PAWS                                                        V. Chen, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                    Google
Intended status: Standards Track                                  S. Das
Expires: September 5, October 26, 2014                 Applied Communication Sciences
                                                                  L. Zhu
                                                                  Huawei
                                                               J. Malyar
                                           iconectiv (formerly Telcordia
                                              Interconnection Solutions)
                                                               P. McCann
                                                                  Huawei
                                                           March 4,
                                                          April 24, 2014

            Protocol to Access White-Space (PAWS) Databases
                      draft-ietf-paws-protocol-11
                      draft-ietf-paws-protocol-12

Abstract

   Portions of the radio spectrum that are allocated to licensees are
   available for non-interfering use.  This available spectrum is called
   "White Space."  Allowing secondary users access to available spectrum
   "unlocks" existing spectrum to maximize its utilization and to
   provide opportunities for innovation, resulting in greater overall
   spectrum utilization.

   One approach to manage spectrum sharing uses databases to report
   spectrum availability to devices.  To achieve interoperability among
   multiple devices and databases, a standardized protocol must be
   defined and implemented.  This document defines such a protocol, the
   "Protocol to Access White Space (PAWS) Databases".

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 5, October 26, 2014.

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   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   2.  Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.1.  Conventions Used in This Document . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   3.  Protocol Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.1.  Multi-ruleset Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   4.  Protocol Functionalities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.1.  Database Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8   9
       4.1.1.  Listing Server  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.2.  Initialization  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11  10
       4.2.1.  INIT_REQ  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.2.2.  INIT_RESP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     4.3.  Device Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13  12
       4.3.1.  REGISTRATION_REQ  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       4.3.2.  REGISTRATION_RESP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     4.4.  Available Spectrum Query  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       4.4.1.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18  17
       4.4.2.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       4.4.3.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       4.4.4.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
       4.4.5.  SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
       4.4.6.  SPECTRUM_USE_RESP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     4.5.  Device Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
       4.5.1.  DEV_VALID_REQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
       4.5.2.  DEV_VALID_RESP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
   5.  Protocol Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
     5.1.  GeoLocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
     5.2.  DeviceDescriptor  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
     5.3.  AntennaCharacteristics  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     5.4.  DeviceCapabilities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
     5.5.  DeviceOwner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     5.6.  RulesetInfo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     5.7.  DbUpdateSpec  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
     5.8.  DatabaseSpec  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
     5.9.  SpectrumSpec  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
     5.10. SpectrumSchedule  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
     5.11. Spectrum  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
     5.12. SpectrumProfile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  41  42
     5.13. FrequencyRange  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42  43
     5.14. EventTime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
     5.15. GeoSpectrumSpec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43  44
     5.16. DeviceValidity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44  45
     5.17. Error Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  45
       5.17.1. OUTSIDE_COVERAGE Error  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
       5.17.2. DATABASE_CHANGE Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47  48
       5.17.3. REQUIRED MISSING Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47 .  48
   6.  Message Encoding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  48  49
     6.1.  JSON-RPC Binding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  48  49
     6.2.  init Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  50
       6.2.1.  INIT_REQ Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  50  51
       6.2.2.  INIT_RESP Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  51  52
     6.3.  register Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53  54
       6.3.1.  REGISTRATION_REQ Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53  54
       6.3.2.  REGISTRATION_RESP Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . .  54  55
     6.4.  getSpectrum Method  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  55  56
       6.4.1.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . .  56  57
       6.4.2.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . .  58  59
     6.5.  getSpectrumBatch Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  62  63
       6.5.1.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ Parameters . . . . . . . . .  63  64
       6.5.2.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP Parameters  . . . . . . . .  65  66
     6.6.  notifySpectrumUse Method  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  68  69
       6.6.1.  SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . .  68  69
       6.6.2.  SPECTRUM_USE_RESP Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . .  70  71
     6.7.  verifyDevice Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  71  72
       6.7.1.  DEV_VALID_REQ Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  71  72
       6.7.2.  DEV_VALID_RESP Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  72  73
     6.8.  Sub-message Schemas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  74  75
       6.8.1.  GeoLocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  74  75
       6.8.2.  DeviceDescriptor  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  76  77
       6.8.3.  AntennaCharacteristics  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  77  78
       6.8.4.  DeviceCapabilities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  78  79
       6.8.5.  DeviceOwner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  79  80
       6.8.6.  RulesetInfo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  80  81
       6.8.7.  DbUpdateSpec  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  81  82
       6.8.8.  DatabaseSpec  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  82  83
       6.8.9.  Spectrum  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  82  83
       6.8.10. FrequencyRange  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  84  85
       6.8.11. EventTime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  85  86
       6.8.12. SpectrumSchedule  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  85  86
       6.8.13. SpectrumSpec  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  86  87
       6.8.14. GeoSpectrumSpec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  87  88
       6.8.15. DeviceValidity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  88  89
       6.8.16. Additional Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  89  90
   7.  HTTPS Binding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  89  90
   8.  Extensibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  91  92
     8.1.  Defining New Message Parameters Ruleset Identifiers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  91  92
     8.2.  Defining Ruleset Identifiers  . New Message Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . .  91  92
     8.3.  Defining Additional Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . .  92  93
   9.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  92  93
     9.1.  PAWS Parameters Ruleset ID Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  92  94
       9.1.1.  Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  92  94
       9.1.2.  Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  93  94
     9.2.  PAWS Ruleset ID Parameters Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  95 100
       9.2.1.  Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  95 100
       9.2.2.  Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  95 100
     9.3.  PAWS Error Code Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  98 102
       9.3.1.  Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  98 102
       9.3.2.  Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  98 103
   10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  99 103
     10.1. Assurance of Proper Database  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 104
     10.2. Protection Against Modification . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 104
     10.3. Protection Against Eavesdropping  . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 104
     10.4. Client Authentication Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . 100 105
   11. Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 105
   12. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 106
   13. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 106
     13.1. Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 106
     13.2. Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 107
   Appendix A.  Changes / Author Notes.  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 108
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 112

1.  Introduction

   This section provides some high level introductory material.  Readers
   are strongly encouraged to read Protocol to Access White-Space (PAWS)
   Databases: Use Cases and Requirements [RFC6953] for use cases,
   requirements, and additional background.

   A geospatial database can track available spectrum (in accordance
   with the rules of one or more regulatory domains) and make this
   information available to devices.  This approach shifts the
   complexity of spectrum-policy conformance out of the device and into
   the Database.  This approach also simplifies adoption of policy
   changes, limiting updates to a handful of databases, rather than
   numerous devices.  It opens the door for innovations in spectrum
   management that can incorporate a variety of parameters, including
   user location and time.  In the future, it also can include other
   parameters, such as user priority, time, signal type and power,
   spectrum supply and demand, payment or micro-auction bidding, and
   more.

   In providing this service, a database records and updates information
   necessary to protect primary users -- for example, this information
   may include parameters such as a fixed transmitter's call sign, its
   geo-location, antenna height, power, and periods of operation.  The
   rules that the Database must follow, including its schedule for
   obtaining and updating protection information, protection rules, and
   information reported to devices, vary according to regulatory domain.
   Such variations, however, should be handled by each database, and
   exposure to the variations by devices should be minimized.

   This specification defines an extensible protocol to obtain available
   spectrum from a geospatial database by a device with geo-location
   capability.  It enables a device to operate in any regulatory domain
   that implements the same protocol and in which the device is
   authorized to operate.  The document describes the use of HTTP/TLS as
   transport for the protocol.

2.  Conventions and Terminology

2.1.  Conventions Used in This Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in Key words for use in
   RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels [RFC2119].

2.2.  Terminology

   Database or Spectrum Database:  A database is an entity that contains
      current information about available spectrum at a given location
      and time, as well as other types of information related to
      spectrum availability and usage.
   Device ID  An identifier for a device.
   EIRP:  Effective isotropically radiated power
   ETSI:  European Telecommunications Standards Institute
   FCC:  Federal Communications Commission
   Listing server:  A server that provides the URIs for one or more
      Spectrum Databases.  A regulator, for example, may operate a
      Database Listing Server to publish the list of authorized Spectrum
      Databases for its regulatory domain.
   Master Device:  A device that queries the database, on its own behalf
      and/or on behalf of a slave device, to obtain available spectrum
      information.
   Ruleset:
   Regulatory Domain:  A location where certain rules apply to the use
      of white space spectrum, including the operation of databases and
      devices involved in its use.  A regulatory domain is normally
      defined by a unit of government for a particular country, but the
      PAWS protocol is agnostic as to how a regulatory domain is
      constructed.
   Ruleset:  An IANA-registered set of rules that governs operations of
      white space devices and Spectrum Databases within a Databases.  A regulatory domain.  The
      same set of rules may be used
      authority can define and register its own rulesets, or can use
      rulesets that have been previously registered by more than one regulatory domain. others.
   Slave Device:  A device that queries the database through a master
      device.

3.  Protocol Overview

   A Master Device uses the PAWS protocol to obtain a schedule of
   available spectrum at its location.  The security necessary to ensure
   the accuracy, privacy, and confidentiality of the Device's location
   is described in the Security Considerations (Section 10).  This
   document assumes that the Master Device and the Database are
   connected to the Internet.

   A typical sequence of PAWS operations is outlined as follows.  See
   Protocol Functionalities (Section 4) and Protocol Parameters
   (Section 5) for details:

   1.   The Master Device obtains (statically or dynamically) the URI
        for a Database appropriate for its location to send subsequent
        PAWS messages.

   2.   The Master Device establishes an HTTPS session with the
        Database.
   3.   The Master Device optionally sends an initialization message to
        the Database to exchange capabilities.
   4.   If the Database receives an initialization message, it responds
        with a message in the body of the HTTP response.
   5.   The Database may require the Master Device to be registered
        before providing service.
   6.   The Master Device sends an available-spectrum request message to
        the Database.
   7.   The Master Device may verify with the Database that the Slave
        Device is valid.
   8.   The Database responds with an available-spectrum response
        message in the body of the HTTP response.
   9.   The Master Device may send a spectrum-usage notification message
        to the Database.
   10.  If the Database receives a spectrum-usage notification message,
        it responds by sending the Master Device a spectrum-usage
        acknowledgement message.

   Different regulatory domains may impose particular requirements, such
   as requiring Master Devices to register with the Database, performing
   Slave Device verification, and sending spectrum usage notifications.

3.1.  Multi-ruleset Support

   For a Master Device that supports multiple rulesets and operates with
   multiple databases in multiple regulatory domains, databases, the PAWS protocol supports the following sequence
   of operations for each request by the Master Device:

   1.  The Master Device includes in its request its location and
       optionally includes the identifier of all the rulesets it
       supports and any parameter values it might need for the request
   2.  The Database uses the device location and also may use the
       ruleset list to determine its response, for example, to select
       the list of required parameters
   3.  If required parameters are missing from the request, the Database
       responds with an error and a list of names of the missing
       parameters
   4.  The Master Device makes the request again, adding the missing
       parameter values
   5.  The Database responds to the request, including the identifier of
       the applicable ruleset
   6.  The Master Device uses the indicated ruleset to determine how to
       interpret the Database response

   NOTE: Regulatory rules contain many device-only requirements that
   govern device behavior, independent of any database rules.  These
   requirements may be complex and involve device behavior that are not
   easily parameterized.  The ruleset-id parameter provides a mechanism
   for the Database to inform the Master Device of the applicable
   ruleset without having to express device-side behavior within the
   protocol.  The ruleset identifier is a string value that contains the
   name of the regulatory body that established the rules and version
   information, such as "FccTvBandWhiteSpace-2010".

   By separating the regulatory "authority" from the "ruleset-id", it
   allows the protocol to support multiple regulatory authorities that
   use the same device-side ruleset.  It also allows support for a
   single authority to define multiple rulesets.

4.  Protocol Functionalities

   The PAWS protocol consists of several components:

   o  Database Discovery (Section 4.1) MUST be supported by the Master
      Device
   o  Initialization (Section 4.2) MAY be used by the Master Device and
      MUST be implemented by the Database.
   o  Device Registration (Section 4.3) MAY be used by the Master Device
      and MAY be implemented by the Database Database, either as a separate
      component or as part of the Available Spectrum Query (Section 4.4)
      component.
   o  Available Spectrum Query (Section 4.4) MUST be supported by Master
      Device and the Database.
   o  Spectrum Use Notify (Section 4.4.5) MAY be used by the Master
      Device and the Database.  Some regulatory domains mandate
      notifications, which would mandate their use by the Master Device
      and mandate their implementation by the Database.
   o  Device Validation (Section 4.5) MAY be used by the Master Device. Device
      and the Database.

   Note: Some regulatory domains mandate device validation, which would
      mandate its use by the Master Device use of notification and mandate its
   device validation.  In such cases, obviously, their implementation by the Database.
   and use would be necessary.

   This section describes the protocol components and their messages.
   Protocol Parameters (Section 5) contains a more thorough discussion
   of the parameters that comprise the PAWS request and response
   messages.  Message Encoding (Section 6) provides details of the
   message encodings.  HTTPS Binding (Section 7) describes the use of
   HTTPS (HTTP Over TLS [RFC2818]) for transporting PAWS messages and
   optional device authentication.

4.1.  Database Discovery

   Different regulators may have different requirements

   The parameter tables in this section and Protocol Parameters
   (Section 5) are for the approval reference and operation of databases, such as:

   o  A regulator may only allow a limited number of certified databases
      to operate.  It also may require contain the certification name of each device-
      to-database pairing.

   o  A regulator may maintain a trusted website that lists all approved
      databases, known as the Listing Server.  It also may mandate how
      devices use parameter,
   the listing server.
   o  A regulator may allow data type of each database to define its own terms parameter, and whether the existence of
      use, so that, the
   parameter is required for example, an approved device may not be able to
      access all approved databases.

   Prior to sending PAWS messages, a Device needs to determine the URI protocol transaction in question.  The
   data types are either defined in Protocol Parameters (Section 5) or
   are part of the base data types specified in The JavaScript Object
   Notation (JSON) Data Interchange Format [RFC7159].  See Protocol
   Parameters (Section 5) and Message Encoding (Section 6) for a more
   detail on data types and encodings.

4.1.  Database that provides service at its current location. Discovery

   Preconfiguration

   The Master Device can be provisioned statically with the URI of one
   or more Databases.  For operation example, in regulatory domains that do not
   have a listing server, the device can particular regulatory domain,
   there may be provisioned with the URI a number of
   all the certified databases for which it that any device
   operating in that domain is certified or otherwise permitted to
   operate.  The connect to, and those URIs
   can be provisioned in the device.  Alternatively, a Master Device also can
   be provisioned statically with the URI of listing
   servers approved by regulators.

   Configuration Update

   To adapt to changes in the list of a Database Listing Server,
   from which it can retrieve URIs of available Databases.

   Configuration Update

   To adapt to changes in the list of certified or approved databases,
   the Device needs to update its preconfigured list of databases.  If
   the Master Device retrieves its preconfigured list of databases from
   a listing server, the device SHOULD check the listing server
   periodically to update its list.

   A Database MAY indicate that its URI will be changing by including
   the URI of one or more alternate databases (See DbUpdateSpec
   (Section 5.7)) in its responses to a Device.  Before a Database
   ceases operation, for example, it MUST include DbUpdateSpec in its
   responses to notify Devices.  A Device will update its preconfigured
   list of databases to replace (only) its entry for the responding
   Database with the URIs of the alternate databases; the list of
   alternate databases does not affect any other entries.

   Error Handling

   The Device SHOULD select another database from its list of
   preconfigured databases if:

   o  The selected database is unreachable or does not respond.
   o  The selected database returns an UNSUPPORTED error (see Error
      Codes (Section 5.17)), which may indicate that the database does
      not support the regulatory domain where the device is located.

   If a suitable database cannot be contacted, the Device MUST treat
   this as equivalent to a response indicating no available spectrum.

   If the Device is already operating when it fails to contact a
   suitable database, the spectrum the Device is currently using can be
   used for as long as the spectrum data is valid, but after that period
   of time, the Device will no longer have valid spectrum to use.  Some
   regulators
   regulatory domains will have specific rules regarding how long the
   spectrum data remains valid in these cases.

4.1.1.  Listing Server

   Within a regulatory domain that has

   The use of a Database Listing Server, Server allows the
   regulator can mandate its use by a Device to determine
   the URIs of
   databases for the domain.  The URI of the available databases.  When a Listing Server for a
   regulatory domain can be preconfigured in the device.  Where allowed
   by the regulator, is used, the
   Device can save the database list and SHOULD contact the Database
   Listing Server periodically to update its list.  The time between
   such updates MUST be no longer than one week, or any although the update
   interval can be shorter (for example, when required by the applicable
   regulatory domain,
   whichever is shorter. domain).

   If the Device is unable to contact the Database Listing Server to
   obtain the list of databases for the domain, the Device MUST treat
   this as equivalent to not having available spectrum.  Some regulatory
   domains may have additional rules regarding device behavior in such
   cases.

   The Database Listing request procedure is depicted in Figure 1.

   o  LISTING_REQ is the database-listing request message
   o  LISTING_RESP is the database-listing response message

                  +---------------+    +-------------------+
                  | Master Device |    |  Listing Server   |
                  +---------------+    +-------------------+
                        |                     |
                        |    LISTING_REQ      |
                        |-------------------->|
                        |                     |
                        |    LISTING_RESP     |
                        |<--------------------|
                        |                     |

                                 Figure 1

   Specific

   TBD Define message formats are defined by the regulators. format

4.2.  Initialization

   A Master Device SHOULD use the initialization procedure to exchange
   capability information with the Database whenever the Master Device
   powers up or initiates communication with the Database.  The
   initialization response informs the Master Device of specific
   regulatory-dependent
   parameterized-rule values, such as threshold distances and time
   periods beyond which the Device must update its available-spectrum
   data (see RuleSetInfo (Section 5.6)).  When a Master Device is
   configured manually with these parameterized-rule values, it does not
   need to use the initialization procedure.  The initialization message
   also represents extension points for database implementations or regulatory domains
   rulesets that require the extra handshake.

   The Initialization request procedure is depicted in Figure 2.
   o  INIT_REQ (Section 4.2.1) is the initialization request message
   o  INIT_RESP (Section 4.2.2) is the initialization response message

                  +---------------+    +-------------------+
                  | Master Device |    | Spectrum Database |
                  +---------------+    +-------------------+
                        |                     |
                        |    INIT_REQ         |
                        |-------------------->|
                        |                     |
                        |    INIT_RESP        |
                        |<--------------------|
                        |                     |

                                 Figure 2

4.2.1.  INIT_REQ

   The initialization request message allows the Master Device to
   initiate exchange of capabilities with the Database.

   +---------------------------------------+
   |INIT_REQ                               |
   +----------------------------+----------|
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor | required |
   |location:GeoLocation        | required |
   |.......................................|
   |*other:any                  | optional |
   +----------------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   deviceDesc:  The DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) for the Device is
      REQUIRED.  If the Database does not support the device or any of
      the rulesets specified in the device descriptor, it MUST return an
      error with the UNSUPPORTED (Table 1) code in the error response.
      If the device descriptor does not contain any ruleset IDs, the
      Database SHOULD return a list of RulesetInfo (Section 5.6)
      parameters for each regulatory domain ruleset it supports at the specified location.

   location:  The GeoLocation (Section 5.1) for the Device is REQUIRED.
   other:  The Master Device MAY specify additional handshake parameters
      in the INIT_REQ message.  The Database MUST ignore all parameters
      it does not understand.  To simplify its initialization logic, a
      Master Device that supports multiple Databases and regulatory
      domains rulesets can
      include the union of all required parameters for all its supported regulatory domains.
      rulesets.  Consult the PAWS Parameters Registry (Section 9.1) 9.2) for
      possible additional parameters.

4.2.2.  INIT_RESP

   The initialization response message communicates database parameters
   to the requesting device.

   +---------------------------------------+
   |INIT_RESP                              |
   +----------------------------+----------+   1..* +-------------+
   |rulesetInfos:list           | required |------->| RulesetInfo |
   |databaseChange:DbUpdateSpec | optional |        +-------------+
   |.......................................|
   |*other:any                  | optional |
   +----------------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   rulesetInfos:  A list of RulesetInfo (Section 5.6) parameters MUST be
      included in the response.  Each RulesetInfo parameter corresponds
      to a regulatory domain ruleset supported by the Database and is applicable to the
      location specified in the INIT_REQ (Section 4.2.1) message.  If
      the Device included a list of ruleset IDs in the DeviceDescriptor
      parameter of its INIT_REQ message, each RulesetInfo parameter in
      the response MUST match one of the specified ruleset IDs.
   databaseChange:  The Database MAY include a DbUpdateSpec
      (Section 5.7) parameter to notify the Master Device of a change to
      the Database URI, providing one or more alternate database URIs.
      The Device needs to use the information to update its list of
      preconfigured databases to replace (only) its entry for the
      responding database with the list of alternate URIs.
   other:  The Database MAY include additional handshake parameters in
      the INIT_RESP (Section 4.2.2) message.  The Master Device MUST
      ignore all parameters it does not understand.  Consult the PAWS
      Parameters Registry (Section 9.1) 9.2) for possible additional
      parameters.

4.3.  Device Registration

   Some regulatory domains rulesets require a Master Device to send its registration
   information to the Database in order to establish certain operational
   parameters.  FCC rules, for example, require that a 'Fixed Device'
   register its owner and operator contact information, its device
   identifier, its location, and its antenna height.

   The Database MAY support device registration as a separate Device
   Registration component, or as part of the Spectrum Availability
   component.  If the Database does not support a separate Device
   Registration request, it MUST return an error with the UNIMPLEMENTED
   (Table 1) code in the error-response message.

   The Device Registration request procedure is depicted in Figure 3.
   o  REGISTRATION_REQ (Section 4.3.1) is the device-registration
      request message
   o  REGISTRATION_RESP (Section 4.3.2) is the device-registration
      response message

                +---------------+        +-------------------+
                | Master Device |        | Spectrum Database |
                +---------------+        +-------------------+
                      |                         |
                      |    REGISTRATION_REQ     |
                      |------------------------>|
                      |                         |
                      |    REGISTRATION_RESP    |
                      |<------------------------|
                      |                         |

                                 Figure 3

4.3.1.  REGISTRATION_REQ

   The registration request message contains the required registration
   parameters.

