSs may be deployed and operated
   by operators competing for the radio channels where decentralized
   coordination using the air-interface would be required.  The figure BS in
   this scenario uses a TDD radio technology and transmits at or below a
   transmit power (EIRP) limit established by the local regulator.  Each
   base station has a connection to the Internet and may provide
   Internet connectivity to multiple slaves/user devices.  End-user
   terminals or devices may be fixed or portable.

   Figure 4 shows an example deployment of this scenario.

      -------
      |Slave|\                \|/                             ----------
      |Dev 1| (TDD AirIF)      |                              |Database|
      -------          \       |                     .---.   /----------
         o              \    |-|---------|          (     ) /
         o                   | Master/AP |\
                            /| Router   Master  | \
                  Streaming/ |-----------|  \
       --------         /       \               -----------
       |Slave/|
         o               /                             \      (----)  | Database   |
       |WS Dev|                                \    (   (BS)    |========( Internet ) /----------
        ------- \                               \
         o              /    |-----------|         \
                 \                               X( Internet )
                  \                             /  \        /
                   Signaling  \|/        /
      -------  (TDD AirIF)                          (      )\
                          \    |      )
      |Slave| /                                      (----)  \----------
                           \   |             /                | YouTube |
                            \|-|---------|  /                 ----------
                             |           | /
                             | 3G BTS    |/
                             |-----------|
      |Dev n|
      -------

      Figure 5: Offloading: moving traffic to a 4: Rural Internet broadband access using TV white space network
                                 spectrum

   Once a dual or multi mode device (3G + TVWS) is connected to a 3G
   network, the master/BS has been professionally installed and configured,
   a simplified power up and operation scenario of offloading selected
   content such as video stream from the 3G connection utilizing TV White Space
   to the TWVS
   connection provide rural Internet broadband access consists of the following
   steps:

   1.   The dual mode (or multi mode) device (3G + TVWS) is connected to
       a 3G network.  The device has contacted a trusted database to
       discover the list of available TV channels at master/BS powers up; however its current
       location.  The device has located a TVWS master/AP operating on
       an available channel WS radio and has associated or connected with all other WS
        capable devices will power up in idle/listen-only mode (no
        active transmissions on the
       TVWS master/AP. WS frequency band).

   2.   The user activates a widget master/BS has Internet connectivity, determines its location
        (either from location determination capability or application that streams video from YouTube.  The widget connects to YouTube over 3G cellular
       data.  The user browses content a saved
        value that was set during installation), and searches for video
       selections. establishes a
        connection to a trusted white space database (see
        Section 4.1.1).

   3.   The user selects a video for streaming using the widget's
       controls.  Before master/BS registers with the widget initiates a streaming session, trusted database service (see
        Section 4.1.2).  Meanwhile the
       widget checks DB administrator may be required
        to store and forward the available connections in registration information to the dual mode device
       and finds
        regulatory authority.  If a TVWS master/AP trusted white space database service
        is connected.

   4.  Using either input from the user or pre-defined profile
       preferences, the widget selects the TVWS master/AP as not discovered, further operation of the
       connection to stream the video.

4.6.  TVWS for backhaul

   In WRAN may be allowed
        according to local regulator policy (in this use case internet connectivity service is provided to users
   over a traditional wireless protocol, one common example operation of
        the WRAN is Wi-Fi.
   The TV white space network provides outside the "backhaul" or connection from scope of the Wi-Fi to PAWS protocol).

   4.   Following the internet.  In a typical deployment scenario an end
   user has a device with successful registration process (if registration
        is required), the master/BS will send a radio such as Wi-Fi.  A service provider or
   shop owner wants query to provide Wi-Fi internet service for their
   customers.  The location where the service provider wants to provide
   Wi-Fi is within range of trusted
        database requesting a TVWS master (e.g.  Hotspot or Wide-Area/
   Rural network). list of available WS channels based upon
        its geolocation.  The service provider installs a TVWS slave device
   and connects this slave complete set of parameters to a Wi-Fi access point.  This deployment
   scenario be provided
        from the master to the database is typically characterized specified by a TVWS master/AP/BS providing the local coverage.  The master/AP
        regulator.  Parameters may include WSD identifier, location,
        accuracy of that location, device antenna height, etc...

   5.   If the master/BS has been previously authenticated, the database
        responds with a connection to list of available white space channels that may
        be used by the internet master/BS and
   provides internet connectivity to optionally a maximum transmit power
        (EIRP) for each channel, a duration of time the slave device.  The slave device
   is then 'bridged' to channel may be
        used or a Wi-Fi network

   The figure below shows an example deployment notification of this scenario.

                        \|/     white    \|/    \|/   WiFi  \|/
                         |      space     |      |           |
                         |                |      |         |-|----|
       |--------|      |-|---------|    |-|------|-|       | WiFi |
       |        |      | Master    |    |  Slave   |       | Dev  |
       |internet|------| (AP/BS)   |    |  Bridge  |       |------|
       |        |      |           |    | to WiFi  |
       |--------|      |-----------|    |----------|        \|/
                                                             |
                                                           |-|----|
                                                           | WiFi |
                                                           | Dev  |
                                                           |------|

                        Figure 6: TVWS any additional requirement for backhaul
        sensing.

   6.   Once the bridged device (TVWS+WiFi) is connected to master/BS authenticates the WS channel list response
        message from the database, the master/BS selects an available WS
        channel(s) from the list.  Such selection may be improved based
        on a master and TVWS
   network, set of queries to the DB involving a simplified operation scenario number of backhaul for WiFi
   consists hypothetical
        slave or user devices located at various locations over the
        expected service area so that the final intersection of these
        resulting WS channel lists allows the following steps:

   1.  A bridged device (TVWS+WiFi) selection of a channel
        that is connected likely available over the entire service area to a master device
       operating in avoid
        potential interference at the TVWS. time of slave/user terminal
        association.  The bridged operator may also disallow some channels from
        the list to suit local needs if required.

   7.   The slave or user device operates as scans the TV bands to locate a slave WRAN
        transmission, and associates with the master/BS.

   8.   The slave/user device provides its geolocation to the BS which,
        in either Hotspot or Wide-Area/Rural internet use cases
       described above.

   2.  Once turn, queries the slave device database for a list of channels available
        at the slave's geolocation.

   9.   Once this list of available channels is connected to received from the
        database by the master, the Wi-Fi
       access point configures its internet settings automatically latter will decide, based on this
        list of available channels and on the backhaul connection (i.e. lists for all its other
        associated slaves/user devices whether it uses DHCP).

   3.  End users connect their WiFi device should: a) continue
        operation on its current channel if this channel is available to
        all slaves/user devices, b) continue operation on its current
        channel and not allow association with the bridged new slave/user device and
       receive internet connectivity.

4.7.  Rapid deployed network for emergency scenario

   Organizations involved
        in handling emergency operations often case this channel is not available at its location or c)
        change channel to accommodate the new slave.  In the latter
        case, the master will notify all its associated slaves/user
        devices of the new channel to which they have a
   fully owned and controlled infrastructure, with dedicated spectrum,
   for day to day operation.  However, lessons learned from recent
   disasters show such infrastructures are often highly affected by move.

   10.  The master/BS must periodically repeat the
   disaster itself.  To set up a replacement quickly, there is process to request a need
   for fast reallocation
        list of spectrum, where in certain cases spectrum
   can be freed available channels from the database for disaster relief.  To utilize free or freed spectrum
   quickly and reliable, automation of allocation, assignment itself and
   configuration is needed.  A preferred option is make use of a robust
   protocol, already adopted for
        all its associated slaves/user devices.  If the response from
        the database indicates that the channel being used by radio manufacturers.  This approach does
   in the
        master/BS is no way imply such organizations longer available for disaster relief its use, the master/BS must compete
        indicate the new operating channel to all its slave/user
        terminals, stop transmitting on spectrum allocation with other white spaces users, but they can.
   A typical network topology would include wireless access links the current channel and move to
        the
   public Internet or private network, wireless ad new operating channel immediately.  If the channel that a
        slave/user terminal is currently using is not longer included in
        the list of locally available channels, the master may either
        drop its association with the slave/user device so that this
        device ceases all operation on its current channel or the master
        may decide to move the entire cell to another channel to
        accommodate the slave/user terminal and indicate the new
        operating channel to all its slave/user devices before dropping
        the link.  The slave/user devices may then move to the
        identified new operating channel or scan for another WRAN
        transmission on a different channel.  The frequency to repeat
        the process is determined by the local regulator.

