draft-ietf-roll-admin-local-policy-03.txt   rfc7732.txt 
roll P. van der Stok Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) P. van der Stok
Internet-Draft Consultant Request for Comments: 7732 Consultant
Intended status: Informational R. Cragie Category: Informational R. Cragie
Expires: August 10, 2015 Gridmerge ISSN: 2070-1721 ARM Ltd.
February 6, 2015 February 2016
Forwarder policy for multicast with admin-local scope in the Multicast Forwarder Policy for Multicast with Admin-Local Scope
Protocol for Low power and Lossy Networks (MPL) in the Multicast Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (MPL)
draft-ietf-roll-admin-local-policy-03
Abstract Abstract
The purpose of this document is to specify an automated policy for The purpose of this document is to specify an automated policy for
the routing of Multicast Protocol for Low power and Lossy Networks the routing of Multicast Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks
(MPL) multicast messages with admin-local scope in a border router. (MPL) multicast messages with Admin-Local scope in a border router.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. published for informational purposes.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference received public review and has been approved for publication by the
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approved by the IESG are a candidate for any level of Internet
Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 5741.
This Internet-Draft will expire on August 10, 2015. Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7732.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction ....................................................2
1.1. Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.1. Requirements Language ......................................4
1.2. Terminology and Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2. Terminology and Acronyms ...................................4
2. Network identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Network Identifier ..............................................4
2.1. IEEE 802.15.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1. IEEE 802.15.4 ..............................................5
2.2. IEEE 802.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2. IEEE 802.11 ................................................5
2.3. ITU-T G.9959 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3. ITU-T G.9959 ...............................................5
2.4. BLUETOOTH Low Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.4. BLUETOOTH(R) Low Energy ....................................5
3. MPL4 router . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. MPL4 Router .....................................................5
3.1. MPL interface parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1. MPL Interface Parameters ...................................6
3.2. Determination of MPL4 zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.2. Determination of MPL4 Zone .................................6
4. Admin-Local policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. Admin-Local Policy ..............................................7
4.1. Legal multicast messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.1. Legal Multicast Messages ...................................7
4.2. Forwarding legal packets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.2. Forwarding Legal Packets ...................................8
4.2.1. MPL message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.2.1. MPL Message .........................................8
4.2.2. Multicast messages without MPL option . . . . . . . . 8 4.2.2. Multicast Messages without MPL Option ...............9
4.3. Encryption rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.3. Encryption Rules ...........................................9
5. MPL domains and zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5. MPL Domains and Zones ...........................................9
6. Default parameter values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6. Default Parameter Values .......................................10
7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7. Security Considerations ........................................11
8. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 8. References .....................................................12
9. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 8.1. Normative References ......................................12
10. Change log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 8.2. Informative References ....................................14
11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Acknowledgements ..................................................15
11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Authors' Addresses ................................................15
11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Multicast scopes are defined in [RFC4291]. The [RFC7346] extends the Multicast scopes are defined in [RFC4291]. [RFC7346] extends the
scope definition with the text: scope definition with this text:
"Interface-Local, Link-Local, and Realm-Local scope boundaries are "Interface-Local, Link-Local, and Realm-Local scope boundaries are
automatically derived from physical connectivity or other, non- automatically derived from physical connectivity or other
multicast related configuration. Global scope has no boundary. The non-multicast-related configurations. Global scope has no boundary.
boundaries of all other non-reserved scopes of Admin-Local or larger The boundaries of all other non-reserved scopes of Admin-Local or
are administratively configured." larger are administratively configured."
The admin-local scope must therefore be administratively configured. The Admin-Local scope must therefore be administratively configured.
In this document "administratively configured" does not imply actions In this document, "administratively configured" does not imply
by a human beyond installing the here specified protocol. actions by a human beyond installing the protocol specified herein.
"Administratively configured" means an automatic derivation as "Administratively configured" means an automatic derivation as
described in this document. described in this document.
This draft describes an automated policy for the Multicast Protocol This document describes an automated policy for the Multicast
for Low power and Lossy Networks (MPL) [[I-D.ietf-roll-trickle-mcast] Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (MPL) [RFC7731] forwarding
forwarding of multicast messages with admin-local scope within a of multicast messages with Admin-Local scope within a border router
border router that lies between a network running MPL and some other that lies between a network running MPL and some other network. This
network. This wish is in line with the autonomous networking ideas policy is in line with the autonomous networking ideas presented in
presented in [I-D.irtf-nmrg-an-gap-analysis]. [RFC7576].
The realm-local multicast address is currently used by MPL to The Realm-Local multicast address is currently used by MPL to
propagate the multicast message to all receivers and forwarders propagate the multicast message to all receivers and forwarders
within a mesh network. The multicast propagation is limited to a within a mesh network. The multicast propagation is limited to a
mesh network with a common layer-2. For example, a LoWPAN is defined mesh network with a common Layer 2. For example, a Low-Power
by an IEEE 802.15.4 layer-2 mesh network, composed of all connected Wireless Personal Area Network (LoWPAN) is defined by an
nodes sharing the same Personal Area Network (PAN) ID [RFC4944]. IEEE 802.15.4 Layer 2 mesh network, composed of all connected nodes
sharing the same Personal Area Network (PAN) ID [RFC4944].
The network concept differs between mesh network technologies. This The network concept differs between mesh network technologies. This
document maps a general network identifier to the specific network document maps a general network identifier to the specific network
identifier of existing mesh technologies. identifier of existing mesh technologies.
In current and projected deployments, there is a requirement to In current and projected deployments, there is a requirement to
propagate a multicast message beyond the boundaries of the mesh propagate a multicast message beyond the boundaries of the mesh
network it originated in independent of the mesh technology. network in which it originated, independent of the mesh technology.
