Working Group PAYLOAD                                          C. Hoene
Internet Draft                                            Symonics GmbH
Intended status: Standards Track                             F. de Bont
Expires: February September 2014                             Philips Electronics
                                                        August 26, 2013
                                                          March 3, 2014

            RTP Payload Format for Bluetooth's SBC Audio Codec

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   This document specifies a Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) payload
   format to be used for the low complexity subband codec (SBC), which
   is the mandatory audio codec of the Advanced Audio Distribution
   Profile (A2DP) Specification written by the Bluetooth(r) Special
   Interest Group (SIG). The payload format is designed to be able to
   interoperate with existing Bluetooth A2DP devices, to provide high
   streaming audio quality, interactive audio transmission over the
   internet, and ultra-low delay coding for jam sessions on the
   internet. This document contains also a media type registration
   which specifies the use of the RTP payload format.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction...................................................3
   2. Conventions used in this Document..............................3
   3. Background.....................................................3
      3.1. SBC Frame Structure.......................................5
      3.2. Frame Header..............................................5
      3.3. Remaining Frame Part......................................8
   4. Usage Scenarios................................................8
      4.1. Scenario 1: Interconnection of A2DP Devices...............8
      4.2. Scenario 2: High Quality Interactive Audio Transmissions..9
      4.3. Scenario 3: Ensembles performing over a Network...........9
   5. Header Usage..................................................10
   6. Payload Format................................................11
   7. Payload Format Parameters.....................................11
      7.1. Media Type Registration for SBC..........................11
         7.1.1. Capabilities: A2DP Modes............................13
         7.1.2. Capabilities: Other Modes...........................14
      7.2. Mapping to SDP Parameters................................14
         7.2.1. Offer-Answer Model Considerations...................15
         7.2.2. Declarative SDP Considerations......................17
   8. Congestion Control............................................17
   9. Packet Loss Concealment.......................................18
   10. Security Considerations......................................18
   11. IANA Considerations..........................................19
   12. References...................................................20
      12.1. Normative References....................................20
      12.2. Informative References..................................20
   13. Acknowledgments..............................................22

1. Introduction

   The Bluetooth(r) Special Interest Group (SIG) specifies in the
   Advanced Audio Distribution Profile (A2DP) [A2DPV12] a mono and
   stereo high quality audio subband codec (SBC). This document
   specifies the payload format for the encapsulation of SBC encoded
   audio frames into the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP).

   SBC has a low computational complexity at modest compression rates.
   Its bit rate can be controlled widely. Recommended operational modes
   range from 127 to 345 kb/s, for mono and stereo audio signals. SBC's
   algorithmic delay can be as low as 16 samples making it ideal for
   ensembles playing music over the network requiring ultra low
   acoustic delays.

2. Conventions used in this Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119 [RFC2119].

   The following acronyms are used in this document:

     A2DP   - Audio Distribution Profile
     AAC    - Advanced Audio Coding
     ATRAC  - Adaptive Transform Acoustic Coding
     DCCP   - Datagram Congestion Control Protocol
     MP3    - MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3
     RFA    - Reserved for Future Additions
     SBC    - SubBand Codec
     SIG    - Special Interest Group

3. Background

   The A2DP specification [A2DPV12] is intended for streaming of music
   content to headphones, headsets, or speakers over Bluetooth wireless
   channels. A2DP supports multiple audio coding including MP3, AAC,
   ATRAC, which are all non-mandatory. To ensure interoperability, the
   SBC codec has been specified, in appendix B of the A2DP
   specification, which shall be included into all A2DP Bluetooth

   SBC is a low complexity subband codec based on earlier work
   presented in [Bon1995] and [Rault1989]. It has a moderate
   compression ratio. The SBC encoder has filter banks splitting the
   audio signal into 4 or 8 subbands. Then the codec decides with how
   many bits each subband is encoded and finally quantizes the subband
   signals blockwise. An SBC frame can have different block sizes. The
   size of a block can be 4, 8, 12 or 16. Both decoder and encoder
   shall support all four block sizes.

   SBC can operate at four different sampling frequencies. The sampling
   frequency can be selected from a set of 16, 32, 44.1, and 48 kHz. It
   is mandatory that each SBC decoder can operate at the frequencies
   44.1 and 48 kHz. Each SBC encoder shall work at least at a sampling
   rate of 44.1 or 48 kHz.

