draft-ietf-paws-problem-stmt-usecases-rqmts-04.txt   draft-ietf-paws-problem-stmt-usecases-rqmts-05.txt 
Working Group Draft S. Probasco, Ed. Working Group Draft S. Probasco, Ed.
Internet-Draft B. Patil Internet-Draft B. Patil
Intended status: Informational Nokia Intended status: Informational Nokia
Expires: November 12, 2012 May 11, 2012 Expires: December 23, 2012 June 21, 2012
Protocol to Access White Space database: PS, use cases and rqmts Protocol to Access White Space database: PS, use cases and rqmts
draft-ietf-paws-problem-stmt-usecases-rqmts-04 draft-ietf-paws-problem-stmt-usecases-rqmts-05
Abstract Abstract
Portions of the radio spectrum that are assigned to a particular use Portions of the radio spectrum that are assigned to a particular use
but are unused or unoccupied at specific locations and times are but are unused or unoccupied at specific locations and times are
defined as "white space". The concept of allowing additional defined as "white space". The concept of allowing additional
transmissions (which may or may not be licensed) in white space is a transmissions (which may or may not be licensed) in white space is a
technique to "unlock" existing spectrum for new use. An obvious technique to "unlock" existing spectrum for new use. An obvious
requirement is that these additional transmissions do not interfere requirement is that these additional transmissions do not interfere
with the assigned use of the spectrum. One approach to using the with the assigned use of the spectrum. One approach to using the
white space spectrum at a given time and location is to verify with a white space spectrum at a given time and location is to verify with a
database for available channels. database for available channels.
This document describes the concept of TV White Spaces. It also This document describes a number of possible use cases of white space
describes the problems that need to be addressed to enable white spectrum and technology as well as a set of requirements for the
space spectrum for additional uses, without causing interference to database query protocol. The concept of TV white spaces is described
currently assigned use, by querying a database which stores including the problems that need to be addressed to enable white
information about the channel availability at any given location and space spectrum for additional uses without causing interference to
time. A number of possible use cases of white space spectrum and currently assigned use. Use of white space is enabled by querying a
technology as well as a set of requirements for the database query database which stores information about the channel availability at
protocol are also described. any given location and time.
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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This Internet-Draft will expire on November 12, 2012. This Internet-Draft will expire on December 23, 2012.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
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publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
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11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
1.1. Introduction to white space 1.1. Introduction to white space
Wireless spectrum is a commodity that is regulated by governments. Wireless spectrum is a commodity that is regulated by governments.
The spectrum is used for various purposes, which include but are not The spectrum is used for various purposes, which include but are not
limited to entertainment (e.g. radio and television), communication limited to entertainment (e.g. radio and television), communication
(telephony and Internet access), military (radars etc.) and, (e.g. telephony and Internet access), military (e.g. radars etc.)
navigation (satellite communication, GPS). Portions of the radio and, navigation (e.g. satellite communication, GPS). Portions of the
spectrum that are assigned to a licensed user but are unused or radio spectrum that are assigned to a licensed user but are unused or
unoccupied at specific locations and times are defined as "white unoccupied at specific locations and times are defined as "white
space". The concept of allowing additional transmissions (which may space". The concept of allowing additional transmissions (which may
or may not be licensed) in white space is a technique to "unlock" or may not be licensed) in white space is a technique to "unlock"
existing spectrum for new use. An obvious requirement is that these existing spectrum for new use. An obvious requirement is that these
additional transmissions do not interfere with the assigned use of additional transmissions do not interfere with the assigned use of
the spectrum. One interesting observation is that often, in a given the spectrum. One interesting observation is that often, in a given
physical location, the assigned user(s) may not be using the entire physical location, the assigned user(s) may not be using the entire
band assigned to them. The available spectrum for additional band assigned to them. The available spectrum for additional
transmissions would then depend on the location of the additional transmissions would then depend on the location of the additional
user. The fundamental issue is how to determine for a specific user. The fundamental issue is how to determine for a specific
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the database prior to selecting what part of the spectrum they use. the database prior to selecting what part of the spectrum they use.
Such databases could be available on the Internet for query by Such databases could be available on the Internet for query by
additional users. additional users.
Spectrum useable for data communications, especially wireless Spectrum useable for data communications, especially wireless
Internet communications, is scarce. One area which has received much Internet communications, is scarce. One area which has received much
attention globally is the TV white space: portions of the TV band attention globally is the TV white space: portions of the TV band
that are not used by broadcasters in a given area. In 2008 the that are not used by broadcasters in a given area. In 2008 the
United States regulator (the FCC) took initial steps when they United States regulator (the FCC) took initial steps when they
published their first ruling on the use of TV white space, and then published their first ruling on the use of TV white space, and then
followed it up with a final ruling in 2010 [FCC Ruling]. Finland followed it up with a ruling in 2010 [FCC Ruling] that established
passed an Act in 2009 enabling testing of cognitive radio systems in the basic foundation for TV white space service in the US. In May
the TV white space. The ECC has completed Report 159 [ECC Report 2012 the FCC issued minor updates further refining the previous
159] containing requirements for operation of cognitive radio systems ruling [3MOO]. Finland passed an Act in 2009 enabling testing of
in the TV white space. Ofcom published in 2004 their Spectrum cognitive radio systems in the TV white space. The ECC has completed
Framework Review [Spectrum Framework Review] and their Digital Report 159 [ECC Report 159] containing requirements for operation of
Dividend Review [DDR] in 2005, with proposals from 2009 onwards to cognitive radio systems in the TV white space. Ofcom published in
access TV white space, culminating in the 2011 Ofcom Statement 2004 their Spectrum Framework Review [Spectrum Framework Review] and
Implementing Geolocation [Ofcom Implementing]. More countries are their Digital Dividend Review [DDR] in 2005, with proposals from 2009
expected to provide access to their TV spectrum in similar ways. Any onwards to access TV white space, leading to the 2011 Ofcom Statement
entity that is assigned spectrum that is not densely used may be Implementing Geolocation [Ofcom Implementing] which has been followed
asked to give it up in one way or another for more intensive use. by draft requirements for TV white space devices [Ofcom
Providing a mechanism by which additional users share the spectrum Requirements]. More countries are expected to provide access to
with the assigned user is attractive in many bands in many countries. their TV spectrum in similar ways. Any entity that is assigned
spectrum that is not densely used may be asked to give it up in one
way or another for more intensive use. Providing a mechanism by
which additional users share the spectrum with the assigned user is
attractive in many bands in many countries.
