draft-ietf-paws-problem-stmt-usecases-rqmts-10.txt   draft-ietf-paws-problem-stmt-usecases-rqmts-11.txt 
PAWS Mancuso, Ed. PAWS Mancuso, Ed.
Internet-Draft Probasco Internet-Draft Probasco
Intended status: Informational Patil Intended status: Informational Patil
Expires: July 18, 2013 January 14, 2013 Expires: July 29, 2013 January 25, 2013
Protocol to Access White Space (PAWS) Database: Use Cases and Protocol to Access White Space (PAWS) Database: Use Cases and
Requirements Requirements
draft-ietf-paws-problem-stmt-usecases-rqmts-10 draft-ietf-paws-problem-stmt-usecases-rqmts-11
Abstract Abstract
Portions of the radio spectrum that are assigned to a particular use Portions of the radio spectrum that are assigned to a particular use
but are unused or unoccupied at specific locations and times are but are unused or unoccupied at specific locations and times are
defined as "white space." The concept of allowing additional defined as "white space." The concept of allowing additional
transmissions (which may or may not be licensed) in white space is a transmissions (which may or may not be licensed) in white space is a
technique to "unlock" existing spectrum for new use. An obvious technique to "unlock" existing spectrum for new use. An obvious
requirement is that these additional transmissions do not interfere requirement is that these additional transmissions do not interfere
with the assigned use of the spectrum. One approach to using white with the assigned use of the spectrum. One approach to using white
space spectrum at a given time and location is to verify spectrum space spectrum at a given time and location is to verify spectrum
availability with a database that manages spectrum sharing and availability with a database that manages spectrum sharing and
provides spectrum-availability information. provides spectrum-availability information. The IETF has undertaken
to develop a Protocol to Access Spectrum Database [1] for such a
management database.
This document describes a number of possible use cases of white space This document describes a number of possible use cases of white space
spectrum and technology as well as a set of requirements for the spectrum and technology as well as a set of requirements for the
database query protocol. The concept of white spaces is described database query protocol. The concept of white spaces is described
along with the problems that need to be addressed to enable white along with the problems that need to be addressed to enable white
space spectrum for additional uses without causing interference to space spectrum for additional uses without causing interference to
currently assigned use. Use of white space is enabled by querying a currently assigned use. Use of white space is enabled by querying a
database that stores information about spectrum availability at any database that stores information about spectrum availability at any
given location and time. given location and time.
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on July 18, 2013. This Internet-Draft will expire on July 29, 2013.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1. Introduction to white space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.1. Introduction to white space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2. Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2. Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2.1. In Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2.1. In Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2.2. Out of Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2.2. Out of Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2. Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.1. Conventions Used in This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1. Conventions Used in This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. Use Cases and Protocol Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. Protocol Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.1. Protocol services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1. Protocol services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.1.1. White space database discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.1.1. White space database discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.1.2. Device registration with trusted database . . . . . . 7 3.1.2. Device registration with trusted database . . . . . . 7
3.2. Use cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4. Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2.1. Master-slave white space networks . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1. Use cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2.2. Offloading: moving traffic to a white space network . 10 4.1.1. Master-slave white space networks . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2.3. White space serving as backhaul . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.1.2. Offloading: moving traffic to a white space network . 10
3.2.4. Rapid network deployment during emergency scenario . . 12 4.1.3. White space serving as backhaul . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.2.5. White space used for local TV broadcaster . . . . . . 14 4.1.4. Rapid network deployment during emergency scenario . . 12
4. Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.1.5. White space used for local TV broadcaster . . . . . . 13
4.1. Global applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5. Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.2. Database discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.1. Global applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.3. Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.2. Database discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.4. Data model definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.3. Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5. Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.4. Data model definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.1. Normative Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6. Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.2. Non-normative requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 6.1. Data Model Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.3. Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 6.2. Protocol Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 6.3. Operational Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 6.4. Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
8. Summary and Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
9. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 9. Summary and Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 10. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
10.2. Informational References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
11.2. Informational References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
1.1. Introduction to white space 1.1. Introduction to white space
Wireless spectrum is a commodity that is regulated by governments. Wireless spectrum is a commodity that is regulated by governments.
The spectrum is used for various purposes, which include, but are not The spectrum is used for various purposes, which include, but are not
limited to, entertainment (e.g., radio and television), communication limited to, entertainment (e.g., radio and television), communication
(e.g., telephony and Internet access), military (e.g., radars etc.), (e.g., telephony and Internet access), military (e.g., radars etc.),
and navigation (e.g., satellite communication, GPS). Portions of the and navigation (e.g., satellite communication, GPS). Portions of the
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transmissions (which may or may not be licensed) in white space is a transmissions (which may or may not be licensed) in white space is a
technique to "unlock" existing spectrum for new use. An obvious technique to "unlock" existing spectrum for new use. An obvious
requirement is that these secondary transmissions do not interfere requirement is that these secondary transmissions do not interfere
with the assigned use of the spectrum. One interesting observation with the assigned use of the spectrum. One interesting observation
is that often, in a given physical location, the primary user(s) may is that often, in a given physical location, the primary user(s) may
not be using the entire band assigned to them. The available not be using the entire band assigned to them. The available
spectrum for secondary transmissions would then depend on the spectrum for secondary transmissions would then depend on the
location of the secondary user. The fundamental issue is how to location of the secondary user. The fundamental issue is how to
determine, for a specific location and specific time, if any of the determine, for a specific location and specific time, if any of the
assigned spectrum is available for secondary use. Academia and assigned spectrum is available for secondary use. Academia and
Industry have studied multiple cognitive radio [1] mechanisms for use Industry have studied multiple cognitive radio [2] mechanisms for use
in such a scenario. One simple mechanism is to use a geospatial in such a scenario. One simple mechanism is to use a geospatial
database that contains the spatial and temporal profile of all database that contains the spatial and temporal profile of all
primary licensees' spectrum usage, and require secondary users to primary licensees' spectrum usage, and require secondary users to
query the database for available spectrum that they can use at their query the database for available spectrum that they can use at their
location. Such databases can be accessible and queryable by location. Such databases can be accessible and queryable by
secondary users on the Internet . secondary users on the Internet .
