Network Working Group                                       IJ. Wijnands
Internet-Draft                                                 S. Venaas
Intended status: Experimental                        Cisco Systems, Inc.
Expires: January 2, 2016                                         M. Brig
                                                Aegis BMD Program Office
                                                             A. Jonasson
                           Swedish Defence Material Administration (FMV)
                                                            July 1, 2015

              PIM flooding mechanism and source discovery
                 draft-ietf-pim-source-discovery-bsr-02
                 draft-ietf-pim-source-discovery-bsr-03

Abstract

   PIM Sparse-Mode uses a Rendezvous Point (RP) and shared trees to
   forward multicast packets to Last Hop Routers (LHR).  After the first
   packet is received by the LHR, the source of the multicast stream is
   learned and the Shortest Path Tree (SPT) can be joined.  This draft
   proposes a solution to support PIM Sparse Mode (SM) without the need
   for PIM registers, RPs or shared trees.  Multicast source information
   is flooded throughout the multicast domain using a new generic PIM
   flooding mechanism.  This mechanism is defined in this document, and
   is modeled after the PIM Bootstrap Router protocol.  By removing the
   need for RPs and shared trees, the PIM-SM procedures are simplified,
   improving router operations, management and making the protocol more
   robust.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 2, 2016.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1.  Conventions used in this document . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Testing and deployment experiences  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  A generic PIM flooding mechanism  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.1.   4
     3.1.  PFP message format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.2.
     3.2.  Processing PFP messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       2.2.1.   6
       3.2.1.  Initial checks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       2.2.2.   6
       3.2.2.  Processing messages with known PFP type . . . . . . .   5
       2.2.3.   6
       3.2.3.  Processing messages with unknown PFP type . . . . . .   6
   3.
   4.  Distributing Source to Group Mappings . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.1.   7
     4.1.  Group Source Holdtime TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.2.   7
     4.2.  Originating SG messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.3.   8
     4.3.  Processing SG messages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.4.   8
     4.4.  The first packets and bursty sources  . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.5.   9
     4.5.  Resiliency to network partitioning  . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   4.  10
   5.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   5.  10
   6.  IANA considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   6.  10
   7.  Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   7.
   8.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     7.1.  11
     8.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     7.2.  11
     8.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10  11
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10  11

1.  Introduction

   PIM Sparse-Mode uses a Rendezvous Point (RP) and shared trees to
   forward multicast packets to Last Hop Routers (LHR).  After the first
   packet is received by the LHR, the source of the multicast stream is
   learned and the Shortest Path Tree (SPT) can be joined.  This draft
   proposes a solution to support PIM Sparse Mode (SM) without the need
   for PIM registers, RPs or shared trees.  Multicast source information
   is flooded throughout the multicast domain using a new generic PIM
   flooding mechanism.  This mechanism is defined in this document, and
   is modeled after the Bootstrap Router protocol [RFC5059].  By
   removing the need for RPs and shared trees, the PIM-SM procedures are
   simplified, improving router operations, management and making the
   protocol more robust.

1.1.  Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

1.2.  Terminology

   RP:  Rendezvous Point.

   BSR:  Bootstrap Router.

   RPF:  Reverse Path Forwarding.

   SPT:  Shortest Path Tree.

   FHR:  First Hop Router, directly connected to the source.

   LHR:  Last Hop Router, directly connected to the receiver.

   SG Mapping:  Multicast source to group mapping.

   SG Message:  A PIM message containing SG Mappings.

2.  Testing and deployment experiences

   A prototype of this specification has been implemented and there has
   been some limited testing in the field.  The prototype was tested in
   a network with low bandwidth radio links.  In this network with
   frequent topology changes and link or router failures PIM-SM with RP
   election is found to be too slow.  With PIM-DM issues were observed
   with new multicast sources starving low bandwidth links even when
   there are no receivers, in some cases such that there were no
   bandwidth left for prune message.  For the tests, all routers were
   configured to send PFP-SA for directly connected source and to cache
   received announcements.  Applications such as SIP with multicast
   subscriber discovery, multicast voice conferencing, position tracking
   and NTP were successfully tested.  The tests went quite well.
   Packets were rerouted as needed and there were no unnecessary
   forwarding of packets.  Ease of configuration was seen as a plus.