   Four channel modes are supported, which are mono, dual channel,
   stereo, and joint-stereo. The decoder shall support all four of
   them; the encoder shall support mono and at least one additional

   SBC can use four or eight subbands. The decoder shall support both;
   the encoder shall support at least 8 subbands.

   The bit allocation modes of SBC can be either based on signal to
   noise ratio or on loudness. The decoder shall support both modes;
   the encoder shall support at least the loudness mode.

   The SBC encoder reduces one block to a given number of bits. The
   bit-pool variable defines how many bits are used per block. The A2DP
   profile defines the range of valid bit-pool values by providing
   minimum and maximum bit-pool values. The bit-pool values shall range
   from 2 to 250 but shall not be larger than number of subbands times
   16 for the mono and dual and times 32 for the stereo and joint-
   stereo channel modes.

   SBC encoders according to the A2DP profile may be capable of
   changing the bit-pool parameter dynamically during the encoding
   process. For example, algorithms were invented that change the
   number of bits depending on the current acoustic content

   An SBC decoder according to the A2DP profile shall support all
   possible bit-pool values that do not result in excess of maximum bit
   rate, which is 320kb/s for mono and 512kb/s for two-channel modes.
   The encoder is required to support at least one possible bit-pool
   value. The A2DP profile recommends the encoding parameters given in
   Table 1.

   | SBC encoder settings at Medium Quality                     |
   |                                |    Mono     | Joint Stereo|
   | Sampling frequency (kHz)       | 44.1 |  48  | 44.1 |  48  |
   | Bitpool value                  |  19  |  18  |  35  |  33  |
   | Resulting frame length (bytes) |  46  |  44  |  83  |  79  |
   | Resulting bit rate (kb/s)      | 127  | 132  | 229  | 237  |
   | SBC encoder settings at High Quality                       |
   |                                |    Mono     | Joint Stereo|
   | Sampling frequency (kHz)       | 44.1 |  48  | 44.1 |  48  |
   | Bitpool value                  |  31  |  29  |  53  |  51  |
   | Resulting frame length (bytes) |  70  |  66  | 119  | 115  |
   | Resulting bit rate (kb/s)      | 193  | 198  | 328  | 345  |
   + Other settings: Block length = 16, loudness, subbands = 8  |

   Table 1: Recommended sets of SBC parameters in the SRC device as
   given in [A2DPV12]

3.1. SBC Frame Structure

   An SBC frame consists of a frame header, scale factors, audio
   samples, and padding bits. The following diagram shows the general
   SBC frame format layout:

   | frame_header | scale_factors | audio_samples | padding |

   The following sections describe the audio format, which consists of
   bits stored in a bandwidth-efficient, compact mode.

3.2. Frame Header

   The frame header consists of fields defined in [A2DPV12], which are
   fields and a RFA. The layout of the first four bytes of the frame
   header is given in the following table.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
   | SYNCWORD      |SF.|BL.|CM.|A|S|BITPOOL        |CRC_CHECK      |JOIN         |R|


   SYNCWORD (8 bits): The first field is the 8 bit synchronization
             word, which is always set to 156.

   SAMPLING_FREQUENCY (2 bits): The sampling frequency field indicates
             with which sampling frequency the SBC frame has been
             encoded. The table below specifies the corresponding
             sampling frequencies for the bit patterns. The sampling
             frequency MUST NOT be changed without changing the payload
             type, too.

   | SAMPLING_FREQUENCY | sampling       |
   |    bit 0 1         | frequency (Hz) |
   |        0 0         |      16000     |
   |        0 1         |      32000     |
   |        1 0         |      44100     |
   |        1 1         |      48000     |

   BLOCKS (2 bits): It indicates the block size with which the stream
             has been encoded. The block size is selected conforming to
             the table below. The block size MUST NOT be changed
             without changing the payload type, too.

   | BLOCKS  | Number of |
   | bit 0 1 | blocks    |
   |     0 0 |     4     |
   |     0 1 |     8     |
   |     1 0 |    12     |
   |     1 1 |    16     |

   CHANNEL_MODE (2 bits): These two bits indicate with which channel
             mode the frame has been encoded. The number of channels
             depends on this information. The channel mode MUST NOT be
             changed without changing the payload type, too.