Consider the case where propagation over two mesh networks is Consider the case where propagation over two mesh networks is
required. In one example, each mesh network has a border router and required. In one example, each mesh network has a border router and
the two border routers are connected with an Ethernet link. In the two border routers are connected with an Ethernet link. In
another example each mesh network is connected to its own network another example, each mesh network is connected to its own network
interface connected to the same border router. In both cases, an interface connected to the same border router. In both cases, an
admin-local multicast message originating in one network needs to Admin-Local multicast message originating in one network needs to
propagate into the other mesh network. The boundary of the admin- propagate into the other mesh network. The boundary of the
local scope is administratively configured. Admin-Local scope is administratively configured.
This document describes an "MPL4 router" that forwards MPL messages This document describes an "MPL4 router" that forwards MPL messages
with a multicast address with admin-local scope to all interfaces with a multicast address with Admin-Local scope to all interfaces
connected to links that connect to other MPL enabled interfaces. The connected to links that connect to other MPL-enabled interfaces. The
MPL4 router enables all its interfaces for MPL messages and allocates MPL4 router enables all its interfaces for MPL messages and allocates
an additional variable MPL_BLOCKED that permits(forbids) the an additional variable, MPL_BLOCKED, that either permits or forbids
forwarding of MPL messages. the forwarding of MPL messages.
The MPL4 router uses the following technique to establish over which The MPL4 router uses the following technique to establish over which
links MPL4 messages must be forwarded. The MPL4 router listens on links MPL4 messages must be forwarded: The MPL4 router listens on its
its interfaces for arrival of MPL4 messages. When MPL4 messages interfaces for the arrival of MPL4 messages. When MPL4 messages
arrive over an interface, the MPL4 router includes this interface to arrive over an interface, the MPL4 router records this interface in
the set of interfaces over which incoming MPL4 messages are the set of interfaces over which incoming MPL4 messages are
forwarded. Regularly, the MPL4 router sends MPL4 messages over its forwarded. The MPL4 router regularly sends MPL4 messages over its
interfaces to provoke the return of MPL4 messages to maintain or interfaces to provoke the return of MPL4 messages to maintain the set
remove the interfaces in/from the set of forwarding interfaces. of forwarding interfaces.
It is expected that the private network of an organization, building, It is expected that the private network of an organization, building,
or home, is connected to the Internet via the edge routers provided or home is connected to the Internet via the edge routers provided by
by an ISP. The intention is that MPL messages with multicast an ISP. The intention is that MPL messages with multicast addresses
addresses of admin-local scope are freely forwarded within the of Admin-Local scope are freely forwarded within the private network
private network, but are never forwarded outside the private network but are never forwarded outside the private network by edge routers.
by edge routers.
1.1. Requirements Language 1.1. Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
1.2. Terminology and Acronyms 1.2. Terminology and Acronyms
This document uses terminology defined in This document uses terminology defined in [RFC7731] and [RFC7346].
[I-D.ietf-roll-trickle-mcast] and [RFC7346]. In addition, the In addition, the following terms are used in this document:
following terms are used in this document:
o MPL4 refers to MPL with admin-local scope 4. o MPL4: MPL with Admin-Local scope 4.
o MPL4 message: an MPL DATA message with a destination multicast o MPL4 message: an MPL Data Message with a destination multicast
address of scope 4. address of scope 4.
o MPL4 zone: a convex zone of interconnected interfaces over which o MPL4 zone: a convex zone of interconnected interfaces over which
MPL messages with admin-local scope propagate. A MPL4 zone is MPL messages with Admin-Local scope propagate. An MPL4 zone is
bounded by a zone as defined in [RFC4007]. bounded by a zone as defined in [RFC4007].
o MPL4 router: automatically determines the MPL4 zone in which MPL o MPL4 router: automatically determines the MPL4 zone in which MPL
messages with admin-local scope can be propagated. messages with Admin-Local scope can be propagated.
2. Network identifier 2. Network Identifier
Links may have the concept of a channel, for example in wireless Links may have the concept of a channel. For example, in wireless
networks such a channel is associated with a communication frequency. networks, such a channel is associated with a communication
Additionally, for some link technologies, several networks can frequency. Additionally, for some link technologies, several
coexist using the same channel. For these link technologies, a networks can coexist using the same channel. For these link
network identifier exists. The network identifier is determined by technologies, a network identifier exists. The network identifier is
the link technology specification. When no network identifier exists determined by the link technology specification. When no network
for a given link, the network identifier has the value "any". identifier exists for a given link, the network identifier has the
value "any".
2.1. IEEE 802.15.4 2.1. IEEE 802.15.4
IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.4 is described in [RFC4944]. A LoWPAN is IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.4 is described in [RFC4944]. A LoWPAN is
composed of the nodes connected by an IEEE 802.15.4 mesh sharing the composed of the nodes connected by an IEEE 802.15.4 mesh sharing the
same PAN ID. The PAN ID identifies a network in the IEEE 802.15.4 same PAN ID. The PAN ID identifies a network in the IEEE 802.15.4
mesh. Several networks with different PAN IDs can coexist on the mesh. Several networks with different PAN IDs can coexist on the
same channel [IEEE802.15.4]. The PAN ID of an interface is defined same channel [IEEE802.15.4]. The PAN ID of an interface is defined
when the interface is enabled. The value of the network identifier when the interface is enabled. The value of the network identifier
of an IEEE 802.15.4 link is the value of the PAN ID. of an IEEE 802.15.4 link is the value of the PAN ID.
2.2. IEEE 802.11 2.2. IEEE 802.11
IP over IEEE 802.11 is described in [RFC5416]. The Service Set IP over IEEE 802.11 is described in [RFC5416]. The Service Set
IDentifier (SSID) identifies a network in the IEEE 802.11 link. Identifier (SSID) identifies a network in the IEEE 802.11 link.
Several networks with different SSIDs can coexist on the same channel Several networks with different SSIDs can coexist on the same channel
[IEEE802.11]. The SSID of an interface is defined when the interface [IEEE802.11]. The SSID of an interface is defined when the interface
is switched on. The value of the network identifier of a IEEE 802.11 is switched on. The value of the network identifier of an IEEE
link is the value of the SSID. 802.11 link is the value of the SSID.
