draft-ietf-roll-useofrplinfo-09.txt   draft-ietf-roll-useofrplinfo-10.txt 
ROLL Working Group M. Robles ROLL Working Group M. Robles
Internet-Draft Ericsson Internet-Draft Ericsson
Updates: 6550 (if approved) M. Richardson Updates: 6550 (if approved) M. Richardson
Intended status: Standards Track SSW Intended status: Standards Track SSW
Expires: April 24, 2017 P. Thubert Expires: June 15, 2017 P. Thubert
Cisco Cisco
October 21, 2016 December 12, 2016
When to use RFC 6553, 6554 and IPv6-in-IPv6 When to use RFC 6553, 6554 and IPv6-in-IPv6
draft-ietf-roll-useofrplinfo-09 draft-ietf-roll-useofrplinfo-10
Abstract Abstract
This document looks at different data flows through LLN (Low-Power This document looks at different data flows through LLN (Low-Power
and Lossy Networks) where RPL (IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks) where RPL (IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power
and Lossy Networks) is used to establish routing. The document and Lossy Networks) is used to establish routing. The document
enumerates the cases where RFC 6553, RFC 6554 and IPv6-in-IPv6 enumerates the cases where RFC 6553, RFC 6554 and IPv6-in-IPv6
encapsulation is required. This analysis provides the basis on which encapsulation is required. This analysis provides the basis on which
to design efficient compression of these headers. to design efficient compression of these headers.
skipping to change at page 1, line 38 skipping to change at page 1, line 38
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on April 24, 2017. This Internet-Draft will expire on June 15, 2017.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
skipping to change at page 2, line 17 skipping to change at page 2, line 17
described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Terminology and Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Terminology and Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1. hop-by-hop IPv6-in-IPv6 headers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1. hop-by-hop IPv6-in-IPv6 headers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Sample/reference topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. Sample/reference topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4. Use cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. Use cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5. Storing mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5. Storing mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5.1. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to root . . . . . . . 9 5.1. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to root . . . . . . . 10
5.2. Example of Flow from root to RPL-aware-leaf . . . . . . . 10 5.2. Example of Flow from root to RPL-aware-leaf . . . . . . . 11
5.3. Example of Flow from root to not-RPL-aware-leaf . . . . . 11 5.3. Example of Flow from root to not-RPL-aware-leaf . . . . . 12
5.4. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to root . . . . . 11 5.4. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to root . . . . . 12
5.5. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to Internet . . . . . 12 5.5. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to Internet . . . . . 13
5.6. Example of Flow from Internet to RPL-aware-leaf . . . . . 12 5.6. Example of Flow from Internet to RPL-aware-leaf . . . . . 14
5.7. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to Internet . . . 13 5.7. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to Internet . . . 14
5.8. Example of Flow from Internet to non-RPL-aware-leaf . . . 14 5.8. Example of Flow from Internet to non-RPL-aware-leaf . . . 15
5.9. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf . . 15 5.9. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf . . 16
5.10. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to non-RPL-aware-leaf 16 5.10. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to non-RPL-aware-leaf 17
5.11. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf 17 5.11. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf 18
5.12. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to not-RPL-aware- 5.12. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to not-RPL-aware-
leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6. Non Storing mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6. Non Storing mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6.1. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to root . . . . . . . 20 6.1. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to root . . . . . . . 21
6.2. Example of Flow from root to RPL-aware-leaf . . . . . . . 20 6.2. Example of Flow from root to RPL-aware-leaf . . . . . . . 22
6.3. Example of Flow from root to not-RPL-aware-leaf . . . . . 21 6.3. Example of Flow from root to not-RPL-aware-leaf . . . . . 22
6.4. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to root . . . . . 22 6.4. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to root . . . . . 23
6.5. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to Internet . . . . . 23 6.5. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to Internet . . . . . 24
6.6. Example of Flow from Internet to RPL-aware-leaf . . . . . 23 6.6. Example of Flow from Internet to RPL-aware-leaf . . . . . 25
6.7. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to Internet . . . 24 6.7. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to Internet . . . 25
6.8. Example of Flow from Internet to non-RPL-aware-leaf . . . 25 6.8. Example of Flow from Internet to not-RPL-aware-leaf . . . 26
6.9. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf . . 26 6.9. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf . . 27
6.10. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to not-RPL-aware-leaf 27 6.10. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to not-RPL-aware-leaf 28
6.11. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf 28 6.11. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf 29
6.12. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to not-RPL-aware- 6.12. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to not-RPL-aware-
leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
7. Observations about the cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 7. Observations about the cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
7.1. Storing mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 7.1. Storing mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
7.2. Non-Storing mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 7.2. Non-Storing mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
8. 6LoRH Compression cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 8. 6LoRH Compression cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
11. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 11. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
RPL (IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks) RPL (IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks)
[RFC6550] is a routing protocol for constrained networks. RFC 6553 [RFC6550] is a routing protocol for constrained networks. RFC 6553
[RFC6553] defines the "RPL option" (RPI), carried within the IPv6 [RFC6553] defines the "RPL option" (RPI), carried within the IPv6
Hop-by-Hop header to quickly identify inconsistencies (loops) in the Hop-by-Hop header to quickly identify inconsistencies (loops) in the
routing topology. RFC 6554 [RFC6554] defines the "RPL Source Route routing topology. RFC 6554 [RFC6554] defines the "RPL Source Route
Header" (RH3), an IPv6 Extension Header to deliver datagrams within a Header" (RH3), an IPv6 Extension Header to deliver datagrams within a
RPL routing domain, particularly in non-storing mode. RPL routing domain, particularly in non-storing mode.
skipping to change at page 4, line 11 skipping to change at page 4, line 11
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
Terminology defined in [RFC7102] applies to this document: LBR, LLN, Terminology defined in [RFC7102] applies to this document: LBR, LLN,
RPL, RPL Domain and ROLL. RPL, RPL Domain and ROLL.
RPL-node: It is device which implements RPL, thus we can say that the RPL-node: It is device which implements RPL, thus we can say that the
device is RPL-capable or RPL-aware. Please note that the device can device is RPL-capable or RPL-aware. Please note that the device can
be found inside the LLN or outside LLN. In this document a RPL-node be found inside the LLN or outside LLN. In this document a RPL-node
which is a leaf is called RPL-aware-leaf. which is a leaf of a DODAG is called RPL-aware-leaf.
RPL-not-capable: It is device which do not implement RPL, thus we can RPL-not-capable: It is device which do not implement RPL, thus we can
say that the device is not-RPL-aware. Please note that the device say that the device is not-RPL-aware. Please note that the device
can be found inside the LLN. In this document a not-RPL-node which can be found inside the LLN. In this document a not-RPL-node which
is a leaf is called not-RPL-aware-leaf. is a leaf of a DODAG is called not-RPL-aware-leaf.
2.1. hop-by-hop IPv6-in-IPv6 headers 2.1. hop-by-hop IPv6-in-IPv6 headers
The term "hop-by-hop IPv6-in-IPv6" header refers to: adding a header The term "hop-by-hop IPv6-in-IPv6" header refers to: adding a header
that originates from a node to an adjacent node, using the addresses that originates from a node to an adjacent node, using the addresses
(usually the GUA or ULA, but could use the link-local addresses) of (usually the GUA or ULA, but could use the link-local addresses) of
each node. If the packet must traverse multiple hops, then it must each node. If the packet must traverse multiple hops, then it must
be decapsulated at each hop, and then re-encapsulated again in a be decapsulated at each hop, and then re-encapsulated again in a
similar fashion. similar fashion.
skipping to change at page 6, line 33 skipping to change at page 6, line 33
| | | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25
+-+---+ +-+---+ +--+--+ +- --+ +---+-+ +-+---+ +-+---+ +--+--+ +- --+ +---+-+
|Leaf | | | | | |Leaf| |Leaf | |Leaf | | | | | |Leaf| |Leaf |
| 6LN | | | | | | 6LN| | 6LN | | 6LN | | | | | | 6LN| | 6LN |
+-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +----+ +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +----+ +-----+
Figure 2: A reference RPL Topology. Figure 2: A reference RPL Topology.
In Figure 2 is showed the reference RPL Topology for this document. Figure 2 shows the reference RPL Topology for this document. The
The numbers in or above the nodes are there so that they may be numbers in or above the nodes are there so that they may be
referenced in subsequent sections. In the figure, a 6LN can be a referenced in subsequent sections. In the figure, a 6LN can be a
router or a host. The 6LN leafs marked as (21) is a RPL host that router or a host. The 6LN leafs marked as (21) is a RPL host that
does not have forwarding capability and (25) is a RPL router. The does not have forwarding capability and (25) is a RPL router. The
leaf marked 6LN (24) is a device which does not speak RPL at all leaf marked 6LN (24) is a device which does not speak RPL at all
(not-RPL-aware), but uses Router-Advertisements, 6LowPAN DAR/DAC and (not-RPL-aware), but uses Router-Advertisements, 6LowPAN DAR/DAC and
efficient-ND only to participate in the network [RFC6775]. In the efficient-ND only to participate in the network [RFC6775]. In the
document this leaf (24) is often named IPv6 node. The 6LBR in the document this leaf (24) is often named IPv6 node. The 6LBR in the
figure is the root of the Global DODAG. figure is the root of the Global DODAG.
