draft-ietf-roll-terminology-11.txt   draft-ietf-roll-terminology-12.txt 
Networking Working Group JP. Vasseur Networking Working Group JP. Vasseur
Internet-Draft Cisco Systems, Inc Internet-Draft Cisco Systems, Inc
Intended status: Informational February 16, 2013 Intended status: Informational March 11, 2013
Expires: August 20, 2013 Expires: September 12, 2013
Terminology in Low power And Lossy Networks Terminology in Low power And Lossy Networks
draft-ietf-roll-terminology-11.txt draft-ietf-roll-terminology-12.txt
Abstract Abstract
The documents defines a terminology for discussing routing The documents defines a terminology for discussing routing
requirements and solutions for networks referred to as Low power and requirements and solutions for networks referred to as Low power and
Lossy Networks (LLN). A LLN is typically composed of many embedded Lossy Networks (LLN). An LLN is typically composed of many embedded
devices with limited power, memory, and processing resources devices with limited power, memory, and processing resources
interconnected by a variety of links. There is a wide scope of interconnected by a variety of links. There is a wide scope of
application areas for LLNs, including industrial monitoring, building application areas for LLNs, including industrial monitoring, building
automation (e.g. Heating, Ventilating, Air Conditioning, lighting, automation (e.g. Heating, Ventilating, Air Conditioning, lighting,
access control, fire), connected home, healthcare, environmental access control, fire), connected home, healthcare, environmental
monitoring, urban sensor networks, energy management, assets monitoring, urban sensor networks, energy management, assets
tracking, refrigeration. tracking, refrigeration.
Requirements Language Status of This Memo
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
Status of this Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
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This Internet-Draft will expire on August 20, 2013. This Internet-Draft will expire on September 12, 2013.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 6. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 6.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 6.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document defines a terminology for discussing routing This document defines a terminology for discussing routing
requirements and solutions for networks referred to as Low power and requirements and solutions for networks referred to as Low power and
Lossy Networks (LLN). Lossy Networks (LLN).
Low power and Lossy networks (LLNs) are typically composed of many Low power and Lossy networks (LLNs) are typically composed of many
embedded devices with limited power, memory, and processing resources embedded devices with limited power, memory, and processing resources
interconnected by a variety of links, such as IEEE 802.15.4, Low interconnected by a variety of links, such as IEEE 802.15.4, Low
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of this document. of this document.
It is expected that all routing requirements documents defining It is expected that all routing requirements documents defining
requirements or specifying routing solutions for LLN will use the requirements or specifying routing solutions for LLN will use the
common terminology specified in this document. This document should common terminology specified in this document. This document should
be listed as an informative reference. be listed as an informative reference.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
Actuator: a field device that controls a set of equipment. For Actuator: a field device that controls a set of equipment. For
example, an actuator might control and/or modulates the flow of a gas example, an actuator might control and/or modulate the flow of a gas
or liquid, control electricity distribution, perform a mechanical or liquid, control electricity distribution, perform a mechanical
operation, ... operation, ...
AMI: Advanced Metering Infrastructure that makes use of Smart Grid AMI: Advanced Metering Infrastructure that makes use of Smart Grid
technologies. A canonical Smart Grid application is smart-metering. technologies. A canonical Smart Grid application is smart-metering.
Channel: Radio frequency sub-band used to transmit a modulated signal Channel: Radio frequency sub-band used to transmit a modulated signal
carrying packets. carrying packets.
Channel Hopping: A procedure by which field devices synchronously Channel Hopping: A procedure by which field devices synchronously
change channels during operation. change channels during operation.
Commissioning Tool: Any physical or logical device temporarily added Commissioning Tool: Any physical or logical device temporarily added
to the network for the expressed purpose of setting up the network to the network for the express purpose of setting up the network and
and device operational parameters. The commisioning tool can also be device operational parameters. The commisioning tool can also be
temporarily added to the LLN for scheduled or unscheduled temporarily added to the LLN for scheduled or unscheduled
maintenance. maintenance.
Closed Loop Control: A procedure whereby a device controller controls Closed Loop Control: A procedure whereby a device controller controls
an actuator based on input information sensed by one or more field an actuator based on input information sensed by one or more field
devices. devices.
Controller: A field device that can receive sensor input and Controller: A field device that can receive sensor input and
automatically change the environment in the facility by manipulating automatically change the environment in the facility by manipulating
digital or analog actuators. digital or analog actuators.