   +--------------------------------------------------------------+  A parameter marked as optional may be required by some
   rulesets.

   +-------------------------------------------+
   |REGISTRATION_REQ                           |
   +-------------------------------+------------------------------+
   +-------------------------------+-----------+
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor    | required  |
   |location:GeoLocation           | required  |
   |deviceOwner:DeviceOwner        | required  |
   |antenna:AntennaCharacteristics | depends on regulatory domain optional  |
   |..............................................................|
   |...........................................|
   |*other:any                     | optional  |
   +-------------------------------+------------------------------+
   +-------------------------------+-----------+

   Parameters:

   deviceDesc:  The DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) for the Master Device
      is REQUIRED.  The ruleset IDs included in the this parameter value
      indicate the regulatory domains rulesets for which the Device wishes to register.  If
      the registration information is unacceptable for all of the regulatory domains
      rulesets supported by the Database, the Database MUST return an
      error message with an appropriate error code.  Otherwise, the
      Database MUST return, in its response, a list of RulesetInfo
      (Section 5.6) parameters for all regulatory domains rulesets for which device
      registration was accepted.
   location:  The GeoLocation (Section 5.1) for the Device is REQUIRED.
   deviceOwner:  The DeviceOwner (Section 5.5) information is REQUIRED.
   antenna:  The AntennaCharacteristics (Section 5.3) is OPTIONAL.  Some
      regulatory domains may mandate its use.
   other:  Regulatory domains  Rulesets and database implementations may require additional
      registration parameters.  To simplify its registration logic, the
      Master Device MAY send a union of the registration information
      required by all supported regulatory domains. rulesets.  The Database MUST ignore all
      parameters it does not understand.  Consult the PAWS Parameters
      Registry (Section 9.1) 9.2) for possible additional parameters.

4.3.2.  REGISTRATION_RESP

   The registration response message acknowledges successful
   registration by including a RulesetInfo message for each regulatory
   domain ruleset in
   which the registration is accepted.  If the Database accepts the
   registration for none of the regulatory domains rulesets it supports, the Database MUST
   return the NOT_REGISTERED error (See Error Codes (Section 5.17)).

   +---------------------------------------+
   |REGISTRATION_RESP                      |
   +----------------------------+----------+   1..* +-------------+
   |rulesetInfos:list           | required |------->| RulesetInfo |
   |databaseChange:DbUpdateSpec | optional |        +-------------+
   |............................|..........|
   |*other:any                  | optional |
   +----------------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   rulesetInfos:  A list of RulesetInfo (Section 5.6) parameters MUST be
      included in the response.  Each entry corresponds to a regulatory
      domain ruleset for
      which the registration was accepted.  The list MUST contain at
      least one entry.
   databaseChange:  The Database MAY include a DbUpdateSpec
      (Section 5.7) parameter to notify the Master Device of a change to
      the Database URI, providing one or more alternate database URIs.
      The Device needs to use the information to update its list of
      preconfigured databases to replace (only) its entry for the
      responding database with the list of alternate URIs.

   other:  Database implementations MAY return additional parameters in
      the registration response.  The Master Device MUST ignore any
      parameters it does not understand.  Consult the PAWS Parameters
      Registry (Section 9.1) 9.2) for possible additional parameters.

4.4.  Available Spectrum Query

   To obtain the available spectrum from the Database, a Master Device
   sends a request that contains its geo-location and any parameters
   required by the regulatory rules ruleset (such as device identifier, capabilities, and
   characteristics).  The Database returns a response that describes
   which frequencies are available, at what permissible operating power
   levels, and a schedule of when they are available.

   The Available Spectrum Query procedure is depicted in Figure 4.

   o  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ (Section 4.4.1) is the available-spectrum
      request message.
   o  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP (Section 4.4.2) is the available-spectrum
      response message.
   o  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ (Section 4.4.3) is an OPTIONAL batch
      version of the available-spectrum request message that allows
      multiple locations to be specified in the request.
   o  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP (Section 4.4.4) is the response message
      for the batch version of the available-spectrum request that
      contains available spectrum for each location in the request.
   o  SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY (Section 4.4.5) is the spectrum-usage
      notification message.
   o  SPECTRUM_USE_RESP (Section 4.4.6) is the spectrum-usage
      acknowledgment message.

               +---------------+          +-------------------+
               | Master Device |          | Spectrum Database |
               +---------------+          +-------------------+
                     |                            |
                     |    AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ      |
                     | (AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ) |
                     |--------------------------->|
                     |                            |
                     |    AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP     |
                     | (AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP)|
                     |<---------------------------|
                     |                            |
                     |   (SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY)    |
                     |--------------------------->|
                     |                            |
                     |    (SPECTRUM_USE_RESP)     |
                     |<---------------------------|
                     |                            |

                                 Figure 4

   1.  First, the Master Device sends an available-spectrum request
       message to the Database.
   2.  The Database MUST respond with an error using the NOT_REGISTERED
       (Table 1) code if:
       *  registration information is required, and
       *  the request does not include registration information, and
       *  the Device has not previously registered with the Database
   3.  If the location specified in the request is outside the
       regulatory domain supported by the Database, the Database MUST
       respond with an OUTSIDE_COVERAGE (Table 1) error.  If some
       locations within a batch request are outside the regulatory
       domain supported by the Database, the Database MAY return an OK
       response with available spectrum for only the valid locations;
       otherwise, if all locations within a batch request are outside
       the regulatory domain, the Database MUST respond with an
       OUTSIDE_COVERAGE error.
   4.  The Database MAY perform other validation of the request, (e.g.,
       checking for missing required parameters, authorizations).  It
       MUST return  If
       validation fails, the Database returns an error with appropriate error code
       (Table 1), if
       validation fails. 1).  If the request is missing required parameters, the
       Database MUST respond with a REQUIRED MISSING (Table 1) error and SHOULD
       include a list of the missing parameters.
   5.  If the request is valid, the Database responds with an available-
       spectrum response message.  If the regulatory domain ruleset requires that devices
       must report anticipated spectrum usage, the Database
       MUST will
       indicate so in the response message.

   6.  If the available-spectrum response indicates that the Master
       Device must send a spectrum-usage notification message, the
       Master Device MUST send sends the notification message to the Database.
   7.  If the Database receives a spectrum-usage notification message,
       it MUST send a spectrum-usage acknowledgment message to the
       Master Device.

   The procedure for asking for available spectrum on behalf of a Slave
   Device is similar, except that the process is initiated by the Slave
   Device.  The device identifier, capabilities, and characteristics
   communicated in the AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ message MUST be those of the
   Slave Device, but the location MUST be that of the Master Device.
   Although the communication and protocol between the Slave Device and
   Master Device is outside the scope of this document (represented as
   dotted lines), the expected message sequence is shown in Figure 5.

      +------------+     +---------------+      +-------------------+
      |Slave Device|     | Master Device |      | Spectrum Database |
      +------------+     +---------------+      +-------------------+
          |                 |                           |
          | AVAIL_SPEC_REQ  |                           |
          |................>|                           |
          |                 |                           |
          |                 |    AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ     |
          |                 |-------------------------->|
          |                 |                           |
          |                 |    AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP    |
          |                 |<--------------------------|
          | AVAIL_SPEC_RESP |                           |
          |<................|                           |
          |                 |                           |
          | (SPECTRUM_USE)  |                           |
          |................>|   (SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY)   |
          |                 |-------------------------->|
          |                 |                           |
          |                 |    (SPECTRUM_USE_RESP)    |
          |                 |<--------------------------|
          |                 |                           |

                                 Figure 5

4.4.1.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ

   The request message for the Available Spectrum Query protocol MUST
   include a geo-location.  Regulatory domains  Rulesets may mandate that it be the Device's
   current location or allow it to be an anticipated location.

   +-----------------------------------------------------------------+  A
   parameter marked as optional may be required by some rulesets.

   +----------------------------------------------------+
   |AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ                                  |
   +----------------------------------+------------------------------+
   +----------------------------------+-----------------+
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor       | optional see description |
   |location:GeoLocation              | optional see description |
   |owner:DeviceOwner                 | depends on regulatory domain optional        |
   |antenna:AntennaCharacteristics    | depends on regulatory domain optional        |
   |capabilities:DeviceCapabilities   | optional        |
   |masterDeviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor | optional        |
   |masterDeviceLocation:GeoLocation  | optional        |
   |requestType:string                | optional        |
   |..................................|..............................|
   |..................................|.................|
   |*other:any                        | optional        |
   +----------------------------------+------------------------------+
   +----------------------------------+-----------------+

   Parameters:

   deviceDesc:  The DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) for the Device
      requesting available spectrum.  When the request is made by a
      Master Device on its own behalf, the descriptor is that of the
      Master Device and it is REQUIRED.  When the request is made on
      behalf of a Slave Device, the descriptor is that of the Slave
      Device, and it is REQUIRED if the "requestType" parameter is not
      specified.  The deviceDesc parameter may be OPTIONAL for some
      values of requestType.
   location:  The GeoLocation (Section 5.1) for the Device requesting
      available spectrum.  The location SHOULD be the current location
      of the Device, but more precisely, the location of the radiation
      center of the Device's antenna.  When the request is made by the
      Master Device on its own behalf, the location is that of the
      Master Device and it is REQUIRED.  When the request is made by the
      Master Device on behalf of a Slave Device, the location is that of
      the Slave Device and it is OPTIONAL (see also the
      masterDeviceLocation parameter).  The location may be an
      anticipated position of the Device to support mobile devices, but
      its use depends on regulatory rules. the ruleset.  If the location specifies a
      region, rather than a point, the Database MAY return an error with
      the UNIMPLEMENTED (Table 1) code, if it does not support query by
      region.
   owner:  The DeviceOwner (Section 5.5) information MAY be included to
      register the Device with the Database.  This enables the Device to
      register and get spectrum-availability information in a single
      request.  Some regulatory domains rulesets mandate registration for specific device
      types.

   antenna:  The AntennaCharacteristics (Section 5.3) is OPTIONAL.  Some
      regulatory domains may require this parameter.
   capabilities:  The Master Device MAY include its DeviceCapabilities
      (Section 5.4) to limit the available-spectrum response to the
      spectrum that is compatible with its capabilities.  The Database
      SHOULD NOT return spectrum that is not compatible with the
      specified capabilities.
   masterDeviceDesc:  When the request is made by the Master Device on
      behalf of a Slave Device, the Master Device MAY provide its own
      descriptor.  Some regulatory domains may require it.
   masterDeviceLocation:  When the request is made by the Master Device
      on behalf of a Slave Device, the Master Device MAY provide its own
      GeoLocation (Section 5.1).  Some regulatory domains may require
      it.
   requestType:  The request type is an OPTIONAL parameter that may be
      used to modify the request, but its use depends on the applicable
      regulatory rules.
      ruleset.  The request type may be used, for example, to indicate a
      the response should include generic Slave Device parameters
      without having to specify the device descriptor for a specific
      device.  When the requestType parameter is missing, the request is
      for a specific device (Master or Slave), so the deviceDesc
      parameter is REQUIRED.  The length of the value MUST NOT exceed 64
      octets.  See IANA Ruleset Registry, Initial Registry Contents
      (Section 9.2.2) 9.1.2) for regulatory ruleset specifics.
   other:  Regulatory domains  Rulesets and database implementations may require additional
      request parameters.  The Database MUST ignore all parameters it
      does not understand.  Consult the PAWS Parameters Registry
      (Section 9.1) 9.2) for possible additional parameters.

4.4.2.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP

   The response message for the Available Spectrum Query contains one or
   more SpectrumSpec (Section 5.9) elements, one for each regulatory
   domain ruleset
   supported at the location specified in the corresponding
   AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ (Section 4.4.1) request.  Each SpectrumSpec
   element contains a list of one or more spectrum schedules,
   representing permissible power levels over time:
   o  Within each list of schedules, event-time intervals MUST be
      disjoint and SHOULD MUST be sorted in increasing time.
   o  A gap in the time schedule means no spectrum is available for that
      time interval.

   +---------------------------------------+
   |AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP                    |
   +----------------------------+----------+
   |timestamp:string            | required |
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor | required |
   |spectrumSpecs:list          | required |-------+
   |............................|..........|       |
   |databaseChange:DbUpdateSpec | optional |       |
   |*other:any                  | optional |       |
   +----------------------------+----------+       | 1..*
                                                   V
                              +-----------------------------------+
                              |SpectrumSpec                       |
                              +------------------------+----------+
                              |rulesetInfo:RulesetInfo | required |
                              |spectrumSchedules:list  | required |-+
                              |timeRange:EventTime     | optional | |
                              |frequencyRanges:list    | optional | |
                              |needsSpectrumReport:bool| optional | |
                              |maxTotalBwHz:float      | optional | |
                              |maxContiguousBwHz:float | optional | |
                              +------------------------+----------+ |
                                               +--------------------+
                                               | 1..*
                                               V
                                  +-------------------------------+
                                  |SpectrumSchedule               |
                                  +--------------------+----------+
                                  |eventTime:EventTime | required |
                                  |spectra:list        | required |
                                  +--------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   timestamp:  Timestamp of the response of the form, YYYY-MM-
      DDThh:mm:ssZ, as defined by Date and Time on the Internet:
      Timestamps [RFC3339].  This SHOULD can be used by the Device as a
      reference for the start and stop times in the spectrum schedules.
   deviceDesc:  The Database MUST include the DeviceDescriptor
      (Section 5.2) specified in the AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ message.
   spectrumSpecs:  The SpectrumSpec (Section 5.9) list is REQUIRED and MUST include at
      least one entry.  Each entry contains the schedules of available
      spectrum for a regulatory domain. ruleset.  The Database MAY return more than one
      SpectrumSpec to represent available spectrum for multiple regulatory domains rulesets
      at the specified location.

   databaseChange:  The Database MAY include a DbUpdateSpec
      (Section 5.7) parameter to notify the Device of a change to the
      Database URI, providing one or more alternate database URIs.  The
      Device needs to use the information to update its list of
      preconfigured databases to replace (only) its entry for the
      responding database with the list of alternate URIs.
   other:  Database implementations MAY return additional parameters in
      the response.  The Device MUST ignore any parameters that it does
      not understand.  Consult the PAWS Parameters Registry
      (Section 9.1) 9.2) for possible additional parameters and requirements
      they place on the Device.

4.4.2.1.  Update Requirements

   When the stop time specified in the schedule has been reached, the
   Device:
   o  MUST obtain a new spectrum-availability schedule, either by using
      the next one in the list (if provided) or making another Available
      Spectrum Query (Section 4.4).
   o  If the Device is unable to contact the Database to obtain a new
      schedule, it MUST treat this as equivalent to a response with no
      available spectrum.

   Some regulatory domains rulesets also mandate that a Device must obtain a new
   specturm-availability specturm-
   availability schedule if the Device moves beyond a threshold distance
   (established by regulatory rules) the ruleset) away from the actual location and all
   anticipated location(s) it reported in previous AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ or
   AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ requests (see "maxLocationChange" in
   RulesetInfo (Section 5.6)).  If the Device is unable to contact the
   Database to obtain a new schedule, it MUST treat this as equivalent
   to a response with no available spectrum.

   NOTE: Regulatory rules determine The ruleset determines required device behavior when spectrum
   is no longer available.  Regulatory rules  The ruleset also govern governs whether a device
   may request and use spectrum at anticipated locations beyond the
   threshold distance from its current location.

4.4.3.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ

   The Database MAY support the batch request that allows multiple
   locations to be specified.  This enables a portable Master Device,
   for example, to get available spectrum for a sequence of anticipated
   locations using a single request.  The Database MUST interpret interprets each
   location in the batch request as if it were an independent request
   and MUST return returns results consistent with multiple individual
   AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ (Section 4.4.1) requests. requests, but returns these
   results in a batched response (Section 4.4.4).  The request message
   for the batch Available Spectrum Query protocol MUST include at least
   one GeoLocation (Section 5.1).  If the Database does not support
   batch requests, it MUST return an UNIMPLEMENTED (Table 1) error.

   NOTE: Whether anticipated locations are allowed depends on the
   specified
   regulatory rules.

 +----------------------------------------------------------------+ ruleset.  A parameter marked as optional may be required by
   some rulesets.

   +---------------------------------------------------+
   |AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ                           |
 +---------------------------------+------------------------------+
   +---------------------------------+-----------------+
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor      | optional see description |
   |locations:list                   | required        |--+
   |owner:DeviceOwner                | depends on regulatory domain optional        |  |
   |antenna:AntennaCharacteristics   | depends on regulatory domain optional        |  |
   |capabilities:DeviceCapabilities  | optional        |  |
   |masterDeviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor| optional        |  |
   |masterDeviceLocation:GeoLocation | optional        |  |
   |requestType:string               | optional        |  |
 +.................................+..............................+
   +.................................+.................+  |
   |*other:any                       | optional        |  |
 +---------------------------------+------------------------------+
   +---------------------------------+-----------------+  |
                                                          |
                                                     1..* V
                                                 +-------------+
                                                 | GeoLocation |
                                                 +-------------+

   Parameters:

   deviceDesc:  The DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) for the Device
      requesting available spectrum.  When the request is made by a
      Master Device on its own behalf, the descriptor is that of the
      Master Device and it is REQUIRED.  When the request is made on
      behalf of a Slave Device, the descriptor is that of the Slave
      Device, and it is REQUIRED if the "requestType" parameter is not
      specified.  The deviceDesc parameter may be OPTIONAL for some
      values of requestType.
   locations:  The GeoLocation (Section 5.1) list for the Device is
      REQUIRED.  This allows the Device to specify its actual location
      plus additional anticipated locations.  At least one location MUST
      be included.  This specification places no upper limit on the
      number of locations, but the Database MAY restrict the number of
      locations it supports by returning a response with fewer locations
      than specified in the request.  If the locations specify regions,
      rather than points, the Database MAY return an error with the
      UNIMPLEMENTED (Table 1) code, if it does not support query by
      region.  When the request is made by a Master Device on its own
      behalf, the locations are those of the Master Device.  When the
      request is made by the Master Device on behalf of a Slave Device,
      the locations are those of the Slave Device (see also the
      masterDeviceLocation parameter).
   owner:  The DeviceOwner (Section 5.5) information MAY be included to
      register the Device with the Database.  This enables the Device to
      register and get spectrum-availability information in a single
      request.  Some regulatory domains rulesets mandate registration for specific device
      types.
   antenna:  The AntennaCharacteristics (Section 5.3) is OPTIONAL.  Some
      regulatory domains may require this parameter.
   capabilities:  The Master Device MAY include its DeviceCapabilities
      (Section 5.4) to limit the available-spectrum response to the
      spectrum that is compatible with its capabilities.  The Database
      SHOULD NOT return spectrum that is not compatible with the
      specified capabilities.
   masterDeviceDesc:  When the request is made by the Master Device on
      behalf of a Slave Device, the Master Device MAY provide its own
      descriptor.  Some regulatory domains may require it.
   masterDeviceLocation:  When the request is made by the Master Device
      on behalf of a Slave Device, the Master Device MAY provide its own
      GeoLocation (Section 5.1).  Some regulatory domains may require
      it.
   requestType:  The request type is an OPTIONAL parameter that may be
      used to modify the request, but its use depends on applicable
      regulatory rules. the
      ruleset.  The request type may be used, for example, to request
      generic Slave Device parameters without having to specify the
      device descriptor for a specific device.  When the requestType
      parameter is missing, the request is for a specific device (Master
      or Slave), so the deviceDesc parameter is REQUIRED.  The length of
      the value MUST NOT exceed 64 octets.  See IANA Ruleset Registry,
      Initial Registry Contents (Section 9.2.2) 9.1.2) for
      regulatory ruleset specifics.
   other:  Regulatory domains  Rulesets and database implementations may require additional
      request parameters.  The Database MUST ignore all parameters it
      does not understand.  Consult the PAWS Parameters Registry
      (Section 9.1) 9.2) for possible additional parameters.

4.4.4.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP

   The response message for the batch Available Spectrum Query contains
   a schedule of available spectrum for the Device at multiple
   locations.

   +---------------------------------------+
   |AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP              |
   +----------------------------+----------+
   |timestamp:string            | required |
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor | required |
   |geoSpectrumSpecs:list       | required |-------+
   |............................|..........|       |
   |databaseChange:DbUpdateSpec | optional |       |
   |*other:any                  | optional |       |
   +----------------------------+----------+       | 0..*
                                                   V
                                +---------------------------------+
                                |GeoSpectrumSpec                  |
                                +----------------------+----------+
                                |location:GeoLocation  | required |
                                |spectrumSpecs:list    | required |
                                +----------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   timestamp:  Timestamp of the response of the form, YYYY-MM-
      DDThh:mm:ssZ, as defined by Date and Time on the Internet:
      Timestamps [RFC3339].  This SHOULD can be used by the Device as a
      reference for the start and stop times in the spectrum schedules.
   deviceDesc:  The Database MUST include the DeviceDescriptor
      (Section 5.2) specified in the AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ message.
   geoSpectrumSpecs:  The geoSpectrumSpecs (Section 5.15) list is
      REQUIRED (although it MAY be empty if spectrum is unavailable).
      For each location, the Database MAY return one or more
      SpectrumSpec (Section 5.9) parameters to represent available
      spectrum for one or more regulatory domains. rulesets.  The Database MAY return
      available spectrum for fewer locations than requested.  The
      Device MUST NOT make any assumptions on the order
      of the entries in the list is not significant and the Device MUST
      use the location value in each GeoSpectrumSpec entry to match
      available spectrum to a location.
   databaseChange:  The Database MAY include a DbUpdateSpec
      (Section 5.7) parameter to notify the Device of a change to the
      Database URI, providing one or more alternate database URIs.  The
      Device needs to use the information to update its list of
      preconfigured databases to replace (only) its entry for the
      responding database with the list of alternate URIs.
   other:  Database implementations MAY return additional parameters in
      the response.  Consult the PAWS Parameters Registry (Section 9.1) 9.2)
      for possible additional parameters and requirements they place on
      the Device.

   See Update Requirements (Section 4.4.2.1) for when the Device must
   update its available spectrum data.

