Networking Working Group JP. Vasseur Internet-Draft Cisco Systems, Inc Intended status: Informational
October 9, 2008May 7, 2009 Expires: April 12,November 8, 2009 Terminology in Low power And Lossy Networks draft-ietf-roll-terminology-00.txtdraft-ietf-roll-terminology-01.txt Status of this Memo By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or sheThis Internet-Draft is aware have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes aware will be disclosed,submitted to IETF in accordancefull conformance with Section 6the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet- Drafts. Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt. The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html. This Internet-Draft will expire on April 12,November 8, 2009. Copyright Notice Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved. This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents in effect on the date of publication of this document (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info). Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Abstract The documents defines a terminology for discussing routing requirements and solutions for networks referred to as Low power and Lossy Networks (LLN). A LLN is typically composed of many embedded devices with limited power, memory, and processing resources interconnected by a variety of links. There is a wide scope of application areas for LLNs, including industrial monitoring, building automation (e.g. Heating, Ventilating, Air Conditioning, lighting, access control, fire), connected home, healthcare, environmental monitoring, urban sensor networks, energy management, assets tracking, refrigeration. Requirements Language The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. Table of Contents 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 81. Introduction This document defines a terminology for discussing routing requirements and solutions for networks referred to as Low power and Lossy Networks (LLN). Low power and Lossy networks (LLNs) are typically composed of many embedded devices with limited power, memory, and processing resources interconnected by a variety of links, such as IEEE 802.15.4, Low Power WiFi. There is a wide scope of application areas for LLNs, including industrial monitoring, building automation (HVAC, lighting, access control, fire), connected home, healthcare, environmental monitoring, urban sensor networks, energy management, assets tracking and refrigeration. Since these applications are usually highly specific (for example Industrial Automation, Building Automation, ...), it is not uncommon to see a number of disparate terms to describe the same device or functionality. Thus in order to avoid confusion or discrepancies, this document specifies the common terminology to be used in all ROLL Working Group documents. Terminology specific to a particular application are out of the scope of this document. It is expected that all routing requirements documents defining requirements or specifying routing solutions for LLN will use the common terminology specified in this document. This document should be listed as an informative reference. 2. Terminology Actuator: a field device that controls a set of equipment. For example, an actuator might control and/or modulates the flow of a gas or liquid, control electricity distribution, perform a mechanical operation, ... AMI: Advanced Metering Infrastructure that makes use of Smart Grid technologies. A canonical Smart Grid application is smart-metering. Channel: Radio frequency sub-band used to transmit a modulated signal carrying packets. Channel Hopping: A procedure by which field devices synchronously change channels during operation. Commissioning Tool: Any physical or logical device temporarily added to the network for the expressed purpose of setting up the network and device operational parameters. The commisioning tool can also be temporarily added to the LLN for scheduled or unscheduled maintenance. Closed Loop Control: A process whereby a device controller controls an actuator based on information sensed by one or more field devices. Controller: A field device that can receive sensor input and automatically change the environment in the facility by manipulating digital or analog actuators. DA: Distribution Automation, part of Smart Grid. Encompasses technologies for maintenance and management of electrical distribution systems. Data sink: A device that collects data from nodes in a LLN. Downstream: Data direction traveling from outside of the LLN (e.g. traffic coming from a LAN, WAN or the Internet) via a LBR. Field Device: A field deviced is a physical device placed in the network's operating environment (e.g. plant, urban or home). Field devices include sensors, actuators as well as routers and Low power and Lossy Network Border Router (including LBR). A field device is usually (but not always) a device with constrained CPU, memory footprint, storage capacity, bandwidth and sometimes power (battery operated). At the time of writing, for the sake of illustration, a typical sensor or actuator would have a few KBytes of RAM, a few dozens of KBytes of ROM/Flash memory, a 8/16/32 bit microcontroller and communication capabilities ranging from a few Kbits/s to a few hundreds of KBits/s. Although it is expected to see continuous improvements of hardware and software technologies, such devices will likely continue to be seen as