Television transmission until now has primarily been analog. The Television transmission until now has primarily been analog. The
switch to digital transmission has begun. As a result the spectrum switch to digital transmission has begun. As a result the spectrum
assigned for television transmission can now be more effectively assigned for television transmission can now be more effectively
used. Unused channels and bands between channels can be used by used. Unused channels and bands between channels can be used by
additional users as long as they do not interfere with the service additional users as long as they do not interfere with the service
for which that channel is assigned. While urban areas tend to have for which that channel is assigned. While urban areas tend to have
dense usage of spectrum and a number of TV channels, the same is not dense usage of spectrum and a number of TV channels, the same is not
true in semi-rural, rural and remote areas. There can be a number of true in semi-rural, rural and remote areas. There can be a number of
unused TV channels in such areas that can be used for other services. unused TV channels in such areas that can be used for other services.
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Frequency in MHz -> Frequency in MHz ->
Figure 1: High level view of TV White Space Figure 1: High level view of TV White Space
The fundamental issue is how to determine for a specific location and The fundamental issue is how to determine for a specific location and
specific time if any of the spectrum is available for additional use. specific time if any of the spectrum is available for additional use.
There are two dimensions of use that may be interesting: space (the There are two dimensions of use that may be interesting: space (the
area in which an additional user would not interfere with the area in which an additional user would not interfere with the
assigned use), and time: when the additional transmission would not assigned use), and time: when the additional transmission would not
interfere with the assigned use. In this discussion, we consider the interfere with the assigned use. In this discussion, we consider the
time element to be relatively long term (hours in a day) rather than time element to be relatively long term (e.g. hours in a day) rather
short term (fractions of a second). Location in this discussion is than short term (e.g. fractions of a second). Location in this
geolocation: where the transmitters (and sometimes receivers) are discussion is geolocation: where the transmitters (and sometimes
located relative to one another. In operation, the database records receivers) are located relative to one another. In operation, the
the assigned user's transmitter (and some times receiver) locations database records the assigned user's transmitter (and some times
along with basic transmission characteristics such as antenna height, receiver) locations along with basic transmission characteristics
and sometimes power. Using rules established by the local regulator, such as antenna height, and power. Using rules established by the
the database calculates an exclusion zone for each assigned user, and local regulator, the database calculates an exclusion zone for each
attaches a time schedule to that use. The additional user queries assigned user, and attaches a time schedule to that use. The
the database with its location. The database intersects the additional user queries the database with its location. The database
exclusion zones with the queried location, and returns the portion of intersects the exclusion zones with the queried location, and returns
the spectrum not in any exclusion zone. Such methods of geospatial the portion of the spectrum not in any exclusion zone. Such methods
database query to avoid interference have been shown to achieve of geospatial database query to avoid interference have been shown to
favorable results, and are thus the basis for rulings by the FCC and achieve favorable results, and are thus the basis for rulings by the
reports from ECC and Ofcom. In any country, the rules for which FCC and reports from ECC and Ofcom. In any country, the rules for
assigned entities are entitled to protection, how the exclusion zones which assigned entities are entitled to protection, how the exclusion
are calculated, and what the limits of use are by additional users zones are calculated, and what the limits of use are by additional
may vary. However, the fundamental notion of recording assigned users may vary. However, the fundamental notion of recording
users, calculating exclusion zones, querying by location and assigned users, calculating exclusion zones, querying by location and
returning available spectrum (and the schedule for that spectrum) are returning available spectrum (and the schedule for that spectrum) are
common. common.
This document includes the problem statement, use cases and This document includes the problem statement, use cases and
requirements associated with the use of white space spectrum by requirements associated with the use of white space spectrum by
secondary users via a database query protocol. secondary users via a database query protocol.
1.2. Scope 1.2. Scope
1.2.1. In Scope 1.2.1. In Scope
This document applies only to communications required for basic This document applies only to communications required for basic
service in TV white space. The protocol will enable a white space service in TV white spaces. The protocol will enable a white space
radio device to complete the following tasks: radio device to complete the following tasks:
1. Determine the relevant white space database to query. 1. Determine the relevant white space database to query.
2. Connect to the database using a well-defined access method. 2. Connect to the database using a well-defined access method.
3. Register with the database using a well-defined protocol. 3. Register with the database using a well-defined protocol.
4. Provide its geolocation and perhaps other data to the database 4. Provide its geolocation and perhaps other data to the database
using a well-defined format for querying the database. using a well-defined format for querying the database.
5. Receive in response to the query a list of currently available 5. Receive in response to the query a list of currently available
white space channels or frequencies using a well-defined format white space channels or frequencies using a well-defined format
for the information. for the information.
6. Send an acknowledgment to the database with information 6. Send an acknowledgment to the database with information
containing channels selected for use by the device. containing channels selected for use by the device.
As a result, some of the scenarios described in the following section
are out of scope for this specification (although they might be
addressed by future specifications).