Any entity that is assigned spectrum that is not densely used may be Any entity that is assigned spectrum that is not densely used may be
asked by a governmental regulatory agency to share it to allow for asked by a governmental regulatory agency to share it to allow for
more intensive use of the spectrum. Providing a mechanism by which more intensive use of the spectrum. Providing a mechanism by which
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1.2.1. In Scope 1.2.1. In Scope
This document covers the requirements for a protocol to allow a This document covers the requirements for a protocol to allow a
device to access a database to obtain spectrum availability device to access a database to obtain spectrum availability
information. Such a protocol should allow a device to perform the information. Such a protocol should allow a device to perform the
following actions: following actions:
1. Determine the relevant white space database to query. 1. Determine the relevant white space database to query.
2. Connect to the database using a well-defined access method. 2. Connect to and optionally register with the database using a
well-defined protocol.
3. Register with the database using a well-defined protocol.
4. Provide its geolocation and perhaps other data to the database 3. Provide its geolocation and perhaps other data to the database
using a well-defined format for querying the database. using a well-defined format for querying the database.
5. Receive in response to the query a list of available white space 4. Receive in response to the query a list of available white space
frequencies using a well-defined format for the information. frequencies using a well-defined format for the information.
6. Send an acknowledgment to the database with information 5. Send an acknowledgment to the database with information
containing channels selected for use by the device. containing channels selected for use by the device.
1.2.2. Out of Scope 1.2.2. Out of Scope
The following topics are out of scope for this specification: The following topics are out of scope for this specification:
1. Co-existence and interference avoidance of white space devices 1. Co-existence and interference avoidance of white space devices
within the same spectrum. within the same spectrum.
2. Provisioning (releasing new spectrum for white space use). 2. Provisioning (releasing new spectrum for white space use).
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Database A database is an entity that contains current information Database A database is an entity that contains current information
about available spectrum at a given location and time as well as about available spectrum at a given location and time as well as
other types of information related to spectrum availability and other types of information related to spectrum availability and
usage. usage.
Device Class Identifies classes of devices including fixed, mobile, Device Class Identifies classes of devices including fixed, mobile,
portable, etc... May also indicate if the device is indoor or portable, etc... May also indicate if the device is indoor or
outdoor. outdoor.
Device ID A unique number for each master device and slave device Device ID A unique number for each master device.
that identifies the manufacturer, model number, and serial number.
Location Based Service An application or device that provides data,
information, or a service to a user based on their location.
Master Device A device that queries a database to obtain available
spectrum information.
Protected Entity An assigned (primary) user of radio spectrum that
is afforded protection against interference by secondary users.
Protected Contour The exclusion area for a Protected Entity,
recorded in the database, which can be expressed as a polygon with
geospatial points as vertices.
Radio Access Technology The Radio Access Technology (RAT) used by a Master Device A device that queries the database, on its own behalf
device (which may be required under regulatory rules as part of a and/or on behalf of a slave device, to obtain available spectrum
device's registration information. information.
Slave Device A device that queries the database through a Master Slave Device A device that queries the database through a Master
Device. Device.
White Space (WS) Radio spectrum that is available for secondary use White Space (WS) Radio spectrum that is available for secondary use
at a specific location and time. at a specific location and time.
White Space Device (WSD) A device that uses white space spectrum as White Space Device (WSD) A device that uses white space spectrum as
a secondary user. A white space device can be a fixed or portable a secondary user. A white space device can be a fixed or portable
device such as an access point, base station, or cell phone. device such as an access point, base station, or cell phone.
3. Use Cases and Protocol Services 3. Protocol Services
There are many potential use cases for white space spectrum - for
example, providing broadband Internet access in urban and densely-
populated hotspots as well as rural and remote, underserved areas.
Available white space spectrum may also be used to provide Internet
'backhaul' for traditional Wi-Fi hotspots or for use by towns and
cities to monitor/control traffic lights, read utility meters, and
the like. Still other use cases include the ability to offload data
traffic from another Internet access network (e.g., 3G cellular
network) or to deliver location-based services. Some of these use
cases are described in the following sections.
3.1. Protocol services 3.1. Protocol services
A complete protocol solution must enable all potential white space A complete protocol solution must enable many different potential
services. This section describes the features required of the white space services. This section describes the features required
protocol. of the protocol.
3.1.1. White space database discovery 3.1.1. White space database discovery
White space database discovery is preliminary to creating a radio White space database discovery is preliminary to creating a radio
network using white space; it is a prerequisite to the use cases network using white space; it is a prerequisite to the use cases
below. The radio network is created by a master device. Before the below. The radio network is created by a master device. Before the
master device can transmit in white space spectrum, it must contact a master device can transmit in white space spectrum, it must contact a
trusted database where the device can learn if any spectrum is trusted database where the device can learn if any spectrum is
available for its use. The master device will need to discover a available for its use. The master device will need to discover a
trusted database, using the following steps: trusted database, using the following steps:
1. The master device is connected to the Internet. 1. The master device is connected to the Internet.
2. The master device constructs and sends a service request over the 2. The master device constructs and sends a service request over the
Internet to discover availability of trusted databases in the Internet.
local regulatory domain and waits for responses.
3. If no acceptable response is received within a pre-configured 3. If no acceptable response is received within a pre-configured
time limit, the master device concludes that no trusted database time limit, the master device concludes that no trusted database
is available. If at least one response is received, the master is available. If at least one response is received, the master
device evaluates the response(s) to determine if a trusted device evaluates the response(s) to determine if a trusted
database can be identified where the master device is able to database can be identified where the master device is able to
receive service from the database. receive service from the database.
Optionally the radio device is pre-programmed with the Internet Optionally the radio device is pre-programmed with the Internet
address of at least one trusted database. The device can establish address of at least one trusted database. The device can establish
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3.1.2. Device registration with trusted database 3.1.2. Device registration with trusted database
In some regulatory domains, the master device must register with the In some regulatory domains, the master device must register with the
trusted database before it queries the database for available trusted database before it queries the database for available
spectrum. Different regulatory domains may have different device spectrum. Different regulatory domains may have different device
registration requirements. registration requirements.
Figure 1 (Figure 1) shows an example deployment of this scenario. Figure 1 (Figure 1) shows an example deployment of this scenario.