   | CHANNEL_MODE | channel mode | number of |
   |    bit 0 1   |              | channels  |
   |        0 0   | MONO         |     1     |
   |        0 1   | DUAL_CHANNEL |     2     |
   |        1 0   | STEREO       |     2     |
   |        1 1   | JOINT_STEREO |     2     |

   ALLOCATION_METHOD (1 bit): This bit indicates how the bit pool is
             allocated to different subbands. Either it is based on the
             loudness of the sub band signal or on the signal to noise
             ratio. The allocation method MUST NOT be changed without
             changing the payload type, too.

   | ALLOCATION_METHOD | allocation |
   |       bit 0       | method     |
   |           0       |  LOUDNESS  |
   |           1       |     SNR    |

   SUBBANDS (1 bit): This bit indicates the number of subbands with
             which the frame has been encoded. The number of subband
             MUST NOT be changed without changing the payload type,

   | SUBBANDS | number of |
   |   bit 0  | subbands  |
   |       0  |      4    |
   |       1  |      8    |

   BITPOOL (8 bits): This unsigned integer indicates the size of the
             bit allocation pool that has been used for encoding the
             current block. The value of the bit-pool field MUST NOT
             exceed 16 times the number of subbands for the MONO and
             DUAL_CHANNEL channel modes and 32 times the number of
             subbands for the STEREO and JOINT_STEREO channel modes.
             The bitpool value MAY change from SBC frame to the next.
             In addition, the bitpool value MUST be restricted such
             that it does not result in excess of maximum bit rate,
             which is 320kb/s for mono and 512kb/s for two-channel

  The remaining part of the header consists of CRC_CHECK, optionally
  JOIN bit fields, to indicate in which subbands joint stereo has been
  used, and a RFA bit.

3.3. Remaining Frame Part

   The remaining part of the frame includes scale factors and audio
   sample data, which are processed by the codec as described in

4. Usage Scenarios

   As compared to many other encoding schemes, the SBC codec is general
   enough to support multiple, quite diverse usage scenarios. Thus, it
   might be required to change the behavior of the encoding and
   transmission to achieve a good performance for a given usage
   scenario. Thus, three main scenarios are listed and their quality
   requirements and impact on encoding and transmission are described.

4.1. Scenario 1: Interconnection of A2DP Devices

   This scenario is intended for interconnecting Bluetooth A2DP
   devices. RTP frames generated by an A2DP device can be transmitted
   directly via this RTP profile. Vice versa, an A2DP device should be
   able to receive the RTP profile by default. Thus, the payload format
   describe in this RFC MUST be fully interoperable with any A2DP

   The transmission between two A2DP devices has a constant frame rate
   with a sender-controlled bit rate. It is not anticipated that the
   transmission is adapted to congestion and bandwidth variation.

4.2. Scenario 2: High Quality Interactive Audio Transmissions

   In the second scenario a telephone call is considered having a very
   good audio quality at modest acoustic one-way latencies ranging from
   50 and 150 ms [ITUG107], so that music can be listened over the
   telephone while two persons talk together interactively.

   In addition, the reliability of the audio transmission should be
   high, even in cases of low and varying bandwidth.

   This second scenario assumes that the SBC transmission is used on
   top of a transport protocol that implements a congestion control
   algorithm. Using the SBC encoding, the sampling, bit, and frame
   rates should be controlled to cope with congestion. For example, if
   the available transmission bandwidth is too low to allow SBC to
   transmit audio at a high quality, the application can lower the
   sampling, bit, or frame rate of the stream at the cost of higher
   algorithmic delay or a degraded audio quality. In this case,
   changing the sampling or frame rate may cause a short acoustic
   artifact because SBC's internal filters must be reset.

   The A2DP media format does not allow a dynamic change of the
   encoding parameters beside the bit-pool value. The encoding
   parameters can only be altered with the "Change Parameters"
   procedure, which is defined in [GAVDPV12].  Such a change will cause
   a hearable interruption and thus shall be avoided.

   If an application using RTP wants to switch between different sets
   of encoding parameters, then these set of parameter CAN be either
   negotiate beforehand (as described in Section 7.2.) or an
   renegotiation similar to the "Change Parameters" procedure CAN take
   place. An application MUST NOT change the sampling frequency, block
   length, encoding mode or the number of subbands within one RTP
   session having the same RTP payload identifier.