4.4.5.  SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY

   The spectrum-use notification message MUST contain indicates the geo-location
   of spectrum
   anticipated to be used by the Device.  Some regulatory domains may mandate additional
   parameters. device.

   +--------------------------------------------+
   |SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY                         |
   +---------------------------------+----------+
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor      | required |
   |location:GeoLocation             | required |
   |masterDeviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor| optional |
   |masterDeviceLocation:GeoLocation | optional |
   |spectra:list                     | required |-------+
   |............................................|       |
   |*other:any                       | optional |       |
   +---------------------------------+----------+       | 0..*
                                                        V
                                 +--------------------------------+
                                 |Spectrum                        |
                                 +---------------------+----------+
                                 |resolutionBwHz:float | required |
                                 |profiles:list        | required |
                                 +---------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   deviceDesc:  The DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) for the Device is
      REQUIRED.
   location:  The GeoLocation (Section 5.1) for the Device.  When the
      notification is made by a Master Device on its own behalf, the
      location is that of the Master Device and is REQUIRED.  When the
      notification is made by a Master Device on behalf of a Slave
      Device, the location is that of the Slave Device and is OPTIONAL,
      but may be required by some regulatory domains. rulesets.
   spectra:  The Spectrum (Section 5.11) list is REQUIRED, and specifies
      the spectrum anticipated to be used by the Device, which includes
      profiles of frequencies and power levels.  The list MAY be empty,
      if the Device decides not to use any spectrum.  For consistency,
      the resolution bandwidth value, "resolutionBwHz" SHOULD MUST match that
      from one of the Spectrum (Section 5.11) elements in the
      corresponding AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP message, and the maximum power
      levels in the Spectrum element MUST be expressed as power over the
      specified "resolutionBwHz" value.  The actual bandwidth to be used
      (as computed from the start and stop frequencies) MAY be different
      from the "resolutionBwHz" value.  As an example, when regulatory
      rules express the ruleset
      expresses maximum power spectral density in terms of maximum power
      over any 100 kHz band, then the "resolutionBwHz" value should be
      set to 100 kHz, even though the actual bandwidth used can be 20
      kHz.
   masterDeviceDesc:  When the notification is made by the Master Device
      on behalf of a Slave Device, the Master Device MAY provide its own
      descriptor.  Some regulatory domains may require it.
   masterDeviceLocation:  When the notification is made by the Master
      Device on behalf of a Slave Device, the Master Device MAY include
      its own GeoLocation (Section 5.1).  Some regulatory domains may
      require this parameter.
   other:  Depending on the regulatory domain, ruleset, other parameters may be required.
      To simplify its logic, the Device MAY include the union of all
      parameters required by all supported regulatory domains. rulesets.  The Database MUST
      ignore all parameters it does not understand.

4.4.6.  SPECTRUM_USE_RESP

   The spectrum-use response message simply acknowledges receipt of the
   notification.

   +---------------------------------------+
   |SPECTRUM_USE_RESP                      |
   +----------------------------+----------+
   |databaseChange:DbUpdateSpec | optional |
   |.......................................|
   |*other:any                  | optional |
   +----------------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   databaseChange:  The Database MAY include a DbUpdateSpec
      (Section 5.7) parameter to notify the Device of a change to the
      Database URI, providing one or more alternate database URIs.  The
      Device needs to use the information to update its list of
      preconfigured databases to replace (only) its entry for the
      responding database with the list of alternate URIs.
   other:  Database implementations MAY return additional parameters in
      the response.  Consult the PAWS Parameters Registry (Section 9.1) 9.2)
      for possible additional parameters.

4.5.  Device Validation

   Typically, a Slave Device needs a Master Device to ask the Database
   on its behalf for available spectrum.  Depending on the regulatory
   domain, ruleset, the
   Master Device also must validate with the Database that the Slave
   Device is permitted to operate.  When regulatory rules
   allow the ruleset allows a Master
   Device to "cache" the available spectrum for a period of time, the
   Master Device may use the simpler Device Validation component,
   instead of the full Available Spectrum Query component, to validate a
   Slave Device.

   When validating one or more Slave Devices, the Master Device sends
   the Database a request that includes the device identifier -- and any
   other parameters required by the regulatory rules ruleset -- for each Slave Device.
   The Database MUST return a response with and an entry for each device to
   indicate whether it is permitted to use the spectrum.

   A typical sequence for using the Device Validation request is
   illustrated in Figure 6, where the Master Device already has a valid
   set of available spectrum for Slave Devices.  Note that the
   communication and protocol between the Slave Device and Master Device
   is outside the scope of this document.
   o  DEV_VALID_REQ (Section 4.5.1) is the device-validation request
      message
   o  DEV_VALID_RESP (Section 4.5.2) is the device-validation response
      message

      +------------+     +---------------+      +-------------------+
      |Slave Device|     | Master Device |      | Spectrum Database |
      +------------+     +---------------+      +-------------------+
          |                 |                           |
          | AVAIL_SPEC_REQ  |                           |
          |................>|                           |
          |                 |                           |
          |                 |    DEV_VALID_REQ          |
          |                 |-------------------------->|
          |                 |                           |
          |                 |    DEV_VALID_RESP         |
          |                 |<--------------------------|
          | AVAIL_SPEC_RESP |                           |
          |<................|                           |
          |                 |                           |
          | (SPECTRUM_USE)  |                           |
          |................>|   (SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY)   |
          |                 |-------------------------->|
          |                 |                           |
          |                 |    (SPECTRUM_USE_RESP)    |
          |                 |<--------------------------|

                                 Figure 6

4.5.1.  DEV_VALID_REQ

   +---------------------------------------------+
   |DEV_VALID_REQ                                |
   +----------------------------------+----------+
   |deviceDescs:list                  | required |---+
   |masterDeviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor | optional |   |
   +----------------------------------+----------+   |
                                                     V 1..*
                                    +----------------------+
                                    |DeviceDescriptor      |
                                    +----------------------+

   Parameters:

   deviceDescs:  A DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) list is REQUIRED,
      which specifies the list of Slave Devices that are to be
      validated.
   masterDeviceDesc:  The Master Device MAY provide its own descriptor.
      Some regulatory domains may require it.

4.5.2.  DEV_VALID_RESP

   +---------------------------------------+
   |DEV_VALID_RESP                         |
   +----------------------------+----------+
   |deviceValidities:list       | required |----
   |databaseChange:DbUpdateSpec | optional |   |
   +----------------------------+----------+   |
                                               V 1..*
                            +---------------------------------------+
                            |DeviceValidity                         |
                            +----------------------------+----------+
                            |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor | required |
                            |isValid:boolean             | required |
                            |reason:string               | optional |
                            +----------------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   deviceValidities:  A DeviceValidities (Section 5.16) list is REQUIRED
      to report the list of Slave Devices and whether each listed Device
      is valid.  The number of entries MUST match the number of
      DeviceDescriptors (Section 5.2) listed in the DEV_VALID_REQ
      message.

   databaseChange:  The Database MAY include a DbUpdateSpec
      (Section 5.7) parameter to notify the Device of a change to the
      Database URI, providing one or more alternate database URIs.  The
      Device needs to use the information to update its list of
      preconfigured databases to replace (only) its entry for the
      responding database with the list of alternate URIs.

5.  Protocol Parameters

   This section presents more details of the parameters that make up the
   PAWS request and response messages.  It also includes a sub-section
   defining response codes.

5.1.  GeoLocation

   This parameter is used to specify the geo-location of the Device.  It
   may be used to specify one of the following:

   o  A single point with optional uncertainty
   o  A region described by a polygon

   These are represented using geometric shapes defined in Section 5 of
   GEOPRIV Presence Information Data Format Location Object [RFC5491],
   where:

   o  A "point" with uncertainty is represented using the Ellipse shape
   o  A region is represented using the Polygon shape

   The coordinates are expressed using the WGS84 datum [WGS-84], and
   units are degrees or meters.  The parameter MAY also include a
   confidence level, expressed as a percentage.  The confidence and
   uncertainty parameters may be required by some rulesets.

   The data model for GeoLocation is illustrated below:

   +-------------------------------------------------+

   +------------------------------------+
   |GeoLocation                         |
   +------------------+------------------------------+
   +------------------+-----------------+
   |point:Ellipse     | optional see description |
   |region:Polygon    | optional see description |
   |confidence:int    | depends on regulatory domain optional        |
   +------------------+------------------------------+
   +------------------+-----------------+
   Note: point and region are mutually exclusive. Exactly one must
   be present.

   +---------------------------------------------------+

   +-------------------------------+
   |Ellipse                        |
   +--------------------+------------------------------+
   +--------------------+----------+
   |center:Point        | required |--+
   |semiMajorAxis:float | depends on regulatory domain optional |  |
   |semiMinorAxis:float | depends on regulatory domain optional |  |
   |orientation:float   | optional |  |
   +--------------------+------------------------------+
   +--------------------+----------+  v
                              +---------------------------+
                              |Point                      |
                              +----------------+----------+
                              |latitude:float  | required |
                              |longitude:float | required |
                              +----------------+----------+

   +-------------------------------+
   |Polygon                        |
   +-------------------+-----------+  4..* +---------------------------+
   |exterior:list      | required  |------>|Point                      |
   +-------------------+-----------+       +----------------+----------+
                                           |latitude:float  | required |
                                           |longitude:float | required |
                                           +----------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   point:  If present, it indicates that the GeoLocation represents a
      point.  Paradoxically, a "point" is parameterized using an
      Ellipse, where the center represents the location of the point and
      the distances along the major and minor axes represent the
      uncertainty.  The uncertainty values may be required, depending on
      the regulatory domain. ruleset.  Exactly one of "point" or "region" MUST be present.
   region:  If present, it indicates that the GeoLocation represents a
      region.  Exactly one of "point" or "region" MUST be present.
   center:  The center refers to the location of a GeoLocation point and
      is represented as the center of an ellipse.
   latitude, longitude:  Floating-point numbers that express the
      latitude and longitude in degrees using the WGS84 datum [WGS-84].
   semiMajorAxis, semiMinorAxis:  The location uncertainty, expressed in
      meters, is OPTIONAL.  It is parameterized using distances along
      the major and minor axes of the ellipse.  The default value is 0.
      Some regulatory domains may require that they be provided
      explicitly.
   orientation:  This defines the orientation of the ellipse, expressed
      as the rotation, in degrees, of the semi-major axis from North
      towards the East.  For example, when the uncertainty is greatest
      along the North-South direction, orientation is 0 degrees;
      conversely, if the uncertainty is greatest along the East-West
      direction, orientation is 90 degrees.  When orientation is not
      present, the orientation MUST be interpreted as default value is 0.  Some
      regulatory domains may require that orientation be provided
      explicitly.
   exterior:  When GeoLocation describes a region, the "exterior" field
      refers to a list of latitude/longitude points that represents the
      vertices of a polygon.  The first and last points MUST be the
      same.  Thus, a minimum of 4 points is required.  The following
      polygon restrictions from [RFC5491] apply:
      *  A connecting line MUST NOT cross another connecting line of the
         same polygon.
      *  The vertices MUST be defined in a counter-clockwise direction.
      *  The edges of a polygon are defined by the shortest path between
         two points in space (not a geodesic curve).  Consequently, the
         length between two adjacent vertices SHOULD be restricted to a
         maximum of 130 km.
      *  All vertices are assumed to be at the same altitude.
      *  Polygon shapes SHOULD be restricted to a maximum of 15 vertices
         (16 points that includes the repeated vertex).
   confidence:  The location confidence level, as a percentage, MAY be
      provided.  Some regulatory domains may require that it be provided
      explicitly.  When the parameter is not provided, its the default value MUST be
      interpreted as
      is 95.  Valid values range from 0 to 100, but, in practice, 100-percent 100-
      percent confidence is not achievable.  The confidence value is
      meaningful only when GeoLocation refers to a point with
      uncertainty.

5.2.  DeviceDescriptor

   The device descriptor contains parameters that identify the specific
   device, such as its manufacturer serial number, regulatory-specific
   ID (e.g., FCC ID), manufacturer's ID,
   and any other device characteristics required by
   regulatory domains. ruleset.

   +--------------------------------+
   |DeviceDescriptor                |
   +---------------------+----------+
   |serialNumber:string  | required |
   |manufacturerId:string| optional |
   |modelId:string       | optional |  1..*
   |rulesetIds:list      | optional |------>string
   |.....................|..........|
   |*other:any           | optional |
   +---------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   serialNumber:  The manufacturer's device serial number is REQUIRED.
      The length of the value MUST NOT exceed 64 characters, octets, conforming to
      the X.520 [ITUT.X520.2008] recommendations.

   manufacturerId:  The manufacturer's ID is OPTIONAL, but may be
      required by some regulatory domains. rulesets.  This SHOULD represent represents the name of the device
      manufacturer, SHOULD and therefore ought to be consistent across all
      devices from the same manufacturer, manufacturer and SHOULD be distinct from that of other
      manufacturers.  The string value MUST NOT exceed 64
      characters octets in
      length.
   modelId:  The device's model ID is OPTIONAL, but may be required by
      some regulatory domains. rulesets.  The string value MUST NOT exceed 64
      characters octets in
      length.
   rulesetIds:  The list of identifiers for rulesets supported by the
      device (see Ruleset ID Registry (Section 9.2)). 9.1)).  A Database MAY
      require that the device provides this list before servicing the
      device requests.  If the Database does not support any of the
      rulesets specified in the list, the Database MAY refuse to service
      the device requests.  See RulesetInfo (Section 5.6) for discussion
      on ruleset identifier.  If present, the list MUST contain at least
      one entry.
   other:  Depending on the regulatory domain, ruleset, other parameters may be required.
      The Database MUST ignore all parameters in the message it does not
      understand.  See PAWS Parameters Registry (Section 9.1) 9.2) for
      additional valid parameters and for the process for extending the
      message with more parameters.  Additionally, see PAWS Ruleset ID
      Registry (Section 9.2) 9.1) for the valid set of parameters for each
      ruleset.

5.3.  AntennaCharacteristics

   Antenna characteristics provide additional information, such as the
   antenna height, antenna type, etc.  Whether antenna characteristics
   must be provided in a request depends on the device type and
   regulatory domain.

   +--------------------------------------------------------+ ruleset.
   Additionally, a parameter marked as optional may be required by some
   rulesets.

   +------------------------------------+
   |AntennaCharacteristics              |
   +-------------------------+------------------------------+
   +-------------------------+----------+
   |height:float             | depends on regulatory domain optional |
   |heightType:enum          | optional |
   |heightUncertainty:float  | depends on regulatory domain optional |
   |.........................|..............................|
   |.........................|..........|
   |*characteristics:        | depends on regulatory domain optional |
   |   various               |          |
   +-------------------------+------------------------------+
   +-------------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   height:  The antenna height in meters.  Whether the antenna height is
      required depends on the device type and the regulatory domain.  Note that the height may be
      negative.
   heightType:  If the height is provided, then heightType is REQUIRED.  Valid values are:
      AGL  Above ground level (default)
      AMSL  Above mean sea level
   heightUncertainty:  The height uncertainty in meters.  Whether this
      is required depends on the regulatory domain.

   NOTE: Depending on the regulatory domain, ruleset, additional antenna characteristics
   may be required, such as:
   o  antenna direction
   o  antenna radiation pattern
   o  antenna gain
   o  antenna polarization
   These are not defined by the base protocol, but may be added to the
   PAWS Parameters Registry (Section 9.1), 9.2), as needed.

5.4.  DeviceCapabilities

   Device capabilities provide additional information that may be used
   by the Device to provide additional information to the Database that
   can help it to determine available spectrum.  If the Database does
   not support device capabilities it MUST ignore the parameter
   altogether.

   +-------------------------------+
   |DeviceCapabilities             |
   +---------------------+---------+
   |frequencyRanges:list |optional |--+
   |.....................|.........|  |
   |*other:any           |           |optional |  |
   +---------------------+---------+  | 0..*
                                      V
                +--------------------------------+
                |FrequencyRange                  |
                +----------------------+---------+
                |startHz:float         |required |
                |stopHz:float          |required |
                +----------------------+---------+

   Parameters:

   frequencyRanges:  Optional FrequencyRange (Section 5.13) list.  Each
      FrequencyRange element MUST contain contains start and stop frequencies in
      which the Device can operate.  When specified, the Database SHOULD
      NOT return available spectrum that falls outside these ranges.

   other  Consult the PAWS Parameters Registry (Section 9.1) 9.2) for
      possible additional parameters.  The Database MUST ignore all
      parameters it does not understand.

5.5.  DeviceOwner

   This parameter contains device-owner information required as part of
   device registration.  Regulatory domains  Some rulesets may require additional
   parameters.

   +-----------------------------+
   |DeviceOwner                  |
   +------------------+----------+
   |owner:vcard       | required |
   |operator:vcard    | optional |
   +------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   owner:  The vCard contact information for the individual or business
      that owns the Device is REQUIRED.
   operator:  The vCard contact information for the device operator is
      OPTIONAL, but may be required by specific regulatory domains rulesets.

   NOTE: Depending on the regulatory domain, ruleset, the Database may be required to
   validate the device-owner information.  In these cases, the Database
   MUST respond with an INVALID_VALUE error (see Error Codes
   (Section 5.17)) if validation fails.  See PAWS Ruleset ID Registry
   (Section 9.2) 9.1) for regulatory-specific ruleset-specific requirements on mandatory vCard
   properties.

   All contact information MUST be expressed using the structure defined
   by the vCard Format Specification [RFC6350].  Note that the vCard
   specification defines maximum lengths for each field, conforming to
   X.520 [ITUT.X520.2008] recommendations.

5.6.  RulesetInfo

   This contains parameters for the ruleset of a regulatory domain that
   is communicated using the Initialization component (Section 4.2),
   Device Registration (Section 4.3), and Available Spectrum Query
   (Section 4.4) components.

   +-----------------------------------+

   +------------------------------------------+
   |RulesetInfo                               |
   +-----------------------------------+
   +------------------------------------------+
   |authority:string        | required        |
   |rulesetId:string        | required        |
   |maxLocationChange:float | optional see description |
   |maxPollingSecs:int      | optional see description |
   |...................................|
   |..........................................|
   |*other:any              | optional        |
   +------------------------+----------+
   +------------------------+-----------------+

   Parameters:
   authority:  A string that indicates the regulatory domain to which
      the ruleset applies is REQUIRED.  It MUST will normally be a 2-letter
      country code defined by Country Codes - ISO 3166 [ISO3166-1].
   rulesetId:  The ID of a ruleset for the specified authority (see
      Ruleset ID Registry (Section 9.2)). 9.1)).  The Device can use this to
      determine additional device behavior required by the associated
      regulatory rules.
      ruleset.  To define new ruleset IDs, see Defining Ruleset
      Identifiers (Section 8.1).
   maxLocationChange:  The maximum location change in meters is REQUIRED
      for Initialization Response (Section 4.2.2), but OPTIONAL
      otherwise.  Some regulatory domains mandate that, when the Device
      changes location by more than this specified distance, it contact
      the Database to get the available spectrum for the new location.
      If this value is provided by the Database within the context of an
      Available Spectrum Response (Section 4.4.2), it takes precedence
      over the value within the Initialization Response (Section 4.2.2).
   maxPollingSecs:  The maximum duration, in seconds, between requests
      for available spectrum is REQUIRED for the Initialization Response
      (Section 4.2.2), but OPTIONAL otherwise.  The Device MUST contact
      the Database to get available spectrum no less frequently than
      this duration.  If this value is provided within the context of an
      Available Spectrum Response (Section 4.4.2), it takes precedence
      over the value within the Initialization Response (Section 4.2.2).
   other:  This message is intended to be extensible with other
      regulatory-specific ruleset-
      specific parameters.  Devices MUST ignore all parameters in the
      message it does not understand.  Consult the PAWS Parameters
      Registry (Section 9.1) 9.2) for possible additional parameters.

5.7.  DbUpdateSpec

   This element is provided by the Database to notify devices of an
   upcoming change to the Database URI.

   +-------------------------------+
   |DbUpdateSpec                   |
   +---------------------+---------+       +--------------------------+
   |databases:list       |required |------>|DatabaseSpec              |
   +---------------------+---------+  1..* +---------------+----------+
                                           |name:string    | required |
                                           |uri:string     | required |
                                           +---------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   databases:  List of one or more DatabaseSpec (Section 5.8) entries.
      A Device needs to update its preconfigured list of databases to
      replace (only) the database that provided the response with the
      specified entries.

5.8.  DatabaseSpec

   This element contains the name and URI of a database.

   +--------------------------+
   |DatabaseSpec              |
   +---------------+----------+
   |name:string    | required |
   |uri:string     | required |
   +---------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   name:  The display name for a database.  It MAY contain UTF-8.  The
      value length MUST NOT exceed 64 octets.
   uri:  The corresponding URI of the database.  The value length MUST
      NOT exceed 1024 octets.

5.9.  SpectrumSpec

   The SpectrumSpec element encapsulates the schedule of available
   spectrum for a regulatory domain. ruleset.