resource constrained devices compared to computers and routers used in the Internet. Flash memory: non-volatile memory that can be re-programmed. FMS: Facility Management System. A global term applied across all the vertical designations within a building including, Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning also referred to as HVAC, Fire, Security, Lighting and Elevator control. HART: "Highway Addressable Remote Transducer", a group of specifications for industrial process and control devices administered by the HART Foundation (see [HART]). The latest version for the specifications is HART7 which includes the additions for WirelessHART. HVAC: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning. A term applied to the comfort level of an internal space. ISA: "International Society of Automation". ISA is an ANSI accredited standards-making society. ISA100 is an ISA committee whose charter includes defining a family of standards for industrial automation. [ISA100.11a] is a working group within ISA100 that is working on a standard for monitoring and non-critical process control applications. LAN: Local Area Network. LBR: Low power and lossy network Border Router. The LBR is a device that connects the Low power and Lossy Network to another routing domain such as a Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Network (WAN) or the Internet where a possibly different routing protocol is in operation. The LBR acts as a routing device and may possibly host other functions such as data collector or aggregator. LLN: Low power and Lossy networks (LLNs) are typically composed of many embedded devices with limited power, memory, and processing resources interconnected by a variety of links, such as IEEE 802.15.4 or Low Power WiFi. There is a wide scope of application areas for LLNs, including industrial monitoring, building automation (HVAC, lighting, access control, fire), connected home, healthcare, environmental monitoring, urban sensor networks, energy management, assets tracking and refrigeration.. MAC: Medium Access Control. Refers to algorithms and procedures used by the data link layer to coordinate use of the physical layer. Open Loop Control: A process whereby a plant operator manually manipulates an actuator over the network where the decision is influenced by information sensed by field devices. PER: Packet Error Rate. A ratio of the number of unusable packets (not received at all, or received in error- even after any applicable error correction has been applied) to the total number of packets that would have been been received in the absence of errors. RAM: Random Access Memory. The RAM is a volatile memory. RFID: Radio Frequency IDentification. ROM: Read Only Memory. ROLL: Routing Over Low power and Lossy networks. Schedule: An agreed execution, wake-up, transmission, reception, etc., time-table between two or more field devices. Sensor: A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it to a analog or digital signal that can be read by a program or a user. Sensed data can be of many types: electromagnetic (e.g. current, voltage, power, resistance, ...) , mechanical (e.g. pressure, flow, liquid density, humidity, ...), chemical (e.g. oxygen, carbon monoxide, ...), acoustic (e.g. noise, ultrasound), ... Smart Grid: A Smart Grid is a broad class of applications to network and automate utility infrastructure. Timeslot: A Timeslot is a fixed time interval that may be used for the transmission or reception of a packet between two field devices. A timeslot used for communications is associated with a slotted-link Upstream: Data direction traveling from the LLN via the LBR to outside of the LLN (LAN, WAN, Internet). WAN: Wide Area Network. 3. IANA Considerations This document includes no request for IANA action. 4. Security Considerations Since this document specifies terminology and does not specify new procedure or protocols, it raises no new security issue. 5. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Christian Jacquenet, Tim Winter, Pieter De Mil and David Meyer for their valuable feed-back. 6. References 6.1. Normative References [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. 6.2. Informative References [I-D.ietf-roll-home-routing-reqs] Brandt, A., Buron, J., and G.Porcu, G., "Home Automation Routing RequirementRequirements in Low Power and Lossy Networks", draft-ietf-roll-home-routing-reqs-03draft-ietf-roll-home-routing-reqs-06 (work in progress), SeptemberNovember 2008. [I-D.ietf-roll-indus-routing-reqs] Networks, D., Thubert, P., Dwars, S., and T. Phinney, "Industrial Routing Requirements in Low Power and Lossy Networks", draft-ietf-roll-indus-routing-reqs-01draft-ietf-roll-indus-routing-reqs-05 (work in progress), July 2008.April 2009. [I-D.ietf-roll-urban-routing-reqs] Dohler, M., Watteyne, T., Winter, T., Barthel, D., Jacquenet, C., Madhusudan, G., Chegaray, G.,and D. Barthel,G. Chegaray, "Urban WSNs Routing Requirements in Low Power and Lossy Networks", draft-ietf-roll-urban-routing-reqs-01draft-ietf-roll-urban-routing-reqs-05 (work in progress), July 2008.March 2009. [I-D.martocci-roll-building-routing-reqs] Martocci, J., Riou, N., Mil, P., and W. Vermeylen, "Commercial"Building Automation Routing Requirements in Low Power and Lossy Networks", draft-martocci-roll-building-routing-reqs-00draft-martocci-roll-building-routing-reqs-01 (work in progress), SeptemberOctober 2008. 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