2.3. ITU-T G.9959 2.3. ITU-T G.9959
IPv6 over ITU-T G.9959 is specified in [I-D.ietf-6lo-lowpanz]. The IPv6 over ITU-T G.9959 is specified in [RFC7428]. The HomeID
HomeID identifies a network of connected nodes [G.9959]. Several identifies a network of connected nodes [G.9959]. Several HomeIDs
HomeIDs can coexist within communication range, but nodes adhering to can coexist within communication range, but nodes adhering to a
a network with a given HomeID cannot communicate with nodes adhering network with a given HomeID cannot communicate with nodes adhering to
to a network with a different HomeID. The value of the network a network with a different HomeID. The value of the network
identifier of a G.9959 link is the value of the HomeID. identifier of a G.9959 link is the value of the HomeID.
2.4. BLUETOOTH Low Energy 2.4. BLUETOOTH(R) Low Energy
IPv6 over BLUETOOTH Low Energy (BTLE) is specified in IPv6 over Bluetooth low energy (BTLE) is specified in [RFC7668]. The
[I-D.ietf-6lo-btle]. The medium is specified in [btle]. BTLE does medium is specified in [BTLE]. BTLE does not know the concept of
not know the concept of multiple networks in one channel. The value multiple networks in one channel. The value of the network
of the network identifier of a BTLE link is "any". identifier of a BTLE link is "any".
3. MPL4 router 3. MPL4 Router
The concept of an MPL4 router serves to automatically determine the The concept of an MPL4 router serves to automatically determine the
MPL4 zone in which MPL messages with a scope 4 multicast address can MPL4 zone in which MPL messages with a scope 4 multicast address can
propagate. The MPL4 router periodically executes an algorithm that propagate. The MPL4 router periodically executes an algorithm that
determines the presence of MPL interfaces on the links connected to determines the presence of MPL Interfaces on the links connected to
its interfaces. When no MPL interfaces are present on a given link, its interfaces. When no MPL Interfaces are present on a given link,
the corresponding MPL interface is signalled as not being part of the the corresponding MPL Interface is signaled as not being part of the
MPL4 zone. MPL4 zone.
3.1. MPL interface parameters 3.1. MPL Interface Parameters
One parameter is associated with every MPL interface in the MPL4 One parameter is associated with every MPL Interface in the MPL4
router, and two parameters are associated with the behaviour of the router, and two parameters are associated with the behavior of the
MPL4 router as a whole. MPL4 router as a whole.
o MPL_BLOCKED: Boolean value that indicates whether the associated o MPL_BLOCKED: Boolean value that indicates whether or not the
interface belongs to the MPL4 zone. associated interface belongs to the MPL4 zone.
o MPL_CHECK_INT: integer that indicates the time interval between o MPL_CHECK_INT: Integer that indicates the time interval between
successive activations of the MPL4 router algorithm in seconds. successive activations of the MPL4 router algorithm, in seconds.
o MPL_TO: integer that indicates the interval in which MPL messages o MPL_TO: Integer that indicates the interval in which MPL messages
are expected to be received in seconds. are expected to be received, in seconds.
3.2. Determination of MPL4 zone 3.2. Determination of MPL4 Zone
All interfaces of the MPL4 router MUST be associated with following All interfaces of the MPL4 router MUST be associated with the
parameters coming from MPL protocol [I-D.ietf-roll-trickle-mcast]: following MPL protocol parameters, as described in [RFC7731]:
PROACTIVE_FORWARDING, DATA_MESSAGE_IMIN, DATA_MESSAGE_IMAX, PROACTIVE_FORWARDING, DATA_MESSAGE_IMIN, DATA_MESSAGE_IMAX,
DATA_MESSAGE_K, DATA_MESSAGE_TIMER_EXPIRATIONS. At start-up of the DATA_MESSAGE_K, and DATA_MESSAGE_TIMER_EXPIRATIONS. Upon startup of
MPL4 router, the parameters associated with all interfaces are the MPL4 router, the parameters associated with all interfaces are
assigned the following values: PROACTIVE_FORWARDING = true, assigned the following values: PROACTIVE_FORWARDING = TRUE,
MPL_BLOCKED = false. All interfaces MUST subscribe to the multicast MPL_BLOCKED = false. All interfaces MUST subscribe to the multicast
addresses ALL_MPL_FORWARDERS scope 3 and scope 4. addresses ALL_MPL_FORWARDERS scope 3 and scope 4.
The MPL4 router executes the following algorithm for each interface: The MPL4 router executes the following algorithm for each interface:
o With a frequency determined by the value of MPL_CHECK_INT, the o With a frequency determined by the value of MPL_CHECK_INT, the
MPL4 router sends an MPL4 message on each interface with a header MPL4 router sends an MPL4 message on each interface with a header
that includes the MPL option [I-D.ietf-roll-trickle-mcast] and is that includes the MPL Option [RFC7731]; the message is sent to
sent to multicast address ALL_MPL_FORWARDERS with scope 4. multicast address ALL_MPL_FORWARDERS with scope 4.
o When within an interval determined by the value of MPL_TO no MPL o When, within an interval determined by the value of MPL_TO no MPL
message is received, the value of MPL_BLOCKED is set to true. message is received, the value of MPL_BLOCKED is set to TRUE.
o At reception of an MPL4 message with a multicast address with o On reception of an MPL4 message, the value of MPL_BLOCKED of the
scope 4, the value of MPL_BLOCKED of the receiving interface is receiving interface is set to false.
set to false.
This protocol leads to a state where for each interface MPL_BLOCKED This protocol leads to a state where for each interface MPL_BLOCKED
is set to false if and only if MPL enabled interfaces are connected is set to false if and only if MPL-enabled interfaces are connected
to the link associated with the interface. When an MPL message is to the link associated with the interface. When an MPL message is
submitted to an MPL-enabled interface -called A- in the MPL router, submitted to an MPL-enabled interface called "Interface A" in the MPL
the Trickle algorithm [RFC6206] is activated to send the MPL message. router, the Trickle algorithm [RFC6206] is activated to send the MPL
The MPL4 message with multicast address ALL_MPL_FORWARDERS scope 4 is message. The MPL4 message with multicast address ALL_MPL_FORWARDERS
accepted by every interface connected to the link that has subscribed scope 4 is accepted by every interface connected to the link that has
to ALL_MPL_FORWARDERS with scope 4. On acceptance of the MPL4 subscribed to ALL_MPL_FORWARDERS with scope 4. On acceptance of the
message by an interface -called B-, the MPL4 message is returned with MPL4 message by an interface called "Interface B", the MPL4 message
Trickle over interface B. Consequently, the MPL4 message is received is returned with Trickle over Interface B. Consequently, the MPL4
by the originating interface A, after which MPL_BLOCKED is set to message is received by the originating Interface A, after which
false. MPL_BLOCKED is set to false.