1.2.2. Out of Scope 1.2.2. Out of Scope
The following topics are out of scope for this specification: The following topics are out of scope for this specification:
Co-existence and interference avoidance of white space devices Co-existence and interference avoidance of white space devices
within the same spectrum within the same spectrum
Provisioning (releasing new spectrum for white space use) Provisioning (releasing new spectrum for white space use)
2. Conventions and Terminology 2. Conventions and Terminology
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The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
2.2. Terminology 2.2. Terminology
Database Database
In the context of white space and cognitive radio technologies, In the context of white space and cognitive radio technologies,
the database is an entity which contains, but is not limited to, the database is an entity which contains, but is not limited to,
current information about available spectrum at any given location current information as required by by the regulatory policies
and other types of related (to the white space spectrum) or about available spectrum at any given location and time, and other
relevant information. types of related (to the white space spectrum) or relevant
information.
Device Class Device Class
Identifies classes of devices defined by Regional Regulators, Identifies classes of devices defined by Regional Regulators,
including fixed, mobile, portable, etc... May also indicate if including fixed, mobile, portable, etc... May also indicate if
the device is indoor or outdoor. the device is indoor or outdoor.
Device ID Device ID
A unique number for each master device and slave device that A unique number for each master device and slave device that
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devices) for its use in a given area and time. devices) for its use in a given area and time.
Protected Contour Protected Contour
The exclusion area for a Protected Entity, held in the database The exclusion area for a Protected Entity, held in the database
and expressed as a polygon with geospatial points as the vertices. and expressed as a polygon with geospatial points as the vertices.
Slave Device Slave Device
A device which uses the spectrum made available by a master A device which uses the spectrum made available by a master
device. device, and cannot query the database directly.
TV White Space TV White Space
TV white space refers specifically to radio spectrum which has TV white space refers specifically to radio spectrum which has
been allocated for TV broadcast, but is not occupied by a TV been allocated for TV broadcast, but is not occupied by a TV
broadcast, or other assigned user (such as a wireless microphone), broadcast, or other assigned user (such as a wireless microphone),
at a specific location and time. at a specific location and time.
TV White Space Device (TVWSD) TV White Space Device (TVWSD)
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shared among different radio users. shared among different radio users.
3.2. Background information on white space in the US 3.2. Background information on white space in the US
Television transmission in the United States has moved to the use of Television transmission in the United States has moved to the use of
digital signals as of June 12, 2009. Since June 13, 2009, all full- digital signals as of June 12, 2009. Since June 13, 2009, all full-
power U.S. television stations have broadcast over-the-air signals in power U.S. television stations have broadcast over-the-air signals in
digital only. An important benefit of the switch to all-digital digital only. An important benefit of the switch to all-digital
broadcasting is that it freed up parts of the valuable broadcast broadcasting is that it freed up parts of the valuable broadcast
spectrum. More information about the switch to digital transmission spectrum. More information about the switch to digital transmission
is at : [DTV]. is at [DTV].
Besides the switch to digital transmission for TV, the guard bands Besides the switch to digital transmission for TV, the guard bands
that exist to protect the signals between stations can be used for that exist to protect the signals between stations can be used for
other purposes. The FCC has made this spectrum available for other purposes. The FCC has made this spectrum available for
unlicensed use and this is generally referred to as white space. unlicensed use and this is generally referred to as white space.
Please see the details of the FCC ruling and regulations in [FCC Please see the details of the FCC ruling and regulations in [FCC
Ruling]. The spectrum can be used to provide wireless broadband as Ruling]. The spectrum can be used to provide wireless broadband as
an example. an example.
3.3. Background information on white space in the UK 3.3. Background information on white space in the UK
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Internet access network (e.g. 3G cellular network) or to deliver Internet access network (e.g. 3G cellular network) or to deliver
location based services. Some of these use cases are described in location based services. Some of these use cases are described in
the following sections. the following sections.
4.1. Protocol services 4.1. Protocol services
A complete protocol solution must provide all services that are A complete protocol solution must provide all services that are
essential to enable the white space paradigm. Before a white space essential to enable the white space paradigm. Before a white space
device can begin operating it needs to know what channels are device can begin operating it needs to know what channels are
available by sending a query to a white space database for a list of available by sending a query to a white space database for a list of
available channels, the white space device must first locate or available channels, the white space device must have the capability
"discover" a suitable database. Additionally, some regulatory to first locate or "discover" a suitable database. Additionally,
authorities require the white space device to register with the some regulatory authorities require the white space device to
database as a first step. This section describes the features register with the database as a first step. This section describes
required from the protocol. the features required from the protocol.
4.1.1. White space database discovery 4.1.1. White space database discovery
White space database discovery is preliminary to creating a radio White space database discovery is preliminary to creating a radio
network using white space; it is a prerequisite to the use cases network using white space; it is a prerequisite to the use cases
below. The radio network is created by a master device. Before the below. The radio network is created by a master device. Before the
master device can transmit in white space spectrum, it must contact a master device can transmit in white space spectrum, it must contact a
trusted database where the device can learn if any channels are trusted database where the device can learn if any channels are
available for it to use. The master device will need to discover a available for it to use. The master device will need to discover a
trusted database in the relevant regulatory domain, using the trusted database in the relevant regulatory domain, using the
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Figure 2 shows an example deployment of this scenario. Figure 2 shows an example deployment of this scenario.