   11.  The slave/user device must transmit its new geographic location
        every time it changes so that the repeated process described
        under item 10 can rely on the most up-to-date geolocation of the
        slave/user device.

4.2.3.  White space serving as backhaul

   In this use case Internet connectivity service is provided to users
   over a more common wireless standard such as Wi-Fi with white space
   entities providing backhaul connectivity to the Internet.  In a
   typical deployment scenario an end user has a device with a radio
   such as Wi-Fi.  An Internet service provider or a small business
   owner wants to provide Wi-Fi Internet connectivity service to their
   customers.  The location where Internet connectivity service via
   Wi-Fi is to be provided is within the coverage area of a white space
   master (e.g.  Hotspot or Wide-Area/Rural network).  The service
   provider installs a white space slave device and connects it to the
   Wi-Fi access point(s).  Wi-Fi access points with an integrated white
   space slave component may also be used.  This deployment scenario is
   typically characterized by a WS master/AP/BS providing local
   coverage.  The master/AP has a connection to the Internet and
   provides Internet connectivity to slave devices that are within its
   coverage area.  The WS slave device is 'bridged' to a Wi-Fi network
   thereby enabling Internet connectivity service to Wi-Fi devices.  The
   WS Master/AP/BS which has some form of Internet connectivity (wired
   or wireless) queries the database and obtains available channel
   information.  It then provides service using those channels to slave
   devices which are within its coverage area.

   Figure 5 shows an example deployment of this scenario.

                        \|/     white    \|/    \|/   Wi-Fi \|/
                         |      space     |      |           |
                         |                |      |         |-|----|
       |--------|      |-|---------|    |-|------|-|       | Wi-Fi|
       |        |      | Master    |    |  Slave   |       | Dev  |
       |Internet|------| (AP/BS)   |    |  Bridge  |       |------|
       |        |      |           |    | to Wi-Fi |
       |--------|      |-----------|    |----------|        \|/
                                                             |
                                                           |-|----|
                                                           | Wi-Fi|
                                                           | Dev  |
                                                           |------|

                         Figure 5: WS for backhaul

   Once the bridged device (WS + Wi-Fi) is connected to a master and WS
   network, a simplified operation scenario of backhaul for Wi-Fi
   consists of the following steps:

   1.  A bridged device (WS + Wi-Fi) is connected to a master device
       operating in the WS spectrum.  The bridged device operates as a
       slave device in either Hotspot or Wide-Area/Rural Internet use
       cases described above.

   2.  Once the slave device is connected to the master, the Wi-Fi
       access point has Internet connectivity as well.

   3.  End users attach to the Wi-Fi network via their Wi-Fi enabled
       devices and receive Internet connectivity.

4.2.4.  Rapid deployed network for emergency scenario

   Organizations involved in handling emergency operations often have a
   fully owned and controlled infrastructure, with dedicated spectrum,
   for day to day operation.  However, lessons learned from recent
   disasters show such infrastructures are often highly affected by the
   disaster itself.  To set up a replacement quickly, there is a need
   for fast reallocation of spectrum, where in certain cases spectrum
   can be cleared for disaster relief.  To utilize unused or cleared
   spectrum quickly and reliably, automation of allocation, assignment
   and configuration is needed.  A preferred option is to make use of a
   robust protocol, already adopted by radio manufacturers.  This
   approach does in no way imply such organizations for disaster relief
   must compete on spectrum allocation with other white spaces users,
   but they can.  A typical network topology would include wireless
   access links to the public Internet or private network, wireless ad
   hoc network radios working independent of a fixed infrastructure and
   satellite links for backup where lack of coverage, overload or outage
   of wireless access links occur.

   Figure 6 shows an example deployment of this scenario.

                              \|/
                               | ad hoc
                               |
                             |-|-------------|
                             | Master node   |       |------------|
     \|/                     | with          |       | Whitespace |
      | ad hoc              /| backhaul link |       | Database   |
      |             /------/ |---------------|       |------------|
   ---|------------/                |      \           /
   | Master node   |                |       |      (--/--)
   | without       |                |       ------(       )
   | backhaul link |                |  Wireless  / Private \
   ----------------\                |    Access (   net or  )
                    \                |            \ Internet )
                     \    \|/        |      -------(        /\
                      \    | ad hoc  |      |       (------)  \---------
                       \   |         |      /                 | Other  |
                        \--|-------------  /Satellite         | nodes  |
                        | Master node   | / Link              ----------
                        | with          |/
                        | backhaul link |
                        -----------------

       Figure 6: Rapid deployed network with partly connected nodes

   In the ad hoc network, all nodes are master nodes in a way that they
   allocate RF channels from the white space database.  However, the
   backhaul link may not be available to all nodes, such as depicted for
   the left node in Figure 6.  To handle RF channel allocation for such
   nodes, a master node with a backhaul link relays or proxies the
   database query for them.  So master nodes without a backhaul link
   follow the procedure as defined for clients.  The ad hoc network
   radios
   working independent utilize the provided RF channels.  Details on forming and
   maintenance of the ad hoc network, including repair of segmented
   networks caused by segments operating on different RF channels, is
   out of scope of spectrum allocation.

4.2.5.  Mobility

   In this use case, the user has a non-fixed (portable or mobile)
   device and is riding in a vehicle.  The user wants to have
   connectivity to another device which is also moving.  Typical
   deployment scenarios include urban areas and rural areas where the
   user may connect to other users while moving.  This deployment
   scenario is typically characterized by a master device with low
   antenna height, Internet connectivity by some connection that does
   not utilize TV white space, and some means to predict its path of
   mobility.  This knowledge of mobility could be simple (GPS plus
   accelerometer), sophisticated (GPS plus routing and mapping function)
   or completely specified by the user via user-interface.

   Figure 7 shows an example deployment of this scenario.

                  \|/                            \|/
                   |       TDD Air Interface      |
                   |                              |
                 +-|---------+                  +-|---------+
                 |   TVWS    |                  |   TVWS    |
                 |Master Dev |                  |Master Dev |
                 +-----------+                  +-----------+
                              \     (----)     /
                               \   (      )   /
                                \ /        \ /
                                 ( Internet )
                                  \        /
                                   (      )\----------+
                                    (----) | Database |
                                           +----------+

   Figure 7: Example illustration of mobility in TV white space use-case

   A simplified operational scenario utilizing TV whitespace to provide
   connectivity service in a mobility environment consists of the
   following steps:

   1.   The mobile master device powers up with its WS radio in idle or
        listen mode only (no active transmission on the WS frequency
        band).

   2.   The mobile master has Internet connectivity, determines its
        location, and establishes a connection to a trusted white space
        database (see Section 4.1.1).

   3.   The mobile master registers with the trusted database according
        to regulatory domain requirements (see Section 4.1.2).

   4.   Following the successful registration process (if registration
        is required), the mobile master will send a query to the trusted
        database requesting a list of available WS channels based upon
        its current location, other parameters required by the local
        regulator (see Section 4.2.1, step 4) and a prediction of its
        future location.  The current location is specified in latitude
        and longitude.  The method to specify the future location is
        TBD, potential methods include movement vector (direction and
        velocity), a set of latitude/longitude points which specify a
        closed polygon where the future location is within the polygon,
        or similar.

   5.   If the mobile master has met all regulatory domain requirements
        (e.g. been previously authenticated, etc), the database responds
        with a list of available white space channels that the mobile
        master may use, and optional information which may include (1) a
        duration of time for the use of each channel (2) a maximum
        transmit power for each channel and (3) notification of any
        additional requirement for sensing.

   6.   Once the mobile master has met all regulatory domain
        requirements (e.g. authenticated the WS channel list response
        message from the database, etc), the master selects one or more
        available WS channel(s) from the list for use.