When a new node is connected to the link, it can immediately send an When a new node is connected to the link, it can immediately send an
MPL4 message, or can wait for the reception of an MPL4 message to MPL4 message, or it can wait for the reception of an MPL4 message to
announce its intention to be part of the MPL4 zone. announce its intention to be part of the MPL4 zone.
4. Admin-Local policy 4. Admin-Local Policy
The section starts with specifying what multicast messages arriving This section begins by specifying what types of multicast messages
at an interface are legal. It continues with a description of arriving at an interface are legal. It continues with a description
forwarding legal admin-local multicast messages over other MPL of forwarding legal Admin-Local multicast messages over other MPL
interfaces. Interfaces.
The policy for forwarding admin-local multicast messages The policy for forwarding Admin-Local multicast messages
automatically to a MPL interface is specified as function of the automatically to an MPL Interface is specified as a function of the
state of the MPL interface and the multicast message. The state of state of the MPL Interface and the multicast message. The state of
the multicast message is determined by the presence of the MPL option the multicast message is determined by the presence of the MPL Option
[I-D.ietf-roll-trickle-mcast] and the destination multicast address. [RFC7731] and the destination multicast address. The state of the
The state of the MPL interface is determined by the subscribed MPL Interface is determined by the subscribed multicast addresses,
multicast addresses, the zone index [RFC4007], and the values of the the zone index [RFC4007], and the values of the PROACTIVE_FORWARDING
PROACTIVE_FORWARDING parameter and the MPL_BLOCKED parameter of the parameter and the MPL_BLOCKED parameter of the MPL Interface.
MPL interface.
When zone is undefined or not enabled, all interfaces have the same When the zone is undefined or not enabled, all interfaces have the
zone index. same zone index.
4.1. Legal multicast messages 4.1. Legal Multicast Messages
Multicast messages can be created within the node by an application Multicast messages can be created within the node by an application
or can arrive at an interface. or can arrive at an interface.
A multicast message created at a source (MPL seed) is legal when it A multicast message created at a source (MPL Seed) is legal when it
conforms to the properties described in section 9.1 of conforms to the properties described in Section 9.1 of [RFC7731].
[I-D.ietf-roll-trickle-mcast].
A multicast message received at a given interface is legal when: A multicast message received at a given interface is legal when:
o The message carries an MPL option (MPL message) and the incoming o The message carries an MPL Option (MPL message) and the incoming
MPL interface is subscribed to the destination multicast address. MPL Interface is subscribed to the destination multicast address.
o The message does not carry an MPL option, the multicast address is o The message does not carry an MPL Option and the interface has
unequal to ALL_MPL_FORWARDERS scope 4 or scope 3, and the expressed interest in receiving messages with the specified
interface has expressed interest to receive messages with the multicast address via Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) [RFC3810]
specified multicast address via MLD [RFC3810] or via IGMP or IGMP [RFC3376]. The message was forwarded according to
[RFC3376]. The message was sent on according to PIM-DM [RFC3973] Protocol Independent Multicast - Dense Mode (PIM-DM) [RFC3973] or
or according to PIM-SM [RFC4601]. Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM) [RFC4601].
Illegal multicast messages are discarded. Illegal multicast messages are discarded.
4.2. Forwarding legal packets 4.2. Forwarding Legal Packets
A legal multicast message received at a given interface is assigned A legal multicast message received at a given interface is assigned
the network identifier of the interface of the incoming link . A the network identifier of the interface of the incoming link. A
message that is created within the node is assigned the network message that is created within the node is assigned the network
identifier "any". identifier "any".
Two types of legal multicast messages are considered: (1) MPL Two types of legal multicast messages are considered in Section 4.1:
messages, and (2) multicast messages which do not carry the MPL (1) MPL messages and (2) multicast messages that do not carry the MPL
option. Option.
4.2.1. MPL message 4.2.1. MPL Message
MPL messages are forwarded on MPL interfaces using the Trickle MPL messages are forwarded on MPL Interfaces using the Trickle
parameter values assigned to the MPL interface according to the parameter values assigned to the MPL Interface according to the
following rules: following rules:
o Link-local (scope 2) MPL messages are not forwarded. o Link-Local (scope 2) MPL messages are not forwarded.
o Realm-local (scope 3) MPL messages are forwarded on all MPL o Realm-Local (scope 3) MPL messages are forwarded on all MPL
interfaces that are subscribed to the same multicast address, have Interfaces where all of the following are true:
the same zone index, and have PROACTIVE-FORWARDING set to true,
and the assigned network identifier of the multicast message is
identical to the network identifier of the MPL interface, or the
assigned network identifier of the multicast message is "any".
o Admin-local (scope 4) MPL messages are forwarded on all MPL * The multicast address to which the MPL Interface subscribes is
interfaces that are subscribed to the same multicast address, have the same as the multicast address of the MPL message.
the same zone index, have PROACTIVE-FORWARDING set to true, and
have MPL_BLOCKED set to false.
o MPL messages with a multicast scope of 5 or higher MUST * The zone index of the MPL Interface is the same as the zone
encapsulate a message with the same multicast address without MPL index of the MPL Interface on which the MPL message was
option. The decapsulated message can be forwarded over an received.
interface when the interface is subscribed with MLD to the same
multicast address.