DA: Distribution Automation, part of Smart Grid. Encompasses DA: Distribution Automation, part of Smart Grid. Encompasses
technologies for maintenance and management of electrical technologies for maintenance and management of electrical
distribution systems. distribution systems.
Data sink: A device that collects data from nodes in a LLN. Directed Acyclic Graph: A directed graph with no directed cycles (a
graph formed by a collection of vertices and directed edges where
each edge connects one vertex to another, such that there is no way
to start at some vertex v and follow a sequence of edges that
eventually loops back to the edge v again)
Data sink: A device that collects data from nodes in an LLN.
Downstream: Data direction traveling from outside of the LLN (e.g. Downstream: Data direction traveling from outside of the LLN (e.g.
traffic coming from a LAN, WAN or the Internet) via a LBR. traffic coming from a LAN, WAN or the Internet) via a LBR, or in
general "deeper" in the Directed Acyclic Graph computed by the
routing protocol.
Field Device: A field deviced is a physical device placed in the Field Device: A field device is a physical device placed in the
network's operating environment (e.g. plant, urban or home). Field network's operating environment (e.g. plant, urban or home). Field
devices include sensors, actuators as well as routers and Low power devices include sensors, actuators as well as routers and Low power
and Lossy Network Border Router (including LBR). A field device is and Lossy Network Border Router (LBR). A field device is usually
usually (but not always) a device with constrained CPU, memory (but not always) a device with constrained CPU, memory footprint,
footprint, storage capacity, bandwidth and sometimes power (battery storage capacity, bandwidth and sometimes power (battery operated).
operated). At the time of writing, for the sake of illustration, a At the time of writing, for the sake of illustration, a typical
typical sensor or actuator would have a few KBytes of RAM, a few sensor or actuator would have a few KBytes of RAM, a few dozens of
dozens of KBytes of ROM/Flash memory, a 8/16/32 bit microcontroller KBytes of ROM/Flash memory, a 8/16/32 bit microcontroller and
and communication capabilities ranging from a few Kbits/s to a few communication capabilities ranging from a few Kbits/s to a few
hundreds of KBits/s. Although it is expected to see continuous hundreds of KBits/s. Although it is expected to see continuous
improvements of hardware and software technologies, such devices will improvements of hardware and software technologies, such devices will
likely continue to be seen as resource constrained devices compared likely continue to be seen as resource constrained devices compared
to computers and routers used in the Internet. compared to computers and routers used in the rest of the Internet.
Flash memory: non-volatile memory that can be re-programmed. Flash memory: non-volatile memory that can be re-programmed.
FMS: Facility Management System. A global term applied across all FMS: Facility Management System. A global term applied across all
the vertical designations within a building including, Heating, the vertical designations within a building including, Heating,
Ventilating, and Air Conditioning also referred to as HVAC, Fire, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning also referred to as HVAC, Fire,
Security, Lighting and Elevator control. Security, Lighting and Elevator control.
HART: "Highway Addressable Remote Transducer", a group of HART: "Highway Addressable Remote Transducer", a group of
specifications for industrial process and control devices specifications for industrial process and control devices
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ISA: "International Society of Automation". ISA is an ANSI ISA: "International Society of Automation". ISA is an ANSI
accredited standards-making society. ISA100 is an ISA committee accredited standards-making society. ISA100 is an ISA committee
whose charter includes defining a family of standards for industrial whose charter includes defining a family of standards for industrial
automation. [ISA100.11a] is a working group within ISA100 that is automation. [ISA100.11a] is a working group within ISA100 that is
working on a standard for monitoring and non-critical process control working on a standard for monitoring and non-critical process control
applications. applications.
LAN: Local Area Network. LAN: Local Area Network.
LBR: Low power and lossy network Border Router. The LBR is a device LBR: Low power and Lossy Network Border Router. The LBR is a device
that connects the Low power and Lossy Network to another routing that connects the Low power and Lossy Network to another routing
domain such as a Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Network (WAN) or domain such as a Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Network (WAN) or
the Internet where a possibly different routing protocol is in the Internet where a possibly different routing protocol is in
operation. The LBR acts as a routing device and may possibly host operation. The LBR acts as a routing device and may possibly host
other functions such as data collector or aggregator. other functions such as data collector or aggregator.