3.  A generic PIM flooding mechanism

   The Bootstrap Router protocol (BSR) [RFC5059] is a commonly used
   protocol for distributing dynamic Group to RP mappings in PIM.  It is
   responsible for flooding information about such mappings throughout a
   PIM domain, so that all routers in the domain can have the same
   information.  BSR as defined, is only able to distribute Group to RP
   mappings.  We are defining a more generic mechanism that can flood
   any kind of information throughout a PIM domain.  It is not
   necessarily a domain though, it depends on the administrative
   boundaries being configured.  The forwarding rules are identical to
   BSR, except that there is no BSR election and that one can control
   whether routers should forward messages of unsupported types.  For
   some types of information it is quite useful that it can be
   distributed without all routers having to support the particular
   type, while there may also be types where it is necessary for every
   single router to support it.  The protocol includes an originator
   address which is used for RPF checking to restrict the flooding, just
   like BSR.  Just like BSR it is also sent hop by hop.  Note that there
   is no built in election mechanism as in BSR, so there can be multiple
   originators.  It is still possible to add such an election mechanism
   on a type by type bases if this protocol is used in scenarios where
   this is desirable.  We include a type field, which can allow
   boundaries to be defined, and election to take place, independently
   per type.  We call this protocol the PIM Flooding Protocol (PFP).

2.1.

3.1.  PFP message format
        0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |PIM Ver| Type  |N|  Reserved   |           Checksum            |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |            Originator Address (Encoded-Unicast format)        |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |            PFP Type           |         Reserved            |U|
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |          Type 1               |          Length 1             |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                            Value 1                            |
      |                               .                               |
      |                               .                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                               .                               |
      |                               .                               |
      |          Type n               |          Length n             |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                            Value n                            |
      |                               .                               |
      |                               .                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   PIM Version:   Reserved, Checksum Described in [RFC4601].

   Type:   PIM Message Type.  Value (pending IANA) for a PFP message.

   [N]o-Forward bit:   When set, this bit means that the PFP message is
      not to be forwarded.

   Originator Address:   The address of the router that originated the
      message.  This can be any address assigned to this router, but
      MUST be routable in the domain to allow successful forwarding
      (just like BSR address).  The format for this address is given in
      the Encoded-Unicast address in [RFC4601].

   PFP Type:   There may be different sub protocols or different uses
      for this generic protocol.  The PFP Type specifies which sub
      protocol it is used for.

   [U]nknown-No-Forwarding bit:   Some sub protocols may require that
      each router do some processing of the contents and not simply
      forwarding.  This bit controls how a router should treat an
      unknown PFP Type.  When set, a router MUST NOT forward the message
      when the PFP Type is unknown.  When clear, a router MUST forward
      the message when possible.  If the PFP Type is known, then the
      specification of that type will specify how to handle the message,
      including whether it should be forwarded.

   Type 1..n:   A message contains one or more TLVs, in this case n
      TLVs.  The Type specifies what kind of information is in the
      Value.  Note that the Type space is shared between all PFP types.
      Not all types make sense for all PFP types though.

   Length 1..n:   The length of the the value field.

   Value 1..n:   The value associated with the type and of the specified
      length.

2.2.

3.2.  Processing PFP messages

   A router that receives an PFP message must perform the initial checks
   specified here.  If it passes, the contents is processed according to
   the PFP type if known.  If the type is unknown it may still be
   forwarded.

2.2.1.

3.2.1.  Initial checks

   The initial checks performed are largely similar to what is done for
   BSR messages.  The message MUST be from a directly connected neighbor
   for which we have active Hello state.  It MUST have been sent to the
   ALL-PIM-ROUTERS group, and unless No-Forward is set, it MUST have
   been sent by the RPF neighbor towards the router that originated the
   message; or, if it is a No-Forward BSM, we must have restarted within
   60 seconds.

2.2.2.

3.2.2.  Processing messages with known PFP type

   If the PFP type is known, as in supported by the implementation, the
   processing and potential forwarding is done according to the
   specification for that PFP type.  If the PFP type specification does
   not specify any particular forwarding rules, the message is forwarded
   out of all interfaces with PIM neighbors (including the interface it
   is received on).

2.2.3.

3.2.3.  Processing messages with unknown PFP type

   If the PFP type is unknown, the message MUST be dropped if the
   Unknown-No-Forwarding bit is set.  If the bit is not set, the message
   is forwarded out of all interfaces with PIM neighbors (including the
   interface it is received on).

3.

4.  Distributing Source to Group Mappings

   We want to provide information about active multicast sources
   throughout a PIM domain by making use of the generic flooding
   mechanism defined in the previous section.  We request PFP Type 0 to
   be assigned for this purpose.  We call a message with PFP Type 0 an
   SG Message.  We also define a PFP TLV which we request to be type 0.
   How this TLV is used with PFP Type 0 is defined in the next section.
   Other PFP Types may specify the use of this TLV for other purposes.
   For PFP Type 0 the U-bit MUST NOT be set.  This means that routers
   not supporting PFP Type 0 would still forward the message.