4.2.2. Multicast messages without MPL option * The MPL Interface has PROACTIVE_FORWARDING set to TRUE.
Multicast messages without MPL option are forwarded on MPL interfaces * The assigned network identifier of the MPL message is "any", or
according to the following rules: the assigned network identifier of the MPL message is equal to
the network identifier of the MPL Interface.
o Link-local (scope 2) messages or realm-local (scope 3) multicast o Admin-Local (scope 4) MPL messages are forwarded on all MPL
messages are not forwarded. Interfaces that are subscribed to the same multicast address, have
the same zone index, have PROACTIVE_FORWARDING set to TRUE, and
have MPL_BLOCKED set to false.
o Admin-local (scope 4) multicast messages are encapsulated with a o MPL messages that encapsulate a message with a multicast scope of
header carrying the MPL option and are forwarded on al MPL 5 or higher are decapsulated and forwarded over the interface when
interfaces that are subscribed to the multicast address, have the the interface is subscribed to the multicast address of the
same zone index, have PROACTIVE_FORWARDING set to true, and have decapsulated message.
MPL_BLOCKED set to false.
4.2.2. Multicast Messages without MPL Option
Multicast messages without the MPL Option are forwarded on MPL
Interfaces according to the following rules:
o Link-Local (scope 2), Realm-Local (scope 3), and Admin-Local
(scope 4) multicast messages are not forwarded.
o Multicast messages with a multicast scope of 5 or higher are o Multicast messages with a multicast scope of 5 or higher are
encapsulated with a header carrying the MPL option and are encapsulated in an MPL message with destination address
forwarded on al MPL interfaces that are subscribed to the ALL_MPL_FORWARDERS with scope 4. The resulting message is then
multicast address, have PROACTIVE_FORWARDING set to true, and have treated as described in Section 4.2.1.
MPL_BLOCKED set to false. In addition these messages follow the
Multicast forwarding rules as specified by PIM [RFC3973],
[RFC4601] according to group specifications enabled by MLD
[RFC3810] or IGMP [RFC3376].
4.3. Encryption rules 4.3. Encryption Rules
An incoming message protected at layer-2 MUST be subsequently re- An incoming message protected at Layer 2 MUST be subsequently
protected at layer-2 at all outgoing interfaces. Incoming messages re-protected at Layer 2 at all outgoing interfaces. Incoming
are integrity checked and optionally decrypted at the incoming messages are integrity checked and optionally decrypted at the
interface at layer-2 using the keys and protection algorithm incoming interface at Layer 2 using the keys and protection algorithm
appropriate to the incoming interface's network and re-protected at appropriate to the incoming interface's network and are re-protected
the outgoing interface using the keys and protection algorithm at the outgoing interface using the keys and protection algorithm
appropriate to the outgoing interface's network. It may be necessary appropriate to the outgoing interface's network. It may be necessary
to assess the relative levels of protection on the respective to assess the relative levels of protection on the respective
interfaces and apply policy rules, for example to avoid downgrading interfaces and apply policy rules -- for example, to avoid
security where one network has a lower level of security than downgrading security where one network has a lower level of security
another. than another.
An incoming MPL4 messages which is not protected at layer-2 MUST NOT An incoming MPL4 message that is not protected at Layer 2 MUST NOT be
be re-protected at layer-2 at all outgoing interfaces. re-protected at Layer 2 at all outgoing interfaces.
5. MPL domains and zones 5. MPL Domains and Zones
An MPL domain is a scope zone in which MPL interfaces subscribe to An MPL Domain is a scope zone in which MPL Interfaces subscribe to
the same MPL Domain Address [I-D.ietf-roll-trickle-mcast]. In the same MPL Domain Address [RFC7731]. In accordance with [RFC4007],
accordance with [RFC4007] a zone boundary passes through a node. For a zone boundary passes through a node. For example, a small
example, a small LLN node usually has one MPL mesh interface which is Low-Power and Lossy Network (LLN) node usually has one MPL mesh
enabled to the ALL_MPL_FORWARDERS multicast address with a scope interface that is subscribed to the ALL_MPL_FORWARDERS multicast
value of 3 (realm-local) [RFC7346]. The node interface belongs to address with a scope value of 3 (Realm-Local) [RFC7346]. The node
the zone and the corresponding zone boundary does not pass through interface belongs to the zone, and the corresponding zone boundary
this node. In the border router with MPL interfaces enabled to the does not pass through this node. In the border router with MPL
multicast address ALL_MPL_FORWARDERS with scope value 3, the zone Interfaces subscribed to the multicast address ALL_MPL_FORWARDERS
includes usually this single interface and excludes all other with scope value 3, the zone usually includes this single interface
interfaces. A notable exception is provided by a node where MPL and excludes all other interfaces. A notable exception is provided
interfaces of the same technology share the same network identifier. by a node where MPL Interfaces of the same technology share the same
These interfaces belong to the same MPL4 zone when the interfaces network identifier. These interfaces belong to the same MPL4 zone
share the same zone index. when the interfaces share the same zone index.
In an MPL4 router, every MPL interface subscribes to the admin_local In an MPL4 router, every MPL Interface subscribes to the Admin-Local
ALL_MPL_FORWARDERS multicast address next to the realm-local ALL_MPL_FORWARDERS multicast address in addition to the Realm-Local
ALL_MPL_FORWARDERS address. ALL_MPL_FORWARDERS address.
Every interface that belongs to an MPL domain that extends over Every interface that belongs to an MPL Domain that extends over
border routers MUST be subscribed to the admin-local border routers MUST be subscribed to the Admin-Local
ALL_MPL_FORWARDERS address. ALL_MPL_FORWARDERS address.
The MPL4 zone corresponding with the MPL multicast address The MPL4 zone corresponding with the MPL multicast address
ALL_MPL_FORWARDERS with scope 4 (Admin-local) applies to border ALL_MPL_FORWARDERS with scope 4 (Admin-Local) applies to border
routers with multiple interfaces, of which at least one interface is routers with multiple interfaces, of which at least one interface is
MPL enabled and is subscribed to multicast address ALL_MPL_FORWARDERS MPL enabled and is subscribed to multicast address ALL_MPL_FORWARDERS
with scope 4. In a border router, all MPL enabled interfaces which with scope 4. In a border router, all MPL-enabled interfaces that
subscribe to the ALL_MPL_FORWARDERS address with scope 4 and for subscribe to the ALL_MPL_FORWARDERS address with scope 4 and for
which MPL_BLOCKED is false belong to the same MPL4 zone when the which MPL_BLOCKED is false belong to the same MPL4 zone when the
interfaces share the same zone index. interfaces share the same zone index.