\|/ ---------- ----------
| |Database| \|/ |Database|
| .---. / --------- | .---. / ---------
|-|---------| ( ) / |--|--------| ( ) /
| Master | / \ | Master | / \
| |========( Internet) | |========( Internet)
|-----------| \ / |-----------| \ /
( ) ( )
(---) (---)
Figure 1: Example illustration of registration requirement in white Figure 1: Example illustration of registration requirement in white
space use-case space use-case
A simplified operational scenario showing registration consists of A simplified operational scenario showing registration consists of
the following steps: the following steps:
1. If required by the regulatory domain, the master device registers 1. If required by the regulatory domain, the master device registers
with its most current and up-to-date information. If subject to with its most current and up-to-date information. If subject to
registration, typically the master device will register after registration, typically the master device will register after
power up, after changing location by a predetermined distance, power up, after changing location by a predetermined distance,
and after prescribed time intervals. and after prescribed time intervals.
2. To register with the database, the master device sends the 2. To register with the database, the master device sends
database the registration information required under regulatory registration information to the database. This information may
rules. This information may include the Device ID, serial number include the Device ID, serial number assigned by the
assigned by the manufacturer, device location, device antenna manufacturer, device location, device antenna height above
height above ground, name of the individual or business that owns ground, name of the individual or business that owns the device,
the device, and the name, street and email address, and telephone and the name, street and email address, and telephone number of a
number of a contact person responsible for the device's contact person responsible for the device's operation.
operation.
3. The database responds to the registration request with an 3. The database responds to the registration request with an
acknowledgement to indicate the success of the registration acknowledgement to indicate the success of the registration
request or with an error if the registration was unsuccessful. request or with an error if the registration was unsuccessful.
Additional information may be provided by the database in its Additional information may be provided by the database in its
response according to regulatory requirements. response according to regulatory requirements.
3.2. Use cases 4. Use Cases
3.2.1. Master-slave white space networks There are many potential use cases for white space spectrum - for
example, providing broadband Internet access in urban and densely-
populated hotspots as well as rural and remote, underserved areas.
Available white space spectrum may also be used to provide Internet
'backhaul' for traditional Wi-Fi hotspots or for use by towns and
cities to monitor/control traffic lights, read utility meters, and
the like. Still other use cases include the ability to offload data
traffic from another Internet access network (e.g., 3G cellular
network) or to deliver data, information, or a service to a user
based on the user's location. Some of these use cases are described
in the following sections.
4.1. Use cases
4.1.1. Master-slave white space networks
There are a number of common scenarios in which a master white space There are a number of common scenarios in which a master white space
device will act as proxy or mediator for one or more slave devices device will act as proxy or mediator for one or more slave devices
using its connection to the Internet to query the database for using its connection to the Internet to query the database for
available spectrum for itself and for one or more slave devices. available spectrum for itself and for one or more slave devices.
These slave devices may be fixed or mobile, in close proximity with These slave devices may be fixed or mobile, in close proximity with
each other (indoor network or urban hotspot), or at a distance (rural each other (indoor network or urban hotspot), or at a distance (rural
or remote WAN). Once slave devices switch to white space spectrum or remote WAN). Once slave devices switch to white space spectrum
for their communications, they may connect through the master to the for their communications, they may connect through the master to the
Internet or use white space spectrum for intra-network communications Internet or use white space spectrum for intra-network communications
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8. Once a slave device has been allocated available white space 8. Once a slave device has been allocated available white space
spectrum frequencies for communication over the network, it may spectrum frequencies for communication over the network, it may
inform the master of the frequencies and power level it has inform the master of the frequencies and power level it has
chosen, and the master may, in turn, relay such usage to the chosen, and the master may, in turn, relay such usage to the
database. database.
9. Further communication among masters and slaves over the network 9. Further communication among masters and slaves over the network
occurs via the selected/allocated white space spectrum occurs via the selected/allocated white space spectrum
frequencies. frequencies.
3.2.2. Offloading: moving traffic to a white space network 4.1.2. Offloading: moving traffic to a white space network
This scenario is a variant of the master-slave network described in This scenario is a variant of the master-slave network described in
the previous use case. In this scenario, an Internet connectivity the previous use case. In this scenario, an Internet connectivity
service is provided over white space as a supplemental or alternative service is provided over white space as a supplemental or alternative
datapath to a more costly Internet connection (metered wire service, datapath to a more costly Internet connection (metered wire service,
metered wireless service, metered satellite service). In a typical metered wireless service, metered satellite service). In a typical
deployment scenario, an end user has a primary Internet connection, deployment scenario, an end user has a primary Internet connection,
but may prefer to use a connection to the Internet provided by a but may prefer to use a connection to the Internet provided by a
local white space master device that is connected to the Internet. local white space master device that is connected to the Internet.
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consists of the following steps: consists of the following steps:
1. The slave device connects to a metered Internet service, and 1. The slave device connects to a metered Internet service, and
selects a video for streaming. selects a video for streaming.
2. The slave device switches mode and associates with a master white 2. The slave device switches mode and associates with a master white
space device.* space device.*
3. The master queries the database for available white space 3. The master queries the database for available white space
spectrum and relays it to the slave device as described in spectrum and relays it to the slave device as described in
Section 3.2.1.* Section 4.1.1.*
4. The slave uses available white space spectrum to communicate with 4. The slave uses available white space spectrum to communicate with
the master and connect to the Internet to stream the selected the master and connect to the Internet to stream the selected
video. video.
* Note that the slave device may query the database directly for * Note that the slave device may query the database directly for
available white space spectrum through its metered connection to the available white space spectrum through its metered connection to the
Internet, thus eliminating steps 2 and 3. Internet, thus eliminating steps 2 and 3.
3.2.3. White space serving as backhaul 4.1.3. White space serving as backhaul
In this use case, an Internet connectivity service is provided to In this use case, an Internet connectivity service is provided to
users over a common wireless standard, such as Wi-Fi, with a white users over a common wireless standard, such as Wi-Fi, with a white
space master/slave network providing backhaul connectivity to the space master/slave network providing backhaul connectivity to the
Internet. Note that Wi-Fi is referenced in Figure 4 (Figure 4) and Internet. Note that Wi-Fi is referenced in Figure 4 (Figure 4) and
the following discussion, but any other technology can be substituted the following discussion, but any other technology can be substituted
in its place. in its place.
Figure 4 (Figure 4) shows an example deployment of this scenario. Figure 4 (Figure 4) shows an example deployment of this scenario.