LLN: Low power and Lossy networks (LLNs) are typically composed of LLN: Low power and Lossy networks (LLNs) are typically composed of
many embedded devices with limited power, memory, and processing many embedded devices with limited power, memory, and processing
resources interconnected by a variety of links, such as IEEE 802.15.4 resources interconnected by a variety of links, such as IEEE 802.15.4
or Low Power WiFi. There is a wide scope of application areas for or Low Power WiFi. There is a wide scope of application areas for
LLNs, including industrial monitoring, building automation (HVAC, LLNs, including industrial monitoring, building automation (HVAC,
lighting, access control, fire), connected home, healthcare, lighting, access control, fire), connected home, healthcare,
environmental monitoring, urban sensor networks, energy management, environmental monitoring, urban sensor networks, energy management,
assets tracking and refrigeration.. assets tracking and refrigeration..
MP2P: Multipoint-to-Point is used to describe a particular traffic MP2P: Multipoint-to-Point is used to describe a particular traffic
pattern (e.g. MP2P flows collecting information from many nodes pattern (e.g. MP2P flows collecting information from many nodes
flowing inwards towards a collecting sink or an LBR). flowing upstream towards a collecting sink or an LBR).
MAC: Medium Access Control. Refers to algorithms and procedures used MAC: Medium Access Control. Refers to algorithms and procedures used
by the data link layer to coordinate use of the physical layer. by the data link layer to coordinate use of the physical layer.
Non-sleepy Node: A non-sleepy node is a node that always remains in a Non-sleepy Node: A non-sleepy node is a node that always remains in a
fully powered on state (i.e. always awake) where it has the fully powered on state (i.e. always awake) where it has the
capability to perform RPL protocol communication. capability to perform communication.
Open Loop Control: A process whereby a plant operator manually Open Loop Control: A process whereby a plant operator manually
manipulates an actuator over the network where the decision is manipulates an actuator over the network where the decision is
influenced by information sensed by field devices. influenced by information sensed by field devices.
PER: Packet Error Rate. A ratio of the number of unusable packets PER: Packet Error Rate. A ratio of the number of unusable packets
(not received at all, or received in error- even after any applicable (not received at all, or received in error- even after any applicable
error correction has been applied) to the total number of packets error correction has been applied) to the total number of packets
that would have been been received in the absence of errors. that would have been been received in the absence of errors.
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towards other nodes contained in the DAG. towards other nodes contained in the DAG.
RAM: Random Access Memory. The RAM is a volatile memory. RAM: Random Access Memory. The RAM is a volatile memory.
RFID: Radio Frequency IDentification. RFID: Radio Frequency IDentification.
ROM: Read Only Memory. ROM: Read Only Memory.
ROLL: Routing Over Low power and Lossy networks. ROLL: Routing Over Low power and Lossy networks.
RPL: An IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks that
provides a mechanism whereby multipoint-to-point traffic from devices
inside the LLN towards a central control point as well as point-to-
multipoint traffic from the central control point to the devices
inside the LLN are supported. RPL also support point-to-point
traffic between any arbitratry node in the LLN.
RPL Domain: A RPL routing domain is a collection of RPL routers under RPL Domain: A RPL routing domain is a collection of RPL routers under
the control of a single administration. The boundaries of routing the control of a single administration. The boundaries of routing
domains are defined by network management by setting some links to be domains are defined by network management by setting some links to be
exterior, or inter-domain, links. exterior, or inter-domain, links.
Schedule: An agreed execution, wake-up, transmission, reception, Schedule: An agreed execution, wake-up, transmission, reception,
etc., time-table between two or more field devices. etc., time-table between two or more field devices.
Sensor: A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and Sensor: A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and
converts it to a analog or digital signal that can be read by a converts it to an analog or digital signal that can be read by a
program or a user. Sensed data can be of many types: electromagnetic program or a user. Sensed data can be of many types: electromagnetic
(e.g. current, voltage, power, resistance, ...) , mechanical (e.g. (e.g. current, voltage, power, resistance, ...) , mechanical (e.g.
pressure, flow, liquid density, humidity, ...), chemical (e.g. pressure, flow, liquid density, humidity, ...), chemical (e.g.
oxygen, carbon monoxide, ...), acoustic (e.g. noise, ultrasound), ... oxygen, carbon monoxide, ...), acoustic (e.g. noise, ultrasound),
...
Sleepy Node: A sleepy node is a node that may sometimes go into a Sleepy Node: A sleepy node is a node that may sometimes go into a
sleep mode (i.e. go into a low power state to conserve power) and sleep mode (i.e. go into a low power state to conserve power) and
temporarily suspend protocol communication. A sleepy node may also temporarily suspend protocol communication. When no in a sleep mode,
sometimes remain in a fully powered on state where it has the the sleepy node is in a fully powered on state where it has the
capability to perform RPL protocol communication. capability to perform communication.