MPL4 messages remain bounded within a zone as defined in [RFC4007]. MPL4 messages remain bounded within a zone as defined in [RFC4007].
Consequently, MPL4 messages cannot be routed between interfaces Consequently, MPL4 messages cannot be routed between interfaces
belonging to different zones. When the concept of zone is unknown or belonging to different zones. When the concept of zone is unknown or
disabled in a router, all interfaces belong to the same zone. For disabled in a router, all interfaces belong to the same zone. For
example, consider a router with 5 interfaces where interfaces A and B example, consider a router with five interfaces, where Interfaces A
belong to zone 1 and interfaces C,D, and E belong to zone 2. MPL4 and B belong to zone 1 and Interfaces C, D, and E belong to zone 2.
messages can be routed freely between interfaces A and B, and freely MPL4 messages can be routed freely between Interfaces A and B, and
between C,D, and E. However, a MPL4 message MUST NOT be routed from freely between Interfaces C, D, and E. However, an MPL4 message
Interface A to interface D. MUST NOT be routed from Interface A to Interface D.
6. Default parameter values 6. Default Parameter Values
Three parameters are created in this draft. Their values are related Three parameters are created by this document. Their values are
to the Trickle timer intervals. related to the Trickle timer intervals.
MPL_TO = DATA_MESSAGE_IMAX times 2. Which leaves the time to receive o MPL_TO = DATA_MESSAGE_IMAX times 2, which leaves enough time to
the second response message. receive the second response message.
MPL_CHECK_INT = 5 minutes. Which means that a reaction to network o MPL_CHECK_INT = 5 minutes, which means that a reaction to a
malfunctioning happens within 5 minutes. network malfunction happens within 5 minutes.
MPL_BLOCKED = true. Which means that the interface has not received o MPL_BLOCKED = TRUE, which means that the interface has not
MPL-enabled messages to include the interface to the MPL4 zone. received MPL-enabled messages to include the interface in the
MPL4 zone.
7. Security Considerations 7. Security Considerations
The security considerations of [I-D.ietf-roll-trickle-mcast] also The security considerations of [RFC7731] also apply to MPL4 routers.
apply to MPL4 routers.
The sending of MPL4 messages by a malicious node can have unwanted The sending of MPL4 messages by a malicious node can have unwanted
consequences explained with the following example. It is not unusual consequences, as explained by the following example. It is not
for a wired (e.g. ethernet) link to be used between two floors or unusual for a wired (e.g., Ethernet) link to be used between two
sections of an LLN, as radio propagation through reinforced concrete floors or sections of an LLN, as radio propagation through reinforced
is generally poor. The MPL4 zone can thus envelop multiple routers, concrete is generally poor. The MPL4 zone can thus envelop multiple
meshes and links. It is possible that a malicious node connects to a routers, meshes, and links. It is possible that a malicious node
wired link, on which no MPL enabled nodes are foreseen. In this could connect to a wired link on which no MPL-enabled nodes are
example configuration, the malicious node can send MPL4 messages to foreseen. In this example configuration, the malicious node can send
the MPL4 router interfaces. When nothing is done, the MPL4 routers MPL4 messages to the MPL4 router interfaces. When nothing is done,
will consequently distribute MPL4 messages from one mesh over the the MPL4 routers will consequently distribute MPL4 messages from one
wired link to the next mesh, although the wired link was not expected mesh over the wired link to the next mesh, although the wired link
to transport MPL4 messages. was not expected to transport MPL4 messages.
To understand the consequences of this unwanted behaviour, the To understand the consequences of this unwanted behavior, the
following cases should be distinguished: following cases should be distinguished:
o The source mesh uses layer-2 encryption. o The source mesh uses Layer 2 encryption.
o The MPL4 router can be managed. o The MPL4 router can be managed.
The four possible combinations are discussed below: The four possible combinations are discussed below:
Layer-2 unsecured, Router unmanaged: In this case MPL4 messages are Layer 2 unsecured, router unmanaged: In this case, MPL4 messages are
freely distributed over meshes and links which are interconnected freely distributed over meshes and links that are interconnected
by MPL4 routers within a zone. The MPL enabled (malicious) nodes by MPL4 routers within a zone. The MPL-enabled (malicious) nodes
can read all MPL4 messages and distribute MPL4 messages over a can read all MPL4 messages and distribute MPL4 messages over a
network limited by a zone. This situation can be acceptable for network limited by a zone. This situation can be acceptable for
an isolated network, within a clearly defined space, where the an isolated network within a clearly defined space, where the
connection of nodes can be tightly controlled. A completely wired connection of nodes can be tightly controlled. A completely wired
LLN -- such as is seen in BACnet -- is an example of an LLN, e.g., such as is seen in BACnet (a protocol for building
unencrypted LLN which would be considered physically secure. automation and control networks) [BACnet] is an example of an
unencrypted LLN that would be considered physically secure.
Layer-2 secured, Router unmanaged: In this case MPL4 messages are Layer 2 secured, router unmanaged: In this case, MPL4 messages are
freely distributed over meshes and links, which are interconnected freely distributed over meshes and links that are interconnected
by MPL4 routers within a zone. Following the rules of by MPL4 routers within a zone. Following the rules of
Section 4.3, the MPL4 enabled (malicious) nodes can not read the Section 4.3, the MPL4-enabled (malicious) nodes cannot read the
MPL4 messages and MPL4 messages sent by the malicious node are not MPL4 messages, and MPL4 messages sent by the malicious node are
accepted by other nodes. This situation is acceptable for a home not accepted by other nodes. This situation is acceptable for a
network or managed network extending over precisely one zone, home network or managed network extending over precisely one zone,
occupying a clearly defined physical space, where ease of occupying a clearly defined physical space, where ease of
installation is important. In such a network, the presence of the installation is important. In such a network, the presence of the
malicious node is not different from any other malicious node, malicious node is not different from any other malicious node that
which tries to send messages over layer-2 protected links. tries to send messages over Layer 2 protected links. Because the
Because the network occupies exactly one zone, the MPL4 message network occupies exactly one zone, the MPL4 message distribution
distribution cannot be extended outside the network. cannot be extended outside the network.