3.1.

4.1.  Group Source Holdtime TLV

        0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |          Type = 0               |          Length             |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |              Group Address (Encoded-Group format)             |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |            Src Count          |        Src Holdtime           |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |            Src Address 1 (Encoded-Unicast format)             |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |            Src Address 2 (Encoded-Unicast format)             |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                               .                               |
      |                               .                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |            Src Address m (Encoded-Unicast format)             |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type:   This TLV has type 0.

   Length:   The length of the value.

   Group Address:   The group we are announcing sources for.  The format
      for this address is given in the Encoded-Group format in
      [RFC4601].

   Src Count:   How many unicast encoded sources address encodings
      follow.

   Src Holdtime:   The Holdtime (in seconds) for the corresponding
      source(s).

   Src Address:   The source address for the corresponding group.  The
      format for these addresses is given in the Encoded-Unicast address
      in [RFC4601].

3.2.

4.2.  Originating SG messages

   An SG Mesage, that is a PFP message of Type 0, may contain one or
   more Group Source Holdtime TLVs.  This is used to flood information
   about active multicast sources.  Each FHR that is directly connected
   to an active multicast source originates SG BSR messages.  How a
   multicast router discovers the source of the multicast packet and
   when it considers itself the FHR follows the same procedures as the
   registering process described in [RFC4601].  After it is decided that
   a register needs to be sent, the SG is not registered via the PIM SM
   register procedures, but the SG mapping is included in an SG message.
   Note, only the SG mapping is distributed in the message, not the
   entire packet as would have been done with a PIM register.  The
   router originating the SG messages includes one of its own addresses
   in the originator field.  Note that this address must be routeable
   due to RPF checking.  The SG messages are periodically sent for as
   long as the multicast source is active, similar to how PIM registers
   are periodically sent.  The default announcement period is 60
   seconds, which means that as long as the source is active, it is
   included in an SG message originated every 60 seconds.  The holdtime
   for the source is by default 210 seconds.  Other values can be
   configured, but the holdtime must be larger than the announcement
   period.  It is RECOMMENDED to be 3.5 times the announcement period.
   Note that as a special case a source MAY be announced with a holdtime
   of 0 to indicate that the source is no longer active.

3.3.

4.3.  Processing SG messages

   A router that receives an SG message should parse the message and
   store the SG mappings with a holdtimer started with the advertised
   holdtime for that group.  If there are directly connected receivers
   for that group this router should send PIM (S,G) joins for all the SG
   mappings advertised in the message.  The SG mappings are kept alive
   for as long as the holdtimer for the source is running.  Once the
   holdtimer expires a PIM router SHOULD send a PIM (S,G) prune to
   remove itself from the tree.  Note that a holdtime of 0 has a special
   meaning.  It is to be treated as if the source just expired, causing
   a prune to be sent and state to be removed.  Source information MUST
   not be removed due to it being omitted in a message.  For instance,
   if there are a large number of sources for a group, there may be
   multiple SG messages for the same group, each message containing a
   different list of sources.

3.4.

4.4.  The first packets and bursty sources

   The PIM register procedure is designed to deliver Multicast packets
   to the RP in the absence of a native SPT tree from the RP to the
   source.  The register packets received on the RP are decapsulated and
   forwarded down the shared tree to the LHRs.  As soon as an SPT tree
   is built, multicast packets would flow natively over the SPT to the
   RP or LHR and the register process would stop.  The PIM register
   process ensures packet delivery until an SPT tree is in place
   reaching the FHR.  If the packets were not unicast encapsulated to
   the RP they would be dropped by the FHR until the SPT is setup.  This
   functionality is important for applications where the initial
   packet(s) must be received for the application to work correctly.
   Another reason would be for bursty sources.  If the application sends
   out a multicast packet every 4 minutes (or longer), the SPT is torn
   down (typically after 3:30 minutes of inactivity) before the next
   packet is forwarded down the tree.  This will cause no multicast
   packet to ever be forwarded.  A well behaved application should
   really be able to deal with packet loss since IP is a best effort
   based packet delivery system.  But in reality this is not always the
   case.