\|/ ---------- \|/ ----------
| |Database| | |Database|
| .---. /--------- | .---. /---------
|-|---------| ( ) / |-|---------| ( ) /
\|/ | Master | / \ \|/ | Master | / \
| / | |========( Internet ) | / | |========( Internet )
| / |-----------| \ / | / |-----------| \ /
+-|----+ (TDD AirIF) ( ) +-|----+ (AirIF) ( )
|Master| / (----) |Master| / (----)
| | / | | /
+------+ +------+
Figure 2: Example illustration of registration requirement in white Figure 2: Example illustration of registration requirement in white
space use-case space use-case
A simplified operational scenario showing registration consists of A simplified operational scenario showing registration consists of
the following steps: the following steps:
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associated maximum power levels or a notification of any associated maximum power levels or a notification of any
additional requirements for sensing. additional requirements for sensing.
6. Once the master/AP has met all regulatory domain requirements 6. Once the master/AP has met all regulatory domain requirements
(e.g. authenticated the WS channel list response message from (e.g. authenticated the WS channel list response message from
the database, etc), the AP selects one or more available WS the database, etc), the AP selects one or more available WS
channels from the list. Prior to initiating transmission, if channels from the list. Prior to initiating transmission, if
required by local regulation, the master/AP informs the database required by local regulation, the master/AP informs the database
of the frequencies and power level it has chosen. This of the frequencies and power level it has chosen. This
reporting of the frequencies and power levels to the database is reporting of the frequencies and power levels to the database is
repeated for each slave that associated with the master. repeated for each slave device that associated with the master.
7. The slave or user device scans the TV bands to locate a 7. The slave or user device scans the TV bands to locate a
master/AP transmission, and associates with the AP. master/AP transmission, and associates with the AP.
8. The slave/user device queries the master for a channel list. In 8. The slave/user device queries the master for a channel list. In
the query the slave/user device provides attributes that are the query the slave/user device provides attributes that are
defined by local regulations. These may include the slaves' defined by local regulations. These may include the slaves'
Device ID and its geolocation. Device ID and its geolocation.
9. Once the master/AP has met all regulatory domain requirements 9. Once the master/AP has met all regulatory domain requirements
(e.g. validating the Device ID with the trusted database, etc) (e.g. validating the Device ID with the trusted database, etc)
the master provides the list of channels locally available to the master provides the list of channels locally available to
the slave/user device. Prior to initiating transmission, if the slave/user device. Prior to initiating transmission, if
required by local regulation, the slave informs the master/AP of required by local regulation, the slave device informs the
the frequencies and power level it has chosen, and the master/AP master/AP of the frequencies and power level it has chosen, and
relays this information to the database. the master/AP relays this information to the database.
10. The master sends an enabling signal to establish that the slave/ 10. The master sends an enabling signal to establish that the slave/
user device is still within reception range of the master. This user device is still within reception range of the master. This
signal shall be encoded to ensure that the signal originates signal shall be encoded to ensure that the signal originates
from the master that provided the available list of channels. from the master that provided the available list of channels.
11. Periodically, at an interval established by the local regulator, 11. Periodically, at an interval established by the local regulator,
the slave/user device must receive an enabling signal from the the slave/user device must receive an enabling signal from the
master that provided the available list of channels or contact a master that provided the available list of channels or contact a
master to re-verify or re-establish the list of available master to re-verify or re-establish the list of available
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devices of the new channel to which they have to move. devices of the new channel to which they have to move.
10. The master/BS must periodically repeat the process to request a 10. The master/BS must periodically repeat the process to request a
list of available channels from the database for itself and for list of available channels from the database for itself and for
all its associated slaves/user devices. If the response from all its associated slaves/user devices. If the response from
the database indicates that the channel being used by the the database indicates that the channel being used by the
master/BS is no longer available for its use, the master/BS must master/BS is no longer available for its use, the master/BS must
indicate the new operating channel to all its slave/user indicate the new operating channel to all its slave/user
terminals, stop transmitting on the current channel and move to terminals, stop transmitting on the current channel and move to
the new operating channel immediately. If the channel that a the new operating channel immediately. If the channel that a
slave/user terminal is currently using is not longer included in slave/user terminal is currently using is no longer included in
the list of locally available channels, the master may either the list of locally available channels, the master may either
drop its association with the slave/user device so that this drop its association with the slave/user device so that this
device ceases all operation on its current channel or the master device ceases all operation on its current channel or the master
may decide to move the entire cell to another channel to may decide to move the entire cell to another channel to
accommodate the slave/user terminal and indicate the new accommodate the slave/user terminal and indicate the new
operating channel to all its slave/user devices before dropping operating channel to all its slave/user devices before dropping
the link. The slave/user devices may then move to the the link. The slave/user devices may then move to the
identified new operating channel or scan for another WRAN identified new operating channel or scan for another WRAN
transmission on a different channel. The frequency to repeat transmission on a different channel. The frequency to repeat
the process is determined by the local regulator. the process is determined by the local regulator.
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|-----------| |-----------|
Figure 5: Offloading: moving traffic to a white space network Figure 5: Offloading: moving traffic to a white space network
Once a dual or multi mode device (3G + TVWS) is connected to a 3G Once a dual or multi mode device (3G + TVWS) is connected to a 3G
network, a simplified operation scenario of offloading selected network, a simplified operation scenario of offloading selected
content such as video stream from the 3G connection to the TWVS content such as video stream from the 3G connection to the TWVS
connection consists of the following steps: connection consists of the following steps:
1. The dual mode (or multi mode) device (3G + TVWS) is connected to 1. The dual mode (or multi mode) device (3G + TVWS) is connected to
a 3G network. The device has contacted a trusted database to a 3G network. The device has located a TVWS master/AP operating
discover the list of available TV channels at its current on an available channel and has associated or connected with the
location. The device has located a TVWS master/AP operating on
an available channel and has associated or connected with the
TVWS master/AP. TVWS master/AP.