   +---------------------------------------+
   |SpectrumSpec                           |
   +----------------------------+----------+
   |rulesetInfo:RulesetInfo     | required |
   |spectrumSchedules:list      | required |-----+
   |timeRange:EventTime         | optional |     |
   |frequencyRanges:list        | optional |     |
   |needsSpectrumReport:boolean | optional |     |
   |maxTotalBwHz:float          | optional |     |
   |maxContiguousBwHz:float     | optional |     |
   +----------------------------+----------+     |
                                                 | 1..*
                                                 V
                                      +-------------------------------+
                                      |SpectrumSchedule               |
                                      +--------------------+----------+
                                      |eventTime:EventTime | required |
                                      |spectra:list        | required |
                                      +--------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   rulesetInfo:  The RulesetInfo (Section 5.6) is REQUIRED to identify
      the regulatory domain and ruleset for which the spectrum schedule
      applies (see Ruleset ID Registry (Section 9.2)). 9.1)).  The Device needs
      to use the corresponding ruleset to interpret the response.
      Values provided within this parameter, such as maxLocationChange,
      take precedence over the values provided by the Initialization
      Procedure (Section 4.2).
   spectrumSchedules:  The SpectrumSchedule (Section 5.10) list is
      REQUIRED.  At least one schedule MUST be included.  More than one
      schedule MAY be included to represent future changes to the
      available spectrum.  How far in advance a schedule may be provided
      depends on the regulatory domain. ruleset.  If more than one schedule is included,
      the eventTime intervals MUST be disjoint and SHOULD MUST be sorted in
      increasing time.  A gap in the time schedule indicates no
      available spectrum during that time-interval gap.
   timeRange:  The time range for which the specification is
      comprehensive is OPTIONAL.  When specified, any gaps in time
      intervals within the "spectrumSchedules" element that overlaps
      with the range specified by "timeRange" MUST be are interpreted by the
      Device as time intervals in which there are is available spectrum.
   frequencyRanges:  The frequency ranges for which the specification is
      comprehensive is OPTIONAL.  It is a list of disjoint
      FrequencyRange (Section 5.13) entries.  When specified, it SHOULD
      correspond
      typically corresponds to the frequency ranges governed by the ruleset.
      ruleset, e.g., for TV whitespace, the frequency ranges can
      correspond to the VHF and UHF bands of the associated regulatory
      domain.  A Device can combine this information with the available-spectrum
      specification available-
      spectrum specification within the "spectrumSchedules" element to
      distinguish between "unavailable spectrum" and "spectrum for which
      no information has been provided".
   needsSpectrumReport:  The Database MAY return true for this parameter
      if spectrumSchedules list is non-empty; otherwise, the Database
      MAY omit this parameter altogether, in which case, the Device MUST treat as
      the same as a false value. default
      value is false.  If this parameter is present and its value is
      true, the Device MUST send sends a SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY (Section 4.4.5)
      message to the Database; otherwise, the Device SHOULD NOT send the
      SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY message.  Some regulatory
      domains rulesets mandate this value to
      be true.
   maxTotalBwHz:  The Database MAY return a constraint on the maximum
      total bandwidth (in Hertz) allowed, which may or may not be
      contiguous.  Some regulatory domains rulesets mandate the Database to return this
      parameter.  When present in the response, the Device needs to
      apply this constraint to its spectrum-selection logic to ensure
      total bandwidth does not exceed this value.
   maxContiguousBwHz:  The Database MAY return a constraint on the
      maximum contiguous bandwidth (in Hertz) allowed.  Some regulatory
      domains rulesets
      mandate the Database to return this parameter.  When present in
      the response, the Device needs to apply this constraint to its
      spectrum-selection logic to ensure no single block of spectrum has
      bandwidth that exceeds this value.

5.10.  SpectrumSchedule

   The SpectrumSchedule element combines EventTime (Section 5.14) with
   Spectrum (Section 5.11) to define a time period in which the spectrum
   is valid.

   +-------------------------------+
   |SpectrumSchedule               |
   +--------------------+----------+
   |eventTime:EventTime | required |        +--------------------+
   |spectra:list        | required |------->|Spectrum            |
   +--------------------+----------+   0..* +--------------------+
                                            |resolutionBwHz:float|
                                            |profiles:list       |
                                            +--------------------+

   Parameters:

   eventTime:  The EventTime (Section 5.14) is REQUIRED to express
      "when" this specification is valid.

   spectra:  The Spectrum (Section 5.11) list is REQUIRED to specify the
      available spectrum and permissible power levels, one per
      resolutionBwHz.  The list MAY be empty when there is no available
      spectrum.

5.11.  Spectrum

   Available spectrum can be characterized by an ordered list of
   spectrum profiles that defines permissible power levels over a set of
   frequency ranges.  Each Spectrum element defines permissible power
   levels as maximum power spectral densities over a specified
   resolution bandwidth, "resolutionBwHz".  Note that the spectrum
   profiles represent the "availability mask", as defined by the
   governing rule set; they are not intended to encode device-level
   transmission-mask requirements.

   o  To support regulatory rules a ruleset that define defines different "wide-band" and
      "narrow-band" power levels, PAWS allows multiple Spectrum elements
      to be included in the available-spectrum response, each with a
      different resolution bandwidth.
   o  When multiple Spectrum elements are included in the response, they
      represent each
      represents a logical AND condition, such constraint that the Device MUST must satisfy all the conditions. (logical
      AND).
   o  Each Spectrum element MUST cover covers the range of frequencies governed by
      a ruleset, rather than splitting the frequencies across multiple
      Spectrum elements for the same resolution bandwidth.
   o  Each spectrum profile represents the maximum permissible power
      spectral density over a contiguous range of frequencies.
   o  When multiple spectrum profiles are included, they MUST be
      disjoint and SHOULD MUST be ordered in non-decreasing frequency value.
   o  Gaps in frequencies between consecutive spectrum profiles
      represent unavailability for those frequencies.

   The following figure illustrates the Spectrum element and the
   SpectrumProfile list.

   +-------------------------------+
   |Spectrum                       |
   +---------------------+---------+
   |resolutionBwHz:float |required |
   |profiles:list        |required |---+
   +---------------------+---------+   |  0..*
                                       V
                 +-----------------------------+
                 |SpectrumProfile              |
                 +-------------------+---------+
                 |list               |required |
                 +-------------------+---------+
                                       |
                                       V 2..*
                  +----------------+---------+
                  |hz:float        |required |
                  |dbm:float       |required |
                  +----------------+---------+

   Parameters:

   resolutionBwHz:  This parameter is REQUIRED to define defines the resolution bandwidth (in
      Hertz) over which permissible power spectral density is defined.
      For example, FCC regulation would require one spectrum
      specification at a bandwidth of 6MHz, and ETSI regulation would
      require two specifications, at 0.1MHz and 8MHz.
   profiles:   A SpectrumProfile (Section 5.12) list is REQUIRED to
      specify specifies
      permissible power levels over a set of frequency ranges.  The list
      MAY be empty if there is no available spectrum.

   Consider the following example with two different sets of permitted
   power spectral densities for the same set of frequencies over
   different resolution bandwidths (for illustrative purposes only):

   [
     {
       "resolutionBwHz": 6e6,
       "profiles": [
         [
           {"hz": 5.18e8, "dbm": 30.0},
           {"hz": 5.24e8, "dbm": 30.0}
         ],
         ...
       ]
     },
     {
       "resolutionBwHz": 1e5,
       "profiles": [
         [
           {"hz": 5.18e8, "dbm": 27.0},
           {"hz": 5.24e8, "dbm": 27.0}
         ],
         ...
       ]
     }
   ]

   This is interpreted as:

   o  Over any 6MHz within the frequency range, [518MHz, 524MHz),
      maximum permitted power is 30.0dBm (1000mW), and
   o  Over any 100 kHz within the frequency range, [518MHz, 524MHz),
      maximum permitted power is 27.0dBm (500mW)

   This would allow, for example, operating two 100kHz sub-channels
   within the indicated 6MHz range at 500mW each, totaling 1000mW.  Of
   course, many combinations are possible, as long as they satisfy both
   conditions.

   The following example encodes multiple (two) spectrum profiles, each
   having a gap from 530 MHz to 536 MHz (for illustrative purposes
   only):

   [
     {
       "resolutionBwHz": 6e6,
       "profiles": [
         [
           {"hz": 5.18e8, "dbm": 30.0},
           {"hz": 5.24e8, "dbm": 30.0},
           {"hz": 5.24e8, "dbm": 36.0},
           {"hz": 5.30e8, "dbm": 36.0}
         ],
         [
           {"hz": 5.36e8, "dbm": 30.0},
           {"hz": 5.42e8, "dbm": 30.0}
         ],
         ...
       ]
     },
     {
       "resolutionBwHz": 1e5,
       "profiles": [
         [
           {"hz": 5.18e8, "dbm": 27.0},
           {"hz": 5.24e8, "dbm": 27.0},
           {"hz": 5.24e8, "dbm": 30.0},
           {"hz": 5.30e8, "dbm": 30.0}
         ],
         [
           {"hz": 5.36e8, "dbm": 27.0},
           {"hz": 5.42e8, "dbm": 27.0}
         ],
         ...
       ]
     }
   ]

5.12.  SpectrumProfile

   A spectrum profile is characterized by an ordered list of (frequency,
   power) points that represents the shape of maximum permissible power
   levels over a range of frequencies.

   o  It MUST contain a minimum of two entries.
   o  The entries in the list MUST be ordered in non-decreasing
      frequency values.
   o  Two consecutive points MAY have the same frequency value to
      represent a "step function".

   o  Three or more points MUST NOT share the same frequency value.
   o  The first frequency is inclusive; the last frequency is exclusive.

   The following figure illustrates the SpectrumProfile element.

   +-------------------------------+
   |SpectrumProfile                |
   +---------------------+---------+
   |list                 |required |---+
   +---------------------+---------+   |  2..*
                                       V
                 +----------------+---------+
                 |hz:float        |required |
                 |dbm:float       |required |
                 +----------------+---------+

   Parameters of each point in the profile:

   hz:  The frequency, in Hertz, at which the power level is defined.
   dbm:   The power level, expressed as dBm per resolution bandwidth, as
      defined by the "resolutionBwHz" element of the enclosing Spectrum
      (Section 5.11) element.

5.13.  FrequencyRange

   The FrequencyRange parameter specifies a frequency range.

   +--------------------------------+
   |FrequencyRange                  |
   +----------------------+---------+
   |startHz:float         |required |
   |stopHz:float          |required |
   +----------------------+---------+

   Parameters:
   startHz:  The inclusive start of the frequency range (in Hertz) is
      REQUIRED.
   stopHz:  The exclusive end of the frequency range (in Hertz) is
      REQUIRED.

5.14.  EventTime

   The EventTime element specifies the start and stop times of an
   "event".  This is used to indicate the time period for which a
   Spectrum (Section 5.11) is valid.

   +---------------------------+
   |EventTime                  |
   +-----------------+---------+
   |startTime:string |required |
   |stopTime:string  |required |
   +-----------------+---------+

   Parameters:

   startTime:  The inclusive start of the event is REQUIRED.
   stopTime:  The exclusive end of the event is REQUIRED.

   Both times are expressed using the format, YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ssZ, as
   defined by Date and Time on the Internet: Timestamps [RFC3339].  The
   times MUST be expressed using UTC.

   A device that does not have access to the current date and time MUST
   use the timestamp at the top-level of the response message as a
   substitute for the current time (see Available Spectrum Response
   (Section 4.4.2) and Available Spectrum Batch Response
   (Section 4.4.4)).  E.g.,
   o  (startTime - timestamp) gives the duration that a device must wait
      before the event becomes "active".  If the value is zero or
      negative, the event is already active.
   o  If the event is already active, (stopTime - timestamp) is the
      duration that the event remains active.  If the value is zero or
      negative, the event is no longer active and MUST be ignored.

5.15.  GeoSpectrumSpec

   The GeoSpectrumSpec element encapsulates the available spectrum for a
   location.  It is returned within a AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP
   (Section 4.4.4) batch response that contains multiple GeoSpectrumSpec
   entries, each matching a location provided in the batch request.
   +----------------------------------+
   |GeoSpectrumSpec                   |
   +-----------------------+----------+
   |location:GeoLocation   | required |
   |spectrumSpecs:list     | required |-------+
   +-----------------------+----------+       |
                                              | 1..*
                                              V
                                      +--------------+
                                      | SpectrumSpec |
                                      +--------------+

   Parameters:

   location:  The GeoLocation (Section 5.1) is REQUIRED to identify identifies the location at
      which the spectrum schedule applies.
   spectrumSpecs:  The SpectrumSpec (Section 5.9) list is REQUIRED.  At
      least one entry MUST be included.  Each entry represents schedules
      of available spectrum for a regulatory domain. ruleset.  More than one entry MAY be
      included to support multiple regulatory domains rulesets at a location.

5.16.  DeviceValidity

   The DeviceValidity element is used to indicate whether a device is
   valid.  See Section 4.5.2.

   +---------------------------------------+
   |DeviceValidity                         |
   +----------------------------+----------+
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor | required |
   |isValid:boolean             | required |
   |reason:string               | optional |
   +----------------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   deviceDesc:  The DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) that was used to
      check for validity is REQUIRED.
   isValid:  This is a REQUIRED boolean value that indicates whether the
      Device is valid.
   reason:  If the device identifier is not valid, the Database MAY
      include a reason.  The reason MAY be in any language. language and contain
      UTF-8 characters.  The length of the value MUST NOT exceed 128 characters.
      octets.

5.17.  Error Element

   If the Database responds to a PAWS request message with an error, it
   MUST include an Error element.

   +---------------------------+

   +----------------------------------+
   |Error                             |
   +----------------+----------+
   +----------------+-----------------+
   |code:int        | required        |
   |message:string  | optional        |
   |data:any        | optional see description |
   +----------------+----------+
   +----------------+-----------------+

   Parameters:

   code:  An integer code that indicates the error type is REQUIRED.
      Values MUST be within the range, -32768 to 32767, inclusive.
   message:  A description of the error is OPTIONAL.  It MAY be in any
      language.
      language and contain UTF-8 characters.  The length of the value
      MUST NOT exceed 128 characters. octets.
   data:  The Database MAY include additional data.  For some errors,
      additional data may be required. required (see Table 1).  The Device MUST
      ignore any data parameters it does not understand.

   The following table lists predefined and reserved error codes.  They
   are loosely grouped into the following categories:

   -100s:  Indicates compatibility issues, e.g., version mismatch,
      unsupported or unimplemented features.
   -200s:  Indicates that the Device request contains an error that
      needs to be modified before making another request.
   -300s:  Indicates authorization-related issues.

   Values that are not defined explicitly in the Error Codes Table
   (Table 1) below are unassigned.  To define new error codes, see PAWS
   Error Code Registry (Section 9.3).

   Code   Name             Description & Additional parameters
   ------ ---------------- ---------------------------------------------
   0      (reserved)
   -100   (reserved)
   -101   VERSION          The Database does not support the specified
                           version of the message.
   -102   UNSUPPORTED      The Database does not support the Device. For
                           example, it does not support the regulatory
                           domain ruleset
                           specified in the request.
   -103   UNIMPLEMENTED    The Database does not implement the optional
                           request or optional feature.
   -104   OUTSIDE_COVERAGE The specified geo-location is outside the
                           coverage area of the Database. The Database
                           MAY include a DbUpdateSpec (Section 5.7)
                           parameter to provide a list of alternate
                           databases that might be appropriate for the
                           requested location. See OUTSIDE_COVERAGE
                           Error (Section 5.17.1) for more details.

   -105   DATABASE_CHANGE  The Database has changed its URI. The
                           Database MAY include a DbUpdateSpec
                           (Section 5.7) parameter in the error response
                           to provide devices with one or more alternate
                           database URIs. The Device needs to use the
                           information to update its list of
                           preconfigured databases to replace (only) its
                           entry for the responding Database with the
                           list of alternate database URIs. See
                           DATABASE_CHANGE Error (Section 5.17.2) for
                           more details.
   -200   (reserved)
   -201   REQUIRED   MISSING          A required parameter is missing. The Database
                           MUST include a list of the required parameter
                           names. The Database MAY include only names of
                           parameters that are missing, but MAY include
                           a full list. Including the full list of
                           missing parameters may reduce the number of
                           re-queries from the Device. See REQUIRED MISSING Error
                           (Section 5.17.3) for more details.
   -202   INVALID_VALUE    A parameter value is invalid in some way. The
                           Database SHOULD include a message indicating
                           which parameter and why its value is invalid.
   -300   (reserved)
   -301   UNAUTHORIZED     The Device is not authorized to used the
                           Database. Authorization may be determined by
                           regulatory rules
                           the ruleset or be dependent on prior
                           arrangement between the Device and Database.
   -302   NOT_REGISTERED   Device registration required, but the Device
                           is not registered.
   -32000 (reserved)       Reserved for JSON-RPC error codes.
   to
   -32768

                           Table 1: Error Codes

5.17.1.  OUTSIDE_COVERAGE Error

   When the error code is OUTSIDE_COVERAGE, the Database MAY include an
   ErrorData element within its Error response as the "data" field, and, if present,
   the ErrorData MAY include contains a DbUpdateSpec (Section 5.7) element that
   provides a list of alternate databases that might be appropriate for
   the requested location.

   +---------------------------+
   |Error                      |
   +----------------+----------+
   |code:int        | required |
   |message:string  | optional |    +-----------------------------+
   |data:ErrorData  | optional |--->|ErrorData                    |
   +----------------+----------+    +------------------+----------+
                                    |spec:DbUpdateSpec | optional |
                                    +------------------+----------+

5.17.2.  DATABASE_CHANGE Error

   When the error code is DATABASE_CHANGE, the Database MAY include an
   ErrorData element within its Error response as the "data" field, and,
   if present, the ErrorData MUST include contains a DbUpdateSpec (Section 5.7)
   element that provides a list of alternate databases.

   +---------------------------+
   |Error                      |
   +----------------+----------+
   |code:int        | required |
   |message:string  | optional |    +-----------------------------+
   |data:ErrorData  | optional |--->|ErrorData                    |
   +----------------+----------+    +------------------+----------+
                                    |spec:DbUpdateSpec | required |
                                    +------------------+----------+

5.17.3.  REQUIRED  MISSING Error

   When the error code is REQUIRED, MISSING, the Database MUST include an
   ErrorData element within its Error response as the "data" field, and
   the ErrorData element MUST include a list of the missing required
   parameters and MAY include the list of all required parameters.

   +---------------------------+
   |Error                      |
   +----------------+----------+
   |code:int        | required |
   |message:string  | optional |    +---------------------------+
   |data:ErrorData  | required |--->|ErrorData                  |
   +----------------+----------+    +----------------+----------+ 1..*
                                    |parameters:list | required |--+
                                    +----------------+----------+  |
                                                                   v
                                                                 string

   Parameters:

   parameters:  List of one or more parameter names (strings).  The name
      of a parameter SHOULD be is expressed using dotted notation, when
      appropriate, e.g., "deviceDesc.serialNumber".

6.  Message Encoding

   The PAWS protocol is encoded using JSON-RPC [JSON-RPC] (see also The
   JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data Interchange Format [RFC7159]).
   Each component described in Protocol Functionalities (Section 4)
   corresponds to one or more JSON-RPC methods.  This section provides
   the JSON schema for each of the protocol messages and parameters
   defined in sections Protocol Functionalities (Section 4) and Protocol
   Parameters (Section 5).  JSON schemas are expressed using the format
   described by JSON Schema [I-D.zyp-json-schema], but are not intended
   to be used for formal validation.

   NOTE: In general, all messages defined in this section are extensible
   by adding additional properties to support regulatory-specific ruleset-specific and
   database-specific requirements.  In all cases, the Device or Database
   MUST ignore any parameter it does not understand.

   NOTE: The JSON examples in this section may contain ellipses (...) to
   represent additional properties or elements that have been omitted in
   order to make the examples more concise.

6.1.  JSON-RPC Binding

   The JSON-RPC [JSON-RPC] protocol consists of two basic objects,
   Request and Response:
   o  The JSON-RPC Request object encapsulates a PAWS functionality
      (operation) and the request message
   o  The JSON-RPC Response object encapsulates a PAWS response message
      and Error element

   The Database and Device MUST support JSON-RPC 2.0 encoding.

   The JSON-RPC Request for PAWS has the following form:

   {
     "jsonrpc": "2.0",
     "method": "string",
     "params": <PAWS_REQ>,
     "id": "string"
   }

   where "method" is the name of a PAWS functionality (operation), and
   <PAWS_REQ> represents one of the PAWS request objects associated with
   the method.  Method names are defined with the prefix,
   "spectrum.paws.".

   The non-error JSON-RPC Response for PAWS has the following form:

   {
     "jsonrpc": "2.0",
     "result": <PAWS_RESP>,
     "id": "string"
   }

   where <PAWS_RESP> represents one of the PAWS response objects
   associated with the method.

   The error JSON-RPC Response for PAWS has the following form:

   {
     "jsonrpc": "2.0",
     "error": {
       "code": "integer",
       "message": "string",
       "data": "object"
     },
     "id": "string"
   }

   where the Error object and error codes are described by Error Element
   (Section 5.17).  The Database SHOULD attempt to use the most specific
   applicable PAWS error code.  When an accurate one is not available,
   it SHOULD fall back to standard JSONRPC error codes as defined in
   JSONRPC specification.  For example, if the Database receives invalid
   JSON from the Device, it should respond with "-32700", signifying a
   parse error.  As a last resort, the Database MAY send a suitable HTTP
   5xx response.

   Depending on prior arrangement between a Database and Device, the
   Request and Response objects MAY contain additional parameters.  The
   Database or Device MUST ignore all parameters it does not understand.

6.2.  init Method

   This section describes the encoding for the JSON-RPC
   "spectrum.paws.init" method that represents the Initialization
   functionality (Section 4.2).

6.2.1.  INIT_REQ Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Initialization request message INIT_REQ
   (Section 4.2.1) is described by the following schema:

   {
     "name": "INIT_REQ",
     "type": "object",
     "properties": {
       "type": "INIT_REQ",
       "version": {
         "type": "string",
         "required": true
       },
       "deviceDesc": {
         "type": "DeviceDescriptor",
         "required": true
       },
       "location": {
         "type": "GeoLocation",
         "description": "The location of the Device's antenna.
             Some regulatory domains rulesets mandate this to be the
             Device's current location; others allow it to be
             an anticipated position of the Device.",
         "required": true
       }
     }
   }

   Example "init" JSON-RPC request:

   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "method": "spectrum.paws.init",
    "params": {
     "type": "INIT_REQ",
     "version": "1.0",
     "deviceDesc": {
      "serialNumber": "XXX",
      "fccId": "YYY",
      ...
     },
     "location": {
      "point": {
       "center": {"latitude": 37.0, "longitude": -101.3}
      }
     }
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.2.2.  INIT_RESP Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Initialization response message INIT_RESP
   (Section 4.2.2) is described by the following schema:

   {
     "name": "INIT_RESP",
     "type": "object",
     "properties": {
       "type": "INIT_RESP",
       "version": {
         "type": "string",
         "required": true
       },
       "rulesetInfos": {
         "type": "array",
         "description": "List of regulatory domains rulesets and associated
             attributes that govern the device at the location specified
             by the device. The list MUST have at least one entry.",
         "items": "RulesetInfo",
         "required": true
       },
       "databaseChange": {
         "type": "DbUpdateSpec",
         "description": "Indicates that the Database URI will be
             changing. Devices need to update their configurations",
         "required": false
       }
     }
   }

   Example "init" JSON-RPC response:

   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "result": {
     "type": "INIT_RESP",
     "version": "1.0",
     "rulesetInfos": [
       {
         "authority": "us",
         ...
       },
       ...
     ]
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.3.  register Method

   This section describes the encoding for the JSON-RPC
   "spectrum.paws.register" method that represents Device Registration
   functionality (Section 4.3).