4.3. Scenario 3: Ensembles performing over a Network

   In some usage scenarios, users want to act simultaneously and not
   just interactively. For example, if persons sing in a chorus, if
   musicians jam, or if e-sportsmen play computer games in a team
   together, they need to acoustically communicate.

   In these scenarios, the latency requirements are much harder than
   for interactive usages. For example, if two musicians are placed
   more than 10 meters apart, they can hardly keep synchronized.
   Empirical studies [Gurevich2004] have shown that if ensembles
   playing over networks, the optimal acoustic latency is around 11.5
   ms with targeted range from 10 to 25 ms.

   To fulfill such requirements, it might be necessary to further
   reduce the algorithmic coding delay by varying the block length
   parameter. The default value of the block length parameter is chosen
   such that the coding efficiency is maximized. For example, at 44.1
   kHz and using 8 subbands and a block length of 16, the algorithmic
   delay is 4.72 ms (208 samples). The value of the block length
   parameter can be decreased, at the expense of a higher bit rate or
   lower quality, to lower the latency to fulfill the very stringent
   latency requirements of this scenario.

   Still, given the speed of light as the fundamental limit of speed of
   information exchange, distributed ensembles can perform only
   regionally if latency budget of 25 ms must keep. Typically, an
   optical fiber has a refractive index of 1.46 and thus in an optical
   fiber bits travel about 5136 km one-way in 25 ms.

5. Header Usage

   The format of the RTP header is specified in [RFC3550]. The payload
   format defined in this document uses the fields of the header in a
   manner fully consistent with that specification.

   marker (M): In accordance with [A2DPV12] the marker bit MUST be set
             to zero.

   payload type (PT): The assignment of an RTP payload type for this
             packet format is outside the scope of the document, and
             will not be specified here. It is expected that the RTP
             profile under which this payload format is being used will
             assign a payload type for this codec or specify that the
             payload type is to be bound dynamically (see Section 6.2).

   timestamp (TS): The RTP timestamp clock frequency MUST be the same
             as the sampling frequency, which has been negotiated for
             the current RTP session (see Section 6.2). If a media
             payload consists of multiple SBC frames, the TS of the
             media packet header represents the TS of the first SBC
             frame. The TS of the following SBC frames MUST be
             calculated using the sampling rate and the number of
             samples per frame per channel. A change in sampling
             frequency MUST NOT occur within one media packet.
             A SBC frame may be fragmented into multiple media packets
             to reduce the packetisation delay. Then, all packets that
             make up a fragmented SBC frame MUST use the same TS.

6. Payload Format

   The format of the payload MUST follow exactly the description given
   in Section 4.3.4, "Media Payload Format", of [A2DPV12].

   If the payload format parameters have been negotiated and a
   restricted set of encoding and decoding modes have been selected,
   than any SBC frame that describes a coding mode that has not been
   chosen MUST be ignored.

7. Payload Format Parameters

   This section defines the parameters that MAY be used to configure
   optional features in the SBC payload format over RTP transmission.

   The parameters are defined here as part of the media subtype
   registrations for the SBC codec. A mapping of the parameters into
   the Session Description Protocol (SDP) [RFC4566] is also provided
   for those applications that use SDP. In control protocols that do
   not use MIME or SDP, the media type parameters must be mapped to the
   appropriate format used with that control protocol.

7.1. Media Type Registration for SBC

   [Note to RFC Editor: Please replace all occurrences of RFC XXXX by
   the RFC number assigned to this document]

   This registration is done using the template defined in [RFC6838]
   and following [RFC4855].

   Media type name: audio

   Subtype name: SBC
   Required parameters:

     Rate: The RTP timestamp clock rate. See Section 5 for usage

   Optional parameters:

     Channels: Specifies the number of audio channels: 2 for stereo
               (refer to RFC 4566 [RFC4566]) and 1 for mono,
               accordingly the SBC channel mode. If one channel is
               used, this parameter can be omitted.

     Capabilities: The capabilities of the encoder and decoder are
               described by a parameter string that MUST start with an
               octet written as two hexadecimal digits. This octet is
               called VERSION and MUST be identical to the SYNCWORD
               that will be used in the SBC frames. It is used to
               distinguish different negotiation procedures.
               The interpretation of the following characters depends
               on the value of the VERSION octet. Refer to Section
               7.1.1. and Section 7.1.2. to find a description. The
               default value of this parameter is "9C,27,FF,02,FA".