   7.   The slave/user device scans to locate a mobile master
        transmission, and associates with the mobile master.

   8.   The slave/user device queries the master for a channel list,
        providing to the master the slave's device identification, and
        optionally its geolocation and a prediction of its future
        location.

   9.   Once the mobile master has met all regulatory domain
        requirements (e.g. the slave's device identification is verified
        by the database), the mobile master provides the list of
        channels locally available to the slave/user device.

   10.  If the mobile master moves outside the predicted range of future
        positions in step 4, it must repeat the process to request a
        channel list from the database, steps 4 through 6 above.  If the
        response from the database indicates a channel being used by the
        mobile master is not available, the master/AP must stop
        transmitting on that channel immediately.

   11.  The slave or user device must periodically repeat the process to
        request a channel list from the master/AP, steps 8 and 9 above.
        The frequency to repeat the process is determined by the local
        regulator.  If the response from the master/AP indicates that a
        channel being used by the slave or user device is not available,
        the slave or user device must stop transmitting on that channel
        immediately.  In addition or optionally, the database may send a
        message to the master/AP to rescind the availability of one or
        more channels.  The master/AP must then notify the slave or user
        device of the rescinded channels.  The slave or user device must
        stop transmitting on that channel immediately.

4.2.6.  Indoor Networking

   In this use case, the users are inside a house or office.  The users
   want to have connectivity to the Internet or to equipment in the same
   or other houses / offices.  This deployment scenario is typically
   characterized by master devices within buildings, that are connected
   to the Internet using a method that does not utilize whitespace.  The
   master devices can establish whitespace links between themselves, or
   between themselves and one or more user devices.

   Figure 8 shows an example deployment of this scenario.

                             \|/
                              |
      +-------+               |
      |TVWS   |\            +-|---------+
      |Usr Dev|  WS AirIF \ |   TVWS    |\
      +-------+            X|Master Dev | \
                          / +-----------+  \
      +-------+  WS AirIF          |        \               +----------+
      |TVWS   |/                   |         \      (----)  | Database |
      |Usr Dev|                    |          \    (      ) /----------+
      +-------+                WS AirIF        \  /        \
                                   |            X( Internet )
                                   |           /  \        /
      +-------+              \|/   |          /    (      )
      |TVWS   |\              |    |         /      (----)
      |Usr Dev|  WS AirIF     |    |        /
      +-------+          \  +-|---------+  /
                          \ |   TVWS    | /
                            |Master Dev |/
                            +-----------+

     Figure 8: Example illustration of indoor TV white space use-case

   A simplified operational scenario utilizing TV whitespace to provide
   indoor networking consists of the following steps:

   1.  The master device powers up with its whitespace radio in idle or
       listen mode only (no active transmission on the whitespace
       frequency band).

   2.  The master device has Internet connectivity, determines its
       location (either from location determination capability or from a
       saved value that was set during installation), and establishes a
       connection to a trusted white space database (see Section 4.1.1).

   3.  The master device registers with the trusted database according
       to regulatory domain requirements (see Section 4.1.2).

   4.  Following the successful registration process (if registration is
       required), the master device sends a query to the trusted
       database requesting a list of available WS channels based upon
       its geolocation.  The complete set of parameters to be provided
       from the master to the database is specified by the local
       regulator.  Parameters may include WSD location, accuracy of that
       location, device antenna height, device identifier of a fixed infrastructure slave
       device requesting channel information.

   5.  If the master has met all regulatory requirements, the database
       responds with a list of available white space channels that the
       master device may use, and satellite links optional information which may include
       inter alia (1) a duration of time for
   backup where lack the use of coverage, overload each channel
       (channel validity time) (2) a maximum radiated power for each
       channel, and (3) directivity and other antenna information.

   6.  Once the master device authenticates the whitespace channel list
       response message from the database, the master device selects one
       or more available whitespace channels from the list.

   7.  The user device(s) scan(s) the white space bands to locate the
       master device transmissions, and associates with the master.

4.2.7.  Machine to Machine (M2M)

   In this use case, each "machine" includes a white space slave device
   and can be located anywhere, fixed or on the move.  Each machine
   needs to have connectivity to the Internet and or to other machines
   in the vicinity.  Machine communication over a TVWS channel, whether
   to a master device or outage to another machine (slave device), is under the
   control of wireless access
   links occur.

   The figure below a master device.  This deployment scenario is typically
   characterized by a master device with Internet connectivity by some
   connection that does not utilize TV white space.

   Figure 9 shows an example deployment of this scenario.

                             \|/
                              | ad hoc
                               |
                             |-|-------------|
                             | Master node   |       |------------|
     \|/                     | with          |       | Whitespace |
      | ad hoc              /| backhaul link |       | Database
                              |
                            +-|---------+
                            |             /------/ |---------------|       |------------|
   ---|------------/   TVWS    |\
                           /|Master Dev | \
                          /
   | Master node   |                |       |      (--/--)
   | without       |                |       ------(       )
   | backhaul link |                |  Wireless +-----------+  \
                 WS AirIF                   \               +----------+
      +-------+ / Private                            \
   ----------------\      (----)  |    Access (   net or  )
                    \ Database |
      |Machine|                               \ Internet    (      ) /----------+
      +-------+                                \    \|/        |      -------(        /\  /        \
          | ad hoc  |      |       (------)  \---------                                     X( Internet )
       WS AirIF                                   \   |         |      /                 | Other  |
                        \--|-------------  /Satellite         | nodes  |
                        | Master node   |        / Link              ----------
                        | with          |/
          | backhaul link |
                        -----------------                                        (      )
      +-------+                                     (----)
      |Machine|
      +-------+ \           +-------+
                 WS AirIF-- |Machine|
                            +-------+

       Figure 7: Rapid deployed network 9: Example illustration of M2M TV white space use-case

   A simplified operational scenario utilizing TV whitespace to provide
   machine to machine connectivity consists of the following steps:

   1.  The master device powers up with its whitespace radio in idle or
       listen mode only (no active transmission on the whitespace
       frequency band).

   2.  The master device has Internet connectivity, determines its
       location (either from location determination capability or from
       saved value that was set during installation), and establishes a
       connection to a trusted white space database (see Section 4.1.1).

   3.  The master/AP registers with partly connected nodes

   In the ad hoc network, all nodes are trusted database according to
       regulatory domain requirements (see Section 4.1.2).

   4.  Following successful registration (if registration is required),
       the master nodes in device sends its geolocation and location uncertainty
       information, and optionally additional information which may
       include (1) device ID and (2) antenna characteristics, to a way that they
   allocate RF
       trusted database, requesting a list of available whitespace
       channels from based upon this information.

   5.  If the master has met all regulatory domain requirements, the
       database responds with a list of available white space database.  However, channels
       that the
   backhaul link master device may not be use, and optional information which
       may include inter alia (1) a duration of time for the use of each
       channel (channel validity time) (2) a maximum radiated power for
       each channel or a notification of any additional requirements for
       sensing.

   6.  Once the master device authenticates the whitespace channel list
       response message from the database, the master device selects one
       or more available whitespace channels from the list.

   7.  The slave devices fitted to the machines scan the TV bands to
       locate the master transmissions, and associate with the master
       device.

   8.  Further signaling can take place outside scope of PAWS to
       establish direct links among those slave devices that have
       associated with the same master device.  At all nodes, such as depicted for times these
       direct links are under the left node in control of the figure.  To handle RF channel allocation for
   such nodes, master device.  For
       example, common to all use cases, there may be a regulatory
       requirement for transmissions from slave to master node with a backhaul link relays to cease
       immediately if so requested by the master, or proxies if connection to
       the
   database query for them.  So master nodes without is lost for more than a backhaul link
   follow specified period of time.
       When one of these conditions occurs, transmissions from slave to
       slave would also cease.  Various mechanisms could be used to
       detect loss of signal from the procedure as defined master, for clients.  The ad hoc network
   radios utilise example by requiring
       masters to transmit regular beacons if they allow slave to slave
       communications.  Direct slave to slave transmissions could only
       restart if each slave subsequently restores its connection to the provided RF channels.  Details on forming and
   maintenance of
       same master, or each slave joins the ad hoc network, including repair of segmented
   networks caused by segments operating on different RF channels, is
   out network of scope another master.