6.3.1.  REGISTRATION_REQ Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Registration request message
   REGISTRATION_REQ (Section 4.3.1) is described by the following
   schema:

   {
     "name": "REGISTRATION_REQ",
     "type": "object",
     "properties": {
       "type": "REGISTRATION_REQ",
       "version": {
         "type": "string",
         "required": true
       },
       "deviceDesc": {
         "type": "DeviceDescriptor",
         "required": true
       },
       "location": {
         "type": "GeoLocation",
         "description": "The location of the Device's antenna.",
         "required": true
       },
       "deviceOwner": {
         "type": "DeviceOwner",
         "required": true
       },
       "antenna": {
         "type": "AntennaCharacteristics",
         "description": "Antenna characteristics, including its
             height and height type",
         "required": false
       }
     }
   }

   Example "register" JSON-RPC request:

   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "method": "spectrum.paws.register",
    "params": {
     "type": "REGISTRATION_REQ",
     "version": "1.0",
     "deviceDesc": {
      "serialNumber": "XXX",
      "fccId": "YYY",
      ...
     },
     "deviceOwner": {
      "owner": [
       "vcard", [
        ["version", {}, "text", "4.0"],
        ["kind", {}, "text", "org"],
        ["fn", {}, "text", "Racafrax, Inc."]
       ]
      ],
      "operator": [
       "vcard", [
        ["version", {}, "text", "4.0"],
        ["fn", {}, "text", "John Frax"],
        ["adr", {}, "text",
         ["", "", "100 Main Street",
          "Summersville", "CA", "90034", "USA"
         ]
        ],
        ["tel", {}, "uri", "tel:+1-213-555-1212"],
        ["email", {}, "text", "j.frax@rackafrax.com"]
       ]
      ]
     },
     "location": {
      "point": {
       "center": {"latitude": 37.0, "longitude": -101.3}
      }
     },
     "antenna": {"height": 10.2, "heightType": "AGL"}
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.3.2.  REGISTRATION_RESP Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Registration response message
   REGISTRATION_RESP (Section 4.3.2) is described by the following
   schema:

   {
     "name": "REGISTRATION_RESP",
     "type": "object",
     "properties": {
       "type": "REGISTRATION_RESP",
       "version": {
         "type": "string",
         "required": true
       },
       "rulesetInfos": {
         "type": "array",
         "description": "List of regulatory domains rulesets for which device
             registration was successful. The list MUST have at
             least one entry.",
         "items": "RulesetInfo",
         "required": true
       },
       "databaseChange": {
         "type": "DbUpdateSpec",
         "description": "Indicates that the Database URI will be
             changing. Devices need to update their configurations",
         "required": false
       }
     }
   }

   Example "register" JSON-RPC response:

   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "result": {
     "type": "REGISTRATION_RESP",
     "version": "1.0",
     "rulesetInfos": [
       {
         "authority": "us",
         ...
       }
     ]
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.4.  getSpectrum Method

   This section describes the encoding for the JSON-RPC
   "spectrum.paws.getSpectrum" method that represents the single-
   location query of the Available Spectrum Query functionality
   (Section 4.4) that enables a Device to obtain a set of available
   spectrum from the Database.

6.4.1.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Available Spectrum request message
   AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ (Section 4.4.1) is described by the following
   schema:

   {
     "name": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ",
     "type": "object",
     "properties": {
       "type": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ",
       "version": {
         "type": "string",
         "required": true
       },
       "deviceDesc": {
         "type": "DeviceDescriptor",
         "description": "Descriptor of the device for which to
             determine available spectrum.",
         "required": false
       },
       "location": {
         "type": "GeoLocation",
         "description": "The location of the Device's antenna.
             Some regulatory domains rulesets mandate this to be the Device's
             current location; others allow it to be an anticipated
             position of the Device. When the request is made by a
             Master Device on behalf of a Slave Device, this is the
             location of the Slave Device (optional), and the Master
             Device location is provided in the masterDeviceLocation
             parameter.",
         "required": false
       },
       "owner": {
         "type": "DeviceOwner",
         "description": "May be required if the Device is not yet
             registered or if the DB does not implement a separate
             device-registration request. Also depends on device type
             and regulatory domain", request.",
         "required": false
       },
       "antenna": {
         "type": "AntennaCharacteristics",
         "description": "Antenna characteristics, including its
             height and height type. May be required, depending on
             device type and regulatory domain", type.",
         "required": false

       },
       "capabilities": {
         "type": "DeviceCapabilities",
         "description": "The Database SHOULD NOT return spectrum that
             is incompatible with the specified capabilities.",
         "required": false
       },
       "masterDeviceDesc": {
         "type": "DeviceDescriptor",
         "description": "When the request is made by a Master Device
             on behalf of a Slave Device, this is the descriptor of
             the Master Device.",
         "required": false
       },
       "masterDeviceLocation": {
         "type": "GeoLocation",
         "description": "When the request is made by a Master Device
             on behalf of a Slave Device, this is the location of
             the Master Device.",
         "required": false
       },
       "requestType": {
         "type": "string",
         "description": "Optional value that modifies the request.
             Valid values depends on regulatory domain.", ruleset.",
         "required": false
       }
     }
   }

   Example "getSpectrum" JSON-RPC request:

   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "method": "spectrum.paws.getSpectrum",
    "params": {
     "type": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ",
     "version": "1.0",
     "deviceDesc": {
      "serialNumber": "XXX",
      "fccId": "YYY",
      ...
     },
     "location": {
      "point": {
       "center": {"latitude": 37.0, "longitude": -101.3}
      }
     },
     "antenna": {"height": 10.2, "heightType": "AGL"}
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.4.2.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Available Spectrum response message
   AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP (Section 4.4.2) is described by the following
   schema:

   {
     "name": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP",
     "type": "object",
     "properties": {
       "type": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP",
       "version": {
         "type": "string",
         "required": true
       },
       "timestamp": {
         "type": "string",
         "description": "Timestamp of the response, using
             YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ssZ RFC3339 format. This SHOULD be used
             by the Device as a reference for the start and stop times
             in the spectrum schedule",
         "format": "date-time",
         "required": true
       },
       "deviceDesc": {
         "type": "DeviceDescriptor",
         "required": true
       },
       "spectrumSpecs": {
         "type": "array",
         "description": "The Database MAY return more than one
             SpectrumSpec to represent available spectrum for multiple
             regulatory domains
             rulesets at the specified location.",
         "items": "SpectrumSpec",
         "required": true
       },
       "databaseChange": {
         "type": "DbUpdateSpec",
         "description": "Indicates that the Database URI will be
             changing. Devices need to update their configurations",
         "required": false
       }
     }
   }

   The following example "getSpectrum" JSON-RPC response contains:

   o  A schedule with two time ranges
   o  A spectrum profile for one resolution bandwidth (6 MHz)

   The schemas for these (and other) nested objects may be found in the
   Sub-message Schemas (Section 6.8) section.

   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "result": {
     "type": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP",
     "version": "1.0",
     "timestamp": "2013-03-02T14:30:21Z",
     "deviceDesc": {
      "serialNumber": "XXX",
      "fccId": "YYY",
      ...
     },
     "spectrumSpecs": [
      {
       "rulesetInfo": {
         "authority": "us",
         ...
       },
       "needsSpectrumReport": false,
       "spectrumSchedules": [
        {
         "eventTime": {
          "startTime": "2013-03-02T14:30:21Z",
          "stopTime": "2013-03-02T20:00:00Z"
         },
         "spectra": [
           {
            "resolutionBwHz": 6e6,
            "profiles": [
              ...
              [
               {"hz":5.18e8, "dbm":30.0},
               {"hz":5.36e8, "dbm":30.0},
               {"hz":5.36e8, "dbm":36.0},
               {"hz":5.42e8, "dbm":36.0}
              ],
              [
               {"hz":6.20e8, "dbm":30.0},
               {"hz":6.26e8, "dbm":30.0}
              ],
              ...
            ]
           }
         ]
        },
        {
         "eventTime": {
          "startTime": "2013-03-02T22:00:00Z",
          "stopTime": "2013-03-03T14:30:21Z"
         },
         "spectra": [
          ...
         ]
        }
       ]
      }
     ]
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

   The following example "getSpectrum" JSON-RPC response includes a
   spectrum profile that contains specifications for two different
   bandwidth resolutions (6 MHz and 100 kHz):

   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "result": {
     "type": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP",
     "version": "1.0",
     "timestamp": "2013-03-02T14:30:21Z",
     "deviceDesc": {
      "serialNumber": "XXX",
      ...
     },
     "spectrumSpecs": [
      {
       "rulesetInfo": {
         "authority": "xx",
         ...
       },
       "needsSpectrumReport": false,
       "spectrumSchedules": [
        {
         "eventTime": {
          "startTime": "2013-03-02T14:30:21Z",
          "stopTime": "2013-03-02T20:00:00Z"
         },
         "spectra": [
           {
            "resolutionBwHz": 6e6,
            "profiles": [
              ...
              [
               {"hz":5.18e8, "dbm":30.0},
               {"hz":5.36e8, "dbm":30.0},
               {"hz":5.36e8, "dbm":36.0},
               {"hz":5.42e8, "dbm":36.0}

              ],
              [
               {"hz":6.20e8, "dbm":30.0},
               {"hz":6.26e8, "dbm":30.0}
              ],
              ...
            ]
           },
           {
            "resolutionBwHz": 1e5,
            "profiles": [
              ...
              [
               {"hz":5.18e8, "dbm":27.0},
               {"hz":5.36e8, "dbm":27.0},
               {"hz":5.36e8, "dbm":30.0},
               {"hz":5.42e8, "dbm":30.0}
              ],
              [
               {"hz":6.20e8, "dbm":27.0},
               {"hz":6.26e8, "dbm":27.0}
              ],
              ...
            ]
           }
         ]
        },
        {
         "eventTime": {
          "startTime": "2013-03-02T22:00:00Z",
          "stopTime": "2013-03-03T14:30:21Z"
         },
         "spectra": [
          ...
         ]
        }
       ]
      }
     ]
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.5.  getSpectrumBatch Method

   This section describes the encoding for the JSON-RPC
   "spectrum.paws.getSpectrumBatch" method that represents the multiple-
   location query of the Available Spectrum Query functionality
   (Section 4.4) that enables a Device to obtain a set of available
   spectrum for multiple locations from the Database.

6.5.1.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Batch Available Spectrum request
   AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ (Section 4.4.3) is described by the
   following schema.  This an OPTIONAL feature of the Database.

   {
     "name": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ",
     "type": "object",
     "properties": {
       "type": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ",
       "version": {
         "type": "string",
         "required": true
        },
       "deviceDesc": {
         "type": "DeviceDescriptor",
         "description": "Descriptor of the device for which to
             determine available spectrum.",
         "required": true
       },
       "locations": {
         "type": "array",
         "description": "At least one device location is required.
             Additional (anticipated) locations can also be included,
             as permitted by regulatory domain. the ruleset. When the request is
             made by a Master Device on behalf of a Slave Device, these
             are locations of the Slave Device.",
         "items": "GeoLocation",
         "required": true
       },
       "owner": {
         "type": "DeviceOwner",
         "description": "May be required if the Device is not yet
             registered or if the DB does not implement a separate
             device-registration request. Also depends on device type
             and regulatory domain", request.",
         "required": false
       },
       "antenna": {
         "type": "AntennaCharacteristics",
         "description": "Antenna characteristics, including its
             height and height type. May required depending on
             device type and regulatory domain", type.",
         "required": false
       },
       "capabilities": {
         "type": "DeviceCapabilities",
         "description": "The Database SHOULD NOT return spectrum that
             is incompatible with the specified capabilities.",
         "required": false
       },
       "masterDeviceDesc": {
         "type": "DeviceDescriptor",
         "description": "When the request is made by a Master Device
             on behalf of a Slave Device, this is the descriptor of
             the Master Device.",
         "required": false
       },
       "masterDeviceLocation": {
         "type": "GeoLocation",
         "description": "When the request is made by a Master Device
             on behalf of a Slave Device, this is the location of
             the Master Device.",
         "required": false
       },
       "requestType": {
         "type": "string",
         "description": "Optional value that modifies the request.
             Valid values depends on regulatory domain.", the ruleset.",
         "required": false
       }
     }
   }

   Example "getSpectrumBatch" JSON-RPC request:

   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "method": "spectrum.paws.getSpectrumBatch",
    "params": {
     "type": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ",
     "version": "1.0",
     "deviceDesc": {
      "serialNumber": "XXX",
      "fccId": "YYY",
      ...
     },
     "locations": [
      {
       "point": {
        "center": {"latitude": 37.0, "longitude": -101.3}
       }
      },
      {
       "point": {
        "center": {"latitude": 37.0005, "longitude": -101.3005}
       }
      },
      ...
     ],
     "antenna": {"height": 10.2, "heightType": "AGL"}
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.5.2.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Batch Available Spectrum response
   AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP (Section 4.4.4) is described by the
   following schema:

   {
     "name": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP",
     "type": "object",
     "properties": {
       "type": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP",
       "version": {
         "type": "string",
         "required": true
        },
       "timestamp": {
         "type": "string",
         "description": "Timestamp of the response, using
             YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ssZ RFC3339 format. This SHOULD be used
             by the Device as a reference for the start and stop times
             in the spectrum schedule",
         "format": "date-time",
         "required": true
       },
       "deviceDesc": {
         "type": "DeviceDescriptor",
         "required": true
       },
       "geoSpectrumSpecs": {
         "type": "array",
         "description": "A list of locations and available spectrum at
             each location. For each location, there may be more than
             one SpectrumSpec element to support more than one ruleset
             at that location.",
         "items": "GeoSpectrumSpec",
         "required": true
       },
       "databaseChange": {
         "type": "DbUpdateSpec",
         "description": "Indicates that the Database URI will be
             changing. Devices need to update their configurations",
         "required": false
       }
     }
   }

   The following example "getSpectrumBatch" JSON-RPC response
   illustrates a batch response that contains spectrum specifications
   for two locations:

   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "result": {
     "type": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP",
     "version": "1.0",
     "timestamp": "2013-03-02T14:30:21Z",
     "deviceDesc": {
      "serialNumber": "XXX",
      "fccId": "YYY",
      ...
     },
     "geoSpectrumSpecs": [
      {
       "location": {
        "point": {
         "center": {"latitude": 37.0, "longitude": -101.3}
        }
       },
       "spectrumSpecs": [
        {
         "rulesetInfo": {
          "authority": "us",
          ...
         },
         "needsSpectrumReport": false,
         "spectrumSchedules": [
          {
           "eventTime": {
            "startTime": "2013-03-02T14:30:21Z",
            "stopTime": "2013-03-02T20:00:00Z"
           },
           "spectra": [
             {
              "resolutionBwHz": 6e6,
              "profiles": [
                ...
                [
                 {"hz":5.18e8, "dbm":30.0},
                 {"hz":5.36e8, "dbm":30.0},
                 {"hz":5.36e8, "dbm":36.0},
                 {"hz":5.42e8, "dbm":36.0}
                ],
                [
                 {"hz":6.20e8, "dbm":30.0},
                 {"hz":6.26e8, "dbm":30.0}
                ],
                ...
              ]
             }
           ]
          },
          {
           "eventTime": {
            "startTime": "2013-03-02T22:00:00Z",
            "stopTime": "2013-03-03T14:30:21Z"
           },
           "spectra": [
            ...
           ]
          }
         ]
        }
       ]
      },
      {
       "location": {
        "point": {
         "center": {"latitude": 37.0005, "longitude": -101.3005}
        }
       },
       "spectrumSpecs": [
        ...
       ]
      }
     ]
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.6.  notifySpectrumUse Method

   This section describes the encoding for the JSON-RPC
   "spectrum.paws.notifySpectrumUse" method that represents the
   Spectrum-usage notification of the Available Spectrum Query
   functionality (Section 4.4.5) that notifies the Database of
   anticipated spectrum usage.

6.6.1.  SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Spectrum Notification message
   SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY (Section 4.4.5) is described by the following
   schema:

   {
     "name": "SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY",
     "type": "object",
     "properties": {
       "type": "SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY",
       "version": {
         "type": "string",
         "required": true
       },
       "deviceDesc": {
         "type": "DeviceDescriptor",
         "required": true
       },
       "location": {
         "type": "GeoLocation",
         "description": "The location of the Device. When the
             notification is made by a Master Device on behalf
             of a Slave Device, this is the location of the
             Slave Device.",
         "required": false
       },
       "masterDeviceDesc": {
         "type": "DeviceDescriptor",
         "description": "When the notification is made by a
             Master Device on behalf of a Slave Device, this is
             the descriptor of the Master Device.",
         "required": false
       },
       "masterDeviceLocation": {
         "type": "GeoLocation",
         "description": "When the notification is made by the
             Master Device on behalf of a Slave Device, this is
             the location of the Master Device.",
         "required": false
       },
       "spectra": {
         "type": "array",
         "description": "The spectrum anticipated to be used by
             the Device.",
         "items": "Spectrum",
         "required": true
       }
     }
   }

   Example "notifySpectrumUse" JSON-RPC notification:

   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "method": "spectrum.paws.notifySpectrumUse",
    "params": {
     "type": "SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY",
     "version": "1.0",
     "deviceDesc": {
      "serialNumber": "XXX",
      "fccId": "YYY",
      ...
     },
     "location": {
      "point": {
       "center": {"latitude": 37.0005, "longitude": -101.3005}
      }
     },
     "spectra": [
      {
       "resolutionBwHz": 6e6,
       "profiles": [
         [
           {"hz":5.18e8, "dbm":30.0},
           {"hz":5.24e8, "dbm":30.0}
         ]
       ]
      }
     ]
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.6.2.  SPECTRUM_USE_RESP Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Spectrum-usage response SPECTRUM_USE_RESP
   (Section 4.4.6) is described by the following schema:

   {
     "name": "SPECTRUM_USE_RESP",
     "type": "object",
     "properties": {
       "type": "SPECTRUM_USE_RESP",
       "version": {
         "type": "string",
         "required": true
       }
     }
   }
   Example "notifySpectrumUse" JSON-RPC response:

   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "result": {
     "type": "SPECTRUM_USE_RESP",
     "version": "1.0"
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.7.  verifyDevice Method

   This section describes the encoding for the JSON-RPC
   "spectrum.paws.verifyDevice" method that represents the Device
   Validation functionality (Section 4.5).  This is used by a Master
   Device to validate Slave Devices.

6.7.1.  DEV_VALID_REQ Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Device Validation request DEV_VALID_REQ
   (Section 4.5.1) is described by the following schema:

   {
     "name": "DEV_VALID_REQ",
     "type": "object",
     "properties": {
       "type": "DEV_VALID_REQ",
       "version": {
         "type": "string",
         "required": true
       },
       "deviceDescs": {
         "type": "array",
         "description": "List of Slave Devices to be validated",
         "items": "DeviceDescriptor",
         "required": true
       }
     }
   }

   Example "verifyDevice" JSON-RPC request:

   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "method": "spectrum.paws.verifyDevice",
    "params": {
     "type": "DEV_VALID_REQ",
     "version": "1.0",
     "deviceDescs": [
      {
       "serialNumber": "XXX",
       "fccId": "YYY",
       ...
      },
      {
       "serialNumber": "XXX3",
       "fccId": "YYY2",
       ...
      },
      ...
     ]
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.7.2.  DEV_VALID_RESP Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Device Validation response DEV_VALID_RESP
   (Section 4.5.2) is described by the following schema:

   {
     "name": "DEV_VALID_RESP",
     "type": "object",
     "properties": {
       "type": "DEV_VALID_RESP",
       "version": {
         "type": "string",
         "required": true
       },
       "deviceValidities": {
         "type": "array",
         "description": "List of DeviceValidity objects that shows the
             validity of each device included in the original Device
             Validity Request message.",
         "items": "DeviceValidity",
         "required": true
       },
       "databaseChange": {
         "type": "DbUpdateSpec",
         "description": "Indicates that the Database URI will be
             changing. Devices need to update their configurations",
         "required": false
       }
     }
   }

   Example "verifyDevice" JSON-RPC response:

   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "result": {
     "type": "DEV_VALID_RESP",
     "version": "1.0",
     "deviceValidities": [
      {
       "deviceDesc": {
         "serialNumber": "XXX",
         "fccId": "YYY",
         ...
       },
       "isValid": true
      },
      {
       "deviceDesc": {
         "serialNumber": "XXX3",
         "fccId": "YYY2",
         ...
       },
       "isValid": false,
       "reason": "Not authorized"
      }
     ]
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.8.  Sub-message Schemas

   This section defines the schema for Protocol Parameters (Section 5)
   embedded in PAWS request and response messages.

6.8.1.  GeoLocation

   This parameter is used to specify the GeoLocation (Section 5.1) of
   the Device.  The geometric shapes represent the JSON encoding shapes
   defined in GEOPRIV Presence Information Data Format Location Object
   [RFC5491].