   Encoding considerations: This media type is framed and contains
             binary data; see Section 4.8 of RFC 6838.

   Security considerations: See Section 9 of RFC XXXX

   Interoperability considerations: none

   Published specification: RFC XXXX

   Applications which use this media type: Audio and video conferencing
             tools, distributed orchestras

   Additional information: none

   Person & email address to contact for further information:
             See Authors' Addresses at the end of RFC XXXX

   Intended usage: COMMON

   Restrictions on usage: none

   Author: See Authors' Addresses at the end of RFC XXXX
   Change controller: IETF Audio/Video Transport Payloads working group
             delegated from the IESG

7.1.1. Capabilities: A2DP Modes

   The capabilities of the encoder and decoder MUST start with the
   hexadecimal value of 9C, followed by a comma and four comma-
   separated hexadecimal octets. These four octets called Octet 1, 2,
   3, and 4 share a similar meaning as those defined in Section 4.3.2
   of [A2DPV12]. However, because sampling frequency and number of
   channels are already given in the SDP parameter "a=rtpmap", bit 0 up
   to and including bit 3 of Octet 1 MUST BE ignored if received. The
   meaning of the bits and the octets are described in the following
   enumeration. The bit numbering follows the network bit order having
   the highest bit first.

   o Octet 1: Bit 0 (aka 2^7): If one, then the sampling frequency
     16000 Hz is supported (ignored during SDP negotiations but SHOULD
     be set if the clock rate is 16000 and MUST be cleared otherwise).

   o Octet 1: Bit 1: If one, then the sampling frequency 32000 Hz is
     supported (ignored during SDP negotiations but SHOULD be set if
     the clock rate is 32000 and MUST be cleared otherwise).

   o Octet 1: Bit 2: If one, then the sampling frequency 44100 Hz is
     supported (ignored during SDP negotiations but SHOULD be set if
     the clock rate is 44100 and MUST be cleared otherwise).

   o Octet 1: Bit 3: If one, then the sampling frequency 48000 Hz is
     supported (ignored during SDP negotiations but SHOULD be set if
     the clock rate is 48000 and MUST be cleared otherwise).

   o Octet 1: Bit 4: If one, then the channel mode MONO is supported
     (ignored during SDP negotiations but SHOULD be set if the number
     of channels is one and MUST be cleared otherwise).

   o Octet 1: Bit 5: If one, then the channel mode DUAL_CHANNEL is
     supported (*).

   o Octet 1: Bit 6: If one, then the channel mode STEREO is supported

   o Octet 1: Bit 7 (aka 2^0): If one, then the channel mode
     JOINT_STEREO is supported (*).

   o Octet 2: Bit 0: If one, the block length can be 4.

   o Octet 2: Bit 1: If one, the block length can be 8.

   o Octet 2: Bit 2: If one, the block length can be 12.

   o Octet 2: Bit 3: If one, the block length can be 16.

   o Octet 2: Bit 4: If one, the number of subband can be 4.

   o Octet 2: Bit 5: If one, the number of subband can be 8.

   o Octet 2: Bit 6: If one, the allocation mode based on signal to
     noise ratio is supported.

   o Octet 2: Bit 7: If one, the allocation mode based on loudness is

   o Octet 3: Unsigned integer: The minimal bit-pool value that the
     device supports. MUST be larger or equal than 2 and less or equal
     than the maximal bit-pool value.

   o Octet 4: Unsigned integer: The maximal bit-pool value that the
     device supports MUST be equal or lower than 250.

   (*) At least one of the bits 5, 6 or 7 of Octet 1 MUST be set if the
      number of channels is set to two in the SDP parameter "a=rtpmap".

7.1.2. Capabilities: Other Modes

   If the value of the VERSION octet is not equal to a known SYNCWORD
   value, then the capabilities MUST be ignored.