\|/ White \|/ \|/ Wi-Fi \|/ \|/ White \|/ \|/ Wi-Fi \|/
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|------| |------|
Figure 4: White Space Network Used for Backhaul Figure 4: White Space Network Used for Backhaul
Once the bridged device (WS + Wi-Fi) is connected to a master and WS Once the bridged device (WS + Wi-Fi) is connected to a master and WS
network, a simplified operation scenario of backhaul for Wi-Fi network, a simplified operation scenario of backhaul for Wi-Fi
consists of the following steps: consists of the following steps:
1. A bridged slave device (WS + Wi-Fi) is connected to a master 1. A bridged slave device (WS + Wi-Fi) is connected to a master
device operating in the WS spectrum (the master obtains available device operating in the WS spectrum (the master obtains available
white space spectrum as described in Section 3.2.1). white space spectrum as described in Section 4.1.1).
2. Once the slave device is connected to the master, the Wi-Fi 2. Once the slave device is connected to the master, the Wi-Fi
access point has Internet connectivity as well. access point has Internet connectivity as well.
3. End users attach to the Wi-Fi network via their Wi-Fi enabled 3. End users attach to the Wi-Fi network via their Wi-Fi enabled
devices and receive Internet connectivity. devices and receive Internet connectivity.
3.2.4. Rapid network deployment during emergency scenario 4.1.4. Rapid network deployment during emergency scenario
Organizations involved in handling emergency operations maintain an Organizations involved in handling emergency operations maintain an
infrastructure that relies on dedicated spectrum for their infrastructure that relies on dedicated spectrum for their
operations. However, such infrastructures are often affected by the operations. However, such infrastructures are often affected by the
disasters they handle. To set up a replacement network, spectrum disasters they handle. To set up a replacement network, spectrum
needs to be quickly cleared and reallocated to the crisis response needs to be quickly cleared and reallocated to the crisis response
organization. Automation of the this allocation and assignment is organization. Automation of the this allocation and assignment is
often the best solution. A preferred option is to make use of a often the best solution. A preferred option is to make use of a
robust protocol that has been adopted and implemented by radio robust protocol that has been adopted and implemented by radio
manufacturers. A typical network topology solution might include manufacturers. A typical network topology solution might include
skipping to change at page 13, line 40 skipping to change at page 13, line 36
\--|------------- /Satellite ---------- \--|------------- /Satellite ----------
| Master node | / Link | Other | | Master node | / Link | Other |
| with |/ | nodes | | with |/ | nodes |
| backhaul link | ---------- | backhaul link | ----------
----------------- -----------------
Figure 5: Rapid-deployed Network with Partly-connected Nodes Figure 5: Rapid-deployed Network with Partly-connected Nodes
In the ad-hoc network, all nodes are master nodes that allocate RF In the ad-hoc network, all nodes are master nodes that allocate RF
channels from the white space database (as described in channels from the white space database (as described in
Section 3.2.1). However, the backhaul link may not be available to Section 4.1.1). However, the backhaul link may not be available to
all nodes, such as depicted for the left node in the above figure. all nodes, such as depicted for the left node in the above figure.
To handle RF channel allocation for such nodes, a master node with a To handle RF channel allocation for such nodes, a master node with a
backhaul link relays or proxies the database query for them. So backhaul link relays or proxies the database query for them. So
master nodes without a backhaul link follow the procedure as defined master nodes without a backhaul link follow the procedure as defined
for clients. The ad-hoc network radios utilize the provided RF for clients. The ad-hoc network radios utilize the provided RF
channels. Details on forming and maintenance of the ad-hoc network, channels. Details on forming and maintenance of the ad-hoc network,
including repair of segmented networks caused by segments operating including repair of segmented networks caused by segments operating
on different RF channels, is out of scope of spectrum allocation. on different RF channels, is out of scope of spectrum allocation.
3.2.5. White space used for local TV broadcaster 4.1.5. White space used for local TV broadcaster
Available white space spectrum can be deployed in novel ways to Available white space spectrum can be deployed in novel ways to
leverage the public use of hand-held and portable devices. One such leverage the public use of hand-held and portable devices. One such
use is white space spectrum used for local TV transmission of audio- use is white space spectrum used for local TV transmission of audio-
video content to portable devices used by individuals in attendance video content to portable devices used by individuals in attendance
at an event. In this use case, audience members at a seminar, at an event. In this use case, audience members at a seminar,
entertainment event, or other venue plug a miniature TV receiver fob entertainment event, or other venue plug a miniature TV receiver fob
into their laptop, computer tablet, cell phone, or other portable into their laptop, computer tablet, cell phone, or other portable
device. A master device obtains a list of available white space device. A master device obtains a list of available white space
spectrum (as described in , (Section 3.2.1), then broadcasts audio- spectrum (as described in , (Section 4.1.1), then broadcasts audio-
video content locally to the audience over one of the available video content locally to the audience over one of the available
frequencies. Audience members receive the content through their frequencies. Audience members receive the content through their
miniature TV receivers tuned to the appropriate white space band for miniature TV receivers tuned to the appropriate white space band for
display on their portable device monitors. display on their portable device monitors.
Figure 6 (Figure 6) shows an example deployment of this scenario. Figure 6 (Figure 6) shows an example deployment of this scenario.
\|/ |------------| \|/ |------------|
| |White Space | | |White Space |
| Database | | Database |
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\|/ \|/ \|/ \|/ \|/ \|/ \|/ \|/ \|/ \|/ \|/ \|/ \|/ \|/
| | | | | | | ................. | | | | | | | .................
----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
USB TV receivers connected to laptops, cellphone, tablets .... USB TV receivers connected to laptops, cellphone, tablets ....
Figure 6: White Space Used for Local TV Broadcast Figure 6: White Space Used for Local TV Broadcast
4. Problem Statement 5. Problem Statement
The use of white space spectrum is enabled via the capability of a The use of white space spectrum is enabled via the capability of a
device to query a database and obtain information about the device to query a database and obtain information about the
availability of spectrum for use at a given location. The databases availability of spectrum for use at a given location. The databases
are reachable via the Internet and the devices querying these are reachable via the Internet and the devices querying these
databases are expected to have some form of Internet connectivity, databases are expected to have some form of Internet connectivity,
directly or indirectly. The databases may be regulatory specific directly or indirectly. The databases may be regulatory specific
since the available spectrum and regulations may vary, but the since the available spectrum and regulations may vary, but the
fundamental operation of the protocol should be regulatory fundamental operation of the protocol should be regulatory
independent. independent.
skipping to change at page 15, line 30 skipping to change at page 15, line 24
----------- /------( )\ o ----------- /------( )\ o
| Master | / ( ) \ | Master | / ( ) \
|WS Device|/ (_____) \ ------------ |WS Device|/ (_____) \ ------------
|Lat: X | \--------|Database Y| |Lat: X | \--------|Database Y|
|Long: Y | ------------ |Long: Y | ------------
----------- -----------
Figure 7: High-level View of White Space Database Architecture Figure 7: High-level View of White Space Database Architecture
In Figure 11, note that there could be multiple databases serving In Figure 11, note that there could be multiple databases serving
white space devices. The databases are country specific since the white space devices. The databases are locale specific since the
regulations and available spectrum may vary. In some countries, for regulations and available spectrum may vary. In some countries, for
example, the U.S., the regulator has determined that multiple, example, the U.S., the regulator has determined that multiple
competing databases may provide service to White Space Devices. databases may provide service to White Space Devices.