     {
       "name": "GeoLocation",
       "type": "object",
       "properties": {
         "point": {
           "description": "A single location, with optional
               uncertainty measures. Exactly one of 'point' or 'region'
               must be present.",

           "type": "Ellipse",
           "required": false
         },
         "region": {
           "description": "A region described by a polygon. Exactly
               one of 'point' or 'region' must be present.",
           "type": "Polygon",
           "required": false
         },
         "confidence": {
           "description": "Confidence interval when location
               is a point with uncertainty. 0 to 100.",
           "type": "integer",
           "required": false,
           "default": 95
         }
       }
     }
     {
       "name": "Point",
       "type": "object",
       "properties": {
         "latitude": {
           "description": "Double-precision floating-point degrees.
               WGS84 datum.",
           "type": "number",
           "required": true
         },
         "longitude": {
           "type": "number",
           "description": "Double-precision floating-point degree.
               WGS84 datum.",
           "required": true
         }
       }
     }
     {
       "name": "Ellipse",
       "type": "object",
       "properties": {
         "center": {
           "type": "Point",
           "required": true
         },
         "semiMajorAxis": {
           "description": "Floating-point meters that describe
               location uncertainty along the major axis of
               the ellipse.",

           "type": "number",
           "required": false,
           "default": 0
         },
         "semiMinorAxis": {
           "description": "Floating-point meters that describe
               location uncertainty along the minor axis of
               the ellipse.",
           "type": "number",
           "required": false,
           "default": 0
         },
         "orientation": {
           "description": "Orientation of the ellipse, as rotation
               of the major axis from North towards East. Degrees.",
           "type": "number",
           "required": false,
           "default": 0
         }
       }
     }
     {
       "name": "Polygon",
       "type": "object",
       "properties": {
         "exterior": {
           "description": "List of Points in counter-clockwise
               order. They MUST form a loop with no edges that
               cross each other. First and last points MUST be
               the same. Minimum of 4 points.",
           "type": "array",
           "items": "Point",
           "required": true
         }
       }
     }

6.8.2.  DeviceDescriptor

   The DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) contains parameters that identify
   the specific device, such as its manufacturer serial number,
   regulatory-specific ruleset-
   specific ID (e.g., FCC ID), and any other device characteristics
   required by regulatory domains, rulesets, such as device-type classification.  See
   Initial PAWS Parameters Registry Contents (Section 9.1.2) 9.2.2) for
   additional valid parameters, e.g., "fccId", "etsiEnDeviceType", etc.

     {
       "name": "DeviceDescriptor",
       "type": "object",
       "properties": {
         "serialNumber": {
           "type": "string",
           "required": true
         },
         "manufacturerId": {
           "type": "string",
           "required": false
         },
         "modelId": {
           "type": "string",
           "required": false
         },
         "rulesetIds": {
           "type": "array",
           "description": "List of identifiers for rulesets supported
               by the device", device.",
           "items": "string",
           "required": false
         }
       }
     }

6.8.3.  AntennaCharacteristics

   AntennaCharacteristics (Section 5.3) provide additional information,
   such as the antenna height, antenna type, etc.

    {
       "name": "AntennaCharacteristics",
       "type": "object",
       "properties": {
         "height": {
           "description": "Height of the antenna, in meters",
           "type": "number",
           "required": false
         },
         "heightType": {
           "description": "Reference type for height:
               Above Ground Level (AGL), or Above Mean Sea
               Level (AMSL).",
           "enum": ["AGL","AMSL"],
           "default": "AGL",
           "required": false
         },
         "heightUncertainty": {
           "description": "Uncertainty of the height measurement,
               in meters.",
           "type": "number",
           "required": false
         }
       }
     }

6.8.4.  DeviceCapabilities

   Device capabilities (Section 5.4) provide additional information that
   MAY be used by the Device to provide additional information to the
   Database to help the Database determine available spectrum.  If the
   Database does not support device capabilities, it MUST ignore the
   parameter.

     {
       "name": "DeviceCapabilities",
       "type": "object",
       "description": "Device capabilities to help DB determine
           available spectrum. The DB SHOULD NOT return available
           spectrum that falls outside the device capabilities.",
       "properties": {
         "frequencyRanges": {
           "type": "array",
           "description": "The frequency ranges in which the Device
               can operate.",
           "items": "FrequencyRange",
           "required": false
         }
       }
     }

6.8.5.  DeviceOwner

   The DeviceOwner (Section 5.5) parameter contains device-owner
   information required as part of device registration.  Some regulatory
   domains rulesets
   require additional parameters and specific fields within a vCard.
   JSON encoding of vCard is described in jCard: The JSON format for
   vCard [RFC7095].

     {
       "name": "DeviceOwner",
       "type": "object",
       "description": "Device-owner information required as part of
           Device registration. Regulatory domains Rulesets MAY require
           additional parameters.",
       "properties": {
         "owner": {
           "type": "vCard",
           "description":"Contact information for the individual
               or business that owns the device.",
           "required": true
         },
         "operator": {
           "type": "vCard",
           "description":"Contact information for the device operator.",
           "required": false
         }
       }
     }

   Example:

     {
       "deviceOwner": {
         "owner": [
           "vcard", [
             ["version", {}, "text", "4.0"],
             ["kind", {}, "text", "org"],
             ["fn", {}, "text", "Racafrax, Inc."]
           ]
         ],
         "operator": [
           "vcard", [
             ["version", {}, "text", "4.0"],
             ["fn", {}, "text", "John Frax"],
             ["adr", {}, "text",
               ["", "", "100 Main Street",
                "Summersville", "CA", "90034", "USA"
               ]
             ],
             ["tel", {}, "uri", "tel:+1-213-555-1212"],
             ["email", {}, "text", "j.frax@rackafrax.com"]
           ]
         ]
       }
     }

6.8.6.  RulesetInfo

   RulesetInfo (Section 5.6) contains parameters for the ruleset of a
   regulatory domain that is communicated using the Initialization
   component (Section 4.2).

     {
       "name": "RulesetInfo",
       "type": "object",
       "description": "The ruleset of a regulatory domain that is
           communicated to Devices in the Initialization Response
           message.",
       "properties": {
         "authority": {
           "type": "string",
           "description": "The regulatory authority at the specified
               location. It is a 2-letter country codes defined by
               ISO3166-1.",
               ISO3166.",
           "required": true
         },
         "rulesetId": {
           "type": "string",
           "description": "The identifier of an applicable ruleset", ruleset.",
           "required": true
         },
         "maxLocationChange": {
           "type": "number",
           "description": "Maximum location change in meters.",
           "required": false
         },
         "maxPollingSecs": {
           "type": "integer",
           "description": "Maximum duration, in seconds, between
               requests for available spectrum.",
           "required": false
         }
       }
     }

6.8.7.  DbUpdateSpec

   DbUpdateSpec (Section 5.7) contains one or more database
   specifications.  It is used to indicate a change to the Database URI.

     {
       "name": "DbUpdateSpec",
       "type": "object",
       "description": "Specification for updates to a Database URI",
       "properties": {
         "databases": {
           "type": "array",
           "description": "The specification of one or more databases", databases.",
           "item": "DatabaseSpec",
           "required": true
         }
       }
     }

6.8.8.  DatabaseSpec

   DatabaseSpec (Section 5.8) specifies the name and URI of a database.

     {
       "name": "DatabaseSpec",
       "type": "object",
       "description": "Specification for a database",
       "properties": {
         "name": {
           "type": "string",
           "description": "The display name of a databases", database.",
           "required": true
         },
         "uri": {
           "type": "string",
           "description": "The URI of a databases", database.",
           "required": true
         }
       }
     }

6.8.9.  Spectrum

   Available Spectrum (Section 5.11) can logically be characterized by a
   list of SpectrumProfiles, each defining the shape of the permissible
   power levels over a range of frequencies.

     {
       "name": "Spectrum",
       "type": "object",
       "description": "A per-bandwidth list of frequency ranges with
           permissible power levels. For example, In US, FCC
           requires only one spectrum specification at 6MHz
           bandwidth; ETSI requires two (at 0.1MHz and
           8MHz).",
       "properties": {
         "resolutionBwHz": {
           "type": "number",
           "description": "Resolution bandwidth (Hz) over which
               permissible power spectral densities are defined.",
           "required": true
         },
         "profiles": {
           "type": "array",
           "description": "List of SpectrumProfile objects to specify
               permissible power levels, over a set of frequency ranges,
               for a given resolutionBwHz. The list MAY be empty when
               there is no available spectrum.",
           "items": "SpectrumProfile",
           "required": true
         }
       }
     }

     {
       "name": "SpectrumProfile",
       "type": "array",
       "description": "A list of (frequency, power) points. A minimum of
           two entries is required.",
       "item": "SpectrumProfilePoint"
     }

     {
       "name": "SpectrumProfilePoint",
       "type": "object",
       "description": "A point defined by a frequency and power level
           at that frequency.",
       "properties": {
         "hz": {
           "type": "number",
           "description": "Frequency (Hz)",
           "required": true
         },
         "dbm": {
           "type": "number",
           "description": "Power (dBm) per resolution bandwidth as
               defined by enclosing resolutionBwHz.",
           "required": true
         }
       }
     }

   The following example Spectrum message for a resolution bandwidth of
   6 MHz.  This example contains power levels for only two frequency
   segments:
   o  From 518 MHz to 542 MHz
   o  From 620 MHz to 626 MHz
   In practice, this message would contain more (frequency, power)
   points to cover all frequencies governed by the associated regulatory
   domain. ruleset.
   See the Spectrum (Section 5.11) section for a more detailed
   discussion on the representation.
   {
     "resolutionBwHz": 6e6,
     "profiles": [
       [
         {"hz":5.18e8, "dbm":30.0},
         {"hz":5.36e8, "dbm":30.0},
         {"hz":5.36e8, "dbm":36.0},
         {"hz":5.42e8, "dbm":36.0}
       ],
       [
         {"hz":6.20e8, "dbm":30.0},
         {"hz":6.26e8, "dbm":30.0}
       ]
     ]
   }

6.8.10.  FrequencyRange

   The FrequencyRange (Section 5.13) element describes a frequency range
   and permissible power level within the specified range.

     {
       "name": "FrequencyRange",
       "type": "object",
       "properties": {
         "startHz": {
           "type": "number",
           "description": "The inclusive start of the frequency range.",
           "required": true
         },
         "stopHz": {
           "type": "number",
           "description": "The exclusive end of the frequency range.",
           "required": true
         }
       }
     }

6.8.11.  EventTime

   The EventTime (Section 5.14) element specifies the start and stop
   times of an "event."  It is used to indicate the time period for
   which a Spectrum (Section 5.11) is valid.

     {
       "name": "EventTime",
       "type": "object",
       "properties": {
         "startTime": {
           "type": "string",
           "description": "YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ssZ RFC3339 format.
               Inclusive.",
           "format": "date-time",
           "required": false
         },
         "stopTime": {
           "type": "string",
           "description": "YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ssZ RFC3339 format.
               Exclusive.",
           "format": "date-time",
           "required": false
         }
       }
     }

6.8.12.  SpectrumSchedule

   The SpectrumSchedule (Section 5.10) element combines EventTime with
   Spectrum to define a time period during which the spectrum is valid.

     {
       "name": "SpectrumSchedule",
       "type": "object",
       "description": "The SpectrumSchedule element combines EventTime
           with Spectrum to define a time period during which spectrum
           is valid.",
       "properties": {
         "eventTime": {
           "type": "EventTime",
           "description": "Period when the spectra is valid.",
           "required": true
         },
         "spectra": {
           "type": "array",
           "description": "List of available spectra and permissible
               power levels; one spectrum object per resolutionBwHz. The
               list MAY be empty when there is no available spectrum.",
           "items": "Spectrum",
           "required": true
         }
       }
     }

6.8.13.  SpectrumSpec

   The JSON encoding of the SpectrumSpec (Section 5.9) element is
   described by the following schema:

   {
     "name": "SpectrumSpec",
     "type": "object",
     "description": "The SpectrumSpec element represents schedules of
         available spectrum for a regulatory-domain ruleset.",
     "properties": {
       "rulesetInfo": {
         "type": "RulesetInfo",
         "description": "Indicates the active regulatory domain ruleset and
             attributes that define the applicable ruleset that
             govern the device", device.",
         "required": false
       },
       "spectrumSchedules": {
         "type": "array",
         "description": "The Database MAY return more than one
             schedule to represent future changes to the available
             spectrum. This array MAY be empty if no spectrum is
             available. If more than one is present, the event-time
             intervals SHOULD MUST be sorted and MUST be disjoint.",

         "items": "SpectrumSchedule",
         "required": true
       },
       "timeRange": {
         "type": "EventTime",
         "description": "The time range for which the spectrumSchedules
             is comprehensive", comprehensive.",
         "required": false
       },
       "frequencyRanges": {
         "type": "array",
         "description": "The frequency ranges for which the
             spectrumSchedules is comprehensive", comprehensive.",
         "items": "FrequencyRange",
         "required": false
       },
       "needsSpectrumReport": {
         "type": "boolean",
         "description": "Regulatory domains "Rulesets that require a
             spectrum-usage report from devices would mandate the
             Database to set this value to true.",
         "default": false,
         "required": false
       },
       "maxTotalBwHz": {
         "type": "number",
         "description": "Constraint on total bandwidth allowed,
             summed across all blocks of spectrum.",
         "required": false
       },
       "maxContiguousBwHz": {
         "type": "number",
         "description": "Constraint on bandwidth allowed for
             any single block of spectrum.",
         "required": false
       }
     }
   }

6.8.14.  GeoSpectrumSpec

   The GeoSpectrumSpec (Section 5.15) element encapsulates the schedule
   of available spectrum at a location.

     {
       "name": "GeoSpectrumSpec",
       "type": "object",
       "description": "The GeoSpectrumSpec element encapsulates
           the schedule of available spectrum at a location.",
       "properties": {
         "location": {
           "type": "GeoLocation",
           "description": "The location at which the spectrum
               schedule applies.",
           "required": true
         },
         "spectrumSpecs": {
           "type": "array",
           "description": "At least one element MUST be included.
               More than one element MAY be included
               to represent available spectrum for more than one
               regulatory domain.",
               ruleset.",
           "items": "SpectrumSpec",
           "required": true
         }
       }
     }

6.8.15.  DeviceValidity

   The DeviceValidity (Section 5.16) element is used to indicate whether
   a device is valid.  See Section 4.5.2.

     {
       "name": "DeviceValidity",
       "type": "object",
       "description": "The DeviceValidity element specifies whether
           the device is valid.",
       "properties": {
         "deviceDesc": {
           "type": "DeviceDescriptor",
           "required": true
         },
         "isValid": {
           "type": "boolean",
           "description": "Boolean that indicates if the Device is
               valid",
           "required": true
         },
         "reason": {
           "type": "string",
           "description": "If the device identifier is not valid,
               the Database MAY include a reason. The reason MAY be
               in any language.",
           "required": false
         }
       }
     }

6.8.16.  Additional Properties

   The Database or Device MAY include additional properties not
   explicitly listed in the schema elaborated in this document.  The
   Database and Device MUST ignore any such additional properties (and
   their associated values) that they do not understand.

7.  HTTPS Binding

   This section describes the use of HTTP over TLS (HTTPS) HTTP Over TLS
   [RFC2818] as the transport mechanism for the PAWS protocol.  TLS
   provides message integrity and confidentiality between the Master
   Device and the Database.  The Master Device MUST implement server
   authentication, as described in Section 3.1 of HTTP Over TLS
   [RFC2818].  The Device uses the URI determined (either statically
   configured or dynamically discovered) to authenticate the server.
   The Device SHOULD fail a request if server authentication fails.

   Depending on prior relationship between a database and device, the
   server MAY require client authentication, as described in the
   Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol [RFC5246], to authenticate
   the device.

   To enable databases to handle large numbers of requests from large
   numbers of devices, the Database MAY support and Devices SHOULD
   support Stateless TLS Session Resumption [RFC5077].

   A PAWS request message is carried in the body of an HTTP POST
   request.  A PAWS response message is carried in the body of an HTTP
   response.  A PAWS response SHOULD include a Content-Length header.

   The POST method is the only method REQUIRED for PAWS.  If a database
   chooses to support GET, it MUST be an escaped URI, but the encoding
   of the URI is outside the scope of this document.  The database MAY
   refuse to support the GET request by returning an HTTP error code,
   such as 404 (not found).

   The Database MAY redirect a PAWS request by returning a HTTP 3xx
   response (as defined by HTTP/1.1 [RFC2616]).  The Database MUST
   provide the redirect URI in the Location header of the 3xx response,
   and the Device MUST handle redirects by using the Location header
   provided by the Database.  When redirecting, the Device MUST observe
   the delay indicated by the Retry-After header.  The Device MUST
   authenticate the Database that returns the redirect response before
   following the redirect.  Also, the Device MUST authenticate the
   Database indicated in the redirect.  Since the Device may communicate
   with a Database (which it authenticated) without user interaction,
   when the response code is 301 (Moved Permanently), the Device MAY
   redirect without asking a user for confirmation (note that this
   represents an exception to the HTTP/1.1 [RFC2616] requirements for
   HTTP POST methods).

   The Database SHOULD use HTTP status code "307 Temporary Redirect" to
   indicate that the Device SHOULD resubmit the same request to an
   alternate URI.  The Device MAY revert to the original URI for the
   very next request, or MAY continue to use the alternate URI for a
   period of time, e.g.,:

   o  For the remainder of its session, or
   o  For a fixed period of time, or
   o  Until power cycled, or
   o  Until it receives another redirect
   However, the Device does not need to modify its stored list of URIs.

   The Database SHOULD use HTTP status code "301 Moved Permanently" to
   indicate that the Device SHOULD resubmit this request, and all future
   requests, to an alternate URI.  If the Device maintains a list of
   available URIs, it needs to replace only the current URI with the
   alternate URI.

8.  Extensibility

8.1.  Defining New Message Parameters

   New request or response parameters Ruleset Identifiers

   A ruleset represents a set of device-side requirements for use with which the PAWS protocol
   device has been certified.  It typically corresponds to, but is not
   limited to, a set of rules that govern a specific set of radio
   spectrum for a regulatory domain.

   Ruleset identifiers are defined and registered in the Ruleset ID
   Registry following the procedure in Section 9.1.  Ruleset ID values
   MUST conform to the ruleset-id ABNF.  If the Ruleset ID requires
   additional parameters, they MUST be registered in the PAWS Parameters
   Registry, as described by Section 9.2.

   ruleset-id = 1*64ruleset-char
   ruleset-char = ALPHA / DIGIT / "_" / "."

   When defining a Ruleset ID:
   o  It can be useful for the identifier to be descriptive of the set
      of rules that allow a device to operate within one or more
      regulatory domains.  For example, it might include the name of a
      regulatory body or a certification process.
   o  The identifier SHOULD include some sort of version information,
      such as a year and/or version number.
   o  The identifier MUST NOT exceed 64 characters.

8.2.  Defining New Message Parameters

   New request or response parameters for use with the PAWS protocol are
   defined and registered in the parameters registry following the
   procedure in Section 9.1. 9.2.

   Parameter names MUST conform to the param-name ABNF and parameter
   values syntax MUST be well-defined (e.g., using ABNF, or a reference
   to the syntax of an existing parameter).

   param-name = 1*name-char 1*64name-char
   name-char = ALPHA / DIGIT / "_"

   The parameter name SHOULD be lowerCamelCase.  The name MUST NOT
   exceed 64 characters.

   Unregistered vendor-specific parameter extensions that are not
   commonly applicable, and are specific to the implementation details
   of the Database where they are used SHOULD use a vendor-specific
   prefix that is not likely to conflict with other registered values
   (e.g., begin with 'companyname').

8.2.

8.3.  Defining Ruleset Identifiers

   A ruleset represents a set of device-side requirements for which Additional Error Codes

   Additional error codes MAY be defined to extend the
   device has been certified.  It typically corresponds to, but is not
   limited to, a set of rules that govern a specific set of radio
   spectrum for a regulatory domain.

   Ruleset identifiers are defined and registered listed in the Ruleset ID
   Registry
   Section 5.17.  Additional error codes are registered, following the procedure
   procedures in Section 9.2.  Ruleset ID values
   MUST conform to the ruleset-id ABNF. 9.3.  If the Ruleset ID error code requires additional
   response parameters, they MUST be are registered in the PAWS Parameters
   Registry, as described by Section 9.1.

   ruleset-id = 1*ruleset-char
   ruleset-char = ALPHA / DIGIT / "_" / "."

   The form of a Ruleset ID value SHOULD be guided by the following:
   o  The value SHOULD describe the set of rules that allow a device to
      operate within one or more regulatory domains.  For example, it
      MAY include the name of a regulatory body or a certification
      process
   o  The value SHOULD include version information, such as a year
      and/or version number

   o  The value MUST NOT exceed 64 characters

8.3.  Defining Additional Error Codes

   Additional error codes MAY be defined to extend the set listed in
   Section 5.17.  Additional error codes MUST be registered, following
   the procedures in Section 9.3.  If the error code requires additional
   response parameters, they MUST be registered in the PAWS Parameters
   Registry, as described by Section 9.1.

   By convention, the error code SHOULD be 9.2.

   By convention, the error code is a negative integer value, using one
   of the range of values defined in Error Codes (Section 5.17).  If an
   appropriate category does not exist, it MAY can use values in a different
   range.

9.  IANA Considerations

9.1.  PAWS Parameters Registry

   This specification establishes section provides guidance to the PAWS Parameters Registry.

   Additional Internet Assigned Numbers
   Authority (IANA) regarding registration of parameters for inclusion in and values
   related to the PAWS protocol requests,
   responses, or sub-messages protocol, in accordance with [RFC5226].

   There are registered through three registries associated with PAWS:

   o  PAWS Ruleset ID Registry (Section 9.1)
   o  PAWS Parameter Registry (Section 9.2)
   o  PAWS Error Code Registry (Section 9.3)

   A registrant should contact IANA directly at http://www.iana.org to
   apply for new registry assignments.  Prior to the Specification
   Required [RFC5226] process, after a two-week review period on registration
   request, the registrant is encouraged to post to the
   paws-iana-review@ietf.org mailing list, on including the advice of specification
   or its draft, to get early feedback.

   IANA should consult a Designated Expert for all registration
   requests.  The responsible IESG area director should appoint one or
   more Designated Experts.  To  The intention is that new registrations
   will be accompanied by a published specification.  But in order to
   allow for the allocation of values prior to
   publication, publication of the
   specification, the Designated Expert(s) may Expert can approve registration allocations once
   they are satisfied it
   seems clear that such a the specification will be published.