2. The user activates a widget or application that streams video 2. The user activates a widget or application that streams video
from YouTube. The widget connects to YouTube over 3G cellular from YouTube. The widget connects to YouTube over 3G cellular
data. The user browses content and searches for video data. The user browses content and searches for video
selections. selections.
3. The user selects a video for streaming using the widget's 3. The user selects a video for streaming using the widget's
controls. Before the widget initiates a streaming session, the controls. Before the widget initiates a streaming session, the
widget checks the available connections in the dual mode device widget checks the available connections in the dual mode device
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user may connect to other users while moving. This deployment user may connect to other users while moving. This deployment
scenario is typically characterized by a master device with low scenario is typically characterized by a master device with low
antenna height, Internet connectivity by some connection that does antenna height, Internet connectivity by some connection that does
not utilize TV white space, and some means to predict its path of not utilize TV white space, and some means to predict its path of
mobility. This knowledge of mobility could be simple (GPS plus mobility. This knowledge of mobility could be simple (GPS plus
accelerometer), sophisticated (GPS plus routing and mapping function) accelerometer), sophisticated (GPS plus routing and mapping function)
or completely specified by the user via user-interface. or completely specified by the user via user-interface.
Figure 8 shows an example deployment of this scenario. Figure 8 shows an example deployment of this scenario.
\|/ \|/ \|/ \|/
| TDD Air Interface | | TDD Air Interface |
| | | |
+-|---------+ +-|---------+ +-|---------+ +-|---------+
| TVWS | | TVWS | | TVWS | | TVWS |
|Master Dev | |Master Dev | |Master Dev | |Master Dev |
+-----------+ +-----------+ +-----------+ +-----------+
\ (----) / \ (----) / \
\ ( ) / \ ( ) / \ \|/
\ / \ / \ / \ / \ |
( Internet ) ( Internet ) \ |
\ / \ / \+-|--------+
( )\----------+ ( )\----------+ | TVWS |
(----) | Database | (----) | Database | |Slave Dev |
+----------+ +----------+ +----------+
Figure 8: Example illustration of mobility in TV white space use-case Figure 8: Example illustration of mobility in TV white space use-case
A simplified operational scenario utilizing TV whitespace to provide A simplified operational scenario utilizing TV whitespace to provide
connectivity service in a mobility environment consists of the connectivity service in a mobility environment consists of the
following steps: following steps:
1. The mobile master device powers up with its WS radio in idle or 1. The mobile master device powers up with its WS radio in idle or
listen mode only (no active transmission on the WS frequency listen mode only (no active transmission on the WS frequency
band). band).
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(e.g. been previously authenticated, etc), the database responds (e.g. been previously authenticated, etc), the database responds
with a list of available white space channels that the mobile with a list of available white space channels that the mobile
master may use, and optional information which may include (1) a master may use, and optional information which may include (1) a
duration of time for the use of each channel (2) a maximum duration of time for the use of each channel (2) a maximum
transmit power for each channel and (3) notification of any transmit power for each channel and (3) notification of any
additional requirement for sensing. additional requirement for sensing.
6. Once the mobile master has met all regulatory domain 6. Once the mobile master has met all regulatory domain
requirements (e.g. authenticated the WS channel list response requirements (e.g. authenticated the WS channel list response
message from the database, etc), the master selects one or more message from the database, etc), the master selects one or more
available WS channel(s) from the list for use. available WS channel(s) from the list for use. At this point
the mobile master may begin direct communication with another
mobile master using methods outside the scope of PAWS.
7. The slave/user device scans to locate a mobile master 7. The slave/user device scans to locate a mobile master
transmission, and associates with the mobile master. transmission, and associates with the mobile master.
8. The slave/user device queries the master for a channel list, 8. The slave/user device queries the master for a channel list,
providing to the master the slave's device identification, and providing to the master the slave's device identification, and
optionally its geolocation and a prediction of its future optionally its geolocation and a prediction of its future
location. location.
9. Once the mobile master has met all regulatory domain 9. Once the mobile master has met all regulatory domain
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5. If the master has met all regulatory requirements, the database 5. If the master has met all regulatory requirements, the database
responds with a list of available white space channels that the responds with a list of available white space channels that the
master device may use, and optional information which may include master device may use, and optional information which may include
inter alia (1) a duration of time for the use of each channel inter alia (1) a duration of time for the use of each channel
(channel validity time) (2) a maximum radiated power for each (channel validity time) (2) a maximum radiated power for each
channel, and (3) directivity and other antenna information. channel, and (3) directivity and other antenna information.
6. Once the master device authenticates the whitespace channel list 6. Once the master device authenticates the whitespace channel list
response message from the database, the master device selects one response message from the database, the master device selects one
or more available whitespace channels from the list. or more available whitespace channels from the list. At this
point the mobile master may begin direct communication with
another mobile master using methods outside the scope of PAWS.
7. The user device(s) scan(s) the white space bands to locate the 7. The user device(s) scan(s) the white space bands to locate the
master device transmissions, and associates with the master. master device transmissions, and associates with the master.
4.2.8. Machine to Machine (M2M) 4.2.8. Machine to Machine (M2M)
In this use case, each "machine" includes a white space slave device In this use case, each "machine" includes a white space slave device
and can be located anywhere, fixed or on the move. Each machine and can be located anywhere, fixed or on the move. Each machine
needs to have connectivity to the Internet and or to other machines needs to have connectivity to the Internet and or to other machines
in the vicinity. Machine communication over a TVWS channel, whether in the vicinity. Machine communication over a TVWS channel, whether
skipping to change at page 29, line 6 skipping to change at page 29, line 6
are reachable via the Internet and the devices querying these are reachable via the Internet and the devices querying these
databases are expected to have some form of Internet connectivity, databases are expected to have some form of Internet connectivity,
directly or indirectly. The databases may be country specific since directly or indirectly. The databases may be country specific since
the available spectrum and regulations may vary, but the fundamental the available spectrum and regulations may vary, but the fundamental
operation of the protocol should be country independent. operation of the protocol should be country independent.