Layer-2 unsecured, Router managed: In this case the distribution of Layer 2 unsecured, router managed: In this case, the distribution of
MPL4 messages over MPL4 router interfaces can be limited to those MPL4 messages over MPL4 router interfaces can be limited to those
interfaces, which a manager enabled for MPL and a set of multicast interfaces for which a manager has enabled MPL, as well as a set
addresses. The malicious node cannot extend the distribution of of multicast addresses. The malicious node cannot extend the
MPL4 messages over unwanted interfaces. It is important that the distribution of MPL4 messages over unwanted interfaces. It is
handling of the interfaces by the manager is protected. However, important that the handling of the interfaces by the manager is
MPL4 messages sent over the mesh can be interpreted by malicious protected. However, MPL4 messages sent over the mesh can be
nodes and malicious messages can be injected into the set of interpreted by malicious nodes, and malicious messages can be
meshes and links which are connected by the MPL4 routers for which injected into the set of meshes and links that are connected by
the manager enabled the interfaces. This situation can be the MPL4 routers for which the manager enabled the interfaces.
practical for interconnected links and meshes, which are connected This situation can be practical for interconnected links and
to a LAN over a limited period, for example during installation of meshes that are connected to a LAN over a limited period -- for
the interconnected meshes and links. example, during installation of the interconnected meshes and
links.
Layer-2 secured, Router managed: In this case the distribution of Layer 2 secured, router managed: In this case, the distribution of
MPL4 messages over MPL4 router interfaces can be limited to those MPL4 messages over MPL4 router interfaces can be limited to those
interfaces, which a manager enabled for MPL and a set of multicast interfaces for which a manager has enabled MPL, as well as a set
addresses. Following the rules of Section 4.3, the malicious node of multicast addresses. Following the rules of Section 4.3, the
cannot extend the distribution of MPL4 messages over unwanted malicious node cannot extend the distribution of MPL4 messages
interfaces and MPL4 messages sent by the malicious node are not over unwanted interfaces, and MPL4 messages sent by the malicious
accepted by other nodes. It is important that the handling of the node are not accepted by other nodes. It is important that the
interfaces by the manager is protected. The MPL enabled handling of the interfaces by the manager is protected. The
(malicious) nodes can not read the MPL4 messages and MPL4 messages MPL-enabled (malicious) nodes cannot read the MPL4 messages, and
sent by the malicious node are not accepted by other nodes. MPL4 messages sent by the malicious node are not accepted by other
Dependent on the number of managed interfaces, the network can nodes. Depending on the number of managed interfaces, the network
progressively pass from auto-configured to fully administratively can progressively pass from autoconfigured to fully
controlled. administratively controlled.
8. IANA Considerations
No considerations for IANA are formulated in this document.
9. Acknowledgements
This document reflects discussions and remarks from several
individuals including (in alphabetical order): Scott Bradner, Esko
Dijk, Adrian Farrel, Matthew Gillmore, Joel Halpern, Steve Hanna,
Michael Richardson, and Pascal Thubert.
10. Change log
When published as a RFC, this section needs to be removed.
Version 03 - version 01
o Explained MPL acronym
o Added relation of MPL4 zone to zone as defined in [RFC4007]
o Added a section on encryption rules
o Revised and clarified the security considerations
Version 00 - version 01
o Default parameter values declared
o Security section extended
o scope 5 of higher messages specified
o messages with address ALL_MPL_FORWARDERS are not allowed from
outside zone
Changes from personal version to WG version-00.
o Aligned terminology with MPL terminology
[I-D.ietf-roll-trickle-mcast]
o Text on MPL4 router included
11. References 8. References
11.1. Normative References 8.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC3810] Vida, R. and L. Costa, "Multicast Listener Discovery [RFC3810] Vida, R., Ed., and L. Costa, Ed., "Multicast Listener
Version 2 (MLDv2) for IPv6", RFC 3810, June 2004. Discovery Version 2 (MLDv2) for IPv6", RFC 3810,
DOI 10.17487/RFC3810, June 2004,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3810>.
[RFC4291] Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing [RFC4291] Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006. Architecture", RFC 4291, DOI 10.17487/RFC4291,
February 2006, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4291>.
[RFC4944] Montenegro, G., Kushalnagar, N., Hui, J., and D. Culler, [RFC4944] Montenegro, G., Kushalnagar, N., Hui, J., and D. Culler,
"Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4 "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4
Networks", RFC 4944, September 2007. Networks", RFC 4944, DOI 10.17487/RFC4944, September 2007,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4944>.
[RFC3376] Cain, B., Deering, S., Kouvelas, I., Fenner, B., and A. [RFC3376] Cain, B., Deering, S., Kouvelas, I., Fenner, B., and A.
Thyagarajan, "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version Thyagarajan, "Internet Group Management Protocol,
3", RFC 3376, October 2002. Version 3", RFC 3376, DOI 10.17487/RFC3376, October 2002,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3376>.
[RFC4007] Deering, S., Haberman, B., Jinmei, T., Nordmark, E., and [RFC4007] Deering, S., Haberman, B., Jinmei, T., Nordmark, E., and
B. Zill, "IPv6 Scoped Address Architecture", RFC 4007, B. Zill, "IPv6 Scoped Address Architecture", RFC 4007,
March 2005. DOI 10.17487/RFC4007, March 2005,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4007>.