   Registration requests must be sent  If the
   registrant has not already done so, the Designated Expert will post a
   request to the paws-iana-review@ietf.org mailing list for review comment and comment, with an appropriate subject
   (e.g., "Request for parameter: example").

   Within
   review, including the review period, specification or its draft.  Before a period of
   30 days has passed, the Designated Expert(s) Expert will either approve or deny
   the registration request, communicating this request and publish a notice of the decision to the review list and
   paws-iana-review@ietf.org mailing list, as well as informing IANA.  Denials should include  A
   denial notice must be justified by an explanation
   and, if applicable, explanation, and in the cases
   where it is possible, concrete suggestions as to on how to make the request
   successful.

   IANA can be
   modified so as to become acceptable should be provided.

9.1.  PAWS Ruleset ID Registry

   This specification establishes the PAWS Ruleset ID Registry.

   Ruleset type names for inclusion in the PAWS protocol messages are
   registered on the advice of one or more Designated Experts, with
   Specification Required [RFC5226].  The specification must only accept registry updates from include a
   reference to the regulatory rules to which it applies.  To increase
   interoperability, it is desirable to have fewer rulesets than to have
   many rulesets with small variations.  Consequently, the Designated Expert(s),
   Expert should avoid duplication and should direct all requests encourage the registrant
   to look for alternatives if there are only small variations with an
   existing ruleset.  The Designated Expert should ensure that the
   proposed registration is complete with respect to its associated
   regulatory rules and may seek an expert familar with those rules to
   participate in the review on the paws-iana-review@ietf.org mailing
   list.

9.1.1.  Registration Template
   Parameter

   Ruleset name:  The name of the parameter (e.g., "example").
   Parameter usage location:  The location(s) where ruleset.  It is a string value that
      contains the parameter can be
      used.  The possible locations are name of the named requests, responses,
      and messages defined in Protocol Functionalities (Section 4) regulatory body that established the
      rules and
      Protocol Parameters (Section 5). version information.  The length of the string MUST NOT
      exceed 64 US-ASCII characters.
   Specification document(s):  Reference to the document that specifies
      the parameter, preferably including a URI that can be used to
      retrieve a copy of the document.  An indication of the relevant
      sections also may be included, but is not required.

9.1.2.  Initial Registry Contents

   The
   Additional parameter requirements:  List of additional parameters to
      associate with the ruleset ID and any additional requirements on
      message parameters.  New parameters MUST be registered separately
      in the PAWS Parameters Registry, as described by Section 8.2.

9.1.2.  Initial Registry Contents

   The PAWS Ruleset ID Registry enables protocol extensibility to
   support any regulatory domain and ruleset.  The initial contents of
   the registry, however, include only FCC-specific and ETSI-specific
   entries, because, as of this writing, they are it is the only regulatory
   domains
   domain that have established has finalized rules.  There is no intent to restrict the
   protocol to FCC and ETSI rules.

   The PAWS Parameters Registry's initial contents of the PAWS Ruleset ID Registry are listed
   below; each section corresponds to a single row of in the registry.  The
   PAWS
   Parameters Ruleset ID Registry will include the following fields: 'Parameter 'Ruleset
   name', 'Parameter usage location', 'Additional parameter requirements', and 'Specification
   document(s)'.  IANA will post each registration template that is not
   included in the text of an RFC.

9.1.2.1.  FCC ID

   Parameter name:  fccId
   Parameter usage location:  DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2)
   Specification document(s):  [[ this document ]] Specifies the
      device's FCC certification identifier.  The value is an identifier
      string whose length MUST NOT exceed 32 characters.  Note that, in
      practice, a valid FCC ID may be limited to 19 characters, as
      proposed in FCC Administration Topics Review [FCC-Review-2012-10].

9.1.2.2.  FCC Device Type

   Parameter name:  fccTvbdDeviceType
   Parameter usage location:  DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2)
   Specification document(s):  [[ this document ]] Specifies  Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

   For the TV Band
      White Space device type, as defined by additional parameters that start with the FCC.  Valid values are
      "FIXED", "MODE_1", "MODE_2".

9.1.2.3.  ETSI Device Type
   Parameter name:  etsiEnDeviceType
   Parameter usage location:  DeviceDescriptor "fcc" prefix, see
   PAWS Parameters Registry Initial Contents (Section 5.2) 9.2.2) for more
   information.

   Ruleset name:  FccTvBandWhiteSpace-2010
   Specification document(s):  Specifies  This ruleset refers to the FCC rules for
      TV-band White Space Device type, as
      defined by operations established in the ETSI Harmonised Standard [ETSI-EN-301-598].  Valid
      values are single-letter strings, such as "A", "B", etc.  Consult Code of Federal
      Regulations (CFR), Title 47, Part 15, Subpart H [FCC-CFR47-15H].

   Each of the documentation for details about following tables defines additional parameters for the device types.

9.1.2.4.  ETSI Device Emissions Class

   Parameter name:  etsiEnDeviceEmissionsClass
   indicated PAWS message.

                Available Spectrum Request (Section 4.4.1)

   +---------------+-----------------------------+-------------+-------+
   | Parameter usage location:     | Type                        | Requirement | Notes |
   | Name          |                             |             |       |
   +---------------+-----------------------------+-------------+-------+
   | deviceDesc    | DeviceDescriptor            | REQUIRED    |       |
   |               | (Section 5.2)
   Specification document(s):  Specifies the White Space Device
      emissions class, as defined by the ETSI Harmonised Standard
      [ETSI-EN-301-598], that characterises the out-of-block emissions
      of the device.  The values are represented by numeric strings,
      such as "1", "2", "3", etc.  Consult the documentation for details
      about emissions classes

9.1.2.5.  ETSI Technology Identifier

   Parameter name:  etsiEnTechnologyId               |             |       |
   +---------------+-----------------------------+-------------+-------+

             Available Spectrum Batch Request (Section 4.4.3)

   +---------------+-----------------------------+-------------+-------+
   | Parameter usage location:     | Type                        | Requirement | Notes |
   | Name          |                             |             |       |
   +---------------+-----------------------------+-------------+-------+
   | deviceDesc    | DeviceDescriptor            | REQUIRED    |       |
   |               | (Section 5.2)               |             |       |
   +---------------+-----------------------------+-------------+-------+

                      DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2)
   Specification document(s):

   +-------------------+--------+-------------+------------------------+
   | Parameter Name    | Type   | Requirement | Notes                  |
   +-------------------+--------+-------------+------------------------+
   | fccId             | string | REQUIRED    | Specifies the White Space Device
      technology identifier, as defined by the ETSI Harmonised Standard
      [ETSI-EN-301-598].  The a device's   |
   |                   |        |             | FCC certification ID   |
   |                   |        |             | (Section 9.2.2.1).     |
   | fccTvbdDeviceType | string value MUST NOT exceed 64 characters
      in length.  Consult | REQUIRED    | Specifies the documentation for valid values.

9.1.2.6.  ETSI FCC      |
   |                   |        |             | Device Category

   Parameter name:  etsiEnDeviceCategory
   Parameter usage location:  DeviceDescriptor Type            |
   |                   |        |             | (Section 5.2)
   Specification document(s):  Specifies the 9.2.2.2) of   |
   |                   |        |             | TV-band White Space Device
      category,    |
   |                   |        |             | device, as defined by  |
   |                   |        |             | the ETSI Harmonised Standard
      [ETSI-EN-301-598].  Valid values are FCC rules.         |
   +-------------------+--------+-------------+------------------------+

   The following table lists additional requirements on parameters of
   the strings, "master" and
      "slave".  It is case insensitive.

9.1.2.7.  ETSI Simultaneous Channel Operation Restriction

   Parameter name:  etsiEnSimultaneousChannelOperationRestriction
   Parameter usage location:  SpectrumSpec DeviceOwner (Section 5.9)
   Specification document(s):  Specifies 5.5) message.

                         DeviceOwner (Section 5.5)

   +-----------+-------+-----------------------------------------------+
   | Parameter | Type  | Additional Requirement                        |
   | Name      |       |                                               |
   +-----------+-------+-----------------------------------------------+
   | owner     | vCard | The owner MUST contain the constraint on formatted name of  |
   |           |       | an individual or organization using the device
      maximum total EIRP, as defined by "fn"  |
   |           |       | property. When the ETSI Harmonised Standard
      [ETSI-EN-301-598]. name is that of an         |
   |           |       | organization, the entry also MUST contain the |
   |           |       | "kind" property, with a value of "org".       |
   | operator  | vCard | The values are represented by numeric strings,
      such as "0", "1", etc.  Consult operator entry MUST contain the documentation following |
   |           |       | properties for the
      specification of contact person responsible |
   |           |       | for the power constraint corresponding to each
      parameter value.

9.2. device's operation: "fn", "adr",      |
   |           |       | "tel", and "email".                           |
   +-----------+-------+-----------------------------------------------+

9.1.2.2.  European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)

   For the additional parameters that start with the "etsi" prefix, see
   PAWS Ruleset ID Parameters Registry Initial Contents (Section 9.2.2) for more
   information.

   Ruleset name:  ETSI-EN-301-598-1.0.9-draft
   Specification document(s):  This specification establishes ruleset refers to the PAWS Ruleset ID Registry.

   Ruleset type names ETSI
      Harmonised Standard [ETSI-EN-301-598] established by ETSI.

   Each of the following tables defines additional parameters for inclusion in the
   indicated PAWS protocol messages are
   registered through the Specification Required [RFC5226] process,
   after a two-week review period on message.

                      DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2)

   +-------------------------+-------+-------------+-------------------+
   | Parameter Name          | Type  | Requirement | Notes             |
   +-------------------------+-------+-------------+-------------------+
   | manufacturerId          | strin | REQUIRED    | Specifies a       |
   |                         | g     |             | device's          |
   |                         |       |             | manufacturer's    |
   |                         |       |             | identifier. MUST  |
   |                         |       |             | NOT exceed 64     |
   |                         |       |             | octets.           |
   | modelId                 | strin | REQUIRED    | Specifies a       |
   |                         | g     |             | device's model    |
   |                         |       |             | identifier. MUST  |
   |                         |       |             | NOT exceed 64     |
   |                         |       |             | octets.           |
   | etsiEnDeviceType        | strin | REQUIRED    | Specifies the paws-iana-review@ietf.org
   mailing list, on     |
   |                         | g     |             | device's ETSI     |
   |                         |       |             | device type       |
   |                         |       |             | (Section 9.2.2.3) |
   |                         |       |             | .                 |
   | etsiEnDeviceEmissionsCl | strin | REQUIRED    | Specifies the advice of one or more Designated Experts.  To
   allow for     |
   | ass                     | g     |             | device's ETSI     |
   |                         |       |             | device emissions  |
   |                         |       |             | class             |
   |                         |       |             | (Section 9.2.2.4) |
   |                         |       |             | .                 |
   | etsiEnTechnologyId      | strin | REQUIRED    | Specifies the allocation of values prior to publication,     |
   |                         | g     |             | device's ETSI     |
   |                         |       |             | technology ID     |
   |                         |       |             | (Section 9.2.2.5) |
   |                         |       |             | .                 |
   | etsiEnDeviceCategory    | strin | REQUIRED    | Specifies the
   Designated Expert(s) may approve registration once they are satisfied
   that such a specification will be published.

   Registration requests must be sent to     |
   |                         | g     |             | device's ETSI     |
   |                         |       |             | device category   |
   |                         |       |             | (Section 9.2.2.6) |
   |                         |       |             | .                 |
   +-------------------------+-------+-------------+-------------------+

                    AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ (Section 4.4.1)

   +-------------+--------+-------------+------------------------------+
   | Parameter   | Type   | Requirement | Notes                        |
   | Name        |        |             |                              |
   +-------------+--------+-------------+------------------------------+
   | requestType | string | OPTIONAL    | Modifies the paws-iana-review@ietf.org
   mailing list for review                 |
   |             |        |             | available-spectrum request   |
   |             |        |             | type. If specified, the only |
   |             |        |             | valid value is, "Generic     |
   |             |        |             | Slave", and comment, the Database     |
   |             |        |             | MUST respond with an appropriate subject
   (e.g., "Request generic    |
   |             |        |             | operating parameters for parameter: example").

   Within the review period, the Designated Expert(s) will either
   approve or deny the registration request, communicating this decision
   to the review list and IANA.  Denials should include an explanation
   and, if applicable, suggestions as to how to make any |
   |             |        |             | Slave Device.                |
   +-------------+--------+-------------+------------------------------+

             Available Spectrum Batch Request (Section 4.4.3)

   +-------------+--------+-------------+------------------------------+
   | Parameter   | Type   | Requirement | Notes                        |
   | Name        |        |             |                              |
   +-------------+--------+-------------+------------------------------+
   | requestType | string | OPTIONAL    | Modifies the                 |
   |             |        |             | available-spectrum request
   successful.

   IANA must only accept registry updates from   |
   |             |        |             | type. If specified, the Designated Expert(s), only |
   |             |        |             | valid value is, "Generic     |
   |             |        |             | Slave", and should direct all requests for registration to the review mailing
   list.

9.2.1.  Registration Template

   Ruleset name:  The name of the ruleset.  The length of the string Database     |
   |             |        |             | MUST NOT exceed 64 characters.
   Additional parameter requirements:  List of additional parameters to
      associate respond with the ruleset ID and any additional requirements on
      message parameters.  New generic    |
   |             |        |             | operating parameters MUST be registered separately
      in the PAWS Parameters Registry, as described by Section 8.1.
   Specification document(s):  Reference to the document that specifies
      the parameter, preferably including a URI that can be used to
      retrieve a copy of the document.  An indication of the relevant
      sections also may be included, but is not required.

9.2.2.  Initial Registry Contents

   The PAWS Ruleset ID Registry enables protocol extensibility to
   support for any regulatory domain and ruleset.  The initial contents of
   the registry, however, include only FCC-specific and ETSI-specific
   entries, because, as of this writing, it is the only regulatory
   domain that has finalized rules.  There is no intent to restrict the
   protocol to FCC rules.

   The initial contents of the PAWS Ruleset ID Registry are listed
   below; each section corresponds to a single row in the registry. |
   |             |        |             | Slave Device.                |
   +-------------+--------+-------------+------------------------------+

   The
   PAWS Ruleset ID Registry will include the following fields: 'Ruleset
   name', 'Additional parameter requirements', tables define additional requirements for the
   DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) and 'Specification
   document(s)'.  IANA will post each registration template RulesetInfo (Section 5.6)
   parameters that is not
   included appear in the text of AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP (Section 4.4.2) and
   AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP (Section 4.4.4) messages.

                      DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2)

   +--------------------------------+-------+----------+---------------+
   | Parameter Name                 | Type  | Requirem | Notes         |
   |                                |       | ent      |               |
   +--------------------------------+-------+----------+---------------+
   | needsSpectrumReport            | boole | REQUIRED | The Database  |
   |                                | an RFC.

9.2.2.1.  Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

   For the additional parameters    |          | MUST set this |
   |                                |       |          | to true to    |
   |                                |       |          | indicate that start with |
   |                                |       |          | the "fcc" prefix, see Device    |
   |                                |       |          | must report   |
   |                                |       |          | spectrum      |
   |                                |       |          | usage.        |
   | maxTotalBwHz                   | float | REQUIRED | Specifies a   |
   |                                |       |          | constraint on |
   |                                |       |          | total allowed |
   |                                |       |          | bandwidth.    |
   | maxContiguousBwHz              | float | REQUIRED | Specifies a   |
   |                                |       |          | constraint on |
   |                                |       |          | total allowed |
   |                                |       |          | contiguous    |
   |                                |       |          | bandwidth.    |
   | etsiEnSimultaneousChannelOpera | strin | OPTIONAL | Specifies a   |
   | tionRestriction                | g     |          | constraint on |
   |                                |       |          | simultaneous  |
   |                                |       |          | channel       |
   |                                |       |          | operation     |
   |                                |       |          | (Section 9.2. |
   |                                |       |          | 2.7). If it   |
   |                                |       |          | is not        |
   |                                |       |          | provided, the |
   |                                |       |          | default value |
   |                                |       |          | is "0".       |
   +--------------------------------+-------+----------+---------------+

                         RulesetInfo (Section 5.6)

   +-------------------+-------+-------------+-------------------------+
   | Parameter Name    | Type  | Requirement | Notes                   |
   +-------------------+-------+-------------+-------------------------+
   | maxLocationChange | float | OPTIONAL    | Specifies a constraint  |
   |                   |       |             | on maximum location     |
   |                   |       |             | changes.                |
   +-------------------+-------+-------------+-------------------------+

9.2.  PAWS Parameters Registry Initial Contents (Section 9.1.2) for more
   information.

   Ruleset name:  FccTvBandWhiteSpace-2010

   This specification establishes the PAWS Parameters Registry.

   Additional parameter requirements:
      deviceDesc:  The DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) parameter is
         REQUIRED parameters for Available Spectrum Request (Section 4.4.1) and
         Available Spectrum Batch Request (Section 4.4.3).
      fccId:  Specifies a device's FCC certification ID.  It is a
         REQUIRED parameter inclusion in DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2).
      fccTvbdDeviceType:  Specifies the type of TV-band White Space
         device, as defined by PAWS protocol requests,
   responses, or sub-messages are registered on the FCC rules.  It is advice of one or
   more Designated Experts, with Specification Required [RFC5226].

   The Designated Expert should avoid duplication, i.e., avoid adding a REQUIRED
   new parameter in DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2).

      Additional DeviceOwner (Section 5.5) requirements:
      owner:  The owner vCard [RFC6350] entry MUST include the formatted
         name of when an individual or organization using the "fn" property. existing one suffices.  When the name a set of
   parameters is that added in support of an organization, the entry also MUST
         include a new ruleset (Section 9.1), the "kind" property, with
   parameters should share a value common prefix that reflects the ruleset ID.
   The prefix may be omitted, of "org".
      operator: course, if a parameter has more general
   applicability.

9.2.1.  Registration Template

   Parameter name:  The operator vCard [RFC6350] entry MUST include the
         following properties:
         fn:  Formatted name of a contact person responsible for the
            device's operation.
         adr:  Address for the contact person.
         tel:  Phone number for parameter (e.g., "example").
   Parameter usage location:  The location(s) where the contact person.
         email:  E-mail address for parameter can be
      used.  The possible locations are the contact person. named requests, responses,
      and messages defined in Protocol Functionalities (Section 4) and
      Protocol Parameters (Section 5).
   Specification document(s):  This ruleset refers  Reference to the FCC rules for
      TV-band White Space operations established in document that specifies
      the Code parameter, preferably including a URI that can be used to
      retrieve a copy of Federal
      Regulations (CFR), Title 47, Part 15, Subpart H [FCC-CFR47-15H].

9.2.2.2.  European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)

   For the additional parameters that start with document.  An indication of the "etsi" prefix, see relevant
      sections also may be included, but is not required.

9.2.2.  Initial Registry Contents

   The PAWS Parameters Registry Initial Contents (Section 9.1.2) for more
   information.

   Ruleset name:  ETSI-EN-301-598-1.0.9-draft
   Additional parameter requirements:
      manufacturerId:  Specifies a device's manufacturer's identifier.
         It is a REQUIRED parameter in DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2).
      modelId:  Specifies a device's model identifier.  It is a REQUIRED
         parameter in DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2).
      etsiEnDeviceType:  Specifies enables protocol extensibility to
   support any regulatory domain and ruleset.  The initial contents of
   the device's ETSI device type.  It registry, however, include only FCC-specific and ETSI-specific
   entries, because, as of this writing, they are the only regulatory
   domains that have established rules.  There is
         a REQUIRED parameter in DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2).
      etsiEnDeviceEmissionsClass:  Specifies no intent to restrict
   the device's protocol to FCC and ETSI device
         emissions class.  It is rules.

   The PAWS Parameters Registry's initial contents are listed below;
   each section corresponds to a REQUIRED parameter in
         DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2).
      etsiEnTechnologyId:  Specifies row of the device's ETSI technology ID.
         It registry.  The PAWS
   Parameters Registry will include the following fields: 'Parameter
   name', 'Parameter usage location', and 'Specification document(s)'.
   IANA will post each registration template that is a REQUIRED parameter not included in the
   text of an RFC.

9.2.2.1.  FCC ID
   Parameter name:  fccId
   Parameter usage location:  DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2).
      etsiEnDeviceCategory: 5.2)
   Specification document(s):  [[ this document ]] Specifies the
      device's ETSI device
         category.  It is a REQUIRED parameter in DeviceDescriptor
         (Section 5.2).
      requestType:  Modifies the available-spectrum request type.  It FCC certification identifier.  The value is an OPTIONAL parameter identifier
      string whose length MUST NOT exceed 32 US-ASCII characters.  Note
      that, in the AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ (Section 4.4.1)
         and AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ (Section 4.4.3) messages.  If
         specified, the only practice, a valid value is, "Generic Slave", and the
         Database MUST respond with generic operating parameters for any
         Slave Device.
      needsSpectrumReport  The Database MUST set this FCC ID may be limited to true 19 characters,
      as proposed in the
         SpectrumSpec FCC Administration Topics Review
      [FCC-Review-2012-10].

9.2.2.2.  FCC Device Type

   Parameter name:  fccTvbdDeviceType
   Parameter usage location:  DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.9) parameter of 5.2)
   Specification document(s):  [[ this document ]] Specifies the AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP
         (Section 4.4.2) and AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP (Section 4.4.4)
         messages to indicate that TV Band
      White Space device type, as defined by the FCC.  Valid values are
      "FIXED", "MODE_1", "MODE_2".

9.2.2.3.  ETSI Device must report spectrum
         usage.
      maxTotalBwHz: Type

   Parameter name:  etsiEnDeviceType
   Parameter usage location:  DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2)
   Specification document(s):  Specifies a constraint on total allowed bandwidth.
         It is a REQUIRED field in the SpectrumSpec (Section 5.9)
         parameter of White Space Device type, as
      defined by the AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP (Section 4.4.2) and
         AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP (Section 4.4.4) messages.
      maxContiguousBwHz:  Specifies a constraint on total allowed
         contiguous bandwidth.  It is a REQUIRED field in ETSI Harmonised Standard [ETSI-EN-301-598].  Valid
      values are single-letter strings, such as "A", "B", etc.  Consult
      the
         SpectrumSpec (Section 5.9) parameter of documentation for details about the AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP
         (Section 4.4.2) and AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP device types.