Smart Grid: A Smart Grid is a broad class of applications to network Smart Grid: A Smart Grid is a broad class of applications to network
and automate utility infrastructure. and automate utility infrastructure.
Timeslot: A Timeslot is a fixed time interval that may be used for Timeslot: A Timeslot is a fixed time interval that may be used for
the transmission or reception of a packet between two field devices. the transmission or reception of a packet between two field devices.
A timeslot used for communications is associated with a slotted-link A timeslot used for communications is associated with a slotted-link
Upstream: Data direction traveling from the LLN via the LBR to Upstream: Data direction traveling from the LLN via the LBR to
outside of the LLN (LAN, WAN, Internet). outside of the LLN (LAN, WAN, Internet) or general closer to the root
of the Directed Acyclic Graph computed by the routing protocol.
WAN: Wide Area Network. WAN: Wide Area Network.
3. IANA Considerations 3. IANA Considerations
This document includes no request for IANA action. This document includes no request for IANA action.
4. Security Considerations 4. Security Considerations
Since this document specifies terminology and does not specify new Since this document specifies terminology and does not specify new
procedure or protocols, it raises no new security issue. procedure or protocols, it raises no new security issue.
5. Acknowledgements 5. Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Christian Jacquenet, Tim Winter, The authors would like to thank Christian Jacquenet, Tim Winter,
Pieter De Mil, David Meyer, Mukul Goyal and Abdussalam Baryun for Pieter De Mil, David Meyer, Mukul Goyal and Abdussalam Baryun for
their valuable feed-back. their valuable feed-back.
6. References 6. References
6.1. Normative References 6.1. Informative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
6.2. Informative References
[HART] HART Communication Foundation (http://www.hartcomm.org) [HART] HART Communication Foundation (http://www.hartcomm.org)
[RFC4461] Yasukawa, S., "Signaling Requirements for Point-to- [RFC4461] Yasukawa, S., "Signaling Requirements for Point-to-
Multipoint Traffic-Engineered MPLS Label Switched Paths Multipoint Traffic-Engineered MPLS Label Switched Paths
(LSPs)", RFC 4461, April 2006. (LSPs)", RFC 4461, April 2006.
[RFC4875] Aggarwal, R., Papadimitriou, D., and S. Yasukawa, [RFC4875] Aggarwal, R., Papadimitriou, D., and S. Yasukawa,
"Extensions to Resource Reservation Protocol - Traffic "Extensions to Resource Reservation Protocol - Traffic
Engineering (RSVP-TE) for Point-to-Multipoint TE Label Engineering (RSVP-TE) for Point-to-Multipoint TE Label
skipping to change at page 8, line 7 skipping to change at page 7, line 40
[RFC5548] Dohler, M., Watteyne, T., Winter, T., and D. Barthel, [RFC5548] Dohler, M., Watteyne, T., Winter, T., and D. Barthel,
"Routing Requirements for Urban Low-Power and Lossy "Routing Requirements for Urban Low-Power and Lossy
Networks", RFC 5548, May 2009. Networks", RFC 5548, May 2009.
[RFC5673] Pister, K., Thubert, P., Dwars, S., and T. Phinney, [RFC5673] Pister, K., Thubert, P., Dwars, S., and T. Phinney,
"Industrial Routing Requirements in Low-Power and Lossy "Industrial Routing Requirements in Low-Power and Lossy
Networks", RFC 5673, October 2009. Networks", RFC 5673, October 2009.
[RFC5826] Brandt, A., Buron, J., and G. Porcu, "Home Automation [RFC5826] Brandt, A., Buron, J., and G. Porcu, "Home Automation
Routing Requirements in Low-Power and Lossy Networks", Routing Requirements in Low-Power and Lossy Networks", RFC
RFC 5826, April 2010. 5826, April 2010.
[RFC5867] Martocci, J., De Mil, P., Riou, N., and W. Vermeylen, [RFC5867] Martocci, J., De Mil, P., Riou, N., and W. Vermeylen,
"Building Automation Routing Requirements in Low-Power and "Building Automation Routing Requirements in Low-Power and
Lossy Networks", RFC 5867, June 2010. Lossy Networks", RFC 5867, June 2010.
Author's Address Author's Address
JP Vasseur JP Vasseur
Cisco Systems, Inc Cisco Systems, Inc
1414 Massachusetts Avenue 1414 Massachusetts Avenue
Boxborough, MA 01719 Boxborough, MA 01719
USA USA
Email: jpv@cisco.com Email: jpv@cisco.com
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