7.2. Mapping to SDP Parameters

   The information carried in the media type specification has a
   specific mapping to fields in the Session Description Protocol (SDP)
   [RFC4566], which is commonly used to describe RTP sessions. When SDP
   is used to specify sessions employing the SBC codec, the mapping is
   as follows:

   o The media type ("audio") goes in SDP "m=" as the media name.

   o The media subtype ("SBC") goes in SDP "a=rtpmap" as the encoding

   o The required parameter "rate" goes in SDP "a=rtpmap" as the RTP
     <clock rate>.

   o The optional parameter "channels", if present, goes in SDP as the
     "a=rtpmap" RTP <encoding parameters>.

   o The optional parameter "capabilities", if present, goes in the SDP
     "a=fmtp" by the capabilities description as described in Section

7.2.1. Offer-Answer Model Considerations

   The Bluetooth standard document [AVDTPV12] describes how an A2DP
   source and an A2DP sink negotiate their capabilities. Prior to the
   establishment of the audio stream, one A2DP device can query the
   service capabilities of the other device using the "Get Capabilities
   Procedure". In any case, the coding mode is set using the "Set
   Configuration" procedure. Only after a successful configuration, the
   stream connection can be established.

   In addition to the Bluetooth negotiation procedure, the SDP
   negotiation MUST NOT agree on one single configuration but CAN agree
   that multiple configuration modes, which are identified by different
   payload type values, are supported.

   The following considerations apply when using SDP offer-answer
   procedures [RFC3264] to negotiate the use of SBC payload in RTP:

   o The "capabilities" parameter is symmetric, i.e., the restricted
     mode set applies to media both to be received and sent by the
     declaring entity. If the capabilities were supplied in the offer,
     the answerer MUST return either the same mode-set or a subset of
     this mode-set. If no capabilities were supplied in the offer, the
     answerer MAY return capabilities to restrict the possible modes.
     In any case, the capabilities in the answer then apply for both
     offerer and answerer. The offerer MUST NOT send frames of a mode
     that has been removed by the answerer. The negotiation is finished
     if the offerer and the answerer have agreed upon explicit
     capabilities for each payload type number. The number of blocks
     and subbands and the kind of allocation method and channel mode
     MUST have been negotiated unambiguously.

   o Any unknown parameter in an offer MUST be ignored by the receiver
     and MUST NOT be included in the answer.

   Below are some example parts of SDP offer-answer exchanges.

   o Example 1
     Offer: SBC all A2DP modes
              m=audio 54874 RTP/AVP 96
              a=rtpmap:96 SBC/48000/2
              a=fmtp:96 capabilities=9C,17,FF,02,FA
              m=audio 54874 RTP/AVP 97
              a=rtpmap:97 SBC/48000
              a=fmtp:97 capabilities=9C,18,FF,02,FA
              m=audio 54874 RTP/AVP 98
              a=rtpmap:98 SBC/44100/2
              a=fmtp:98 capabilities=9C,27,FF,02,FA
              m=audio 54874 RTP/AVP 99
              a=rtpmap:99 SBC/44100
              a=fmtp:99 capabilities=9C,28,FF,02,FA
              m=audio 54874 RTP/AVP 100
              a=rtpmap:100 SBC/32000/2
              a=fmtp:101 capabilities=9C,47,FF,02,FA
              m=audio 54874 RTP/AVP 102
              a=rtpmap:102 SBC/32000
              a=fmtp:102 capabilities=9C,48,FF,02,FA
              m=audio 54874 RTP/AVP 103
              a=rtpmap:103 SBC/16000/2
              a=fmtp:103 capabilities=9C,87,FF,02,FA
              m=audio 54874 RTP/AVP 104
              a=rtpmap:104 SBC/48000
              a=fmtp:104 capabilities=9C,88,FF,02,FA

      Answer: 48 kHz, JOINT_STEREO, 16 blocks, 8 subbands, LOUDNESS
               m=audio 59452 RTP/AVP 96
               a=rtpmap:96 SBC/48000/2
               a=fmtp:96 capabilities=9C,11,15,02,FA

   o Example 2
     Offer: The A2DP SBC 48 kHz modes with mono or joint stereo, 8
     subbands, loudness allocation method. In addition an unknown mode
     called AD is offered.
              m=audio 54874 RTP/AVP 96
              a=rtpmap:96 SBC/48000/2
              a=fmtp:96 capabilities=9C,11,F5,02,FA
              m=audio 54874 RTP/AVP 97
              a=rtpmap:97 SBC/48000/1
              a=fmtp:97 capabilities=9C, 18,F5,02,FA
              m=audio 54874 RTP/AVP 98
              a=rtpmap:98 SBC/16000/1
              a=fmtp:98 capabilities=AD