This document is in part motivated by the work that is ongoing at the This document is in part motivated by the work that is ongoing at the
skipping to change at page 7, line 15 skipping to change at page 7, line 15
4. Use cases 4. Use cases
In data plane context a combination of RFC6553, RFC6554 and IPv6-in- In data plane context a combination of RFC6553, RFC6554 and IPv6-in-
IPv6 encapsulation is going to be analyzed for the following traffic IPv6 encapsulation is going to be analyzed for the following traffic
flows. flows.
This version of the document assumes the changes in This version of the document assumes the changes in
[I-D.ietf-6man-rfc2460bis] are passed (at the time to write this [I-D.ietf-6man-rfc2460bis] are passed (at the time to write this
specification, the draft is on version 05). specification, the draft is on version 05).
The uses cases describe the communication between RPL-aware-nodes,
with the root (6LBR), and with Internet. This document also describe
the communication between nodes acting as leaf that does not
understand RPL and they are part of hte LLN. We name these nodes as
not-RPL-aware-leaf.(e.g. section 5.4- Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to
root) We describe also how is the communication inside of the LLN
when it has the final destination addressed outside of the LLN e.g.
with destination to Internet. (e.g. section 5.7- Flow from not-RPL-
aware-leaf to Internet)
The uses cases comprise as follow:
RPL-aware-leaf to root RPL-aware-leaf to root
root to RPL-aware-leaf root to RPL-aware-leaf
not-RPL-aware-leaf to root not-RPL-aware-leaf to root
root to not-RPL-aware-leaf root to not-RPL-aware-leaf
RPL-aware-leaf to Internet RPL-aware-leaf to Internet
skipping to change at page 8, line 7 skipping to change at page 8, line 18
But, options in the Hop-by-Hop option which are marked with option But, options in the Hop-by-Hop option which are marked with option
type 01 ([RFC2460] section 4.2 and [I-D.ietf-6man-rfc2460bis]) SHOULD type 01 ([RFC2460] section 4.2 and [I-D.ietf-6man-rfc2460bis]) SHOULD
be ignored when received by a host or router which does not be ignored when received by a host or router which does not
understand that option. understand that option.
This means that in general, any packet that leaves the RPL domain of This means that in general, any packet that leaves the RPL domain of
an LLN (or leaves the LLN entirely) will NOT be discarded, when it an LLN (or leaves the LLN entirely) will NOT be discarded, when it
has the [RFC6553] RPL Option Header known as the RPI or [RFC6554] has the [RFC6553] RPL Option Header known as the RPI or [RFC6554]
SRH3 Extension Header (S)RH3. SRH3 Extension Header (S)RH3.
The recent change to the second of these rules it means that the RPI The recent change to the second of these rules means that the RPI
Hop-by-Hop option MAY be left in place even if the end host does not Hop-by-Hop option MAY be left in place even if the end host does not
understand it. understand it.
NOTE: There is some possible security risk when the RPI information NOTE: There is some possible security risk when the RPI information
is released to the Internet. At this point this is a theoretical is released to the Internet. At this point this is a theoretical
situation. It is clear that the RPI option would waste some network situation. It is clear that the RPI option would waste some network
bandwidth when it escapes. bandwidth when it escapes.
An intermediate router that needs to add an extension header (SHR3 or An intermediate router that needs to add an extension header (SHR3 or
RPI Option) must encapsulate the packet in an (additional) outer IP RPI Option) must encapsulate the packet in an (additional) outer IP
skipping to change at page 8, line 50 skipping to change at page 9, line 13
which forwarding table to use (as the root has already made all which forwarding table to use (as the root has already made all
routing decisions). There still may be cases (such as in 6tisch) routing decisions). There still may be cases (such as in 6tisch)
where the instanceID portion of the RPI header may still be needed to where the instanceID portion of the RPI header may still be needed to
pick an appropriate priority or channel at each hop. pick an appropriate priority or channel at each hop.
In the tables present in this document, the term "RPL aware leaf" is In the tables present in this document, the term "RPL aware leaf" is
has been shortened to "Raf", and "not-RPL aware leaf" has been has been shortened to "Raf", and "not-RPL aware leaf" has been
shortened to "~Raf" to make the table fit in available space. shortened to "~Raf" to make the table fit in available space.
The earlier examples are more extensive to make sure that the process The earlier examples are more extensive to make sure that the process
is clear, while later examples are more consise. is clear, while later examples are more concise.
5. Storing mode 5. Storing mode
In storing mode (fully stateful), the sender cannot determine whether In storing mode (fully stateful), the sender cannot determine whether
the destination is RPL-capable and thus would need an IP-in-IP the destination is RPL-capable and thus would need an IP-in-IP
header. The IP-in-IP header needs to be addressed on a hop-by-hop header. The IP-in-IP header needs to be addressed on a hop-by-hop
basis so that the last 6LR can remove the RPI header. Additionally, basis so that the last 6LR can remove the RPI header. Additionally,
The sender can determine if the destination is inside the LLN by The sender can determine if the destination is inside the LLN by
looking if the destination address is matched by the DIO's PIO looking if the destination address is matched by the DIO's PIO
option. option.
The following table summarizes what headers are needed in the The following table summarizes what headers are needed in the
following scenarios, and indicates when the IP-in-IP header must be following scenarios, and indicates when the IP-in-IP header must be
inserted on a hop-by-hop basis, and when it can target the inserted on a hop-by-hop basis, and when it can target the
destination node directly. There are three possible situations: hop- destination node directly. There are these possible situations: hop-
by-hop necessary (indicated by "hop"), or destination address by-hop necessary (indicated by "hop"), or destination address
possible (indicated by "dst"). In all cases hop by hop can be used. possible (indicated by "dst"). In all cases hop by hop can be used.
In cases where no IP-in-IP header is needed, the column is left In cases where no IP-in-IP header is needed, the column is left
blank. blank.
The leaf can be a router 6LR or a host, both indicated as 6LN. In all cases the RPI headers are needed, since it identifies
inconsistencies (loops) in the routing topology. In all cases the
RH3 is not need because we do not indicate the route in stroing mode.
+--------------+-------+-------+-----------+---------------+ The leaf can be a router 6LR or a host, both indicated as 6LN
| Use Case | RPI | RH3 | IP-in-IP | IP-in-IP dst | (Figure 2).
+--------------+-------+-------+-----------+---------------+
| Raf to root | Yes | No | No | -- |
| root to Raf | Yes | No | No | -- |
| root to ~Raf | Yes | No | No | -- |
| ~Raf to root | Yes | No | Yes | root |
| Raf to Int | Yes | No | No | -- |
| Int to Raf | Yes | No | Yes | raf |
| ~Raf to Int | Yes | No | Yes | root |
| Int to ~Raf | Yes | No | Yes | hop |
| Raf to Raf | Yes | No | No | -- |
| Raf to ~Raf | Yes | No | No | -- |
| ~Raf to Raf | Yes | No | Yes | dst |
| ~Raf to ~Raf | Yes | No | Yes | hop |
+--------------+-------+-------+-----------+---------------+
Table 1: Headers needed in Storing mode: RPI, RH3, IP-in-IP +--------------+-----------+---------------+
encapsulation | Use Case | IP-in-IP | IP-in-IP dst |
+--------------+-----------+---------------+
| Raf to root | No | -- |
| root to Raf | No | -- |
| root to ~Raf | No | -- |
| ~Raf to root | Yes | root |
| Raf to Int | No | -- |
| Int to Raf | Yes | raf |
| ~Raf to Int | root | raf |
| ~Raf to Int | Yes | root |
| Int to ~Raf | Yes | hop |
| Raf to Raf | No | -- |
| Raf to ~Raf | No | -- |
| ~Raf to Raf | Yes | dst |
| ~Raf to ~Raf | Yes | hop |
+--------------+-----------+---------------+
Table 1: IP-in-IP encapsulation in Storing mode
5.1. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to root 5.1. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to root
In storing mode, RFC 6553 (RPI) is used to send RPL Information In storing mode, RFC 6553 (RPI) is used to send RPL Information
instanceID and rank information. instanceID and rank information.