9.2.2.4.  ETSI Device Emissions Class

   Parameter name:  etsiEnDeviceEmissionsClass
   Parameter usage location:  DeviceDescriptor (Section 4.4.4)
         messages.
      etsiEnSimultaneousChannelOperationRestriction: 5.2)
   Specification document(s):  Specifies a
         constraint on simultaneous channel operation.  The Database MAY
         include this field within the SpectrumSpec (Section 5.9)
         parameter White Space Device
      emissions class, as defined by the ETSI Harmonised Standard
      [ETSI-EN-301-598], that characterises the out-of-block emissions
      of the AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP (Section 4.4.2) and
         AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP device.  The values are represented by numeric strings,
      such as "1", "2", "3", etc.  Consult the documentation for details
      about emissions classes

9.2.2.5.  ETSI Technology Identifier

   Parameter name:  etsiEnTechnologyId
   Parameter usage location:  DeviceDescriptor (Section 4.4.4) messages.  If it is
         not provided, 5.2)
   Specification document(s):  Specifies the White Space Device MUST assume
      technology identifier, as defined by the ETSI Harmonised Standard
      [ETSI-EN-301-598].  The string value of "0".  If it
         is provided, the Device MUST NOT ignore it.
      maxLocationChange:  Specifies a constraint on maximum location
         changes.  It is a REQUIRED field exceed 64 octets in
      length.  Consult the RulesetInfo documentation for valid values.

9.2.2.6.  ETSI Device Category

   Parameter name:  etsiEnDeviceCategory
   Parameter usage location:  DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.6) parameter included 5.2)
   Specification document(s):  Specifies the White Space Device
      category, as part of defined by the
         AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP (Section 4.4.2) ETSI Harmonised Standard
      [ETSI-EN-301-598].  Valid values are the strings, "master" and
         AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP
      "slave".  It is case insensitive.

9.2.2.7.  ETSI Simultaneous Channel Operation Restriction

   Parameter name:  etsiEnSimultaneousChannelOperationRestriction
   Parameter usage location:  SpectrumSpec (Section 4.4.4) messages. 5.9)
   Specification document(s):  This ruleset refers to  Specifies the constraint on the device
      maximum total EIRP, as defined by the ETSI Harmonised Standard [ETSI-EN-301-598] established
      [ETSI-EN-301-598].  The values are represented by ETSI. numeric strings,
      such as "0", "1", etc.  Consult the documentation for the
      specification of the power constraint corresponding to each
      parameter value.

9.3.  PAWS Error Code Registry

   This specification establishes the PAWS Error Code Registry.

   Additional error codes for inclusion in the PAWS protocol error
   message are registered through the Specification Required [RFC5226]
   process, after a two-week review period on the
   paws-iana-review@ietf.org mailing list, PAWS protocol error
   message are registered on the advice of one or more Designated Experts.  To allow for the allocation of values prior
   Experts, with Specification Required [RFC5226].

   Error codes are intended to
   publication, be used for automated error handling by
   devices.  Before approval, the Designated Expert(s) may approve registration once
   they are satisfied that such Expert should consider
   whether a specification will be published.

   Registration requests must be sent to device would handle the paws-iana-review@ietf.org
   mailing list for review and comment, with new error code differently from an appropriate subject
   (e.g., "Request for parameter: example").

   Within the review period, the Designated Expert(s) will either
   approve
   existing error code, or deny the registration request, communicating this decision
   to whether the review list and IANA.  Denials should include an explanation
   and, if applicable, suggestions as to how difference could be communicated
   effectively to make the request
   successful.

   IANA must only accept registry updates from end-user via the Designated Expert(s),
   and should direct all requests for registration to "reason" parameter of the review mailing
   list. Error
   (Section 5.17) object.

9.3.1.  Registration Template

   Code:  Integer value of the error code.  The value MUST be an
      unassigned value in the range -32768 to 32767, inclusive.
   Name:  Name of the error.
   Description:  Description of the error and its associated parameters,
      if any.
   Additional parameters:  Additional parameters that are returned in
      the data portion of the error (See Section 5.17).  New parameters
      MUST be registered separately in the PAWS Parameters Registry, as
      described by Section 9.1. 9.2.

9.3.2.  Initial Registry Contents

   Initial registry contents are defined in the Table of Error Codes
   (Table 1).  Note that the third column, "Description & Additional
   parameters", contains both the description of the error code and the
   specification of additional parameters, when applicable.

   The PAWS Error Code Registry will include the following fields:
   'Code', 'Name', 'Description', and 'Additional parameters'.  The
   registry will also include the error-code categories describing
   -100s, -200s, and -300s as a note (see Error Codes (Section 5.17)).
   IANA will post each registration template that is not included in the
   text of an RFC.

10.  Security Considerations

   PAWS is a protocol whereby a Master Device requests a schedule of
   available spectrum at its location (or location of its Slave Devices)
   before it (they) can operate using those frequencies.  Whereas the
   information provided by the Database must be accurate and conform to
   the applicable regulatory rules, ruleset, the Database cannot enforce, through the
   protocol, that a client device uses only the spectrum it provided.
   In other words, devices can put energy in the air and cause
   interference without asking the Database.  Hence, PAWS security
   considerations do not include protection against malicious use of the
   White Space spectrum.  For more detailed information on specific
   requirements and security considerations associated with PAWS, see
   Protocol to Access White Space database: PAWS Use Cases and
   Requirements [RFC6953].

   By using the PAWS protocol, the Master Device and the Database expose
   themselves to the following risks:
   o  Accuracy: The Master Device receives incorrect spectrum-
      availability information.
   o  Privacy: An unauthorized entity intercepts identifying data for
      the Master Device or its Slave Devices, such as serial number and
      location.

   Protection from these risks depends on the success of the following
   steps:

   1.  The Master Device must determine the address of a proper
       database.
   2.  The Master Device must connect to the proper database.
   3.  The Database must determine or compute accurate spectrum-
       availability information.

   4.  PAWS messages must be transmitted unmodified between the Database
       and the Master Device.
   5.  PAWS messages must be encrypted between the Database and the
       Master Device to prevent exposing private information.
   6.  For a Slave Device, the spectrum-availability information also
       must be transmitted unmodified and secure between the Master
       Device and the Slave Device.
   Of these, only steps 1, 2, 4, and 5 are within the scope of this
   document.  This document addresses Step 1 by allowing static
   provisioning of one or more trusted Databases; dynamic provisioning
   is out of scope.  Step 3 is dependent on specific database
   implementations and regulatory rules rulesets and is outside the scope of this
   document.  Step 6 requires a protocol between master and slave
   devices and is thus outside the scope of this document.

10.1.  Assurance of Proper Database

   This document assumes that the Database is contacted using a domain
   name or an IP address.  Using HTTP over TLS HTTP Over TLS [RFC2818],
   the Database authenticates its identity, either as a domain name or
   IP address, to the Master Device by presenting a certificate
   containing that identifier as a "subjectAltName" (i.e., as a dNSName
   or IP address).  If the Master Device has external information as to
   the expected identity or credentials of the proper database (e.g., a
   certificate fingerprint), these checks MAY be omitted.  Note that in
   order for the presented certificate to be valid at the client, the
   client must be able to validate the certificate.  In particular, the
   validation path of the certificate must end in one of the client's
   trust anchors, even if that trust anchor is the Database certificate
   itself.  A Master Device should allow for the fact that a Database
   can change its certificate authorities (CAs) over time.

10.2.  Protection Against Modification

   To prevent a PAWS response message from being modified en route,
   messages must be transmitted over an integrity-protected channel.
   Using HTTP over TLS, the channel will be protected by appropriate
   cypher suites.

10.3.  Protection Against Eavesdropping

   Using HTTP over TLS, messages protected by appropriate cypher suites
   are also protected from eavesdropping or otherwise access by
   unauthorized parties en route.

10.4.  Client Authentication Considerations

   Although the Database can inform a device of available spectrum it
   can use, the Database cannot enforce that the Master Device uses any/
   only those frequencies.  Indeed, a malicious device can operate
   without ever contacting a database.  Consequently, client
   authentication is not required for the core PAWS protocol (although
   it may be required by specific regulators). regulatory domains).  Depending on a
   prior relationship between a Database and Master Device, the Database
   MAY require client authentication.  TLS provides client
   authentication, but there are some considerations:

   o  As indicated in Section 3.2 of HTTP Over TLS [RFC2818], the TLS
      client authentication procedure only determines that the device
      has a certificate chain rooted in an appropriate CA (or a self-
      signed certificate).  The database would not know what the client
      identity ought to be, unless it has some external source of
      information.  Distribution and management of such information,
      including revocation lists, are outside the scope of this
      document.
   o  Authentication schemes are secure only to the extent that secrets
      or certificates are kept secure.  When there are a vast number of
      deployed devices using PAWS, the possibility that device keys will
      not leak becomes small.  Implementations should consider how to
      manage the system in the eventuality that there is a leak.

11.  Contributors

   This document draws heavily from the following Internet Draft
   documents, [I-D.das-paws-protocol] and [I-D.wei-paws-framework].  The
   editor would like to specifically call out and thank the contributing
   authors of these two documents.

      Donald Joslyn
      Spectrum Bridge Inc.
      1064 Greenwood Blvd.
      Lake Mary, FL  32746
      U.S.A.
      Email: d.joslyn at spectrumbridge dot com

      Xinpeng Wei
      Huawei
      Phone: +86 13436822355
      Email: weixinpeng@huawei.com

12.  Acknowledgments

   The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of: Gabor Bajko,
   Ray Bellis, Teco Boot, Nancy Bravin, Rex Buddenberg, Gerald
   Chouinard, Stephen Farrell, Michael Fitch, Joel M. Halpern, Daniel
   Harasty, Michael Head, Jussi Kahtava, Warren Kumari, Kalle Kulsmanen,
   Paul Lambert, Andy Lee, Anthony Mancuso, Basavaraj Patil, Scott
   Probasco, Brian Rosen, Andy Sago, Peter Stanforth, John Stine, and
   Juan Carlos Zuniga.

13.  References

13.1.  Normative References

   [ITUT.X520.2008]
              International Telecommunication Union, "ITU-T
              Recommendation X.520: Information technology - Open
              Systems Interconnection - The Directory: Selected
              attribute types", November 2008,
              <http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-X.520-200811-I>.

   [JSON-RPC]
              "JSON-RPC 2.0 Specification",
              <http://www.jsonrpc.org/specification>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2616]  Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
              Masinter, L., Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1", RFC 2616, June 1999.

   [RFC2818]  Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, May 2000.

   [RFC3339]  Klyne, G., Ed. and C. Newman, "Date and Time on the
              Internet: Timestamps", RFC 3339, July 2002.

   [RFC5077]  Salowey, J., Zhou, H., Eronen, P., and H. Tschofenig,
              "Transport Layer Security (TLS) Session Resumption without
              Server-Side State", RFC 5077, January 2008.

   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              May 2008.

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008.

   [RFC5491]  Winterbottom, J., Thomson, M., and H. Tschofenig, "GEOPRIV
              Presence Information Data Format Location Object (PIDF-LO)
              Usage Clarification, Considerations, and Recommendations",
              RFC 5491, March 2009.

   [RFC6350]  Perreault, S., "vCard Format Specification", RFC 6350,
              August 2011.

   [RFC7095]  Kewisch, P., "jCard: The JSON Format for vCard", RFC 7095,
              January 2014.

   [RFC7159]  Bray, T., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
              Interchange Format", RFC 7159, March 2014.

13.2.  Informative References

   [ETSI-EN-301-598]
              European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI),
              "Final draft ETSI EN 301 598 (V1.0.9): White Space Devices
              (WSD); Wireless Access Systems operating in the 470 MHz to
              790 MHz frequency band; Harmonized EN covering the
              essential requirements of article 3.2 of the R&TTE
              Directive", February 2014, <http://www.etsi.org/deliver/
              etsi_en/301500_301599/301598/01.00.09_30/
              en_301598v010009v.pdf>.

   [FCC-CFR47-15H]
              U. S. Government, "Electronic Code of Federal Regulations,
              Title 47, Part 15, Subpart H: Television Band Devices",
              December 2010, <http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/
              text-idx?rgn=div6&view=text&node=47:1.0.1.1.16.8>.

   [FCC-Review-2012-10]
              Federal Communications Commission, "Administration Topics
              Review", October 2012, <http://transition.fcc.gov/bureaus/
              oet/ea/presentations/files/oct12/
              2b-TCB-Admin-Issues-Oct-2012-GT.pdf>.

   [I-D.das-paws-protocol]
              Das, S., Malyar, J., and D. Joslyn, "Device to Database
              Protocol for White Space", draft-das-paws-protocol-02
              (work in progress), July 2012.

   [I-D.wei-paws-framework]
              Wei, X., Zhu, L., and P. McCann, "PAWS Framework",
              draft-wei-paws-framework-00 (work in progress), July 2012.

   [I-D.zyp-json-schema]
              Galiegue, F., Zyp, K., and G. Court, "JSON Schema: core
              definitions and terminology", draft-zyp-json-schema-04
              (work in progress), January 2013.

   [ISO3166-1]
              "Country Codes",
              <http://www.iso.org/iso/country_codes.htm>.

   [JSON-RPC]
              "JSON-RPC 2.0 Specification",
              <http://www.jsonrpc.org/specification>.

   [RFC2818]  Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, May 2000.

   [ITUT.X520.2008]
              International Telecommunication Union, "ITU-T
              Recommendation X.520: Information technology - Open
              Systems Interconnection - The Directory: Selected
              attribute types", November 2008,
              <http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-X.520-200811-I>.

   [RFC6953]  Mancuso, A., Probasco, S., and B. Patil, "Protocol to
              Access White-Space (PAWS) Databases: Use Cases and
              Requirements", RFC 6953, May 2013.

   [WGS-84]   National Imagery and Mapping Agency, "Department of
              Defense World Geodetic System 1984, Its Definition and
              Relationships with Local Geodetic Systems, NIMA TR8350.2
              Third Edition Amendment 1", January 2000, <http://
              earth-info.nga.mil/GandG/publications/tr8350.2/
              tr8350_2.html>.

Appendix A.  Changes / Author Notes.

   To be removed before publication

   Changes from 11:

   o  Change "regulatory rules" to "ruleset"
   o  Change "regulatory specifics" to "ruleset specifics"
   o  Change "regulatory-specific" to "ruleset-specific"
   o  Change "regulatory domain" to "ruleset" where appropriate
   o  Replace "depends on regulatory domain" to "optional" in tables
   o  Add "optional" to "*other" in tables
   o  Change "regulators" to "regulatory domains"
   o  Change "REQUIRED" error name to "MISSING"
   o  Changed the IANA instructions and added DE instructions to each
      section
   o  Reformat and reorder IANA sections

   Changes from 10:

   o  Ruleset Name change: ETSI-EN-301-598-1.0.9 and update reference to
      PDF
   o  Add new ETSI parameter:
      etsiEnSimultaneousChannelOperationRestriction
   o  Separate protocol requirements from regulatory requirements

   Changes from 09:

   o  Updated format of the IANA section

   Changes from 08:

   o  Fix JSON typos.
   o  Added note that JSON schema is not intended to be formally
      validated
   o  Finalize paws-iana-review@ietf.org as the email for updating the
      PAWS IANA registries
   o  URLs to URIs
   o  Typo fixes

   Changes from 07:
   o  Propose ruleset ID name for ETSI: ETSI-EN-301-598-1.0.0-draft
   o  Change TBD email address to paws-iana-review@ietf.org for
      proposing changes to the PAWS IANA registries
   o  Moved discussion of required vCard properties to regulatory-
      specific sections
   o  Fixed vCard examples for organization names: Use "fn" property,
      but set "kind" to "org".
   o  Shorten parameter names:
      *  freqHz -> hz
      *  powerDbmPerBw -> dbm

   Changes from 06:
   o  Multi-ruleset support:
      *  Changed RulesetInfo to have single ruleset ID
      *  Changed INIT_RESP to return a list of RulesetInfo parameters,
         rather than a single one
      *  Changed REGISTRATION_RESP to return a list of RulesetInfo
         parameters to indicate the regulatory domains for which
         registration was accepted
      *  Added SpectrumSpec (Section 5.9) parameter to represent
         available-spectrum specification for one regulatory domain,
         allowing AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP and AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP to
         include answers for multiple regulatory domains
      *  Changed GeoSpectrumSchedule to GeoSpectrumSpec (Section 5.15)
         for supporting batch responses to represent available spectrum
         for multiple regulatory domains at a location
   o  To avoid ambiguity or redundant information, clarified that:
      *  Event-time intervals within a single set of schedules MUST be
         disjoint
      *  A single Spectrum element MUST cover the entire range of
         frequencies governed by a ruleset, rather than splitting them
         to present a "channelized" view
   o  Add "ruleset" to Terminology section
   o  Sync Terminology section with Use Case document
   o  Add "masterDeviceDesc" to Device Validate request
   o  Add "masterDeviceLocation" to the AVAIL_SPECTRUM requests and the
      SPECTRUM_NOTIFY message.  Change "location" to be the location of
      the Slave Device, if the request is made by a Master Device on
      behalf of a Slave Device
   o  Update vCard reference and example
   o  Add jsonrpc 2.0 to all sample messages
   o  Clarify that Listing Servers may be preconfigured in a device
   o  Clarify meaning of maximum power levels vs bandwidth, including
      renaming parameter names:
   o
      *  maxPowerDBm -> powerDbmPerBw
      *  bandwidth -> resolutionBwHz
   o  Explicitly allowed generic JSON-RPC error codes as possible codes.
   o  Replace SHALL with MUST for consistency
   o  Replace URI with URL for consistency
   o  Reduce clutter in JSON encoding examples by removing string-
      concatenation characters
   o  Changed "depends" to "depends on regulatory rules" in several
      places

   Changes from 05:
   o  Remove requirement for JSON-RPC 1.0
   o  More typo fixes and clarifications

   Changes from 04:

   o  Add "masterDeviceDesc" parameter to the available-spectrum
      requests to allow both Master and Slave device descriptors when
      the Master is making the request on behalf of a Slave.
   o  Add "requestType" parameter to the available-spectrum requests to
      support requesting generic operating parameters for any Slave
      Device.
   o  Add DbUpdateSpec as optional parameter to all response messages
      and to the error response to allow a Device to detect a database
      change at any stage of the control flow.
   o  For the OUTSIDE_COVERAGE error, added ability to return a list of
      alternate databases
   o  Explicitly allow JSON-RPC v2.0 and v1.0 encodings
   o  Relaxed language that state, "MUST stop operation" to "MUST cease
      use of spectrum under rules for database-managed spectrum".  I.e.,
      the device may have other fallback strategies allowed by
      regulators.

   Changes from 03:

   o  Expanded the Database Discovery mechanism to describe in more
      detail pre-configuration with URLs of databases and database-
      listing servers, including mechanisms for updating the
      configurations when things change
      *  Add database-change field to Available Spectrum Response
         (Section 4.4.2)
   o  Added fields that are anticipated to be needed by the ETSI
      harmonized standard for White Space Devices:
      *  Added bandwidth constraints to the Available Spectrum Response
         (Section 4.4.2)
      *  Updated Available Spectrum Response to return RulesetInfo,
         rather than just a ruleset identifier
      *  Added optional device-manufacturer and device-model IDs to the
         DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) message.  Also moved fccId from
         this message to the IANA section.
      *  Expanded IANA (Section 9) sections
   o  Clarified restrictions on the specification of the vertices of a
      Polygon.
   o  Changed default confidence level to 95% for a point with
      uncertainty
   o  Clarified how devices without absolute time source can use the
      timestamps in the response messages
   o  Change method names to start with "spectrum.paws." prefix
   o  Added maximum string lengths
   o  Updated author contact info
   o  More typo fixes

   Changes from 02:

   o  Added timestamp to the AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP (Section 4.4.2) and
      AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP (Section 4.4.4) data models to serve as
      a reference for the event times in the response.  This was
      accidentally omitted (but was specified in their JSON encodings
      (Section 6)).
   o  Fixed typos throughout the JSON encoding (Section 6) sections,
      typically adding missing commas.

   Changed from 01:

   o  Added a description of message sequences to support multiple
      rulesets and multiple jurisdictions Section 3.1.
   o  Modified DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) to add rulesetIds
      parameter
   o  Modified RulesetInfo (Section 5.6), AvailableSpectrumResponse
      (Section 4.4.2) to add rulesetId parameter.
   o  Add Extensibility (Section 8) section.

   o  Filled in IANA (Section 9) section.
   o  Removed blank Example Messages section

   Changes from 00:
   o  Add JSON encoding
   o  Adopt RFC5491 for GeoLocation
   o  Adopt vCard for contact information
   o  Add Response Code section and update text referencing the defined
      response codes
   o  Change DeviceIdentifier to be DeviceDescriptor, allowing
      identifiers and device-characteristic fields to be included.

Authors' Addresses

   Vincent Chen (editor)
   Google
   1600 Amphitheatre Parkway
   Mountain View, CA  94043
   US

   Email: vchen@google.com

   Subir Das
   Applied Communication Sciences
   150 Mount Airy Road
   Basking Ridge, NJ  07920
   U.S.A.

   Phone:
   Fax:
   Email: sdas at appcomsci dot com
   URI:

   Lei Zhu
   Huawei

   Phone: +86 13910157020
   Fax:
   Email: lei.zhu@huawei.com
   URI:

   John Malyar
   iconectiv (formerly Telcordia Interconnection Solutions)
   444 Hoes Lane/RRC 4E1106
   Piscataway, NJ  08854
   U.S.A.

   Phone:
   Fax:
   Email: jmalyar at iconectiv dot com
   URI:

   Peter J. McCann
   Huawei
   400 Crossing Blvd, 2nd Floor
   Bridgewater, NJ  08807
   USA

   Phone: +1 908 541 3563
   Fax:
   Email: peter.mccann@huawei.com
   URI: