draft-ietf-roll-terminology-13.txt   rfc7102.txt 
Networking Working Group JP. Vasseur Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) JP. Vasseur
Internet-Draft Cisco Systems, Inc Request for Comments: 7102 Cisco Systems, Inc.
Intended status: Informational September 30, 2013 Category: Informational January 2014
Expires: March 31, 2014 ISSN: 2070-1721
Terms used in Ruting for Low power And Lossy Networks Terms Used in Routing for Low-Power and Lossy Networks
draft-ietf-roll-terminology-13.txt
Abstract Abstract
The documents provides a glossary of terminology used in routing This document provides a glossary of terminology used in routing
requirements and solutions for networks referred to as Low power and requirements and solutions for networks referred to as Low-Power and
Lossy Networks (LLN). An LLN is typically composed of many embedded Lossy Networks (LLNs). An LLN is typically composed of many embedded
devices with limited power, memory, and processing resources devices with limited power, memory, and processing resources
interconnected by a variety of links. There is a wide scope of interconnected by a variety of links. There is a wide scope of
application areas for LLNs, including industrial monitoring, building application areas for LLNs, including industrial monitoring, building
automation (e.g. Heating, Ventilating, Air Conditioning, lighting, automation (e.g., heating, ventilation, air conditioning, lighting,
access control, fire), connected home, healthcare, environmental access control, fire), connected home, health care, environmental
monitoring, urban sensor networks, energy management, assets monitoring, urban sensor networks, energy management, assets
tracking, refrigeration. tracking, and refrigeration.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
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Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction ....................................................2
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Terminology .....................................................3
3. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. Security Considerations .........................................7
4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. Acknowledgements ................................................7
5. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5. Informative References ..........................................7
6. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The documents provides a glossary of terminology used in routing This document provides a glossary of terminology used in routing
requirements solutions for networks referred to as Low power and Lossy requirements and solutions for networks referred to as Low-Power and
Networks (LLN). Lossy Networks (LLNs).
Low power and Lossy networks (LLNs) are typically composed of many LLNs are typically composed of many embedded devices with limited
embedded devices with limited power, memory, and processing resources power, memory, and processing resources interconnected by a variety
interconnected by a variety of links, such as IEEE 802.15.4, Low of links, such as IEEE 802.15.4 or low-power Wi-Fi. There is a wide
Power WiFi. There is a wide scope of application areas for LLNs, scope of application areas for LLNs, including industrial monitoring,
including industrial monitoring, building automation (HVAC, lighting, building automation (heating, ventilation, air conditioning,
access control, fire), connected home, healthcare, environmental lighting, access control, fire), connected home, health care,
monitoring, urban sensor networks, energy management, assets tracking environmental monitoring, urban sensor networks, energy management,
and refrigeration. assets tracking, and refrigeration.
Since these applications are usually highly specific (for example Since these applications are usually highly specific (for example,
Industrial Automation, Building Automation, ...), it is not uncommon industrial automation, building automation, etc.), it is not uncommon
to see a number of disparate terms to describe the same device or to see a number of disparate terms used to describe the same device
functionality. Thus in order to avoid confusion or discrepancies, or functionality. Thus, in order to avoid confusion or
this document specifies the common terminology to be used in all ROLL discrepancies, this document specifies the common terminology to be
Working Group documents. The terms defined in this document are used used in all ROLL working group documents. The terms defined in this
in [RFC5548],[RFC5673], [RFC5826] and [RFC5867]. document are used in [RFC5548], [RFC5673], [RFC5826], and [RFC5867].
Terminology specific to a particular application are out of the scope Terminology specific to a particular application is out of the scope
of this document. of this document.
It is expected that all routing requirements documents defining It is expected that all routing documents defining requirements or
requirements or specifying routing solutions for LLN will use the specifying solutions for LLN will use the common terminology
common terminology specified in this document. This document should specified in this document. This document should be listed as an
be listed as an informative reference. informative reference.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
Actuator: a field device that controls a set of equipment. For Actuator: A field device that controls a set of equipment. For
example, an actuator might control and/or modulate the flow of a gas example, an actuator might control and/or modulate the flow of a
or liquid, control electricity distribution, perform a mechanical gas or liquid, control electricity distribution, perform a
operation, ... mechanical operation, etc.