5.  Problem Statement

   The use of white space spectrum allocation.

4.8.  Mobility

   In this use case, is enabled via the user has capability of a non-fixed (portable or mobile)
   device and is riding in a vehicle.  The user wants to have
   connectivity to another device which is also moving.  Typical
   deployment scenarios include urban areas query a database and rural areas where obtain information about the
   user may connect to other users in peer-to-peer or ad-hoc networks.
   This deployment scenario is typically characterized by
   availability of spectrum for use at a master
   device with low antenna height, internet connectivity by some
   connection that does not utilize TV white space, given location.  The databases
   are reachable via the Internet and some means to
   predict its path of mobility.  This knowledge the devices querying these
   databases are expected to have some form of mobility could Internet connectivity,
   directly or indirectly.  The databases may be
   simple (GPS plus accelerometer), sophisticated (GPS plus routing country specific since
   the available spectrum and
   mapping function) or completely specified by regulations may vary, but the user via user-
   interface.

   The figure below shows an fundamental
   operation of the protocol should be country independent.

   An example deployment high-level architecture of this scenario.

                  \|/                            \|/
                   |       TDD Air Interface      |
                   |                              |
                 +-|---------+                  +-|---------+
                 |   TVWS    |                  |   TVWS    |
                 |Master Dev |                  |Master Dev the devices and white space
   databases is shown in Figure 10:

           -----------
           |WS Device|                              ------------
           |Lat: X   |\           .---.    /--------|Database X|
           |Long: Y  |
                 +-----------+                  +-----------+
                              \     (----)     / \         (     )  /
                                \ /        \ /         ------------
           -----------  \-------/       \/               o
                              ( Internet )
                                  \               o
           -----------  /------(        )\               o
           |WS Device| /
                                   (      )\----------+
                                    (----) | Database         (_____)  \         ------------
           |Lat: X   |/                    \--------|Database Y|
           |Long: Y  |
                                           +----------+                              ------------
           -----------

    Figure 8: Example illustration of mobility in TV white space use-case

   A simplified operational scenario utilizing TV whitespace to provide
   peer-to-peer connectivity service in a mobility environment consists 10: High level view of the following steps:

   1.  The mobile master device powers up with its WS radio in idle or
       listen mode only (no active transmission on the WS frequency
       band).

   2.  The mobile master has internet connectivity and establishes a
       connection to a trusted white White space database (see Section 4.1).

   3. architecture

   In Figure 10, note that there could be multiple databases serving
   white space devices.  The mobile master registers with databases are country specific since the trusted database according
       to regulatory domain requirements (see Section 4.2).

   4.  Following
   regulations and available spectrum may vary.  In some countries, for
   example, the registration process, U.S., the mobile master will send a
       query regulator has determined that multiple,
   competing databases may provide service to White Space Devices.

   A messaging interface between the white space devices and the trusted
   database requesting is required for operating a list network using the white space
   spectrum.  The following sections discuss various aspects of available WS
       channels based upon its current location such an
   interface and the need for a prediction standard.  Other aspects of its
       future location, extrapolated from a solution
   including provisioning the motion or mobility database, and calculating protected
   contours are considered out of scope of the
       device.  The current location is specified in latitude initial effort, as there
   are significant differences between countries and
       longitude. spectrum bands.

5.1.  Global applicability

   The method to specify the future location is TBD,
       potential methods include movement vector (direction and
       velocity), a set use of latitude/longitude points which specify a
       closed polygon where the future location TV white space spectrum is within currently approved by the polygon,
       or similar.

   5.  If FCC
   in the mobile master has met all United States.  However regulatory domain requirements
       (e.g. been previously authenticated, etc), the database responds
       with a list bodies in other countries
   are also considering similar use of available white space channels that the mobile
       master may use, and optional information which may include (1) a
       duration of time for the use spectrum.  The
   principles of each channel (2) a maximum
       transmit power cognitive radio usage for each channel.

   6.  Once the mobile master has met all regulatory domain requirements
       (e.g. authenticated the WS channel list response message from such spectrum is generally
   the
       database, etc), same.  Some of the master selects an available WS channel(s)
       from regulatory details may vary on a country
   specific basis.  However the list need for use.

   7.  The other user device in the peer-to-peer connection scans devices that intend to use the TV
       bands
   spectrum to locate a mobile master transmission, and associates communicate with
       the mobile master. a database remains a common feature.
   The slave/user device queries the master for database provides a channel list, based known, specifiable Protection Contour for the
   primary user, not dependent on the slave's device identification,
       geolocation and optionally a prediction characteristics of the White Space
   Device or its future location.

   8.  If required by local regulation, ability to sense the master device verifies primary use.  It also provides a
   way to specify a schedule of use, because some primary users (for
   example, wireless microphones) only operate in limited time slots.

   Devices need to be able to query a database, directly or indirectly
   over the
       slave's device identification with public Internet and/or private IP networks prior to
   operating in available spectrum.  Information about available
   spectrum, schedule, power, etc. are provided by the database.

   9.  If allowed database as a
   response to the query from a device.  The messaging interface needs
   to be:

   1.  Radio/air interface agnostic - The radio/air interface technology
       used by local regulation (e.g. the slave's white space device
       identification is verified by in available spectrum can be IEEE
       802.11af, IEEE 802.15.4m, IEEE 802.16, IEEE 802.22, LTE etc.
       However the database), messaging interface between the mobile master
       provides white space device
       and the list of channels locally available database should be agnostic to the slave/user
       device.  If air interface while
       being cognizant of the channel that characteristics of various air-interface
       technologies and the slave/user terminal is currently
       using is not included need to include relevant attributes in the list of locally available channels,
       query to the slave/user device ceases all operation on its current
       channel.  The slave/user device may scan for another Master's
       transmission on a different channel.

4.9.  Indoor Networking

   In this use case, database.

   2.  Spectrum agnostic - the spectrum used by primary and secondary
       users are inside varies by country.  Some spectrum has an explicit notion of
       a house or office.  The users
   want "channel" a defined swath of spectrum within a band that has
       some assigned identifier.  Other spectrum bands may be subject to
       white space sharing, but only have connectivity actual frequency low/high
       parameters to the internet or define protected entity use.  The protocol should
       be able to equipment be used in the same
   or other houses / offices.  This deployment scenario any spectrum band where white space sharing
       is typically
   characterized by master permitted.

   3.  Globally applicable - A common messaging interface between white
       space devices within buildings, and databases will enable the use of such spectrum
       for various purposes on a global basis.  Devices can operate in
       any country where such spectrum is available and a common
       interface ensures uniformity in implementations and deployment.
       Since the White Space Device must know its geospatial location to
       do a query, it is possible to determine which database, and which
       rules, are applicable, even though they are country specific.

   4.  Address regulatory requirements - Each country will likely have
       regulations that are connected unique to that country.  The messaging
       interface needs to be flexible to accommodate the Internet using specific needs
       of a method that does not utilise TV whitespace.
   The master devices can establish TV whitespace links between
   themselves, or between themselves regulatory body in the country where the white space device
       is operating and one or more user devices.

   The figure below shows an example deployment of this scenario.

                             \|/
                              |
      +-------+               |
      |TVWS   |\            +-|---------+
      |Usr Dev|  WS AirIF \ |   TVWS    |\
      +-------+            X|Master Dev | \
                          / +-----------+  \
      +-------+  WS AirIF          |        \               +----------+
      |TVWS   |/                   |         \      (----)  | connecting to the relevant database.