As stated in Section 16.2 of [RFC6550] a RPL-aware-leaf node does As stated in Section 16.2 of [RFC6550] a RPL-aware-leaf node does
not generally issue DIO messages; a leaf node accepts DIO messages not generally issue DIO messages; a leaf node accepts DIO messages
from upstream. (When the inconsistency in routing occurs, a leaf from upstream. (When the inconsistency in routing occurs, a leaf
node will generate a DIO with an infinite rank, to fix it). It may node will generate a DIO with an infinite rank, to fix it). It may
issue DAO and DIS messages though it generally ignores DAO and DIS issue DAO and DIS messages though it generally ignores DAO and DIS
messages. messages.
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
RPL-aware-leaf (6LN) --> 6LR1,... --> 6LRN --> root (6LBR) RPL-aware-leaf (6LN) --> 6LR_i --> root(6LBR)
6LR_i are the intermediate routers from source to destination. In
this case, "1 <= i >= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the
packet go through from source (6LN) to destination (6LBR).
As it was mentioned In this document 6LRs, 6LBR are always full- As it was mentioned In this document 6LRs, 6LBR are always full-
fledge RPL routers. fledge RPL routers.
The 6LN inserts the RPI header, and sends the packet to 6LR which The 6LN inserts the RPI header, and sends the packet to 6LR which
decrements the rank in RPI and sends the packet up. When the packet decrements the rank in RPI and sends the packet up. When the packet
arrives at 6LBR, the RPI is removed and the packet is processed. arrives at 6LBR, the RPI is removed and the packet is processed.
No IP-in-IP header is required. No IP-in-IP header is required.
The RPI header can be removed by the 6LBR because the packet is The RPI header can be removed by the 6LBR because the packet is
addressed to the 6LBR. The 6LN must know that it is communicating addressed to the 6LBR. The 6LN must know that it is communicating
with the 6LBR to make use of this scenario. The 6LN can know the with the 6LBR to make use of this scenario. The 6LN can know the
address of the 6LBR because it knows the address of the root via the address of the 6LBR because it knows the address of the root via the
DODAGID in the DIO messages. DODAGID in the DIO messages.
+-------------------+-----+------+------+ +-------------------+-----+-------+------+
| Header | 6LN | 6LR | 6LBR | | Header | 6LN | 6LR_i | 6LBR |
+-------------------+-----+------+------+ +-------------------+-----+-------+------+
| Inserted headers | RPI | -- | -- | | Inserted headers | RPI | -- | -- |
| Removed headers | -- | -- | RPI | | Removed headers | -- | -- | RPI |
| Re-added headers | -- | -- | -- | | Re-added headers | -- | -- | -- |
| Modified headers | -- | RPI | -- | | Modified headers | -- | RPI | -- |
| Untouched headers | -- | -- | -- | | Untouched headers | -- | -- | -- |
+-------------------+-----+------+------+ +-------------------+-----+-------+------+
Storing: Summary of the use of headers from RPL-aware-leaf to root Storing: Summary of the use of headers from RPL-aware-leaf to root
5.2. Example of Flow from root to RPL-aware-leaf 5.2. Example of Flow from root to RPL-aware-leaf
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
root (6LBR) --> 6LR1,... --> 6LRN --> RPL-aware-leaf (6LN) root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> RPL-aware-leaf (6LN)
6LR_i are the intermediate routers from source to destination. In
this case, "1 <= i >= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the
packet go through from source (6LBR) to destination (6LN).
In this case the 6LBR inserts RPI header and sends the packet down, In this case the 6LBR inserts RPI header and sends the packet down,
the 6LR is going to increment the rank in RPI (examines instanceID the 6LR is going to increment the rank in RPI (examines instanceID
for multiple tables), the packet is processed in 6LN and RPI removed. for multiple tables), the packet is processed in 6LN and RPI removed.
No IP-in-IP header is required. No IP-in-IP header is required.
+-------------------+------+-------+------+ +-------------------+------+-------+------+
| Header | 6LBR | 6LR | 6LN | | Header | 6LBR | 6LR_i | 6LN |
+-------------------+------+-------+------+ +-------------------+------+-------+------+
| Inserted headers | RPI | -- | -- | | Inserted headers | RPI | -- | -- |
| Removed headers | -- | -- | RPI | | Removed headers | -- | -- | RPI |
| Re-added headers | -- | -- | -- | | Re-added headers | -- | -- | -- |
| Modified headers | -- | RPI | -- | | Modified headers | -- | RPI | -- |
| Untouched headers | -- | -- | -- | | Untouched headers | -- | -- | -- |
+-------------------+------+-------+------+ +-------------------+------+-------+------+
Storing: Summary of the use of headers from root to RPL-aware-leaf Storing: Summary of the use of headers from root to RPL-aware-leaf
5.3. Example of Flow from root to not-RPL-aware-leaf 5.3. Example of Flow from root to not-RPL-aware-leaf
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
root (6LBR) --> 6LR1,... --> 6LRN --> not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6) root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6)
6LR_i are the intermediate routers from source to destination. In
this case, "1 <= i >= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the
packet go through from source (6LBR) to destination (IPv6).
As the RPI extension can be ignored by the not-RPL-aware leaf, this As the RPI extension can be ignored by the not-RPL-aware leaf, this
situation is identical to the previous scenario. situation is identical to the previous scenario.
+-------------------+------+-----------+----------------+ +-------------------+------+-------+----------------+
| Header | 6LBR | 6LR(1..N) | 6LN | | Header | 6LBR | 6LR_i | IPv6 |
+-------------------+------+-----------+----------------+ +-------------------+------+-------+----------------+
| Inserted headers | RPI | -- | -- | | Inserted headers | RPI | -- | -- |
| Removed headers | -- | -- | -- | | Removed headers | -- | -- | -- |
| Re-added headers | -- | -- | -- | | Re-added headers | -- | -- | -- |
| Modified headers | -- | RPI | -- | | Modified headers | -- | RPI | -- |
| Untouched headers | -- | -- | RPI (Ignored) | | Untouched headers | -- | -- | RPI (Ignored) |
+-------------------+------+-----------+----------------+ +-------------------+------+-------+----------------+
Storing: Summary of the use of headers from root to not-RPL-aware- Storing: Summary of the use of headers from root to not-RPL-aware-
leaf leaf
5.4. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to root 5.4. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to root
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6) --> 6LR1,... --> 6LRN --> root (6LBR) not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6) --> 6LR_1 --> 6LR_i --> root (6LBR)
When the packet arrives from IPv6 node to 6LR, the 6LR1 will insert 6LR_i are the intermediate routers from source to destination. In
an RPI header, encapsuladed in a IPv6-in-IPv6 header. The IPv6-in- this case, "1 < i >= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the
IPv6 header can be addressed to the next hop, or to the root. The packet go through from source (IPv6) to destination (6LBR). For
root removes the header and processes the packet. example, 6LR_1 (i=1) is the router that receives the packets from the
IPv6 node.
When the packet arrives from IPv6 node to 6LR_1, the 6LR_1 will
insert a RPI header, encapsuladed in a IPv6-in-IPv6 header. The
IPv6-in-IPv6 header can be addressed to the next hop, or to the root.
The root removes the header and processes the packet.
+------------+------+---------------+---------------+---------------+ +------------+------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
| Header | IPv6 | 6LR1 | 6LRN | 6LBR | | Header | IPv6 | 6LR_1 | 6LR_i | 6LBR |
+------------+------+---------------+---------------+---------------+ +------------+------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
| Inserted | -- | IP-in-IP(RPI) | -- | -- | | Inserted | -- | IP-in-IP(RPI) | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | IP-in-IP(RPI) | | Removed | -- | -- | -- | IP-in-IP(RPI) |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
| Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
| Modified | -- | -- | IP-in-IP(RPI) | -- | | Modified | -- | -- | IP-in-IP(RPI) | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- |
skipping to change at page 12, line 30 skipping to change at page 13, line 30
Storing: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL-aware-leaf to Storing: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL-aware-leaf to
root root
5.5. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to Internet 5.5. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to Internet
RPL information from RFC 6553 MAY go out to Internet as it will be RPL information from RFC 6553 MAY go out to Internet as it will be
ignored by nodes which have not been configured to be RPI aware. ignored by nodes which have not been configured to be RPI aware.
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
RPL-aware-leaf (6LN) --> 6LR1,... --> 6LRN --> root (6LBR) --> RPL-aware-leaf (6LN) --> 6LR_i --> root (6LBR) --> Internet
Internet
6LR_i are the intermediate routers from source to destination. In
this case, "1 <= i >= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the
packet go through from source (6LN) to 6LBR.
No IP-in-IP header is required. No IP-in-IP header is required.