A messaging interface between the white space devices and the A messaging interface between the white space devices and the
database is required for operating a network using the white space database is required for operating a network using the white space
spectrum. The following sections discuss various aspects of such an spectrum. The following sections discuss various aspects of such an
interface and the need for a standard. interface and the need for a standard.
4.1. Global applicability 5.1. Global applicability
The use of white space spectrum is currently approved or being The use of white space spectrum is currently approved or being
considered in multiple regulatory domains, whose rules may differ. considered in multiple regulatory domains, whose rules may differ.
However the need for devices that intend to use the spectrum to However, the need for devices that intend to use the spectrum to
communicate with a database remains a common feature. The database communicate with a database remains a common feature. The database
implements rules that protect all primary users, independent of the implements rules that protect all primary users, independent of the
characteristics of the white space devices. It also provides a way characteristics of the white space devices. It also provides a way
to specify a schedule of use, since some primary users (for example, to specify a schedule of use, since some primary users (for example,
wireless microphones) only operate in limited time slots. wireless microphones) only operate in limited time slots.
Devices need to be able to query a database, directly or indirectly, Devices need to be able to query a database, directly or indirectly,
over the public Internet and/or private IP networks prior to over the public Internet and/or private IP networks prior to
operating in available spectrum. Information about available operating in available spectrum. Information about available
spectrum, schedule, power, etc., are provided by the database as a spectrum, schedule, power, etc., are provided by the database as a
skipping to change at page 16, line 21 skipping to change at page 16, line 16
used by the white space device in available spectrum can be IEEE used by the white space device in available spectrum can be IEEE
802.11af, IEEE 802.15.4m, IEEE 802.16, IEEE 802.22, LTE etc. 802.11af, IEEE 802.15.4m, IEEE 802.16, IEEE 802.22, LTE etc.
However the messaging interface between the white space device However the messaging interface between the white space device
and the database should be agnostic to the air interface while and the database should be agnostic to the air interface while
being cognizant of the characteristics of various air-interface being cognizant of the characteristics of various air-interface
technologies and the need to include relevant attributes in the technologies and the need to include relevant attributes in the
query to the database. query to the database.
2. Spectrum agnostic - the spectrum used by primary and secondary 2. Spectrum agnostic - the spectrum used by primary and secondary
users varies by country. Some spectrum has an explicit notion of users varies by country. Some spectrum has an explicit notion of
a "channel" a defined swath of spectrum within a band that has a "channel": a defined swath of spectrum within a band that has
some assigned identifier. Other spectrum bands may be subject to some assigned identifier. Other spectrum bands may be subject to
white space sharing, but only have actual frequency low/high white space sharing, but only have actual frequency low/high
parameters to define protected entity use. The protocol should parameters to define primary and secondary use. The protocol
be able to be used in any spectrum band where white space sharing should be able to be used in any spectrum band where white space
is permitted. sharing is permitted.
3. Globally applicable - A common messaging interface between white 3. Globally applicable - A common messaging interface between white
space devices and databases will enable the use of such spectrum space devices and databases will enable the use of such spectrum
for various purposes on a global basis. Devices can operate in for various purposes on a global basis. Devices can operate in
any country where such spectrum is available and a common any locale where such spectrum is available and a common
interface ensures uniformity in implementations and deployment. interface ensures uniformity in implementations and deployment.
Since the White Space Device must know its geospatial location to Since the White Space Device must know its geospatial location to
do a query, it is possible to determine which database, and which do a query, it is possible to determine which database, and which
rules, are applicable, even though they are country-specific. rules, are applicable, even though they are locale specific.
Note that although a device may know its geolocation, it may not Note that although a device may know its geolocation, it may not
know the country or regulatory domain that it is in. Further, know the country or regulatory domain that it is in. Further,
even if the device knows this information, it may not be even if the device knows this information, it may not be
sufficient for the device to know its expected behaviour in its sufficient for the device to know its expected behaviour in its
domain of operation since one domain may adopt a rule set for domain of operation since one domain may adopt a rule set for
white space device operation from another regulatory domain white space device operation from another regulatory domain
(Brazil may adopt the "FccWhitespace2010" US rule set). To allow (Brazil may adopt the "FccWhitespace2010" US rule set). To allow
the global use of white space devices in different countries the global use of white space devices in different countries
(whatever the regulatory domain), the protocol should support the (whatever the regulatory domain), the protocol should support the
Database communicating applicable rule set information to the Database communicating applicable rule set information to the
white space device. white space device.
4. Flexible and extensible data structures - Different databases are 4. Flexible and extensible data structures - Different databases are
likely to have different requirements for the kinds of data likely to have different requirements for the kinds of data
required for registration (different rule sets that apply to the required for registration (different rule sets that apply to the
registration of devices) and other messages sent by the device to registration of devices) and other messages sent by the device to
the database. For instance, different regulators might require the database. For instance, different regulators might require
different device-characteristic information to be passed to the different device-characteristic information to be passed to the
database. database.
4.2. Database discovery 5.2. Database discovery
Another aspect of the problem space is the need to discover the Another aspect of the problem space is the need to discover the
database. A white space device needs to find the relevant database database. A white space device needs to find the relevant database
to query, based on its current location or for another location. to query, based on its current location or for another location.
Since the spectrum and databases are regulatory-domain specific, the Since the spectrum and databases are domain specific, the device will
device will need to discover the relevant database. The device needs need to discover the relevant database. The device needs to
to determine the location of the specific database to which it can determine the location of the specific database to which it can send
send queries in addition to registering itself for operation and queries in addition to registering itself for operation and using the
using the available spectrum. available spectrum.