[RFC5416] Calhoun, P., Montemurro, M., and D. Stanley, "Control and [RFC5416] Calhoun, P., Ed., Montemurro, M., Ed., and D. Stanley,
Provisioning of Wireless Access Points (CAPWAP) Protocol Ed., "Control and Provisioning of Wireless Access Points
Binding for IEEE 802.11", RFC 5416, March 2009. (CAPWAP) Protocol Binding for IEEE 802.11", RFC 5416,
DOI 10.17487/RFC5416, March 2009,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5416>.
[RFC6206] Levis, P., Clausen, T., Hui, J., Gnawali, O., and J. Ko, [RFC6206] Levis, P., Clausen, T., Hui, J., Gnawali, O., and J. Ko,
"The Trickle Algorithm", RFC 6206, March 2011. "The Trickle Algorithm", RFC 6206, DOI 10.17487/RFC6206,
March 2011, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6206>.
[RFC7346] Droms, R., "IPv6 Multicast Address Scopes", RFC 7346, [RFC7346] Droms, R., "IPv6 Multicast Address Scopes", RFC 7346,
August 2014. DOI 10.17487/RFC7346, August 2014,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7346>.
[I-D.ietf-roll-trickle-mcast] [RFC7731] Hui, J. and R. Kelsey, "Multicast Protocol for Low-Power
Hui, J. and R. Kelsey, "Multicast Protocol for Low power and Lossy Networks (MPL)", RFC 7731, DOI 10.17487/RFC7731,
and Lossy Networks (MPL)", draft-ietf-roll-trickle- February 2016, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7731>.
mcast-11 (work in progress), November 2014.
[IEEE802.15.4] [IEEE802.15.4]
"IEEE 802.15.4 - Standard for Local and metropolitan area IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area
networks -- Part 15.4: Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area networks--Part 15.4: Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area
Networks", <IEEE Standard 802.15.4>. Networks (LR-WPANs)", IEEE 802.15.4,
DOI 10.1109/ieeestd.2011.6012487,
<http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/servlet/
opac?punumber=6012485>.
[IEEE802.11] [IEEE802.11]
"IEEE 802.11 - Telecommunications and information exchange IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Information technology--
between systems Local and metropolitan area networks -- Telecommunications and information exchange between
Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and systems Local and metropolitan area networks--Specific
Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications", <IEEE Standard requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control
802.11>. (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications",
IEEE 802.11-2012, DOI 10.1109/ieeestd.2012.6178212,
<http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/servlet/
opac?punumber=6178209>.
[G.9959] "ITU-T G.9959 Short range narrow-band digital [G.9959] International Telecommunication Union, "Short range
radiocommunication transceivers - PHY and MAC layer narrow-band digital radiocommunication transceivers - PHY,
specifications", <ITU-T G.9959>. MAC, SAR and LLC layer specifications", ITU-T
Recommendation G.9959, January 2015,
<http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-G.9959>.
[btle] "BLUETOOTH Specification Version 4.0", <BLUETOOTH low [BTLE] Bluetooth Special Interest Group, "Bluetooth Core
energy>. Specification Version 4.1", December 2013,
<https://www.bluetooth.org/en-us/specification/
adopted-specifications>.
11.2. Informative References 8.2. Informative References
[RFC3973] Adams, A., Nicholas, J., and W. Siadak, "Protocol [RFC3973] Adams, A., Nicholas, J., and W. Siadak, "Protocol
Independent Multicast - Dense Mode (PIM-DM): Protocol Independent Multicast - Dense Mode (PIM-DM): Protocol
Specification (Revised)", RFC 3973, January 2005. Specification (Revised)", RFC 3973, DOI 10.17487/RFC3973,
January 2005, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3973>.
[RFC4601] Fenner, B., Handley, M., Holbrook, H., and I. Kouvelas, [RFC4601] Fenner, B., Handley, M., Holbrook, H., and I. Kouvelas,
"Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM): "Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM):
Protocol Specification (Revised)", RFC 4601, August 2006. Protocol Specification (Revised)", RFC 4601,
DOI 10.17487/RFC4601, August 2006,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4601>.
[I-D.irtf-nmrg-an-gap-analysis] [RFC7576] Jiang, S., Carpenter, B., and M. Behringer, "General Gap
Jiang, S., Carpenter, B., and M. Behringer, "Gap Analysis Analysis for Autonomic Networking", RFC 7576,
for Autonomic Networking", draft-irtf-nmrg-an-gap- DOI 10.17487/RFC7576, June 2015,
analysis-03 (work in progress), December 2014. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7576>.
[I-D.ietf-6lo-lowpanz] [RFC7428] Brandt, A. and J. Buron, "Transmission of IPv6 Packets
Brandt, A. and J. Buron, "Transmission of IPv6 packets over ITU-T G.9959 Networks", RFC 7428,
over ITU-T G.9959 Networks", draft-ietf-6lo-lowpanz-08 DOI 10.17487/RFC7428, February 2015,
(work in progress), October 2014. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7428>.
[I-D.ietf-6lo-btle] [RFC7668] Nieminen, J., Savolainen, T., Isomaki, M., Patil, B.,
Nieminen, J., Savolainen, T., Isomaki, M., Patil, B., Shelby, Z., and C. Gomez, "IPv6 over BLUETOOTH(R) Low
Shelby, Z., and C. Gomez, "Transmission of IPv6 Packets Energy", RFC 7668, DOI 10.17487/RFC7668, October 2015,
over BLUETOOTH(R) Low Energy", draft-ietf-6lo-btle-07 <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7668>.
(work in progress), January 2015.
[BACnet] "BACnet Webpage", <http://www.bacnet.org>.
Acknowledgements
This document reflects discussions and remarks from several
individuals, including (in alphabetical order) Scott Bradner, Esko
Dijk, Adrian Farrel, Matthew Gillmore, Joel Halpern, Steve Hanna,
Michael Richardson, and Pascal Thubert.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Peter van der Stok Peter van der Stok
Consultant Consultant
Email: consultancy@vanderstok.org Email: consultancy@vanderstok.org
Robert Cragie Robert Cragie
Gridmerge ARM Ltd.
110 Fulbourn Road
Cambridge CB1 9NJ
United Kingdom
Email: robert.cragie@gridmerge.com Email: robert.cragie@arm.com
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