+-------------------+------+-----------+------+----------------+ Note: In this use case we use a node as leaf, but this use case can
| Header | 6LN | 6LR(1..N) | 6LBR | Internet | be also applicable to any RPL-node type (e.g. 6LR)
+-------------------+------+-----------+------+----------------+
| Inserted headers | RPI | -- | -- | -- | +-------------------+------+-------+------+----------------+
| Removed headers | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Header | 6LN | 6LR_i | 6LBR | Internet |
| Re-added headers | -- | -- | -- | -- | +-------------------+------+-------+------+----------------+
| Modified headers | -- | RPI | -- | -- | | Inserted headers | RPI | -- | -- | -- |
| Untouched headers | -- | -- | -- | RPI (Ignored) | | Removed headers | -- | -- | -- | -- |
+-------------------+------+-----------+------+----------------+ | Re-added headers | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| Modified headers | -- | RPI | -- | -- |
| Untouched headers | -- | -- | -- | RPI (Ignored) |
+-------------------+------+-------+------+----------------+
Storing: Summary of the use of headers from RPL-aware-leaf to Storing: Summary of the use of headers from RPL-aware-leaf to
Internet Internet
5.6. Example of Flow from Internet to RPL-aware-leaf 5.6. Example of Flow from Internet to RPL-aware-leaf
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
Internet --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR1,... --> 6LRN --> RPL-aware-leaf Internet --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> RPL-aware-leaf (6LN)
(6LN)
6LR_i are the intermediate routers from source to destination. In
this case, "1 <= i >= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the
packet go through from 6LBR to destination(6LN).
When the packet arrives from Internet to 6LBR the RPI header is added When the packet arrives from Internet to 6LBR the RPI header is added
in a outer IPv6-in-IPv6 header and sent to 6LR, which modifies the in a outer IPv6-in-IPv6 header and sent to 6LR, which modifies the
rank in the RPI. When the packet arrives at 6LN the RPI header is rank in the RPI. When the packet arrives at 6LN the RPI header is
removed and the packet processed. removed and the packet processed.
+----------+---------+--------------+---------------+---------------+ +----------+---------+--------------+---------------+---------------+
| Header | Interne | 6LBR | 6LR(1...N) | 6LN | | Header | Interne | 6LBR | 6LR_i | 6LN |
| | t | | | | | | t | | | |
+----------+---------+--------------+---------------+---------------+ +----------+---------+--------------+---------------+---------------+
| Inserted | -- | IP-in- | -- | -- | | Inserted | -- | IP-in- | -- | -- |
| headers | | IP(RPI) | | | | headers | | IP(RPI) | | |
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | IP-in-IP(RPI) | | Removed | -- | -- | -- | IP-in-IP(RPI) |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
| Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
| Modified | -- | -- | IP-in-IP(RPI) | -- | | Modified | -- | -- | IP-in-IP(RPI) | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
skipping to change at page 13, line 37 skipping to change at page 14, line 44
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
+----------+---------+--------------+---------------+---------------+ +----------+---------+--------------+---------------+---------------+
Storing: Summary of the use of headers from Internet to RPL-aware- Storing: Summary of the use of headers from Internet to RPL-aware-
leaf leaf
5.7. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to Internet 5.7. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to Internet
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6) --> 6LR1,... --> 6LRN --> root (6LBR) --> not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6) --> 6LR_1 --> 6LR_i -->root (6LBR) -->
Internet Internet
The 6LR1 node will add an IP-in-IP(RPI) header addressed either to 6LR_i are the intermediate routers from source to destination. In
the root, or hop-by-hop such that the root can remove the RPI header this case, "1 < i >= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the
before passing upwards. packet go through from source(IPv6) to 6LBR.
The 6LR_1 (i=1) node will add an IP-in-IP(RPI) header addressed
either to the root, or hop-by-hop such that the root can remove the
RPI header before passing upwards.
The originating node will ideally leave the IPv6 flow label as zero The originating node will ideally leave the IPv6 flow label as zero
so that it can be better compressed through the LLN, and the 6LBR so that the packet can be better compressed through the LLN. The
will set the flow label to a non-zero value when sending to the 6LBR will set the flow label of the packet to a non-zero value when
Internet. sending to the Internet.
+---------+-----+-------------+-------------+-------------+---------+ +---------+-----+-------------+-------------+-------------+---------+
| Header | IPv | 6LR1 | 6LBN | 6LBR | Interne | | Header | IPv | 6LR_1 | 6LR_i | 6LBR | Interne |
| | 6 | | | | t | | | 6 | | [i=2,..,n]_ | | t |
+---------+-----+-------------+-------------+-------------+---------+ +---------+-----+-------------+-------------+-------------+---------+
| Inserte | -- | IP-in- | -- | -- | -- | | Inserte | -- | IP-in- | -- | -- | -- |
| d | | IP(RPI) | | | | | d | | IP(RPI) | | | |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | IP-in- | -- | | Removed | -- | -- | -- | IP-in- | -- |
| headers | | | | IP(RPI) | | | headers | | | | IP(RPI) | |
| Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| added | | | | | | | added | | | | | |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
| Modifie | -- | -- | IP-in- | -- | -- | | Modifie | -- | -- | IP-in- | -- | -- |
skipping to change at page 14, line 32 skipping to change at page 15, line 41
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
+---------+-----+-------------+-------------+-------------+---------+ +---------+-----+-------------+-------------+-------------+---------+
Storing: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL-aware-leaf to Storing: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL-aware-leaf to
Internet Internet
5.8. Example of Flow from Internet to non-RPL-aware-leaf 5.8. Example of Flow from Internet to non-RPL-aware-leaf
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
Internet --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR1,... --> 6LRN --> not-RPL-aware-leaf Internet --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6)
(IPv6)
6LR_i are the intermediate routers from source to destination. In
this case, "1 < i >= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the
packet go through from 6LBR to not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6).
The 6LBR will have to add an RPI header within an IP-in-IP header. The 6LBR will have to add an RPI header within an IP-in-IP header.
The IP-in-IP can be addressed to the not-RPL-aware-leaf, leaving the The IP-in-IP can be addressed to the not-RPL-aware-leaf, leaving the
RPI inside. RPI inside.
The 6LBR MAY set the flow label on the inner IP-in-IP header to zero The 6LBR MAY set the flow label on the inner IP-in-IP header to zero
in order to aid in compression, as the packet will not emerge again in order to aid in compression.
from the LLN.
+-----------+----------+---------------+---------------+------------+ +-----------+----------+---------------+---------------+------------+
| Header | Internet | 6LBR | 6LR(1...N) | IPv6 | | Header | Internet | 6LBR | 6LR_i | IPv6 |
+-----------+----------+---------------+---------------+------------+ +-----------+----------+---------------+---------------+------------+
| Inserted | -- | IP-in-IP(RPI) | -- | -- | | Inserted | -- | IP-in-IP(RPI) | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
| Removed | -- | -- | IP-in-IP(RPI) | -- | | Removed | -- | -- | IP-in-IP(RPI) | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
| Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
| Modified | -- | -- | IP-in-IP(RPI) | -- | | Modified | -- | -- | IP-in-IP(RPI) | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | RPI | | Untouched | -- | -- | -- | RPI |
skipping to change at page 15, line 31 skipping to change at page 16, line 31
aware-leaf aware-leaf
5.9. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf 5.9. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf
In [RFC6550] RPL allows a simple one-hop optimization for both In [RFC6550] RPL allows a simple one-hop optimization for both
storing and non-storing networks. A node may send a packet destined storing and non-storing networks. A node may send a packet destined
to a one-hop neighbor directly to that node. Section 9 in [RFC6550]. to a one-hop neighbor directly to that node. Section 9 in [RFC6550].
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
6LN --> 6LR1 --> common parent (6LRx) --> 6LRN --> 6LN 6LN --> 6LR_ia --> common parent (6LR_x) --> 6LR_id --> 6LN
6LR_ia are the intermediate routers from source to the common parent
(6LR_x) In this case, "1 <= ia >= n", n is the number of routers
(6LR) that the packet go through from 6LN to the common parent
(6LR_x).
6LR_id are the intermediate routers from the common parent (6LR_x) to
destination 6LN. In this case, "1 <= id >= m", m is the number of
routers (6LR) that the packet go through from the common parent
(6LR_x) to destination 6LN.
This case is assumed in the same RPL Domain. In the common parent, This case is assumed in the same RPL Domain. In the common parent,
the direction of RPI is changed (from increasing to decreasing the the direction of RPI is changed (from increasing to decreasing the
rank). rank).
While the 6LR nodes will update the RPI, no node needs to add or While the 6LR nodes will update the RPI, no node needs to add or
remove the RPI, so no IP-in-IP headers are necessary. This may be remove the RPI, so no IP-in-IP headers are necessary. This may be
done regardless of where the destination is, as the included RPI will done regardless of where the destination is, as the included RPI will
be ignored by the receiver. be ignored by the receiver.