An example high-level architecture of the devices and white space An example high-level architecture of the devices and white space
databases is shown in Figure 11: databases is shown in Figure 11:
----------- -----------
| Master |
|WS Device| ------------ |WS Device| ------------
|Lat: X |\ .---. /--------|Database X| |Lat: X |\ .---. /--------|Database X|
|Long: Y | \ ( ) / ------------ |Long: Y | \ ( ) / ------------
----------- \-------/ \/ o ----------- \-------/ \/ o
( Internet ) o ( Internet ) o
----------- /------( )\ o ----------- /------( )\ o
|WS Device| / (_____) \ ------------ | Master | / ( ) \
|Lat: X |/ \--------|Database Y| |WS Device|/ (_____) \ ------------
|Long: Y | ------------ |Lat: X | \--------|Database Y|
|Long: Y | ------------
----------- -----------
Figure 11: High level view of the White space database architecture Figure 11: High level view of the White space database architecture
In Figure 11, note that there could be multiple databases serving In Figure 11, note that there could be multiple databases serving
white space devices. The databases are country specific since the white space devices. The databases are country specific since the
regulations and available spectrum may vary. In some countries, for regulations and available spectrum may vary. In some countries, for
example, the U.S., the regulator has determined that multiple, example, the U.S., the regulator has determined that multiple,
competing databases may provide service to White Space Devices. competing databases may provide service to White Space Devices.
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3. Globally applicable - A common messaging interface between white 3. Globally applicable - A common messaging interface between white
space devices and databases will enable the use of such spectrum space devices and databases will enable the use of such spectrum
for various purposes on a global basis. Devices can operate in for various purposes on a global basis. Devices can operate in
any country where such spectrum is available and a common any country where such spectrum is available and a common
interface ensures uniformity in implementations and deployment. interface ensures uniformity in implementations and deployment.
Since the White Space Device must know its geospatial location to Since the White Space Device must know its geospatial location to
do a query, it is possible to determine which database, and which do a query, it is possible to determine which database, and which
rules, are applicable, even though they are country specific. rules, are applicable, even though they are country specific.
4. Address regulatory requirements - Each country will likely have 4. Address regulatory requirements - Each country is likely to have
regulations that are unique to that country. The messaging regulations that are unique to that country. The messaging
interface needs to be flexible to accommodate the specific needs interface needs to be flexible to accommodate the specific needs
of a regulatory body in the country where the white space device of a regulatory body in the country where the white space device
is operating and connecting to the relevant database. is operating and connecting to the relevant database.
5.2. Database discovery 5.2. Database discovery
Another aspect of the problem space is the need to discover the Another aspect of the problem space is the need to discover the
database. A white space device needs to find the relevant database database. A white space device needs to find the relevant database
to query, based on its current location or for another location. to query, based on its current location or for another location.
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6.1. Normative Requirements 6.1. Normative Requirements
D. Data Model Requirements: D. Data Model Requirements:
D.1: The Data Model MUST support specifying the location of the D.1: The Data Model MUST support specifying the location of the
WSD, the uncertainty in meters, the height & its WSD, the uncertainty in meters, the height & its
uncertainty, and confidence in percentage of the location uncertainty, and confidence in percentage of the location
determination. The Data Model MUST support both North determination. The Data Model MUST support both North
American Datum of 1983 and WGS84. American Datum of 1983 and WGS84.
D.2: The Data Model MAY support specifying the regulatory domain D.2: The Data Model MUST support specifying the regulatory domain
and its corresponding data requirements. and its corresponding data requirements.
D.3: The Data Model MUST support specifying an ID of the D.3: The Data Model MUST support specifying an ID of the
transmitter device. This ID would contain the ID of the transmitter device. This ID would contain the ID of the
transmitter device that has been certified by a regulatory transmitter device that has been certified by a regulatory
body for its regulatory domain. The Data Model MUST support body for its regulatory domain. The Data Model MUST support
a device class. The Data Model MUST support specifying a device class. The Data Model MUST support specifying
information about the type of RAT of the transmitter device. information about the type of RAT of the transmitter device.
D.4: The Data Model MUST support specifying a manufacturer's D.4: The Data Model MUST support specifying a manufacturer's
serial number for a master device. serial number for a white space device.
D.5: The Data Model MUST support specifying the antenna and D.5: The Data Model MUST support specifying the antenna and
radiation related parameters of the subject, such as: radiation related parameters of the subject, such as:
antenna height antenna height
antenna gain antenna gain
maximum output power, EIRP (dBm) maximum output power, EIRP (dBm)
skipping to change at page 33, line 11 skipping to change at page 33, line 11
acknowledgement message. acknowledgement message.
P. Protocol Requirements: P. Protocol Requirements:
P.1: The protocol MUST provide a mechanism to enable WSD P.1: The protocol MUST provide a mechanism to enable WSD
discovery. In some environments, a listing of the approved discovery. In some environments, a listing of the approved
white space databases is maintained by the national white space databases is maintained by the national
regulator. The protocol MUST support discovery of a regulator. The protocol MUST support discovery of a
database using a listing approved by a national regulator. database using a listing approved by a national regulator.
P.2: The protocol MUST support determination of regulatory P.2: The address of a database (e.g. in form of a URI) can be
preconfigured in a master device. The master device MUST
be able to contact a database using a pre-configured
database address.