5.2.  Database |
      |Usr Dev|                    |          \    (      ) /----------+
      +-------+                WS AirIF        \  /        \
                                   |            X( Internet )
                                   |           /  \        /
      +-------+              \|/   |          /    (      )
      |TVWS   |\              |    |         /      (----)
      |Usr Dev|  WS AirIF     |    |        /
      +-------+          \  +-|---------+  /
                          \ |   TVWS    | /
                            |Master Dev |/
                            +-----------+

     Figure 9: Example illustration discovery

   Another aspect of indoor TV white the problem space use-case

   A simplified operational scenario utilizing TV whitespace is the need to provide
   indoor networking consists of discover the following steps:

   1.  The master
   database.  A white space device powers up with needs to find the relevant database
   to query, based on its whitespace radio in idle current location or
       listen mode only (no active transmission on for another location.
   Since the whitespace
       frequency band).

   2. spectrum and databases are country specific, the device
   will need to discover the relevant database.  The master device has internet connectivity and establishes a
       connection needs to
   obtain the IP address of the specific database to which it can send
   queries in addition to registering itself for operation and using the
   available spectrum.

5.3.  Protocol

   A protocol that enables a trusted white space database (see Section 3.1
       above).

   3.  The master device sends its geolocation and location uncertainty
       information, and optionally additional information which may
       include (1) device ID and (2) antenna characteristics, to query a
       trusted database, requesting a list of database to
   obtain information about available whitespace channels based upon this information.

   4.  The is needed.  A device may
   be required to register with the database responds with some credentials prior
   to being allowed to query.  The requirements for such a list protocol are
   specified in this document.

5.4.  Data model definition

   The contents of available the queries and response need to be specified.  A
   data model is required which enables the white space
       channels that the master device may use, and optional to query
   the database while including all the relevant information such as
   geolocation, radio technology, power characteristics, etc. which may include inter alia (1)
   be country and spectrum and regulatory dependent.  All databases are
   able to interpret the data model and respond to the queries using the
   same data model that is understood by all devices.

   Use of XML for specifying a duration data model is an attractive option.  The
   intent is to evaluate the best option that meets the need for use
   between white space devices and databases.

6.  Requirements

6.1.  Normative Requirements

      D. Data Model Requirements:

      D.1:   The Data Model MUST support specifying the location of the
             WSD, the uncertainty in meters, the height & its
             uncertainty, and confidence in percentage for the location
             determination.  The Data Model MUST support both North
             American Datum of 1983 and WGS84.

      D.2:   The Data Model MUST support specifying the URI address of time for a
             white space database.

      D.3:   The Data Model MUST support specifying the use URI address of each channel (channel validity time) (2) a maximum radiated
       power for each channel, (3)
             national listing service.

      D.4:   The Data Model MUST support specifying the regulatory
             domain and its corresponding data requirements.

      D.5:   The Data Model MUST support specifying an indication ID of the quality
             transmitter device.  This ID would contain the ID of the
       spectrum
             transmitter device that has been certified by a regulatory
             body for each channel and (4) directivity its regulatory domain.  The Data Model MUST
             support a device class.

      D.6:   The Data Model MUST support specifying a manufacturer's
             serial number for a master device.

      D.7:   The Data Model MUST support specifying the antenna and other
             radiation related parameters of the subject, such as:

                antenna
       information.

   5.  Once height

                antenna gain

                maximum output power, EIRP (dBm)

                antenna radiation pattern (directional dependence of the master device authenticates
                strength of the whitespace channel list
       response message radio signal from the database, the master device selects one
       or more available whitespace channels antenna)

                spectrum mask with lowest and highest possible frequency

                spectrum mask in dBr from peak transmit power in EIRP,
                with specific power limit at any frequency linearly
                interpolated between adjacent points of the list.

   6. spectrum
                mask

                measurement resolution bandwidth for EIRP measurements

      D.8:   The user device(s) scan(s) the TV white space bands to locate the
       master device transmissions, Data Model MUST support specifying owner and associates with the master.

4.10.  Machine to Machine (M2M)

   In this use case, each "machine" includes operator
             contact information for a white space slave device
   and can be located anywhere, fixed or on transmitter.  This includes the move.  Each machine
   needs to have connectivity to
             name of the internet transmitter owner, name of transmitter
             operator, postal address, email address and or to other machines
   in phone number of
             the vicinity.  Machine communication over a TVWS channel, whether
   to transmitter operator.

      D.9:   The Data Model MUST support specifying a master device or to another machine (slave device), is under the
   control list of a master device.  This deployment scenario is typically
   characterized by a master device with internet connectivity by some
   connection that does not utilize TV white space. available
             channels.  The figure below shows an example deployment Data Model MUST support specification of
             this scenario.

                             \|/
                              |
                              |
                            +-|---------+
                            |   TVWS    |\
                           /|Master Dev | \
                          / +-----------+  \
                 WS AirIF                   \               +----------+
      +-------+ /                            \      (----)  | Database |
      |Machine|                               \    (      ) /----------+
      +-------+                                \  /        \
          |                                     X( Internet )
       WS AirIF                                   \        /
          |                                        (      )
      +-------+                                     (----)
      |Machine|
      +-------+ \           +-------+
                 WS AirIF-- |Machine|
                            +-------+

      Figure 10: Example illustration of M2M TV white space use-case

   A simplified operational scenario utilizing TV whitespace to provide
   machine to machine connectivity consists of the following steps:

   1. information by channel numbers and by start and stop
             frequencies.  The master device powers up with its whitespace radio Data Model MUST support a channel
             availability schedule and maximum power level for each
             channel in idle the list.

      D.10:  The Data Model MUST support specifying channel availability
             information for a single location and an area (e.g. a
             polygon defined by multiple location points or
       listen mode only (no active transmission on a geometric
             shape such as a circle).

      P. Protocol Requirements:

      P.1:   The protocol MUST provide a message sequence for the whitespace
       frequency band).

   2.  The master
             device has internet connectivity and establishes a
       connection to discover a trusted white space database (see Section 3.1
       above).

   3.  The master device sends that provides
             service at its geolocation and location uncertainty
       information, and optionally additional information which may
       include (1) device ID and (2) antenna characteristics, to a
       trusted database, requesting a list current location.

      P.2:   The protocol MUST support access of available whitespace
       channels based upon this information.

   4. a database directly.
             The protocol MUST support access of a database responds with using a list of available white space
       channels that the master device may use, and optional information
       which may include inter alia (1)
             listing approved by a duration national regulator.

      P.3:   The protocol MUST support determination of time for regulatory
             domain governing its current location.

      P.4:   The protocol MUST provide the use
       of each channel (channel validity time) (2) a maximum radiated
       power ability for each channel, (3) an indication of the quality of database to
             authenticate the
       spectrum master device.

      P.5:   The protocol MUST provide the ability for each channel and (4) directivity and other antenna
       information.

   5.  Once the master device authenticates
             to verify the whitespace channel list
       response message from authenticity of the database, database with which it is
             interacting.

      P.6:   The messages sent by the master device selects one
       or more available whitespace channels from the list.

   6.  The slave devices fitted to the machines scan database MUST
             be integrity protected.

      P.7:   The messages sent by the TV bands database to
       locate the master transmissions, and associate with device MUST
             be integrity protected.

      P.8:   The protocol MUST provide the master
       device.  Further signaling can take place outside scope of PAWS
       to establish direct links among those slave devices that have
       associated with capability for messages sent
             by the master device.

5.  Problem Statement device and database to be encrypted.

      P.9:   The use of white space spectrum is enabled via protocol MUST support the capability of a master device to query a database and obtain information about registering
             with the
   availability of spectrum for use at database.

      P.10:  The protocol MUST support a given location. registration acknowledgement
             including appropriate result codes.

      P.11:  The databases
   are reachable via the Internet and protocol MUST support a channel query request from the devices querying these
   databases are expected
             master device to have some form of Internet connectivity,
   directly or indirectly.  The databases may be country specific since the available spectrum database.  The channel query request
             message MUST include parameters as required by local
             regulatory requirement.  These parameters MAY include
             device location, device ID, manufacturer's serial number,
             and regulations may vary, but the fundamental
   operation of the antenna characteristic information.

      P.12:  The protocol should be country independent.