     Answer: both A2DP modes are accepted but the unknown mode AD is
              m=audio 59452 RTP/AVP 96
              a=rtpmap:96 SBC/48000/2
              a=fmtp:96 capabilities=9C,11,F5,02,FA
              m=audio 59452 RTP/AVP 9
              a=rtpmap:97 SBC/48000/1
              a=fmtp:97 capabilities=9C,18,F5,02,FA

7.2.2. Declarative SDP Considerations

   For declarative use of SDP nothing specific is defined for this
   payload format. The configuration given by the SDP MUST be used when
   sending and/or receiving media in the session.

8. Congestion Control

   One Bluetooth links, bandwidth can be reserved and thus the A2DP
   specification does not consider any kind of congestion control.
   However, congestion control is an important issue for any usage in
   non-dedicated networks such as the Internet. Thus, congestion
   control for RTP MUST be used in accordance with [RFC3550] and any
   appropriate profile (for example, [RFC3551]). An additional
   requirement if best-effort service is being used is: users of this
   payload format MUST monitor packet loss to ensure that the packet
   loss rate is within acceptable parameters.

   Reducing the session bandwidth is possible by one or more of the
   following means, which all will have negative impact to the users'
   experience as he can notice a higher latency or a degraded audio
   quality. The selection of the following means depends on current
   usage scenario, the congestion control protocol, and the perceptual
   assessment of the audio transmission and is not subject of this

   1. If the bandwidth and frame rate shall be reduced, the sampling
      rate can be lowered [Boutremans2004,Hoene2005].

   2. If the gross bandwidth and the frame rate shall be reduced, more
      blocks can be put into one SBC frame and more SBC frames can be
      placed in one RTP payload.

   3. If the bandwidth shall be reduced, then the bit-pool value can be
      reduced, so that the frames get smaller or the mono mode can be

   4. If the bandwidth is very low, instead of an ongoing transmission,
      a push-to-talk like service with temporary transmission
      interruptions and a high delay can be applied.

   5. If the packet loss rate is very high, the session shall be
      terminated because the quality of the audio transmission is too
      bad to be useful [Widmer2002].

   Because the SBC encoding can be tuned with many parameters, it is
   especially useful for rate adaptive transport protocols such as DCCP
   [RFC4340] or TCP [RFC4571]. The report [Hoene2009] describes, which
   SBC coding mode gives the best speech and audio quality under known
   bandwidth and time constrains.

9. Packet Loss Concealment

   In order to cope with packet losses, the SBC decoder SHOULD be
   extended by a packet loss concealment algorithm. The packet loss
   concealment algorithm SHOULD provide a good audio quality in case of
   losses. Otherwise, the congestion control algorithm can not trade
   off well the quality impairment due to packet losses versus the
   quality impairment caused by different encoding modes. It is
   RECOMMENDED that at a least the reserve order replicated pitch
   periods (RORPP) algorithm as defined in [Hoene2009] or any better is

   If this requirement is not meet, then the congestion control cannot
   predict the impact of packet loss on the audio quality and thus will
   not be able to control the encoding parameters optimally.

10. Security Considerations

   RTP packets using the payload format defined in this specification
   are subject to the general security considerations discussed in the
   RTP specification [RFC3550] and any appropriate profile (for
   example, [RFC3551]).

   As this format transports encoded speech/audio, the main security
   issues include confidentiality, integrity protection, and
   authentication of the speech/audio itself.  The payload format
   itself does not have any built-in security mechanisms.  Any suitable
   external mechanisms, such as SRTP [RFC3711], MAY be used.

   This payload format and the SBC encoding do not exhibit any large
   non-uniformity in the receiver-end computational load and thus are
   unlikely to pose a denial-of-service threat due to the receipt of
   pathological datagrams.

11. IANA Considerations

   It is requested that one new media subtype (audio/SBC) and one
   optional parameter for this media subtype ("capabilities") are
   registered by IANA, see Section 7.1 and Section 7.2.