+------------+-------+---------------+---------------+------+-------+ +---------------+--------+--------+---------------+--------+--------+
| Header | 6LN | 6LR1 | 6LRx (common | 6LRN | 6LN | | Header | 6LN | 6LR_ia | 6LR_x (common | 6LR_id | 6LN |
| | src | | parent) | | dst | | | src | | parent) | | dst |
+------------+-------+---------------+---------------+------+-------+ +---------------+--------+--------+---------------+--------+--------+
| Inserted | RPI | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Inserted | RPI | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | -- | RPI | | Removed | -- | -- | -- | -- | RPI |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
| Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
| Modified | -- | RPI | RPI | -- | -- | | Modified | -- | RPI | RPI | RPI | -- |
| headers | | (decreasing | (increasing | | | | headers | | | | | |
| | | rank) | rank) | | | | Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | | headers | | | | | |
| headers | | | | | | +---------------+--------+--------+---------------+--------+--------+
+------------+-------+---------------+---------------+------+-------+
Storing: Summary of the use of headers for RPL-aware-leaf to RPL- Storing: Summary of the use of headers for RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-
aware-leaf aware-leaf
5.10. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to non-RPL-aware-leaf 5.10. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to non-RPL-aware-leaf
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
6LN --> 6LR1 --> common parent (6LRx) --> 6LRN --> not-RPL-aware 6LN 6LN --> 6LR_ia --> common parent (6LR_x) --> 6LR_id --> not-RPL-aware
(IPv6) 6LN (IPv6)
6LR_ia are the intermediate routers from source (6LN) to the common
parent (6LR_x) In this case, "1 <= ia >= n", n is the number of
routers (6LR) that the packet go through from 6LN to the common
parent (6LR_x).
6LR_id are the intermediate routers from the common parent (6LR_x) to
destination not-RPL-aware 6LN (IPv6). In this case, "1 <= id >= m",
m is the number of routers (6LR) that the packet go through from the
common parent (6LR_x) to destination 6LN.
This situation is identical to the previous situation Section 5.9 This situation is identical to the previous situation Section 5.9
+-----------+-----+-------------+-------------+------+--------------+ +-----------+------+--------+---------------+--------+--------------+
| Header | 6LN | 6LR1 | 6LRx | 6LRN | IPv6 | | Header | 6LN | 6LR_ia | 6LR_x(common | 6LR_id | IPv6 |
| | src | | (common | | | | | src | | parent) | | |
| | | | parent) | | | +-----------+------+--------+---------------+--------+--------------+
+-----------+-----+-------------+-------------+------+--------------+ | Inserted | RPI | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| Inserted | RPI | -- | -- | -- | -- | | headers | | | | | |
| headers | | | | | | | Removed | -- | -- | -- | -- | RPI |
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | -- | RPI | | headers | | | | | |
| headers | | | | | | | Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | | headers | | | | | |
| headers | | | | | | | Modified | -- | RPI | RPI | RPI | -- |
| Modified | -- | RPI | RPI | -- | -- | | headers | | | | | |
| headers | | (decreasing | (increasing | | | | Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | RPI(Ignored) |
| | | rank) | rank) | | | | headers | | | | | |
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | RPI(Ignored) | +-----------+------+--------+---------------+--------+--------------+
| headers | | | | | |
+-----------+-----+-------------+-------------+------+--------------+
Storing: Summary of the use of headers for RPL-aware-leaf to RPL- Storing: Summary of the use of headers for RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-
aware-leaf aware-leaf
5.11. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf 5.11. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
not-RPL-aware 6LN (IPv6) --> 6LR1 --> common parent (6LRx) --> 6LRN not-RPL-aware 6LN (IPv6) --> 6LR_ia --> common parent (6LR_x) -->
--> 6LN 6LR_id --> 6LN
The 6LR1 receives the packet from the the IPv6 node and inserts and 6LR_ia are the intermediate routers from source (not-RPL-aware 6LN
the RPI header encapsulated in IPv6-in-IPv6 header. The IP-in-IP (IPv6)) to the common parent (6LR_x) In this case, "1 <= ia >= n", n
header is addressed to the destination 6LN. is the number of routers (6LR) that the packet go through from source
to the common parent.
6LR_id are the intermediate routers from the common parent (6LR_x) to
destination 6LN. In this case, "1 <= id >= m", m is the number of
routers (6LR) that the packet go through from the common parent
(6LR_x) to destination 6LN.
The 6LR_ia (ia=1) receives the packet from the the IPv6 node and
inserts and the RPI header encapsulated in IPv6-in-IPv6 header. The
IP-in-IP header is addressed to the destination 6LN.
+--------+------+------------+------------+------------+------------+ +--------+------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
| Header | IPv6 | 6LR1 | common | 6LRn | 6LN | | Header | IPv6 | 6LR_ia | common | 6LR_id | 6LN |
| | | | parent | | | | | | | parent | | |
| | | | (6LRx) | | | | | | | (6LRx) | | |
+--------+------+------------+------------+------------+------------+ +--------+------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
| Insert | -- | IP-in- | -- | -- | -- | | Insert | -- | IP-in- | -- | -- | -- |
| ed hea | | IP(RPI) | | | | | ed hea | | IP(RPI) | | | |
| ders | | | | | | | ders | | | | | |
| Remove | -- | -- | -- | -- | IP-in- | | Remove | -- | -- | -- | -- | IP-in- |
| d head | | | | | IP(RPI) | | d head | | | | | IP(RPI) |
| ers | | | | | | | ers | | | | | |
| Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
skipping to change at page 18, line 35 skipping to change at page 19, line 35
| aders | | | | | | | aders | | | | | |
+--------+------+------------+------------+------------+------------+ +--------+------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
Storing: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL-aware-leaf to Storing: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL-aware-leaf to
RPL-aware-leaf RPL-aware-leaf
5.12. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to not-RPL-aware-leaf 5.12. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to not-RPL-aware-leaf
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
not-RPL-aware 6LN (IPv6 src)--> 6LR1 --> 6LR2 --> root (6LBR) --> not-RPL-aware 6LN (IPv6 src)--> 6LR_1--> 6LR_ia --> root (6LBR) -->
6LRn --> not-RPL-aware 6LN (IPv6 dst) 6LR_id --> not-RPL-aware 6LN (IPv6 dst)
6LR_ia are the intermediate routers from source (not-RPL-aware 6LN
(IPv6 src)) to the root (6LBR) In this case, "1 < ia >= n", n is the
number of routers (6LR) that the packet go through from IPv6 src to
the root.
6LR_id are the intermediate routers from the root to destination
(IPv6 dst). In this case, "1 <= id >= m", m is the number of routers
(6LR) that the packet go through from the root to destination (IPv6
dst).
This flow is identical to Section 5.11 This flow is identical to Section 5.11
The 6LR receives the packet from the the IPv6 node and inserts the The 6LR_1 receives the packet from the the IPv6 node and inserts the
RPI header (RPIa) encapsulated in IPv6-in-IPv6 header. The IPv6-in- RPI header (RPIa) encapsulated in IPv6-in-IPv6 header. The IPv6-in-
IPv6 header is addressed to the 6LBR. The 6LBR remove the IPv6-in- IPv6 header is addressed to the 6LBR. The 6LBR remove the IPv6-in-
IPv6 header and insert another one (RPIb) with destination to 6LRn IPv6 header and insert another one (RPIb) with destination to 6LR_m
node. node.
+-------+-----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----+ +-------+-----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----+
| Heade | IPv | 6LR1 | 6LR2 | 6LBR | 6LRn | IPv | | Heade | IPv | 6LR_1 | 6LR_ia | 6LBR | 6LR_m | IPv |
| r | 6 | | | | | 6 | | r | 6 | | | | | 6 |
| | src | | | | | dst | | | src | | | | | dst |
+-------+-----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----+ +-------+-----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----+
| Inser | -- | IP-in- | -- | IP-in- | -- | -- | | Inser | -- | IP-in- | -- | IP-in- | -- | -- |
| ted h | | IP(RPIa) | | IP(RPIb) | | | | ted h | | IP(RPI_a) | | IP(RPI_b) | | |
| eader | | | | | | | | eader | | | | | | |
| s | | | | | | | | s | | | | | | |
| Remov | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Remov | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| ed he | | | | | | | | ed he | | | | | | |
| aders | | | | | | | | aders | | | | | | |
| Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- | IP-in- | -- | | Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- | IP-in- | -- |
| added | | | | | IP(RPIb) | | | added | | | | | IP(RPI_b) | |
| heade | | | | | | | | heade | | | | | | |
| rs | | | | | | | | rs | | | | | | |
| Modif | -- | -- | IP-in- | -- | IP-in- | -- | | Modif | -- | -- | IP-in- | -- | IP-in- | -- |
| ied h | | | IP(RPIa) | | IP(RPIb) | | | ied h | | | IP(RPI_a) | | IP(RPI_b) | |
| eader | | | | | | | | eader | | | | | | |
| s | | | | | | | | s | | | | | | |
| Untou | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Untou | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| ched | | | | | | | | ched | | | | | | |
| heade | | | | | | | | heade | | | | | | |
| rs | | | | | | | | rs | | | | | | |
+-------+-----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----+ +-------+-----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----+
Storing: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL-aware-leaf to Storing: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL-aware-leaf to
non-RPL-aware-leaf non-RPL-aware-leaf
skipping to change at page 20, line 30 skipping to change at page 21, line 30
Table 2: Headers needed in Non-Storing mode: RPI, RH3, IP-in-IP Table 2: Headers needed in Non-Storing mode: RPI, RH3, IP-in-IP
encapsulation encapsulation
6.1. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to root 6.1. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to root
In non-storing mode the leaf node uses default routing to send In non-storing mode the leaf node uses default routing to send
traffic to the root. The RPI header must be included to avoid/detect traffic to the root. The RPI header must be included to avoid/detect
loops. loops.