   An example high-level architecture of the devices and white space
   databases is shown in the figure below:

           -----------
           |WS Device|                              ------------
           |Lat: X   |\           .---.    /--------|Database X|
           |Long: Y  | \         (     )  /         ------------
           -----------  \-------/       \/               o
                              ( Internet )               o
           -----------  /------(        )\               o
           |WS Device| /         (_____)  \         ------------
           |Lat: X   |/                    \--------|Database Y|
           |Long: Y  |                              ------------
           -----------

    Figure 11: High level view of MUST support a channel query response from the White space
             database architecture

   In to the figure above, note that there could be multiple databases
   serving white space devices. master device.  The databases are country specific
   since the regulations and available spectrum may vary.  In some
   countries, channel query response
             message MUST include parameters as required by local
             regulatory requirement.  These parameters MAY include
             available channels, duration of time for example, the U.S., their use,
             associated maximum power levels, any additional sensing
             requirements.

      P.13:  The protocol MUST support a channel query request from the regulator has determined that
   multiple, competing databases may provide service
             slave device to White Space
   Devices.

   A messaging interface between the white space devices master device.  The channel query
             request message MUST include parameters as required by
             local regulatory requirement.  These parameters MAY include
             device ID and slave device location.

      P.14:  The protocol MUST support a validation request from the
             master to the database is required for operating to validate a network using slave device.  The
             validation request MUST include the white space
   spectrum. slave device ID.

      P.15:  The following sections discuss various aspects of such an
   interface and protocol MUST support a validation response from the need for
             database to the master.  The validation response MUST
             include a standard.  Other aspects of response code.

      P.16:  The protocol MUST support a solution
   including provisioning channel query response from the database, and calculating protected
   contours are considered out of scope of
             master device to the initial effort, as there
   are significant differences between countries and spectrum bands.

5.1.  Global applicability slave device.  The use of TV white space spectrum is currently approved channel query
             response message MUST include parameters as required by the FCC
   in the United States.  However
             local regulatory bodies in other countries
   are also considering similar use of available spectrum. requirement, including a response code and
             sufficient information to decode an enabling signal.

      P.17:  The
   principles of cognitive radio usage for such spectrum is generally protocol MUST support an enabling signal sent from the same.  Some of
             master to the regulatory details may vary on a country
   specific basis.  However slave.  This signal MUST allow the need for devices slave
             device to validate that intend a previously received available
             channel list is still valid or not.  This signal MUST be
             encoded to use allow the
   spectrum slave device to communicate with a database remains a common feature. determine the identity
             if the sending master device.

      P.18:  The database provides a known, specifiable Protection Contour for protocol between the
   primary user, not dependent on master device and the characteristics of database
             MUST support the White Space
   Device or it's ability capability to sense change channel availability
             lists on short notice.

      P.19:  The protocol between the primary use.  It also provides master device and the database
             MUST support a
   way to specify channel availability request which specifies
             a schedule of use, because some primary users (for
   example, wireless microphones) only operate in limited time slots.

   Devices need geographic location as an area as well as a point.

      O. Operational Requirements:

      O.1:   The database and the master device MUST be connected to the
             Internet.

      O.2:   A master device MUST be able to query determine its location
             including uncertainty and confidence level.  A fixed master
             device MAY use a database, directly location programmed at installation or indirectly
   over
             have the public Internet and/or private IP networks prior capability determine its location to
   operating in available spectrum.  Information about available
   spectrum, schedule, power, etc. are provided the required
             accuracy.  A mobile master device MUST have the capability
             to determine its location to the required accuracy.

      O.3:   The master device MUST identify a database for use.  The
             master device MAY select a database for service by
             discovery at runtime or the master device MAY select a
             database for service by means of a pre-programmed URI
             address.

      O.4:   The master device MUST implement at least one connection
             method to access the database.  The master device MAY
             contact a database directly for service (e.g. as a
   response to defined by
             FCC) or the query from master device MAY contact a device.  The messaging interface needs listing server
             first followed by contact to be:

   1.  Radio/air interface agnostic - The radio/air interface technology
       used a database (e.g. as defined by the white space
             Ofcom).

      O.5:   The master device in available spectrum can be
       802.11af, 802.16, 802.22, LTE etc.  However MUST obtain an indication the messaging
       interface between regulatory
             domain governing operation at its current location, i.e.
             the white space master device and MUST know if it operates under
             regulations from FCC, Ofcom, etc...

      O.6:   The master device MAY register with the database should
       be agnostic to the air interface while being cognizant of the
       characteristics of various air-interface technologies and the
       need to include relevant attributes in the query according
             to the database.

   2.  Spectrum agnostic - the spectrum used by primary and secondary
       users varies by country.  Some spectrum has an explicit notion of
       a "channel" a defined swath of spectrum within a band that has
       some assigned identifier.  Other spectrum bands may local regulatory policy.  Not all master devices will be subject to
       white space sharing, but only have actual frequency low/high
       parameters
             required to define protected entity use. register.  Specific events will initiate
             registration, these events are determined by regulator
             policy (e.g. at power up, after movement, etc...).

      O.7:   The protocol should
       be able to be used in any spectrum band where white space sharing
       is permitted.

   3.  Globally applicable - A common messaging interface between white
       space devices master device MUST register with its most current and databases will enable
             up-to-date information, and MUST include all variables
             mandated by local regulator policy.

      O.8:   A master device MUST query the use of such spectrum database for various purposes the available
             channels based on a global basis.  Devices can operate its current location before starting
             radio transmission in white space.  Parameters provided to
             the database MAY include device location, accuracy of the
             location, antenna characteristic information, device
             identifier of any country where such spectrum is slave device requesting channel
             information.

      O.9:   The database MUST respond to an available channel list
             request from an authenticated and a common
       interface ensures uniformity authorized device and MAY
             also provide time constraints, maximum output power, start
             and stop frequencies for each channel in implementations the list and deployment.
       Since any
             additional requirements for sensing.

      O.10:  After connecting to a master device's radio network a slave
             device MUST query the White Space master device must know it's geospatial location
       to do for a query, it is possible list of available
             channels.  The slave MUST include parameters required by
             local regulatory policy, e.g. device ID, device location.

      O.11:  According to determine which local regulatory policy, the master device MAY
             query the database with parameters received from the slave
             device.

      O.12:  The database MUST respond to a query from the master device
             containing parameters from a slave device.

      O.13:  After the master device has received a response from the
             database, and
       which rules, are applicable, even though they are country
       specific.

   4.  Address the master device MUST respond to the slave
             device.  If all regulatory requirements - Each country are met the
             response will likely have
       regulations that contain an available channel list.  If
             regulatory requirements are unique to that country.  The messaging
       interface needs to be flexible not met, the response MUST
             contain at least a response code.

      O.14:  If a master device has provided an available channel list
             to accommodate the specific needs
       of a regulatory body in the country where slave device the white space master device
       is operating and connecting MAY send a periodic
             enabling signal to allow the relevant database.

5.2.  Database discovery

   Another aspect slave device to confirm it is
             still within reception range of the problem space is master device.

      O.15:  The enabling signal MUST be encoded so that the need to discover receiving
             slave can determine the
   database.  A white space device needs to find identity of the relevant database sending master.

      O.16:  Periodically, at an interval according to query based on its current location or for another location.
   Since local
             regulations, the spectrum slave device MUST either receive and databases are country specific,
             enabling signal or MUST successfully repeat the device
   will need to discover channel
             request process or MUST cease transmission on the relevant database.  The channel.

      O.17:  A master device needs to
   obtain MUST repeat the IP address of query to the specific database to which it can send
   queries in addition to registering itself for operation and using
             the available spectrum.

5.3.  Protocol

   A protocol channels as often as required by the
             regulation (e.g., FCC requires once per day) to verify that enables a white space device
             the operating channels continue to query remain available.

      O.18:  A master device which changes its location more than a
             threshold distance (specified by local regulatory policy)
             during its operation, MUST query the database to
   obtain information about for available
             operating channels is needed.  A device may
   be required to register with each time it moves more than the
             threshold distance (e.g., FCC specifies 100m) from the
             location it previously made the database with some credentials prior
   to being allowed to query.  The requirements for such

      O.19:  If slave devices change their location during operation by
             more than a protocol are limit specified in this document.