   With the procedures proposed in this draft the packet(s) received by
   the FHR will be dropped until the LHR has learned about the source
   and the SPT tree is built.  That means for bursty sources or
   applications sensitive for the delivery of the first packet this
   proposal would not be very applicable.  This proposal is mostly
   useful for applications that don't have strong dependency on the
   initial packet(s) and have a fairly constant data rate, like video
   distribution for example.  For applications with strong dependency on
   the initial packet(s) we recommend using PIM Bidir [RFC5015] or SSM
   [RFC4607].  The protocol operations are much simpler compared to PIM
   SM, it will cause less churn in the network and both guarantee best
   effort delivery for the initial packet(s).

   Another solution to address the problems described above is
   documented in [I-D.ietf-magma-msnip].  This proposal allows for a
   host to tell the FHR its willingness to act as Source for a certain
   Group before sending the data packets.  LHRs have time to join the
   SPT tree before the host starts sending which would avoid packet
   loss.  The SG mappings announced by [I-D.ietf-magma-msnip] can be
   advertised directly in SG messages, allowing a very nice integration
   of both proposals.  The life time of the SPT is not driven by the
   liveliness of Multicast data packets (which is the case with PIM SM),
   but by the announcements driven via [I-D.ietf-magma-msnip].  This
   will also prevent packet loss due to bursty sources.

3.5.

4.5.  Resiliency to network partitioning

   In a PIM SM deployment where the network becomes partitioned, due to
   link or node failure, it is possible that the RP becomes unreachable
   to a certain part of the network.  New sources that become active in
   that partition will not be able to register to the RP and receivers
   within that partition are not able to receive the traffic.  Ideally
   you would want to have a candidate RP in each partition, but you
   never know in advance which routers will form a partitioned network.
   In order to be fully resilient, each router in the network may end up
   being a candidate RP.  This would increase the operational complexity
   of the network.

   The solution described in this document does not suffer from that
   problem.  If a network becomes partitioned and new sources become
   active, the receivers in that partitioned will receive the SG
   Mappings and join the source tree.  Each partition works
   independently of the other partition(s) and will continue to have
   access to sources within that partition.  As soon as the network
   heals, the SG Mappings are re-flooded into the other partition(s) and
   other receivers can join to the newly learned sources.

4.

5.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations are mainly similar to what is documented
   in [RFC5059].  It may be a concern that rogue devices can inject
   packets that are flooded throughout a domain.  PFP packets SHOULD
   only be accepted from a PIM neighbor.  Deployments may use mechanisms
   for authenticating PIM neighbors.

5.

6.  IANA considerations

   This document requires the assignment of a new PIM Protocol type for
   the PIM Flooding Protocol (PFP).  IANA is also requested to create a
   registry for PFP Types with type 0 allocated to "Source-Group
   Message".  IANA is also requested to create a registry for PFP TLVs,
   with type 0 allocated to the "Source Group Holdtime" TLV.  The
   allocation procedures are yet to be determined.

6.

7.  Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank Arjen Boers for contributing to the
   initial idea and Yiqun Cai for his comments on the draft.

7.

8.  References

7.1.

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC4601]  Fenner, B., Handley, M., Holbrook, H., and I. Kouvelas,
              "Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM):
              Protocol Specification (Revised)", RFC 4601, August 2006.

   [RFC5059]  Bhaskar, N., Gall, A., Lingard, J., and S. Venaas,
              "Bootstrap Router (BSR) Mechanism for Protocol Independent
              Multicast (PIM)", RFC 5059, January 2008.

7.2.

8.2.  Informative References

   [RFC4607]  Holbrook, H. and B. Cain, "Source-Specific Multicast for
              IP", RFC 4607, August 2006.

   [RFC5015]  Handley, M., Kouvelas, I., Speakman, T., and L. Vicisano,
              "Bidirectional Protocol Independent Multicast (BIDIR-
              PIM)", RFC 5015, October 2007.

   [I-D.ietf-magma-msnip]
              Fenner, B., Haberman, B., Holbrook, H., Kouvelas, I., and
              S. Venaas, "Multicast Source Notification of Interest
              Protocol (MSNIP)", draft-ietf-magma-msnip-06 (work in
              progress), March 2011.

Authors' Addresses

   IJsbrand Wijnands
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   De kleetlaan 6a
   Diegem  1831
   Belgium

   Email: ice@cisco.com

   Stig Venaas
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   Tasman Drive
   San Jose  CA  95134
   USA

   Email: stig@cisco.com
   Michael Brig
   Aegis BMD Program Office
   17211 Avenue D, Suite 160
   Dahlgren  VA 22448-5148
   USA

   Email: michael.brig@mda.mil

   Anders Jonasson
   Swedish Defence Material Administration (FMV)
   Loennvaegen 4
   Vaexjoe  35243
   Sweden

   Email: anders@jomac.se