RPL-aware-leaf (6LN) --> 6LR --> root (6LBR) RPL-aware-leaf (6LN) --> 6LR_i --> root(6LBR)
6LR_i are the intermediate routers from source to destination. In
this case, "1 <= i >= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the
packet go through from source (6LN) to destination (6LBR).
This situation is the same case as storing mode. This situation is the same case as storing mode.
+-------------------+-----+------+------+ +-------------------+-----+-------+------+
| Header | 6LN | 6LR | 6LBR | | Header | 6LN | 6LR_i | 6LBR |
+-------------------+-----+------+------+ +-------------------+-----+-------+------+
| Inserted headers | RPI | -- | -- | | Inserted headers | RPI | -- | -- |
| Removed headers | -- | -- | RPI | | Removed headers | -- | -- | RPI |
| Re-added headers | -- | -- | -- | | Re-added headers | -- | -- | -- |
| Modified headers | -- | RPI | -- | | Modified headers | -- | RPI | -- |
| Untouched headers | -- | -- | -- | | Untouched headers | -- | -- | -- |
+-------------------+-----+------+------+ +-------------------+-----+-------+------+
Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from RPL-aware-leaf to Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from RPL-aware-leaf to
root root
6.2. Example of Flow from root to RPL-aware-leaf 6.2. Example of Flow from root to RPL-aware-leaf
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
root (6LBR)--> 6LR --> RPL-aware-leaf (6LN) root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> RPL-aware-leaf (6LN)
6LR_i are the intermediate routers from source to destination. In
this case, "1 <= i >= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the
packet go through from source (6LBR) to destination (6LN).
The 6LBR will insert an RH3, and may optionally insert an RPI header. The 6LBR will insert an RH3, and may optionally insert an RPI header.
No IP-in-IP header is necessary as the traffic originates with an RPL No IP-in-IP header is necessary as the traffic originates with an RPL
aware node, the 6LBR. The destination is known to RPL-aware because, aware node, the 6LBR. The destination is known to RPL-aware because,
the root knows the whole topology in non-storing mode. the root knows the whole topology in non-storing mode.
+-------------------+-----------------+------+----------+ +-------------------+-----------------+-------+----------+
| Header | 6LBR | 6LR | 6LN | | Header | 6LBR | 6LR_i | 6LN |
+-------------------+-----------------+------+----------+ +-------------------+-----------------+-------+----------+
| Inserted headers | (opt: RPI), RH3 | -- | -- | | Inserted headers | (opt: RPI), RH3 | -- | -- |
| Removed headers | -- | -- | RH3,RPI | | Removed headers | -- | -- | RH3,RPI |
| Re-added headers | -- | -- | -- | | Re-added headers | -- | -- | -- |
| Modified headers | -- | RH3 | -- | | Modified headers | -- | RH3 | -- |
| Untouched headers | -- | -- | -- | | Untouched headers | -- | -- | -- |
+-------------------+-----------------+------+----------+ +-------------------+-----------------+-------+----------+
Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from root to RPL-aware- Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from root to RPL-aware-
leaf leaf
6.3. Example of Flow from root to not-RPL-aware-leaf 6.3. Example of Flow from root to not-RPL-aware-leaf
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
root (6LBR)--> 6LR1...-->6LRn --> not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6) root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6)
In 6LBR the RH3 is added, modified in each intermediate 6LR (6LR1 and 6LR_i are the intermediate routers from source to destination. In
so on) and it is fully consumed in the last 6LR (6LRn), but left this case, "1 <= i >= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the
packet go through from source (6LBR) to destination (IPv6).
In 6LBR the RH3 is added, modified in each intermediate 6LR (6LR_1
and so on) and it is fully consumed in the last 6LR (6LR_n), but left
there. If RPI is left present, the IPv6 node which does not there. If RPI is left present, the IPv6 node which does not
understand it will ignore it (following 2460bis), thus encapsulation understand it will ignore it (following 2460bis), thus encapsulation
is not necesary. Due the complete knowledge of the topology at the is not necesary. Due the complete knowledge of the topology at the
root, the 6LBR is able to address the IP-in-IP header to the last root, the 6LBR is able to address the IP-in-IP header to the last
6LR. 6LR.
+----------------+--------------+--------------+-------------+------+ +---------------+-------------+---------------+--------------+------+
| Header | 6LBR | 6LR1 | 6LRn | IPv6 | | Header | 6LBR | 6LR_i(i=1) | 6LR_n(i=n) | IPv6 |
+----------------+--------------+--------------+-------------+------+ +---------------+-------------+---------------+--------------+------+
| Inserted | (opt: RPI), | -- | -- | -- | | Inserted | (opt: RPI), | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | RH3 | | | | | headers | RH3 | | | |
| Removed | -- | RH3 | -- | -- | | Removed | -- | RH3 | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
| Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
| Modified | -- | (opt: RPI), | (opt: RPI), | -- | | Modified | -- | (opt: RPI), | (opt: RPI), | -- |
| headers | | RH3 | RH3 | | | headers | | RH3 | RH3 | |
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | RPI | | Untouched | -- | -- | -- | RPI |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
+----------------+--------------+--------------+-------------+------+ +---------------+-------------+---------------+--------------+------+
Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from root to not-RPL- Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from root to not-RPL-
aware-leaf aware-leaf
6.4. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to root 6.4. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to root
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
IPv6-node --> 6LR1 ...--> 6LRn --> root (6LBR) not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6) --> 6LR_1 --> 6LR_i --> root (6LBR)
6LR_i are the intermediate routers from source to destination. In
this case, "1 < i >= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the
packet go through from source (IPv6) to destination (6LBR). For
example, 6LR_1 (i=1) is the router that receives the packets from the
IPv6 node.
In this case the RPI is added by the first 6LR (6LR1), encapsulated In this case the RPI is added by the first 6LR (6LR1), encapsulated
in an IP-in-IP header, and is modified in the followings 6LRs. The in an IP-in-IP header, and is modified in the followings 6LRs. The
RPI and entire packet is consumed by the root. RPI and entire packet is consumed by the root.
+------------+------+---------------+---------------+---------------+ +------------+------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
| Header | IPv6 | 6LR1 | 6LR2 | 6LBR | | Header | IPv6 | 6LR_1 | 6LR_i | 6LBR |
+------------+------+---------------+---------------+---------------+ +------------+------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
| Inserted | -- | IP-in-IP(RPI) | -- | -- | | Inserted | -- | IP-in-IP(RPI) | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | IP-in-IP(RPI) | | Removed | -- | -- | -- | IP-in-IP(RPI) |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
| Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Re-added | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
| Modified | -- | IP-in-IP(RPI) | IP-in-IP(RPI) | -- | | Modified | -- | IP-in-IP(RPI) | IP-in-IP(RPI) | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
+------------+------+---------------+---------------+---------------+ +------------+------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL-aware-leaf to Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL-aware-leaf to
root root
6.5. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to Internet 6.5. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to Internet
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
RPL-aware-leaf (6LN) --> 6LR1 ...--> 6LRn --> root (6LBR) --> RPL-aware-leaf (6LN) --> 6LR_i --> root (6LBR) --> Internet
Internet
6LR_i are the intermediate routers from source to destination. In
this case, "1 <= i >= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the
packet go through from source (6LN) to 6LBR.
This case is identical to storing-mode case. This case is identical to storing-mode case.
The IPv6 flow label should be set to zero to aid in compression, and The IPv6 flow label should be set to zero to aid in compression, and
the 6LBR will set it to a non-zero value when sending towards the the 6LBR will set it to a non-zero value when sending towards the
Internet. Internet.
+-------------------+------+-----------+------+----------------+ +-------------------+------+-------+------+----------------+
| Header | 6LN | 6LR(1..N) | 6LBR | Internet | | Header | 6LN | 6LR_i | 6LBR | Internet |
+-------------------+------+-----------+------+----------------+ +-------------------+------+-------+------+----------------+
| Inserted headers | RPI | -- | -- | -- | | Inserted headers | RPI | -- | -- | -- |
| Removed headers | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Removed headers | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| Re-added headers | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Re-added headers | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| Modified headers | -- | RPI | -- | -- | | Modified headers | -- | RPI | -- | -- |
| Untouched headers | -- | -- | -- | RPI (Ignored) | | Untouched headers | -- | -- | -- | RPI (Ignored) |
+-------------------+------+-----------+------+----------------+ +-------------------+------+-------+------+----------------+
Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from RPL-aware-leaf to Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from RPL-aware-leaf to
Internet Internet
6.6. Example of Flow from Internet to RPL-aware-leaf 6.6. Example of Flow from Internet to RPL-aware-leaf
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
Internet --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR1...--> 6LRn --> RPL-aware-leaf (6LN) Internet --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> RPL-aware-leaf (6LN)
6LR_i are the intermediate routers from source to destination. In
this case, "1 <= i >= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the
packet go through from 6LBR to destination(6LN).