5.4.  Data model definition

   The contents of by the queries and response need to be specified.  A
   data model is required which enables local regulator, the white space
             slave device to MUST query the database while including all the relevant information such as
   geolocation, radio technology, power characteristics, etc. which master device for available
             operating channels.

      O.20:  According to local regulator policy, a master device may
             contact a database via proxy service of another master
             device.

      O.21:  A master device MUST be country and spectrum and regulatory dependent.  All databases are able to interpret the data model and respond to the queries using query the
   same data model that is understood by all devices.

   Use of XML whitespace
             database for channel availability information for specifying a data model is an attractive option.  The
   intent is
             specific expected coverage area around its current
             location.

      O.22:  A Master device MUST include its identity in messages sent
             to evaluate the best option that meets database.

6.2.  Guidelines

   The current scope of the need for use
   between white space devices working group is limited and databases.

6.  Requirements

   This section is the placeholder for reflected in
   the requirements derived from the
   use cases.

      D. Data Model Requirements:

      D.1:  The Data Model MUST support specifying the antenna captured in Section 6.1.  However white space
   technology itself is expected to evolve and
            radiation related parameters of the subject, address other aspects
   such as:

               antenna height

               antenna gain

               maximum output power, EIRP (dBm)

               antenna radiation pattern (directional dependence of the
               strength as co-existence and interference avoidance, spectrum brokering,
   alternative spectrum bands, etc.  The design of the radio signal from the antenna

               spectrum mask with lowest data model and highest possible frequency

               spectrum mask in dBr from peak transmit power
   protocol should be cognizant of the evolving nature of white space
   technology and consider the following set of guidelines in EIRP,
               with specific power limit at any frequency linearly
               interpolated between adjacent points the
   development of the data model and protocol:

   1.  The data model SHOULD provide a modular design separating out
       messaging specific, administrative specific, and spectrum mask
               measurement resolution bandwidth for EIRP measurements

      D.2:
       specific parts into separate modules.

   2.  The Data Model MUST protocol SHOULD support specifying an ID determination of the
            transmitter subject. which administrative
       specific and spectrum specific modules are used.

7.  IANA Considerations

   This ID would contain the ID of document has no requests to IANA.

8.  Security Considerations

   Threat model for the
            transmitter device PAWS protocol

   Assumptions:

   It is assumed that an attacker has been certified by a regulatory
            body for its regulatory domain.

      D.3: full access to the network medium
   between the master device and the white space database.  The Data Model MUST support specifying a contact or a list
            of contacts of this transmitter.  For example, facility or
            on-site technical manager, administrator, any operational
            contacts attacker
   may be specified.

      D.4: able to eavesdrop on any communications between these
   entities.  The Data Model MUST support specifying link between the location of master device and the
            WSD, white space
   database can be wired or wireless and provides IP connectivity.

   It is assumed that both the uncertainty in meters master device and confidence in percentage
            for the location determination.

      D.5:  The Data Model MUST support specifying white space
   database have NOT been compromised from a list of available
            channels security standpoint.

   Threat 1: User modifies a device to masquerade as another valid
   certified device

      Regulatory environments require that devices be certified and time constrains for the channel list
            availability.  Each channel
      register in ways that accurately reflect their certification.
      Without suitable protection mechanisms, devices could simply
      listen to registration exchanges, and later registering claiming
      to be those other devices.  Such replays would allow false
      registration, violating regulatory regimes.  A white space
      database may be operated by a commercial entity which restricts
      access to authorized users.  A master device MAY need to identify
      itself to the list shall specify the
            lower database and upper frequency values be authorized to obtain information
      about available channels.

   Threat 2: Spoofed white space database

      A master device discovers a white space database(s) thru which it
      can query for the channel and the
            time intervals information.  The master device needs to
      ensure that the channel white space database with which it communicates
      with is available.

      D.6: an authentic entity.  The Data Model MUST support specifying channel availability
            information for a single location and for multiple
            locations.  In the case of multiple locations, the white space database
            shall needs to
      provide a channel list for each of its identity to the multiple
            location.

      P. Protocol Requirements:

      P.1:   The protocol MUST provide a mechanism for master device which can confirm the subject to
             discover
      validity/authenticity of the WS Database it has database.  An attacker may attempt to
      spoof a white space database and provide responses to use at a given location.

      P.2:   The protocol MUST support regulatory domain discovery.

      P.3:   The protocol between the master
      device which are malicious and the WS Database
             MUST support pushing updates result in channel availability
             changes to subjects.

      P.4:   The protocol between the master device and causing
      interference to the WS Database
             MUST support mutual authentication and authorization.

      P.5:   The protocol between primary user of the master device and spectrum.

   Threat 3: Modifying a query request

      An attacker may modify the WS Database
             MUST support integrity and confidentiality protection.

      P.6:   The protocol MUST support both username/password and
             digital certificates based authentication.

      P.7:   A query request sent by a master device MAY register with
      to a trusted white space database.

      P.8:   A  The attacker may change the location
      of the device or the capabilities in terms of its transmit power
      or antenna height etc. which could result in the database
      responding with incorrect information about available channels or
      max transmit power allowed.  The result of such an attack is that
      the master device MUST place its location into would cause interference to the query it
             makes primary user of
      the spectrum.  It could also result in a denial of service to the whitespace database.

      P.9:   A
      master device MUST be able to by indicating that no channels are available.

   Threat 4: Modifying a query response

      An attacker could modify the whitespace query response sent by the white
      space database for channel availability information for to a
             specific expected coverage area around its current
             location.

      P.10:  A master device MUST send Device ID, searial number and
             device location device.  The channel information or
      transmit power allowed type of parameters carried in the query it makes to response
      could be modified by the attacker resulting in the database.

      P.11:  A master device MAY send additional antenna characteristic
             information
      using channels that are not available at a location or
      transmitting at a greater power level than allowed resulting in the query it makes
      interference to the database.

      P.12:  A master device MUST be capable primary user of validating that spectrum.  Alternatively
      the digital
             certificate attacker may indicate no channel availability at a location
      resulting in a denial of service to the WS Database.

      P.13:  A master device.

   Threat 5: Unauthorized use of channels by an uncertified device MUST

      An attacker may be capable of checking a master device which is not certified for use
      by the validity of relevant regulatory body.  The attacker may listen to the WS Database certificate and whether it has been revoked
             or not.

      O. Operational Requirements:

      O.1:   A
      communication between a valid master device MUST query the WS Database for and white space
      database and utilize the information about available channels as often as required by the regulation
             (eg, FCC requires once per day) to verify that in
      the
             operating response message by utilizing those channels.  The result of
      such an attack is unauthorized use of channels continue to remain available.

      O.2:   A by a master device MUST determine its location along with its
             uncertainty (e.g., FCC requires +/-50m) and confidence
             level (e.g., 95%) and send it
      which is not certified to operate.  The master device querying the
      white space database so that may be operated by a law-enforcement agency
      and the
             proper WSD position communications between the device and buffer distance around the database are
      intended to be kept private.  A malicious device
             can should not be added
      able to make sure that the worst case situation
             required by regulations is considered in the distance
             calculations taking place at the database.

      O.3: eavesdrop on such communications.

   Threat 6: Third party tracking of white space device location and
   identity

      A white space database in a regulatory domain may require a master
      device which changes to provide its location during identity in addition to its
             operation, MUST query the WS Database for available
             operating channels each time it moves more than the
             distance specified by the regulation (e.g., FCC specifies
             100m) from the location it previously made the query.

      O.4:   The WS Database MUST provide in the available channel list
             when requested from
      query request.  Such location/identity information can be gleaned
      by an authenticated and authorized device
             and MAY also provide time constraints, maximum output power
             and start eavesdropper and stop frequencies used for each channel in the
             list.

      O.5: tracking purposes.  A master
      device MUST query the WS Database and include the
             FCC ID of the slave device in may prefer to keep the query before allowing location/identity information hidden
      from eavesdroppers, hence the
             slave device protocol should provide a means to use
      protect the available channel.

      O.6:   A master device MUST be capable location and identity information of validating the digital
             certificate master device
      and prevent tracking of locations associated with a white space
      database query.  When the WS Database and whether it has been
             revoked or not.