P.3: The protocol MUST support determination of regulatory
domain governing its current location. domain governing its current location.
P.3: The protocol MUST provide the ability for the database to P.4: The protocol MUST provide the ability for the database to
authenticate the master device. authenticate the master device.
P.4: The protocol MUST provide the ability for the master device P.5: The protocol MUST provide the ability for the master device
to verify the authenticity of the database with which it is to verify the authenticity of the database with which it is
interacting. interacting.
P.5: The messages sent by the master device to the database MUST P.6: The messages sent by the master device to the database and
support integrity protection. the messages sent by the database to the master device MUST
P.6: The messages sent by the database to the master device MUST
support integrity protection. support integrity protection.
P.7: The protocol MUST provide the capability for messages sent P.7: The protocol MUST provide the capability for messages sent
by the master device and database to be encrypted. by the master device and database to be encrypted.
P.8: The protocol MUST support the master device registering P.8: The protocol MUST support the master device registering
with the database. with the database.
P.9: The protocol MUST support a registration acknowledgement P.9: The protocol MUST support a registration acknowledgement
including appropriate result codes. including appropriate result codes.
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select a database for service by discovery at runtime or the select a database for service by discovery at runtime or the
master device MAY select a database for service by means of a master device MAY select a database for service by means of a
pre-programmed URI address. pre-programmed URI address.
O.4: The master device MUST implement at least one connection O.4: The master device MUST implement at least one connection
method to access the database. The master device MAY contact method to access the database. The master device MAY contact
a database directly for service (e.g. as defined by FCC) or a database directly for service (e.g. as defined by FCC) or
the master device MAY contact a listing server first followed the master device MAY contact a listing server first followed
by contact to a database (e.g. as defined by Ofcom). by contact to a database (e.g. as defined by Ofcom).
O.5: The master device MUST obtain an indication the regulatory O.5: The master device MUST obtain an indication about the
domain governing operation at its current location, i.e. the regulatory domain governing operation at its current location,
master device MUST know if it operates under regulations from i.e. the master device MUST know if it operates under
FCC, Ofcom, etc... regulations from FCC, Ofcom, etc...
O.6: The master device MAY register with the database according to O.6: The master device MAY register with the database according to
local regulatory policy. Not all master devices will be local regulatory policy. Not all master devices will be
required to register. Specific events will initiate required to register. Specific events will initiate
registration, these events are determined by regulator policy registration, these events are determined by regulator policy
(e.g. at power up, after movement, etc...). (e.g. at power up, after movement, etc...). When local
regulatory policy requires registration, the master device
O.7: When local regulatory policy requires registration, the master MUST register with its most current and up-to-date
device MUST register with its most current and up-to-date
information, and MUST include all variables mandated by local information, and MUST include all variables mandated by local
regulator policy. regulator policy.
O.8: A master device MUST query the database for the available O.7: A master device MUST query the database for the available
channels based on its current location before starting radio channels based on its current location before starting radio
transmission in white space. Parameters provided to the transmission in white space. Parameters provided to the
database MAY include device location, accuracy of the database MAY include device location, accuracy of the
location, antenna characteristic information, device location, antenna characteristic information, device
identifier of any slave device requesting channel information, identifier of any slave device requesting channel information,
etc... etc...
O.9: The database MUST respond to an available channel list request O.8: The database MUST respond to an available channel list request
from an authenticated and authorized device and MAY also from an authenticated and authorized device and MAY also
provide time constraints, maximum output power, start and stop provide time constraints, maximum output power, start and stop
frequencies for each channel in the list and any additional frequencies for each channel in the list and any additional
requirements for sensing. requirements for sensing.
O.10: According to local regulator policy, a master device MAY O.9: According to local regulator policy, a master device MAY
inform the database of the actual frequecy usage of the master inform the database of the actual frequecy usage of the master
and its slaves. The master MUST include parameters required and its slaves. The master MUST include parameters required
by local regulatory policy, e.g. device ID, manufacturer's by local regulatory policy, e.g. device ID, manufacturer's
serial number, channel usage and power level information of serial number, channel usage and power level information of
the master and its slaves. the master and its slaves.
O.11: After connecting to a master device's radio network a slave O.10: After connecting to a master device's radio network a slave
device MUST query the master device for a list of available device MUST query the master device for a list of available
channels. The slave MUST include parameters required by local channels. The slave MUST include parameters required by local
regulatory policy, e.g. device ID, device location. regulatory policy, e.g. device ID, device location.
O.12: According to local regulatory policy, the master device MAY O.11: According to local regulatory policy, the master device MAY
query the database with parameters received from the slave query the database with parameters received from the slave
device. device.
O.13: The database MUST respond to a query from the master device O.12: The database MUST respond to a query from the master device
containing parameters from a slave device. containing parameters from a slave device.
O.14: A master device MUST repeat the query to the database for the O.13: A master device MUST repeat the query to the database for the
available channels as often as required by the regulation available channels as often as required by the regulation
(e.g., FCC requires once per day) to verify that the operating (e.g., FCC requires once per day) to verify that the operating
channels continue to remain available. channels continue to remain available.
O.15: A master device which changes its location more than a O.14: A master device which changes its location more than a
threshold distance (specified by local regulatory policy) threshold distance (specified by local regulatory policy)
during its operation, MUST query the database for available during its operation, MUST query the database for available
operating channels each time it moves more than the threshold operating channels each time it moves more than the threshold
distance (e.g., FCC specifies 100m) from the location it distance (e.g., FCC specifies 100m) from the location it
previously made the query. previously made the query.
O.16: According to local regulator policy, a master device may O.15: According to local regulator policy, a master device may
contact a database via proxy service of another master device. contact a database via proxy service of another master device.