AMI: Advanced Metering Infrastructure that makes use of Smart Grid AMI: Advanced Metering Infrastructure. Makes use of Smart Grid
technologies. A canonical Smart Grid application is smart-metering. technologies. A canonical Smart Grid application is smart-
metering.
Channel: Radio frequency sub-band used to transmit a modulated signal Channel: Radio frequency sub-band used to transmit a modulated signal
carrying packets. carrying packets.
Channel Hopping: A procedure by which field devices synchronously Channel Hopping: A procedure by which field devices synchronously
change channels during operation. change channels during operation.
Commissioning Tool: Any physical or logical device temporarily added Commissioning Tool: Any physical or logical device temporarily added
to the network for the express purpose of setting up the network and to the network for the express purpose of setting up the network
device operational parameters. The commisioning tool can also be and device operational parameters. The commissioning tool can
temporarily added to the LLN for scheduled or unscheduled also be temporarily added to the LLN for scheduled or unscheduled
maintenance. maintenance.
Closed Loop Control: A procedure whereby a device controller controls Closed Loop Control: A procedure whereby a device controller controls
an actuator based on input information sensed by one or more field an actuator based on input information sensed by one or more field
devices. devices.
Controller: A field device that can receive sensor input and Controller: A field device that can receive sensor input and
automatically change the environment in the facility by manipulating automatically change the environment in the facility by
digital or analog actuators. manipulating digital or analog actuators.
DA: Distribution Automation, part of Smart Grid. Encompasses DA: Distribution Automation. Part of Smart Grid. Encompasses
technologies for maintenance and management of electrical technologies for maintenance and management of electrical
distribution systems. distribution systems.
Directed Acyclic Graph: A directed graph with no directed cycles (a DAG: Directed Acyclic Graph. A directed graph with no directed
graph formed by a collection of vertices and directed edges where cycles (a graph formed by a collection of vertices and directed
each edge connects one vertex to another, such that there is no way edges where each edge connects one vertex to another, such that
to start at some vertex v and follow a sequence of edges that there is no way to start at some vertex v and follow a sequence of
eventually loops back to the edge v again) edges that eventually loops back to vertex v again).
Data sink: A device that collects data from nodes in an LLN. Data sink: A device that collects data from nodes in an LLN.
Downstream: Data direction traveling from outside of the LLN (e.g. Downstream: Data direction traveling from outside of the LLN (e.g.,
traffic coming from a LAN, WAN or the Internet) via a LBR, or in traffic coming from a LAN, WAN, or the Internet) via an LLN Border
general "deeper" in the Directed Acyclic Graph computed by the Router (LBR), or in general, "deeper" in the Directed Acyclic
routing protocol. Graph computed by the routing protocol.
Field Device: A field device is a physical device placed in the Field Device: A field device is a physical device placed in the
network's operating environment (e.g. plant, urban or home). Field network's operating environment (e.g., plant, urban area, or
devices include sensors, actuators as well as routers and Low power home). Field devices include sensors and actuators as well as
and Lossy Network Border Router (LBR). A field device is usually routers and Low-Power and Lossy Network Border Routers (LBRs). A
(but not always) a device with constrained CPU, memory footprint, field device is usually (but not always) a device with constrained
storage capacity, bandwidth and sometimes power (battery operated). CPU, memory footprint, storage capacity, bandwidth, and sometimes
At the time of writing, for the sake of illustration, a typical power (battery operated). At the time of writing, for the sake of
sensor or actuator would have a few KBytes of RAM, a few dozens of illustration, a typical sensor or actuator would have a few
KBytes of ROM/Flash memory, a 8/16/32 bit microcontroller and Kilobytes of RAM, a few dozens of Kilobytes of ROM/Flash memory, a
communication capabilities ranging from a few Kbits/s to a few 8-/16-/32-bit microcontroller, and communication capabilities
hundreds of KBits/s. Although it is expected to see continuous ranging from a few kbits/s to a few hundred kbits/s. Although
improvements of hardware and software technologies, such devices will continuous improvement of hardware and software technologies is
likely continue to be seen as resource constrained devices compared expected, such devices will likely continue to be seen as
compared to computers and routers used in the rest of the Internet. resource-constrained devices compared to computers and routers
used in the rest of the Internet.