The 6LBR must add an RH3 header. As the 6LBR will know the path and The 6LBR must add an RH3 header. As the 6LBR will know the path and
address of the target node, it can address the IP-in-IP header to address of the target node, it can address the IP-in-IP header to
that node. The 6LBR will zero the flow label upon entry in order to that node. The 6LBR will zero the flow label upon entry in order to
aid compression. aid compression.
The RPI may be added or not, it is optional. The RPI may be added or not, it is optional.
+--------+-------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ +--------+-------+----------------+----------------+----------------+
| Header | Inter | 6LBR | 6LR | 6LN | | Header | Inter | 6LBR | 6LR_i | 6LN |
| | net | | | | | | net | | | |
+--------+-------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ +--------+-------+----------------+----------------+----------------+
| Insert | -- | IP-in-IP(RH3,o | -- | -- | | Insert | -- | IP-in-IP(RH3,o | -- | -- |
| ed hea | | pt:RPI) | | | | ed hea | | pt:RPI) | | |
| ders | | | | | | ders | | | | |
| Remove | -- | -- | -- | IP-in-IP(RH3,o | | Remove | -- | -- | -- | IP-in-IP(RH3,o |
| d head | | | | pt:RPI) | | d head | | | | pt:RPI) |
| ers | | | | | | ers | | | | |
| Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| added | | | | | | added | | | | |
skipping to change at page 24, line 34 skipping to change at page 25, line 51
| aders | | | | | | aders | | | | |
+--------+-------+----------------+----------------+----------------+ +--------+-------+----------------+----------------+----------------+
Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from Internet to RPL- Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from Internet to RPL-
aware-leaf aware-leaf
6.7. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to Internet 6.7. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to Internet
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6) --> 6LR1..--> 6LRn --> root (6LBR) --> not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6) --> 6LR_1 --> 6LR_i -->root (6LBR) -->
Internet Internet
6LR_i are the intermediate routers from source to destination. In
this case, "1 < i >= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the
packet go through from source(IPv6) to 6LBR. e.g 6LR_1 (i=1).
In this case the flow label is recommended to be zero in the IPv6 In this case the flow label is recommended to be zero in the IPv6
node. As RPL headers are added in the IPv6 node, the first 6LN will node. As RPL headers are added in the IPv6 node, the first 6LR
add an RPI header inside a new IP-in-IP header. The IP-in-IP header (6LR_1) will add an RPI header inside a new IP-in-IP header. The IP-
will be addressed to the root. This case is identical to the in-IP header will be addressed to the root. This case is identical
storing-mode case (Section 5.7). to the storing-mode case (Section 5.7).
+---------+-----+-------------+-------------+-------------+---------+ +---------+-----+-------------+-------------+-------------+---------+
| Header | IPv | 6LR1 | 6LRn | 6LBR | Interne | | Header | IPv | 6LR_1 | 6LR_i | 6LBR | Interne |
| | 6 | | | | t | | | 6 | | [i=2,..,n]_ | | t |
+---------+-----+-------------+-------------+-------------+---------+ +---------+-----+-------------+-------------+-------------+---------+
| Inserte | -- | IP-in- | -- | -- | -- | | Inserte | -- | IP-in- | -- | -- | -- |
| d | | IP(RPI) | | | | | d | | IP(RPI) | | | |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | IP-in- | -- | | Removed | -- | -- | -- | IP-in- | -- |
| headers | | | | IP(RPI) | | | headers | | | | IP(RPI) | |
| Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| added | | | | | | | added | | | | | |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
| Modifie | -- | -- | IP-in- | -- | -- | | Modifie | -- | -- | IP-in- | -- | -- |
| d | | | IP(RPI) | | | | d | | | IP(RPI) | | |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
| Untouch | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Untouch | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| ed | | | | | | | ed | | | | | |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
+---------+-----+-------------+-------------+-------------+---------+ +---------+-----+-------------+-------------+-------------+---------+
Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL-aware-leaf to Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL-aware-leaf to
Internet Internet
6.8. Example of Flow from Internet to non-RPL-aware-leaf 6.8. Example of Flow from Internet to not-RPL-aware-leaf
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
Internet --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR1...--> 6LRn --> not-RPL-aware-leaf Internet --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6)
(IPv6)
6LR_i are the intermediate routers from source to destination. In
this case, "1 < i >= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the
packet go through from 6LBR to not-RPL-aware-leaf (IPv6).
The 6LBR must add an RH3 header inside an IP-in-IP header. The 6LBR The 6LBR must add an RH3 header inside an IP-in-IP header. The 6LBR
will know the path, and will recognize that the final node is not an will know the path, and will recognize that the final node is not an
RPL capable node as it will have received the connectivity DAO from RPL capable node as it will have received the connectivity DAO from
the nearest 6LR. The 6LBR can therefore make the IP-in-IP header the nearest 6LR. The 6LBR can therefore make the IP-in-IP header
destination be the last 6LR. The 6LBR will set to zero the flow destination be the last 6LR. The 6LBR will set to zero the flow
label upon entry in order to aid compression. label upon entry in order to aid compression.
+--------+-------+-----------------+------------+------------+------+ +--------+-------+----------------+------------+-------------+------+
| Header | Inter | 6LBR | 6LR1 | 6LRn | IPv6 | | Header | Inter | 6LBR | 6LR_1 | 6LR_i(i=2,. | IPv6 |
| | net | | | | | | | net | | | .,n) | |
+--------+-------+-----------------+------------+------------+------+ +--------+-------+----------------+------------+-------------+------+
| Insert | -- | IP-in- | -- | -- | -- | | Insert | -- | IP-in-IP(RH3,o | -- | -- | -- |
| ed hea | | IP(RH3,opt:RPI) | | | | | ed hea | | pt:RPI) | | | |
| ders | | | | | | | ders | | | | | |
| Remove | -- | -- | -- | IP-in- | -- | | Remove | -- | -- | -- | IP-in- | -- |
| d head | | | | IP(RH3, | | | d head | | | | IP(RH3, | |
| ers | | | | RPI) | | | ers | | | | RPI) | |
| Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| added | | | | | | | added | | | | | |
| header | | | | | | | header | | | | | |
| s | | | | | | | s | | | | | |
| Modifi | -- | -- | IP-in- | IP-in- | -- | | Modifi | -- | -- | IP-in- | IP-in- | -- |
| ed hea | | | IP(RH3, | IP(RH3, | | | ed hea | | | IP(RH3, | IP(RH3, | |
| ders | | | RPI) | RPI) | | | ders | | | RPI) | RPI) | |
| Untouc | -- | -- | -- | -- | RPI | | Untouc | -- | -- | -- | -- | RPI |
| hed he | | | | | | | hed he | | | | | |
| aders | | | | | | | aders | | | | | |
+--------+-------+-----------------+------------+------------+------+ +--------+-------+----------------+------------+-------------+------+
NonStoring: Summary of the use of headers from Internet to non-RPL- NonStoring: Summary of the use of headers from Internet to non-RPL-
aware-leaf aware-leaf
6.9. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf 6.9. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
6LN --> 6LR1 --> root (6LBR) --> 6LRN --> 6LN 6LN src --> 6LR_ia --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_id --> 6LN dst
6LR_ia are the intermediate routers from source to the root In this
case, "1 <= ia >= n", n is the number of routers (6LR) that the
packet go through from 6LN to the root.
6LR_id are the intermediate routers from the root to the destination.
In this case, "1 <= ia >= m", m is the number of the intermediate
routers (6LR).
This case involves only nodes in same RPL Domain. The originating This case involves only nodes in same RPL Domain. The originating
node will add an RPI header to the original packet, and send the node will add an RPI header to the original packet, and send the
packet upwards. packet upwards.
The originating node SHOULD put the RPI into an IP-in-IP header The originating node SHOULD put the RPI into an IP-in-IP header
addressed to the root, so that the 6LBR can remove that header. If addressed to the root, so that the 6LBR can remove that header. If
it does not, then additional resources are wasted on the way down to it does not, then additional resources are wasted on the way down to
carry the useless RPI option. carry the useless RPI option.