12. References

12.1. Normative References

   [A2DPV12] Bluetooth SIG, "Advanced Audio Distribution Profile",
             Audio Video WG, adopted specification, revision V1.2,
             April 16th, 2007,

   [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
             Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3264] Rosenberg, J. and Schulzrinne, H., "An Offer/Answer
             Modelwith Session Description Protocol (SDP)", RFC 3264,
             June 2002.

   [RFC3550] Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., and V.
             Jacobson, "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time
             Applications", STD 64, RFC 3550, July 2003.

   [RFC3551] Schulzrinne, H. and Casner, S., "RTP Profile for Audio and
             Video Conferences with Minimal Control", STD 65, RFC 3551,
             July 2003.

    [RFC4566] Handley, M., Jacobson, V., and Perkins, C., "SDP: Session
             Description Protocol", RFC 4566, July 2006.

   [RFC4855] Casner, S., "Media Type Registration of RTP Payload
             Formats", RFC 4855, February 2007.

   [RFC6838] Freed, N., Klensin, J.and Hansen, T., "Media Type
             Specifications and Registration Procedures", BCP 13, RFC
             6838, January 2013.

12.2. Informative References

   [AVDTPV12] Bluetooth SIG, "Audio/Video Distribution Transport
             Protocol Specification", Audio Video WG, adopted
             specification, revision V12, April 16th, 2007.

   [Bon1995] de Bont, F., Groenewegen, M., and Oomen, W., "A High
             Quality Audio-Coding System at 128 kb/s", 98th AES
             Convention, February 25 - 28, 1995.

   [Boutremans2004] Boutremans, C., Le Boudec J.-Y., and Widmer, J.,
             "End-to-end congestion control for tcp-friendly flows with
             variable packet size", ACM Computer Communication Review,
             Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 137-151, 2004.

   [Pilati2008] Pilati, L., Zadissa, M., "Enhancements to the SBC CODEC
             for Voice Communication in Mobile Devices", AES Convention
             124, No. 7347, May 2008.

   [Hoene2009] Hoene, C., Hyder, M.. "Considering bluetooth's subband
             codec (SBC) for wideband speech and audio on the
             internet". Technical Report WSI-2009-3, Universitaet
             Tuebingen - WSI, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany, October 2009.

   [GAVDPV12] Bluetooth SIG, "Generic Audio/Video Distribution
             Profile", Audio Video WG, adopted specification, revision
             V12, April 16th, 2007.

   [Gurevich2004] Gurevich, M., Chafe, C., Leslie, G., and Tyan, S.,
             "Simulation of Networked Ensemble Performance with Varying
             Time Delays: Characterization of Ensemble Accuracy",
             Proceedings of the 2004 International Computer Music
             Conference, Miami, USA, 2004.

   [Hoene2005] Hoene, C., and Karl, H., and Wolisz, A., "A perceptual
             quality model intended for adaptive VoIP applications",
             International Journal of Communication Systems, Wiley,
             August 2005.

   [ITUG107] ITU-T G.107, "The E-model, a computational model for use
             in transmission planning", ITU-T Recommendation G.107, May

   [Rault1989] Rault, J., Dehery, Y., Roudaut, J., Bruekers, A., and
             Veldhuis, R., "Digital transmission system using subband
             coding of a digital signal", Publication number: EP0400755

   [RFC3711] Baugher, M., McGrew, D., Naslund, M., Carrara, E., and K.
             Norrman, "The Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP)",
             RFC 3711, March 2004.

   [RFC4340] Kohler, E., Handley, M., and Floyd, S., "Datagram
             Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP)", RFC 4340, March 2006.

   [RFC4571] Lazzaro, J., "Framing Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP)
             and RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) Packets over Connection-
             Oriented Transport", RFC4571, July 2006.

   [Widmer2002] Widmer, J., Mauve, M., and Damm, J., "Probabilistic
             congestion control for non-adaptable flows", In 12th
             International Workshop on Network and Operating Systems
             Support for Digital Audio and Video (NOSSDAV), Miami, FL,
             USA, May 2002.

13. Acknowledgments

   Funding for this draft has been provided by the University of
   Tuebingen within the "Projektfoerderung fuer

   This document was prepared using

Authors' Addresses

   Christian Hoene
   Symonics GmbH
   Sand 13
   72076 Tuebingen

   Phone: +49 7071 568 1300

   Frans de Bont
   Philips Electronics
   High Tech Campus 36
   5656 AE Eindhoven

   Phone: +31 40 2740234