O.17: A master device MUST be able to query the whitespace database O.16: A master device MUST be able to query the whitespace database
for channel availability information for a specific expected for channel availability information for a specific expected
coverage area around its current location. coverage area around its current location.
O.18: A Master device MUST include its unique identity in all O.17: A Master device MUST include its unique identity in all
message exchanges with the database. message exchanges with the database.
6.3. Guidelines 6.3. Guidelines
The current scope of the working group is limited and is reflected in The current scope of the working group is limited and is reflected in
the requirements captured in Section 6.1. However white space the requirements captured in Section 6.1. However white space
technology itself is expected to evolve and address other aspects technology itself is expected to evolve and address other aspects
such as co-existence and interference avoidance, spectrum brokering, such as co-existence and interference avoidance, spectrum brokering,
alternative spectrum bands, etc. The design of the data model and alternative spectrum bands, etc. The design of the data model and
protocol should be cognizant of the evolving nature of white space protocol should be cognizant of the evolving nature of white space
skipping to change at page 37, line 34 skipping to change at page 37, line 34
Threat 1: User modifies a device to masquerade as another valid Threat 1: User modifies a device to masquerade as another valid
certified device certified device
Regulatory environments require that devices be certified and Regulatory environments require that devices be certified and
register in ways that accurately reflect their certification. register in ways that accurately reflect their certification.
Without suitable protection mechanisms, devices could simply Without suitable protection mechanisms, devices could simply
listen to registration exchanges, and later registering claiming listen to registration exchanges, and later registering claiming
to be those other devices. Such replays would allow false to be those other devices. Such replays would allow false
registration, violating regulatory regimes. A white space registration, violating regulatory regimes. A white space
database may be operated by a commercial entity which restricts database may be operated by a commercial entity which restricts
access to authorized users. A master device MAY need to identify access only to authorized users. A master device MAY need to
itself to the database and be authorized to obtain information identify itself to the database and be authorized to obtain
about available channels. information about available channels.
Threat 2: Spoofed white space database Threat 2: Spoofed white space database
A master device discovers a white space database(s) thru which it A master device discovers a white space database(s) through which
can query for channel information. The master device needs to it can query for channel information. The master device needs to
ensure that the white space database with which it communicates ensure that the white space database with which it communicates
with is an authentic entity. The white space database needs to with is an authentic entity. The white space database needs to
provide its identity to the master device which can confirm the provide its identity to the master device which can confirm the
validity/authenticity of the database. An attacker may attempt to validity/authenticity of the database. An attacker may attempt to
spoof a white space database and provide responses to a master spoof a white space database and provide responses to a master
device which are malicious and result in the master device causing device which are malicious and result in the master device causing
interference to the primary user of the spectrum. interference to the primary user of the spectrum.
Threat 3: Modifying a query request Threat 3: Modifying a query request
skipping to change at page 41, line 26 skipping to change at page 41, line 26
statement; https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/ statement; https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/
draft-patil-paws-problem-stmt/", July 2011. draft-patil-paws-problem-stmt/", July 2011.
[RFC2119] IETF, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement [RFC2119] IETF, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
Levels; Levels;
http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/pdfrfc/rfc2119.txt.pdf", http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/pdfrfc/rfc2119.txt.pdf",
March 1997. March 1997.
11.2. Informative References 11.2. Informative References
[3MOO] FCC, "Federal Communications Commission, Third Memorandum
Opinion and Order", April 2012.
[DDR] Ofcom - Independent regulator and competition authority [DDR] Ofcom - Independent regulator and competition authority
for the UK communications industries, "Digital Dividend for the UK communications industries, "Digital Dividend
Review; http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/spectrum/ Review; http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/spectrum/
project-pages/ddr/". project-pages/ddr/".
[DTV] "Digital TV Transition; http://www.dtv.gov". [DTV] "Digital TV Transition; http://www.dtv.gov".
[ECC Report 159] [ECC Report 159]
Electronic Communications Committee (ECC) within the Electronic Communications Committee (ECC) within the
European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications
skipping to change at page 42, line 5 skipping to change at page 42, line 8
FCC, "Federal Communications Commission, "Unlicensed FCC, "Federal Communications Commission, "Unlicensed
Operation in the TV Broadcast Bands; Operation in the TV Broadcast Bands;
http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2010/pdf/2010-30184.pdf"", http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2010/pdf/2010-30184.pdf"",
December 2010. December 2010.
[Ofcom Implementing] [Ofcom Implementing]
Ofcom, "Ofcom, "Implementing Geolocation; http:// Ofcom, "Ofcom, "Implementing Geolocation; http://
stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/consultations/geolocation/ stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/consultations/geolocation/
statement/"", September 2011. statement/"", September 2011.
[Ofcom Requirements]
Ofcom, "Ofcom, Draft final regulatory requirements for
white space devices in the UHF TV band", June 2012.
[RFC5222] IETF, Hardie, T., Netwon, A., Schulzrinne, H., and H. [RFC5222] IETF, Hardie, T., Netwon, A., Schulzrinne, H., and H.
Tschofenig, "LoST: A Location-to-Service Translation Proto Tschofenig, "LoST: A Location-to-Service Translation Proto
col;http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/pdfrfc/rfc5222.txt.pdf", col;http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/pdfrfc/rfc5222.txt.pdf",
August 2008. August 2008.
[Spectrum Framework Review] [Spectrum Framework Review]
Ofcom - Independent regulator and competition authority Ofcom - Independent regulator and competition authority
for the UK communications industries, "Spectrum Framework for the UK communications industries, "Spectrum Framework
Review; Review;
http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/consultations/sfr/", http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/consultations/sfr/",
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