Flash memory: non-volatile memory that can be re-programmed. Flash Memory: non-volatile memory that can be re-programmed.
FMS: Facility Management System. A global term applied across all FMS: Facility Management System. A global term applied across all
the vertical designations within a building including, Heating, the vertical designations within a building, including heating,
Ventilating, and Air Conditioning also referred to as HVAC, Fire, ventilation, and air conditioning (also referred to as HVAC),
Security, Lighting and Elevator control. fire, security, lighting, and elevator control.
HART: "Highway Addressable Remote Transducer", a group of HART: Highway Addressable Remote Transducer. A group of
specifications for industrial process and control devices specifications for industrial process and control devices
administered by the HART Foundation (see [HART]). The latest version administered by the HART Foundation (see [HART]). The latest
for the specifications is HART7 which includes the additions for version for the specifications is HART7, which includes the
WirelessHART. additions for WirelessHART.
HVAC: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning. A term applied to HVAC: Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning. A term applied to
the comfort level of an internal space. mechanisms used to maintain the comfort level of an internal
space.
ISA: "International Society of Automation". ISA is an ANSI ISA: International Society of Automation. An ANSI accredited
accredited standards-making society. ISA100 is an ISA committee standards-making society. ISA100 is an ISA committee whose
whose charter includes defining a family of standards for industrial charter includes defining a family of standards for industrial
automation. [ISA100.11a] is a working group within ISA100 that is automation. [ISA100.11a] is a working group within ISA100 that is
working on a standard for monitoring and non-critical process control working on a standard for monitoring and non-critical process-
applications. control applications.
LAN: Local Area Network. LAN: Local Area Network.
LBR: Low power and Lossy Network Border Router. The LBR is a device LBR: Low-Power and Lossy Network Border Router. A device that
that connects the Low power and Lossy Network to another routing connects the Low-Power and Lossy Network to another routing domain
domain such as a Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Network (WAN) or such as a LAN, a WAN, or the Internet where a different routing
the Internet where a possibly different routing protocol is in protocol may be in operation. The LBR acts as a routing device
operation. The LBR acts as a routing device and may possibly host and may possibly host other functions such as data collector or
other functions such as data collector or aggregator. aggregator.
LLN: Low power and Lossy networks (LLNs) are typically composed of LLN: Low-Power and Lossy Network. Typically composed of many
many embedded devices with limited power, memory, and processing embedded devices with limited power, memory, and processing
resources interconnected by a variety of links, such as IEEE 802.15.4 resources interconnected by a variety of links, such as IEEE
or Low Power WiFi. There is a wide scope of application areas for 802.15.4 or low-power Wi-Fi. There is a wide scope of application
LLNs, including industrial monitoring, building automation (HVAC, areas for LLNs, including industrial monitoring, building
lighting, access control, fire), connected home, healthcare, automation (HVAC, lighting, access control, fire), connected home,
environmental monitoring, urban sensor networks, energy management, health care, environmental monitoring, urban sensor networks,
assets tracking and refrigeration.. energy management, assets tracking, and refrigeration.
MP2P: Multipoint-to-Point is used to describe a particular traffic MP2P: Multipoint-to-Point. Used to describe a particular traffic
pattern (e.g. MP2P flows collecting information from many nodes pattern (e.g., MP2P flows collecting information from many nodes
flowing upstream towards a collecting sink or an LBR). flowing upstream towards a collecting sink or an LBR).
MAC: Medium Access Control. Refers to algorithms and procedures used MAC: Medium Access Control. Refers to algorithms and procedures used
by the data link layer to coordinate use of the physical layer. by the data link layer to coordinate use of the physical layer.
Non-sleepy Node: A non-sleepy node is a node that always remains in a Non-Sleepy Node: A node that always remains in a fully powered-on
fully powered on state (i.e. always awake) where it has the state (i.e., always awake) where it has the capability to perform
capability to perform communication. communication.
Open Loop Control: A process whereby a plant operator manually Open Loop Control: A process whereby a plant operator manually
manipulates an actuator over the network where the decision is manipulates an actuator over the network where the decision is
influenced by information sensed by field devices. influenced by information sensed by field devices.
PER: Packet Error Rate. A ratio of the number of unusable packets PER: Packet Error Rate. A ratio of the number of unusable packets
(not received at all, or received in error- even after any applicable (not received at all or received in error, even after any
error correction has been applied) to the total number of packets applicable error correction has been applied) to the total number
that would have been been received in the absence of errors. of packets that would have been received in the absence of errors.
P2P: Point To Point. This refers to traffic exchanged between two P2P: Point To Point. Refers to traffic exchanged between two nodes
nodes (regardless of the number of hops between the two nodes). (regardless of the number of hops between the two nodes).
P2MP: Point-to-Multipoint traffic refers to traffic between one node P2MP: Point-to-Multipoint. Refers to traffic between one node and a
and a set of nodes. This is similar to the P2MP concept in Multicast set of nodes. This is similar to the P2MP concept in Multicast or
or MPLS Traffic Engineering ([RFC4461]and [RFC4875]). A common RPL MPLS Traffic Engineering ([RFC4461]and [RFC4875]). A common use
use case involves P2MP flows from or through a DAG root outward case for the Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks
towards other nodes contained in the DAG. (RPL) involves P2MP flows from or through a DAG root outward
towards other nodes contained in the DAG.
RAM: Random Access Memory. The RAM is a volatile memory. RAM: Random Access Memory. A volatile memory.
RFID: Radio Frequency IDentification. RFID: Radio Frequency IDentification.
ROM: Read Only Memory. ROM: Read-Only Memory.
ROLL: Routing Over Low power and Lossy networks. ROLL: Routing Over Low-Power and Lossy Networks.
RPL: An IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks that RPL: An IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks that
provides a mechanism whereby multipoint-to-point traffic from devices provides a mechanism whereby multipoint-to-point traffic from
inside the LLN towards a central control point as well as point-to- devices inside the LLN towards a central control point as well as
multipoint traffic from the central control point to the devices point-to-multipoint traffic from the central control point to the
inside the LLN are supported. RPL also support point-to-point devices inside the LLN are supported. RPL also supports point-to-
traffic between any arbitratry node in the LLN. point traffic between any arbitrary nodes in the LLN.
RPL Domain: A RPL routing domain is a collection of RPL routers under RPL Domain: A collection of RPL routers under the control of a single
the control of a single administration. The boundaries of routing administration. The boundaries of routing domains are defined by
domains are defined by network management by setting some links to be network management by setting some links to be exterior, or inter-
exterior, or inter-domain, links. domain, links.
Schedule: An agreed execution, wake-up, transmission, reception, Schedule: An agreed execution, wake-up, transmission, reception,
etc., time-table between two or more field devices. etc., timetable between two or more field devices.
Sensor: A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and Sensor: A device that measures a physical quantity and converts it to
converts it to an analog or digital signal that can be read by a an analog or digital signal that can be read by a program or a
program or a user. Sensed data can be of many types: electromagnetic user. Sensed data can be of many types: electromagnetic (e.g.,
(e.g. current, voltage, power, resistance, ...) , mechanical (e.g. current, voltage, power, or resistance), mechanical (e.g.,
pressure, flow, liquid density, humidity, ...), chemical (e.g. pressure, flow, liquid density, or humidity), chemical (e.g.,
oxygen, carbon monoxide, ...), acoustic (e.g. noise, ultrasound), oxygen or carbon monoxide), acoustic (e.g., noise or ultrasound),
... etc.
Sleepy Node: A sleepy node is a node that may sometimes go into a Sleepy Node: A node that may sometimes go into a sleep mode (i.e., go
sleep mode (i.e. go into a low power state to conserve power) and into a low-power state to conserve power) and temporarily suspend
temporarily suspend protocol communication. When no in a sleep mode, protocol communication. When not in sleep mode, the sleepy node
the sleepy node is in a fully powered on state where it has the is in a fully powered-on state where it has the capability to
capability to perform communication. perform communication.
Smart Grid: A Smart Grid is a broad class of applications to network Smart Grid: A broad class of applications to network and automate
and automate utility infrastructure. utility infrastructure.
Timeslot: A Timeslot is a fixed time interval that may be used for Timeslot: A fixed time interval that may be used for the transmission
the transmission or reception of a packet between two field devices. or reception of a packet between two field devices. A timeslot
A timeslot used for communications is associated with a slotted-link used for communications is associated with a slotted-link.