4.3. Protocol 5.3. Protocol
A protocol that enables a white space device to query a database to A protocol that enables a white space device to query a database to
obtain information about available spectrum is needed. A device may obtain information about available spectrum is needed. A device may
be required to register with the database with some credentials prior be required to register with the database with some credentials prior
to being allowed to query. The requirements for such a protocol are to being allowed to query. The requirements for such a protocol are
specified in this document. specified in this document.
4.4. Data model definition 5.4. Data model definition
The contents of the queries and response need to be specified. A The contents of the queries and response need to be specified. A
data model is required which enables the white space device to query data model is required which enables the white space device to query
the database while including all the relevant information such as the database while including all the relevant information such as
geolocation, radio technology, power characteristics, etc., which may geolocation, radio technology, power characteristics, etc., which may
be country and spectrum and regulatory dependent. All databases are be country and spectrum and regulatory dependent. All databases are
able to interpret the data model and respond to the queries using the able to interpret the data model and respond to the queries using the
same data model that is understood by all devices. same data model that is understood by all devices.
5. Requirements 6. Requirements
5.1. Normative Requirements
D. Data Model Requirements: 6.1. Data Model Requirements
D.1 The Data Model MUST support specifying the geolocation of the D.1 The Data Model MUST support specifying the geolocation of the
WSD, the uncertainty in meters, the height & its uncertainty, WSD, the uncertainty in meters, the height & its uncertainty,
and confidence in percentage of the location determination. and confidence in percentage of the location determination.
The Data Model MUST support WGS84 (see NGA: DoD World Geodetic The Data Model MUST support WGS84 (see NGA: DoD World Geodetic
System 1984 [2]). System 1984 [3]).
D.2 The Data Model MUST support specifying the data and other D.2 The Data Model MUST support specifying the data and other
applicable requirements of the rule set that applies to the applicable requirements of the rule set that applies to the
white space device at its current location. white space device at its current location.
D.3 The Data Model MUST support device description data that D.3 The Data Model MUST support device description data that
identifies a device (serial number, certification IDs, etc.) identifies a device (serial number, certification IDs, etc.)
and describes device characteristics (device class, Radio and describes device characteristics, such as or device class
Access Technology, etc.). (fixed, mobile, portable, indoor, outdoor, etc.), Radio Access
Technology (RAT), etc.
D.4 The Data Model MUST support specifying a manufacturer's D.4 The Data Model MUST support specifying a manufacturer's
serial number for a white space device. serial number for a white space device.
D.5 The Data Model MUST support specifying the antenna and D.5 The Data Model MUST support specifying the antenna and
radiation related parameters of the subject, such as: radiation related parameters of the subject, such as:
antenna height antenna height
antenna gain antenna gain
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D.8 The Data Model MUST support specifying spectrum availability D.8 The Data Model MUST support specifying spectrum availability
information for a single location and an area (e.g., a polygon information for a single location and an area (e.g., a polygon
defined by multiple location points or a geometric shape such defined by multiple location points or a geometric shape such
as a circle). as a circle).
D.9 The Data Model MUST support specifying the frequencies and D.9 The Data Model MUST support specifying the frequencies and
power levels selected for use by a device in the power levels selected for use by a device in the
acknowledgement message. acknowledgement message.
P. Protocol Requirements: 6.2. Protocol Requirements
P.1 The address of a database (e.g., in form of a URI) can be
preconfigured in a master device. The master device MUST be
able to contact a database using a pre-configured database
address. The master device may validate the database against a
list of approved databases maintained by a regulatory body.
P.2 The protocol must support the database informing the master P.1 The address of a database (e.g., in form of a URI) can be
of the regulatory rules (rule set) that applies to the master preconfigured in a master device. The master device MUST be able
device (or any slave devices on whose behalf the master is to contact a database using a pre-configured database address.
contacting the database) at the current location or the master The master device may validate the database against a list of
(or slave) device(s). approved databases maintained by a regulatory body.
P.3 The protocol MUST provide the ability for the database to P.2 The protocol must support the database informing the master of
authenticate the master device. the regulatory rules (rule set) that applies to the master device
(or any slave devices on whose behalf the master is contacting the
database) at the current location or the master (or slave)
device(s).
P.4 The protocol MUST provide the ability for the master device P.3 The protocol MUST provide the ability for the database to
to verify the authenticity of the database with which it is authenticate the master device.
interacting.
P.5 The messages sent by the master device to the database and P.4 The protocol MUST provide the ability for the master device to
the messages sent by the database to the master device MUST verify the authenticity of the database with which it is
support integrity protection. interacting.
P.6 The protocol MUST provide the capability for messages sent by P.5 The messages sent by the master device to the database and the
the master device and database to be encrypted. messages sent by the database to the master device MUST support
integrity protection.
P.7 The protocol MUST support the master device registering with P.6 The protocol MUST provide the capability for messages sent by
the database (see Device Registration (Section 3.1.2)). the master device and database to be encrypted.
P.8 The protocol MUST support a registration acknowledgement P.7 The protocol MUST support the master device registering with the
including appropriate result codes. database (see Device Registration (Section 3.1.2)).
P.9 The protocol MUST support an available spectrum request from P.8 The protocol MUST support a registration acknowledgement
the master device to the database. These parameters MAY including appropriate result codes.
include any of the parameters and attributes required to be
supported in the Data Model Requirements.
P.10 The protocol MUST support an available spectrum response P.9 The protocol MUST support an available spectrum request from the
from the database to the master device. These parameters MAY master device to the database. These parameters MAY include any
include any of the parameters and attributes required to be of the parameters and attributes required to be supported in the
supported in the Data Model Requirements. Data Model Requirements.
P.11 The protocol MUST support a spectrum usage message from the P.10 The protocol MUST support an available spectrum response from
master device to the database. These parameters MAY include the database to the master device. These parameters MAY include
any of the parameters and attributes required to be supported any of the parameters and attributes required to be supported in
in the Data Model Requirements. the Data Model Requirements.
P.12 The protocol MUST support a spectrum usage message P.11 The protocol MUST support a spectrum usage message from the
acknowledgement. master device to the database. These parameters MAY include any
of the parameters and attributes required to be supported in the
Data Model Requirements.
P.13 The protocol MUST support a validation request from the P.12 The protocol MUST support a spectrum usage message
master to the database to validate a slave device. The acknowledgement.
validation request MUST include the slave device ID.