      O.7:   A master device MUST be able to determine sends both its identity
      and location
             using latitude-longitude coordinates.

      O.8:   A master device MUST make a fresh query of to the whitespace
             database for DB, the available channels within a particular
             time interval, using DB is able to track it.  If a parameter sent by
      regulatory domain does not require the database in
             response master device to provide
      its identity to the previous query.  On expiry of white space database, the time
             interval then a master device MUST cease transmission in may
      decide not to send its identity, to prevent being tracked by the TVWS band if no successful query attempt has been made
             or
      DB.

   Threat 7: Malicious individual acts as a query has been made but the database has not
             responded.

      O.9:   If slave PAWS entity (spoofing DB or
   as MiM) to terminate or unfairly limit spectrum access of devices change their location during operation,
             the master device MUST query the whitespace database for
             available operating
   reasons other than incumbent protection

      A white space database MAY include a mechanism by which service
      and channels each time allocated to a slave device moves
             outside the reported coverage location area.

      O.10:  A master device MAY can be able to indicate revoked by
      sending an unsolicited message.  A malicious node can pretend to slave devices
      be the start and stop frequencies it white space database with which a master device has available for
             operation and the maximum permitted powers for the slave
             devices,
      registered or obtained channel information from and MAY be able to send additional optional
             information.

7.  IANA Considerations a revoke
      message to that device.  This document has no requests results in denial of service to IANA.

8.  Security Considerations

   The messaging interface between the
      master device.

   Threat 8: Natural disaster resulting in inability to obtain
   authorization for white space device spectrum use by emergency responders

      In the case of a sizable natural disaster a lot of Internet
      infrastructure ceases to function.  Emergency services users need
      to reconstitute quickly and the
   database will rely on establishing radio WANs.
      The potential for lot of radio WAN gear that has been unused
      suddenly needs to be secured.  Both the queries and pressed into action.  And the responses radio WANs need
      frequency authorizations to be delivered securely. function.  Regulatory entities may
      also authorize usage of additional spectrum in the affected areas.
      The device must be certain it is
   talking white space radio entities may need to establish communication
      with a bona fide database authoritative for the location and
   spectrum band obtain authorizations.  In cases where
      communication with the device operates on.  The white space database may need to
   restrict interactions to fails, the white space
      devices that it has some prior relationship
   with, cannot utilize white space spectrum.  Emergency services,
      which require more spectrum precisely at locations where network
      infrastructure is malfunctioning or overloaded, backup
      communication channels and distributed white space databases are
      needed to overcome such circumstances.  Alternatively there may be restricted from providing service to devices that are
   not authorized in some manner.

   As
      other mechanisms which allow the device will query use of spectrum by emergency
      service equipment without strict authorization or with it's location, the location must be
   protected against eavesdropping.  Some regulations include personally
   identifiable information as required elements liberal
      interpretation of registration and/or
   query and must similarly be protected.

   All communications between the device and the database will require
   integrity protection.

   Man-in-the-middle attacks could modify the content of a response
   which can cause problems regulatory policy for other networks or devices operating at a
   given location.  Interference as well as total loss of service could
   result from malicious information being delivered to a white space
   device. usage.

   The security requirements arising from the above threats are captured
   in the requirements of section 6.1.

9.  Summary and Conclusion

   Wireless spectrum is a scarce resource.  As the demand for spectrum
   grows, there is a need to more efficiently utilize the available and
   allocated spectrum.  Cognitive radio technologies enable the
   efficient usage of spectrum via means such as sensing or by querying
   a database to determine available spectrum at a given location for
   secondary
   opportunistic use.  White space is the general term used to refer to
   the bands within the spectrum which is available for secondary use at
   a given location.  In order to use this spectrum a device needs to
   query a database which maintains information about the available
   channels within a band.  A protocol is necessary for communication
   between the devices and databases which would be globally applicable.

   The document describes some examples of the role of the white space
   database in the operation of a radio network and also shows an examples
   of a services provided to the user of a TVWS device.  From these use cases
   cases, requirements are determined.  These requirements are to be
   used as input to the definition of a Protocol to Access White Space
   database (PAWS).

10.  Acknowledgements

   The authors acknowledge Gerald Chouinard and Gabor Bajko, Teco Boot as
   contributors Boot, Nancy Bravin, Rex
   Buddenberg, Gerald Chouinard, Stephen Farrell, Michael Fitch, Joel M.
   Halpern, Jussi Kahtava, Paul Lambert, Brian Rosen, Andy Sago, Peter
   Stanforth, John Stine and, Juan Carlos Zuniga for their contributions
   to this document.

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [80211P]

   [802.11p]  IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Information technology -
              Telecommunications and information exchange between
              systems - Local and metropolitan area networks - Specific
              requirements; Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control
              (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications; Amendment
              6: Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments; http://
              standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.11p-2010.pdf",
              July 2010.

   [802.22]   IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Information technology -
              Telecommunications and information exchange between
              systems - Wireless Regional Area Networks (WRAN) -
              Specific requirements; Part 22: Cognitive Wireless RAN
              Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY)
              Specifications: Policies and Procedures for Operation in
              the TV bands", July 2011.

   [FCC47CFR90.210]
              FCC, "Title 47 Telecommunication CFR Chapter I - Federal
              Communication Commission Part 90 - Private Land Mobile
              Radio Services - Section 210 Emission masks; http://
              edocket.access.gpo.gov/cfr_2010/octqtr/pdf/
              47cfr90.210.pdf", October 2010.

   [PAWS-PS]  IETF, "Protocol to Access White Space database: Problem
              statement; https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/
              draft-patil-paws-problem-stmt/", July 2011.

   [RFC2119]  IETF, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
              Levels;
              http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/pdfrfc/rfc2119.txt.pdf",
              March 1997.

11.2.  Informative References

   [DDR]      Ofcom - Independent regulator and competition authority
              for the UK communications industries, "Digital Dividend
              Review; http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/spectrum/
              project-pages/ddr/".

   [DTV]      "Digital TV Transition; http://www.dtv.gov".

   [ECC Report 159]
              Electronic Communications Committee (ECC) within the
              European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications
              Administrations (CEPT), "TECHNICAL AND OPERATIONAL
              REQUIREMENTS FOR THE POSSIBLE OPERATION OF COGNITIVE RADIO
              SYSTEMS IN THE 'WHITE SPACES' OF THE FREQUENCY BAND 470-
              590 MHZ; http://www.erodocdb.dk/Docs/doc98/official/pdf/
              ECCREP159.PDF", January 2011.

   [FCC Ruling]
              FCC, "Federal Communications Commission, "Unlicensed
              Operation in the TV Broadcast Bands;
              http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2010/pdf/2010-30184.pdf"",
              December 2010.

   [Ofcom Implementing]
              Ofcom, "Ofcom, "Implementing Geolocation; http://
              stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/consultations/geolocation/
              statement/
              ?utm_source=updates&utm_medium=email&
              utm_campaign=geolocation-statement"",
              statement/"", September 2011.

   [RFC5222]  IETF, Hardie, T., Netwon, A., Schulzrinne, H., and H.
              Tschofenig, "LoST: A Location-to-Service Translation Proto
              col;http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/pdfrfc/rfc5222.txt.pdf",
              August 2008.

   [Spectrum Framework Review]
              Ofcom - Independent regulator and competition authority
              for the UK communications industries, "Spectrum Framework
              Review;
              http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/consultations/sfr/",
              February 2005.

   [TV Whitespace Tutorial Intro]
              IEEE 802 Executive Committee Study Group on TV White
              Spaces, "TV Whitespace Tutorial Intro; http://
              grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/802_tutorials/2009-03/
              2009-03-10%20TV%20Whitespace%20Tutorial%20r0.pdf",
              March 2009.

Authors' Addresses

   Scott Probasco (editor)
   Nokia
   6021 Connection drive
   Irving, TX  75039
   USA

   Email: scott.probasco@nokia.com

   Basavaraj Patil
   Nokia
   6021 Connection drive
   Irving, TX  75039
   USA

   Email: basavaraj.patil@nokia.com