Upstream: Data direction traveling from the LLN via the LBR to Upstream: Data direction traveling from the LLN via the LBR to
outside of the LLN (LAN, WAN, Internet) or general closer to the root outside of the LLN (LAN, WAN, or Internet) or generally closer to
of the Directed Acyclic Graph computed by the routing protocol. the root of the DAG computed by the routing protocol.
WAN: Wide Area Network. WAN: Wide Area Network.
3. IANA Considerations 3. Security Considerations
This document includes no request for IANA action.
4. Security Considerations
Since this document specifies terminology and does not specify new Since this document specifies terminology and does not specify new
procedure or protocols, it raises no new security issue. procedures or protocols, it raises no new security issues.
5. Acknowledgements 4. Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Christian Jacquenet, Tim Winter, The authors would like to thank Christian Jacquenet, Tim Winter,
Pieter De Mil, David Meyer, Mukul Goyal and Abdussalam Baryun for Pieter De Mil, David Meyer, Mukul Goyal, and Abdussalam Baryun for
their valuable feed-back. their valuable feedback.
6. References 5. Informative References
6.1. Informative References [HART] HART Communication Foundation, <http://www.hartcomm.org>.
[HART] HART Communication Foundation (http://www.hartcomm.org) [ISA100.11a]
ISA, "Wireless systems for industrial automation: Process
control and related applications", ISA 100.11a, May 2008,
<http://www.isa.org/Community/
SP100WirelessSystemsforAutomation>.
[RFC4461] Yasukawa, S., "Signaling Requirements for Point-to- [RFC4461] Yasukawa, S., Ed., "Signaling Requirements for Point-to-
Multipoint Traffic-Engineered MPLS Label Switched Paths Multipoint Traffic-Engineered MPLS Label Switched Paths
(LSPs)", RFC 4461, April 2006. (LSPs)", RFC 4461, April 2006.
[RFC4875] Aggarwal, R., Papadimitriou, D., and S. Yasukawa, [RFC4875] Aggarwal, R., Ed., Papadimitriou, D., Ed., and S. Yasukawa,
"Extensions to Resource Reservation Protocol - Traffic Ed., "Extensions to Resource Reservation Protocol - Traffic
Engineering (RSVP-TE) for Point-to-Multipoint TE Label Engineering (RSVP-TE) for Point-to-Multipoint TE Label
Switched Paths (LSPs)", RFC 4875, May 2007. Switched Paths (LSPs)", RFC 4875, May 2007.
[RFC5548] Dohler, M., Watteyne, T., Winter, T., and D. Barthel, [RFC5548] Dohler, M., Ed., Watteyne, T., Ed., Winter, T., Ed., and D.
"Routing Requirements for Urban Low-Power and Lossy Barthel, Ed., "Routing Requirements for Urban Low-Power and
Networks", RFC 5548, May 2009. Lossy Networks", RFC 5548, May 2009.
[RFC5673] Pister, K., Thubert, P., Dwars, S., and T. Phinney, [RFC5673] Pister, K., Ed., Thubert, P., Ed., Dwars, S., and T.
"Industrial Routing Requirements in Low-Power and Lossy Phinney, "Industrial Routing Requirements in Low-Power and
Networks", RFC 5673, October 2009. Lossy Networks", RFC 5673, October 2009.
[RFC5826] Brandt, A., Buron, J., and G. Porcu, "Home Automation [RFC5826] Brandt, A., Buron, J., and G. Porcu, "Home Automation
Routing Requirements in Low-Power and Lossy Networks", RFC Routing Requirements in Low-Power and Lossy Networks", RFC
5826, April 2010. 5826, April 2010.
[RFC5867] Martocci, J., De Mil, P., Riou, N., and W. Vermeylen, [RFC5867] Martocci, J., Ed., De Mil, P., Riou, N., and W. Vermeylen,
"Building Automation Routing Requirements in Low-Power and "Building Automation Routing Requirements in Low-Power and
Lossy Networks", RFC 5867, June 2010. Lossy Networks", RFC 5867, June 2010.
Author's Address Author's Address
JP Vasseur
Cisco Systems, Inc JP. Vasseur
Cisco Systems, Inc.
1414 Massachusetts Avenue 1414 Massachusetts Avenue
Boxborough, MA 01719 Boxborough, MA 01719
USA US
Email: jpv@cisco.com EMail: jpv@cisco.com
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