P.14 The protocol MUST support a validation response from the P.13 The protocol MUST support a validation request from the master
database to the master to indicate if the slave device is to the database to validate a slave device. The validation
validated by the WSDB. The validation response MUST include a request MUST include the slave device ID.
response code.
P.15 The protocol between the master device and the database MUST P.14 The protocol MUST support a validation response from the
support the capability to change spectrum availability database to the master to indicate if the slave device is
information on short notice. validated by the WSDB. The validation response MUST include a
response code.
P.16 The protocol between the master device and the database MUST P.15 The protocol between the master device and the database MUST
support a spectrum availability request which specifies a support the capability to change spectrum availability information
geographic location as an area as well as a point. on short notice.
5.2. Non-normative requirements P.16 The protocol between the master device and the database MUST
support a spectrum availability request which specifies a
geographic location as an area as well as a point
O. Operational Requirements 6.3. Operational Requirements
This section contains operational requirements of a white space This section contains operational requirements of a white space
database-device system, independent of the requirements of the database-device system, independent of the requirements of the
protocol for communication between the white space database and protocol for communication between the white space database and
devices. devices.
O.1 The database and the master device MUST be connected to the O.1 The database and the master device MUST be connected to the
Internet. Internet.
O.2 A master device MUST be able to determine its location O.2 A master device MUST be able to determine its location including
including uncertainty and confidence level. A fixed master uncertainty and confidence level. A fixed master device MAY use a
device MAY use a location programmed at installation or have location programmed at installation or have the capability to
the capability to determine its location to the required determine its location to the required accuracy. A mobile master
accuracy. A mobile master device MUST have the capability to device MUST have the capability to determine its location to the
determine its location to the required accuracy. required accuracy.
O.3 The master device MUST identify a database to which it will O.3 The master device MUST identify a database to which it will
register, make spectrum availability requests, etc... The register, make spectrum availability requests, etc... The master
master device MAY select a database for service by discovery at device MAY select a database for service by discovery at runtime
runtime or the master device MAY select a database for service or the master device MAY select a database for service by means of
by means of a pre-programmed URI address. a pre-programmed URI address.
O.4 The master device MUST implement at least one connection O.4 The master device MUST implement at least one connection method
method to access the database. The master device MAY contact a to access the database. The master device MAY contact a database
database directly for service or the master device MAY contact directly for service or the master device MAY contact a database
a database listing server first followed by contact to a listing server first followed by contact to a database.
database.
O.5 The master device MUST obtain an information on the rule set O.5 The master device MUST obtain an information on the rule set of
of the regulatory body that applies to the master device at its the regulatory body that applies to the master device at its
current location (and/or the location of any slave devices on current location (and/or the location of any slave devices on
whose behalf the master device is operating). whose behalf the master device is operating).
O.6 The master device MAY register with the database according to O.6 The master device MAY register with the database according to
local regulatory policy. Not all master devices will be local regulatory policy. Not all master devices will be required
required to register. Specific events will initiate to register. Specific events will initiate registration, these
registration, these events are determined by regulator policy events are determined by regulator policy (e.g., at power up,
(e.g., at power up, after movement, etc...). When local after movement, etc...). When local regulatory policy requires
regulatory policy requires registration, the master device MUST registration, the master device MUST register with its most
register with its most current and up-to-date information, and current and up-to-date information, and MUST include all variables
MUST include all variables mandated by local regulator policy. mandated by local regulator policy.
O.7 A master device MUST query the database for the available O.7 A master device MUST query the database for the available
spectrum based on its current location before starting radio spectrum based on its current location before starting radio
transmission in white space. Parameters provided to the transmission in white space. Parameters provided to the database
database MAY include device location, accuracy of the location, MAY include device location, accuracy of the location, antenna
antenna characteristic information, device identifier of any characteristic information, device identifier of any slave device
slave device requesting spectrum information, etc. requesting spectrum information, etc.
O.8 The database MUST respond to an available spectrum list O.8 The database MUST respond to an available spectrum list request
request from an authenticated and authorized device and MAY from an authenticated and authorized device and MAY also provide
also provide time constraints, maximum output power, start and time constraints, maximum output power, start and stop frequencies
stop frequencies for each band in the list and any additional for each band in the list and any additional requirements for
requirements for sensing. sensing.
O.9 According to local regulator policy, a master device MAY O.9 According to local regulator policy, a master device MAY inform
inform the database of the actual frequency usage of the master the database of the actual frequency usage of the master and its
and its slaves. The master MUST include parameters required by slaves. The master MUST include parameters required by local
local regulatory policy, e.g., device ID, manufacturer's serial regulatory policy, e.g., device ID, manufacturer's serial number,
number, spectrum usage and power level information of the spectrum usage and power level information of the master and its
master and its slaves. slaves.
O.10 After connecting to a master device's radio network a slave O.10 After connecting to a master device's radio network a slave
device MUST query the master device for a list of available device MUST query the master device for a list of available
spectrum. The slave MUST include parameters required by local spectrum. The slave MUST include parameters required by local
regulatory policy, e.g., device ID, device location. regulatory policy, e.g., device ID, device location.
O.11 According to local regulatory policy, the master device MAY O.11 According to local regulatory policy, the master device MAY
query the database with parameters received from the slave query the database with parameters received from the slave device.
device.
O.12 The database MUST respond to a query from the master device O.12 The database MUST respond to a query from the master device
containing parameters from a slave device. containing parameters from a slave device.
O.13 A master device MUST repeat the query to the database for O.13 A master device MUST repeat the query to the database for the
the available spectrum as often as required by the regulation available spectrum as often as required by the regulation (e.g.,
(e.g., FCC requires once per day) to verify that the operating FCC requires once per day) to verify that the operating channels
channels continue to remain available. continue to remain available.
O.14 A master device which changes its location more than a O.14 A master device which changes its location more than a
threshold distance (specified by local regulatory policy) threshold distance (specified by local regulatory policy) during
during its operation, MUST query the database for available its operation, MUST query the database for available operating
operating spectrum each time it moves more than the threshold spectrum each time it moves more than the threshold distance
distance (e.g., FCC specifies 100m) from the location it (e.g., FCC specifies 100m) from the location it previously made
previously made the query. the query.
O.15 According to local regulator policy, a master device may O.15 According to local regulator policy, a master device may
contact a database via proxy service of another master device. contact a database via proxy service of another master device.
O.16 A master device MUST be able to query the whitespace O.16 A master device MUST be able to query the whitespace database
database for spectrum availability information for a specific for spectrum availability information for a specific expected
expected coverage area around its current location. coverage area around its current location.
O.17 A Master device MUST include its unique identity in all O.17 A Master device MUST include its unique identity in all message
message exchanges with the database. exchanges with the database.
5.3. Guidelines 6.4. Guidelines
The current scope of the working group is limited and is reflected in The current scope of the working group is limited and is reflected in
the requirements captured in Section 6.1. However white space the requirements captured in Section 6.1. However white space
technology itself is expected to evolve and address other aspects technology itself is expected to evolve and address other aspects
such as co-existence and interference avoidance, spectrum brokering, such as co-existence and interference avoidance, spectrum brokering,
alternative spectrum bands, etc. The design of the data model and alternative spectrum bands, etc. The design of the data model and
protocol should be cognizant of the evolving nature of white space protocol should be cognizant of the evolving nature of white space
technology and consider the following set of guidelines in the technology and consider the following set of guidelines in the
development of the data model and protocol: development of the data model and protocol:
1. The data model SHOULD provide a modular design separating out 1. The data model SHOULD provide a modular design separating out
messaging specific, administrative specific, and spectrum messaging specific, administrative specific, and spectrum
specific parts into separate modules. specific parts into separate modules.
2. The protocol SHOULD support determination of which administrative 2. The protocol SHOULD support determination of which administrative
specific and spectrum specific modules are used. specific and spectrum specific modules are used.
6. IANA Considerations 7. IANA Considerations
This document makes no request of IANA. This document makes no request of IANA.
7. Security Considerations 8. Security Considerations
PAWS is a protocol whereby a Master Device requests a schedule of PAWS is a protocol whereby a Master Device requests a schedule of
available spectrum at its location (or location of its Slave Devices) available spectrum at its location (or location of its Slave Devices)
before it (they) can operate using those frequencies. Whereas the before it (they) can operate using those frequencies. Whereas the
information provided by the Database must be accurate and conform to information provided by the Database must be accurate and conform to
applicable regulatory rules, the Database cannot enforce, through the applicable regulatory rules, the Database cannot enforce, through the
protocol, that a client device uses only the spectrum it provided. protocol, that a client device uses only the spectrum it provided.
In other words, devices can put energy in the air and cause In other words, devices can put energy in the air and cause
interference without asking the Database. Hence, PAWS security interference without asking the Database. Hence, PAWS security
considerations do not include protection against malicious use of the considerations do not include protection against malicious use of the
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Emergency services, which require more spectrum precisely at Emergency services, which require more spectrum precisely at
locations where network infrastructure is malfunctioning or locations where network infrastructure is malfunctioning or
overloaded, backup communication spectrum and distributed white overloaded, backup communication spectrum and distributed white
space databases are needed to overcome such circumstances. space databases are needed to overcome such circumstances.
Alternatively there may be other mechanisms which allow the use Alternatively there may be other mechanisms which allow the use
of spectrum by emergency service equipment without strict of spectrum by emergency service equipment without strict
authorization or with liberal interpretation of the regulatory authorization or with liberal interpretation of the regulatory
policy for white space usage. policy for white space usage.
The security requirements arising from the above threats are captured The security requirements arising from the above threats are captured
in the requirements of Section 6.1 (Section 5.1). in the requirements of Section 6.1 (Section 6.1).
8. Summary and Conclusion 9. Summary and Conclusion
Wireless spectrum is a scarce resource. As the demand for spectrum Wireless spectrum is a scarce resource. As the demand for spectrum
grows, there is a need to more efficiently utilize the available and grows, there is a need to more efficiently utilize the available and
allocated spectrum. Cognitive radio technologies enable the allocated spectrum. Cognitive radio technologies enable the
efficient usage of spectrum via means such as sensing or by querying efficient usage of spectrum via means such as sensing or by querying
a database to determine available spectrum at a given location for a database to determine available spectrum at a given location for
opportunistic use. "White space" is the general term used to refer opportunistic use. "White space" is the general term used to refer
to the bands within the spectrum which are available for secondary to the bands within the spectrum which are available for secondary
use at a given location. In order to use this spectrum, a device use at a given location. In order to use this spectrum, a device
needs to query a database that maintains information about the needs to query a database that maintains information about the
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communication between the devices and databases that is globally communication between the devices and databases that is globally
applicable. applicable.
The document describes some examples of the role of the white space The document describes some examples of the role of the white space
database in the operation of a radio network, and also provides database in the operation of a radio network, and also provides
examples of services provided to the user of a white space device. examples of services provided to the user of a white space device.
From these use cases, requirements are determined. These From these use cases, requirements are determined. These
requirements are to be used as input for the development of a requirements are to be used as input for the development of a
Protocol to Access White Space database (PAWS). Protocol to Access White Space database (PAWS).
9. Acknowledgements 10. Acknowledgements
The authors acknowledge Gabor Bajko, Teco Boot, Nancy Bravin, Rex The authors acknowledge Gabor Bajko, Teco Boot, Nancy Bravin, Rex
Buddenberg, Vincent Chen, Gerald Chouinard, Stephen Farrell, Michael Buddenberg, Vincent Chen, Gerald Chouinard, Stephen Farrell, Michael
Fitch, Joel M. Halpern, Jussi Kahtava, Paul Lambert, Pete Resnick, Fitch, Joel M. Halpern, Jussi Kahtava, Paul Lambert, Pete Resnick,
Brian Rosen, Andy Sago, Peter Stanforth, John Stine and, Juan Carlos Brian Rosen, Andy Sago, Peter Stanforth, John Stine and, Juan Carlos
Zuniga for their contributions to this document. Zuniga for their contributions to this document.
10. References 11. References
10.1. Normative References 11.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
10.2. Informational References 11.2. Informational References
URIs URIs
[1] <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_radio> [1] <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-ietf-paws-protocol/>
[2] <http://earth-info.nga.mil/GandG/publications/tr8350.2/ [2] <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_radio>
[3] <http://earth-info.nga.mil/GandG/publications/tr8350.2/
tr8350_2.html> tr8350_2.html>
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Anthony Mancuso (editor) Anthony Mancuso (editor)
Scott Probasco Scott Probasco
Phone: Phone:
Fax: Fax:
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