The 6LBR will need to insert an RH3 header, which requires that it The 6LBR will need to insert an RH3 header, which requires that it
add an IP-in-IP header. It SHOULD be able to remove the RPI, as it add an IP-in-IP header. It SHOULD be able to remove the RPI, as it
was contained in an IP-in-IP header addressed to it. Otherwise, was contained in an IP-in-IP header addressed to it. Otherwise,
there MAY be an RPI header buried inside the inner IP header, which there MAY be an RPI header buried inside the inner IP header, which
should get ignored. should get ignored.
Networks that use the RPL P2P extension [RFC6997] are essentially Networks that use the RPL P2P extension [RFC6997] are essentially
non-storing DODAGs and fall into this scenario or scenario non-storing DODAGs and fall into this scenario or scenario
Section 6.2, with the originating node acting as 6LBR. Section 6.2, with the originating node acting as 6LBR.
+---------+-------------+------+--------------+------+--------------+ +---------+-------------+------+--------------+-------+-------------+
| Header | 6LN src | 6LR1 | 6LBR | 6LRN | 6LN dst | | Header | 6LN src | 6LR_ | 6LBR | 6LR_i | 6LN dst |
+---------+-------------+------+--------------+------+--------------+ | | | ia | | d | |
| Inserte | IP-in- | -- | IP-in-IP(RH3 | -- | -- | +---------+-------------+------+--------------+-------+-------------+
| d | IP(RPI1) | | to 6LN, opt | | | | Inserte | IP-in- | -- | IP-in-IP(RH3 | -- | -- |
| headers | | | RPI2) | | | | d | IP(RPI1) | | to 6LN, opt | | |
| Removed | -- | -- | IP-in- | -- | IP-in- | | headers | | | RPI2) | | |
| headers | | | IP(RPI1) | | IP(RH3, opt | | Removed | -- | -- | IP-in- | -- | IP-in- |
| | | | | | RPI2) | | headers | | | IP(RPI1) | | IP(RH3, opt |
| Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | | | | | | | RPI2) |
| added | | | | | | | Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | added | | | | | |
| Modifie | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | | headers | | | | | |
| d | | | | | | | Modifie | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | d | | | | | |
| Untouch | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | | headers | | | | | |
| ed | | | | | | | Untouch | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | ed | | | | | |
+---------+-------------+------+--------------+------+--------------+ | headers | | | | | |
+---------+-------------+------+--------------+-------+-------------+
Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers for RPL-aware-leaf to RPL- Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers for RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-
aware-leaf aware-leaf
6.10. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to not-RPL-aware-leaf 6.10. Example of Flow from RPL-aware-leaf to not-RPL-aware-leaf
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
6LN --> 6LR1 --> root (6LBR) --> 6LRn --> not-RPL-aware (IPv6) 6LN --> 6LR_ia --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_id --> not-RPL-aware (IPv6)
As in the previous case, the 6LN will insert an RPI (RPI1) header 6LR_ia are the intermediate routers from source to the root In this
case, "1 <= ia >= n", n is the number of intermediate routers (6LR)
6LR_id are the intermediate routers from the root to the destination.
In this case, "1 <= ia >= m", m is the number of the intermediate
routers (6LR).
As in the previous case, the 6LN will insert an RPI (RPI_1) header
which MUST be in an IP-in-IP header addressed to the root so that the which MUST be in an IP-in-IP header addressed to the root so that the
6LBR can remove this RPI. The 6LBR will then insert an RH3 inside a 6LBR can remove this RPI. The 6LBR will then insert an RH3 inside a
new IP-in-IP header addressed to the 6LN destination node. The RPI new IP-in-IP header addressed to the 6LN destination node. The RPI
is optional from 6LBR to 6LRn (RPI2). is optional from 6LBR to 6LR_id (RPI_2).
+--------+------------+------------+------------+------------+------+ +--------+-----------+------------+-------------+------------+------+
| Header | 6LN | 6LR1 | 6LBR | 6LRn | IPv6 | | Header | 6LN | 6LR_1 | 6LBR | 6LR_id | IPv6 |
+--------+------------+------------+------------+------------+------+ +--------+-----------+------------+-------------+------------+------+
| Insert | IP-in- | -- | IP-in- | -- | -- | | Insert | IP-in- | -- | IP-in- | -- | -- |
| ed hea | IP(RPI1) | | IP(RH3, | | | | ed hea | IP(RPI1) | | IP(RH3, opt | | |
| ders | | | opt RPI2) | | | | ders | | | RPI_2) | | |
| Remove | -- | -- | IP-in- | IP-in- | -- | | Remove | -- | -- | IP-in- | IP-in- | -- |
| d head | | | IP(RPI1) | IP(RH3, | | | d head | | | IP(RPI_1) | IP(RH3, | |
| ers | | | | opt RPI2) | | | ers | | | | opt RPI_2) | |
| Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| added | | | | | | | added | | | | | |
| header | | | | | | | header | | | | | |
| s | | | | | | | s | | | | | |
| Modifi | -- | IP-in- | -- | IP-in- | -- | | Modifi | -- | IP-in- | -- | IP-in- | -- |
| ed hea | | IP(RPI1) | | IP(RH3, | | | ed hea | | IP(RPI_1) | | IP(RH3, | |
| ders | | | | opt RPI2) | | | ders | | | | opt RPI_2) | |
| Untouc | -- | -- | -- | -- | opt | | Untouc | -- | -- | -- | -- | opt |
| hed he | | | | | RPI2 | | hed he | | | | | RPI_ |
| aders | | | | | | | aders | | | | | 2 |
+--------+------------+------------+------------+------------+------+ +--------+-----------+------------+-------------+------------+------+
Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from RPL-aware-leaf to Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from RPL-aware-leaf to
not-RPL-aware-leaf not-RPL-aware-leaf
6.11. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf 6.11. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to RPL-aware-leaf
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
not-RPL-aware 6LN (IPv6) --> 6LR1 --> root (6LBR) --> 6LRn --> 6LN not-RPL-aware 6LN (IPv6) --> 6LR_ia --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_id -->
6LN
6LR_ia are the intermediate routers from source to the root In this
case, "1 <= ia >= n", n is the number of intermediate routers (6LR)
6LR_id are the intermediate routers from the root to the destination.
In this case, "1 <= ia >= m", m is the number of the intermediate
routers (6LR).
This scenario is mostly identical to the previous one. The RPI is This scenario is mostly identical to the previous one. The RPI is
added by the first 6LR (6LR1) inside an IP-in-IP header addressed to added by the first 6LR (6LR_1) inside an IP-in-IP header addressed to
the root. The 6LBR will remove this RPI, and add it's own IP-in-IP the root. The 6LBR will remove this RPI, and add it's own IP-in-IP
header containing an RH3 header and optional RPI (RPI2). header containing an RH3 header and optional RPI (RPI_2).
+--------+-----+------------+-------------+------------+------------+ +--------+-----+------------+-------------+------------+------------+
| Header | IPv | 6LR1 | 6LBR | 6LRn | 6LN | | Header | IPv | 6LR_1 | 6LBR | 6LR_id | 6LN |
| | 6 | | | | | | | 6 | | | | |
+--------+-----+------------+-------------+------------+------------+ +--------+-----+------------+-------------+------------+------------+
| Insert | -- | IP-in- | IP-in- | -- | -- | | Insert | -- | IP-in- | IP-in- | -- | -- |
| ed hea | | IP(RPI1) | IP(RH3, opt | | | | ed hea | | IP(RPI_1) | IP(RH3, opt | | |
| ders | | | RPI2) | | | | ders | | | RPI_2) | | |
| Remove | -- | -- | IP-in- | -- | IP-in- | | Remove | -- | -- | IP-in- | -- | IP-in- |
| d head | | | IP(RPI1) | | IP(RH3, | | d head | | | IP(RPI_1) | | IP(RH3, |
| ers | | | | | opt RPI2) | | ers | | | | | opt RPI_2) |
| Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| added | | | | | | | added | | | | | |
| header | | | | | | | header | | | | | |
| s | | | | | | | s | | | | | |
| Modifi | -- | -- | -- | IP-in- | -- | | Modifi | -- | -- | -- | IP-in- | -- |
| ed hea | | | | IP(RH3, | | | ed hea | | | | IP(RH3, | |
| ders | | | | opt RPI2) | | | ders | | | | opt RPI_2) | |
| Untouc | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Untouc | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| hed he | | | | | | | hed he | | | | | |
| aders | | | | | | | aders | | | | | |
+--------+-----+------------+-------------+------------+------------+ +--------+-----+------------+-------------+------------+------------+
Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL-aware-leaf to Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL-aware-leaf to
RPL-aware-leaf RPL-aware-leaf
6.12. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to not-RPL-aware-leaf 6.12. Example of Flow from not-RPL-aware-leaf to not-RPL-aware-leaf
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
not-RPL-aware 6LN (IPv6 src)--> 6LR1 --> root (6LBR) --> 6LRn --> not-RPL-aware 6LN (IPv6 src)--> 6LR_ia --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_id -->
not-RPL-aware (IPv6 dst) not-RPL-aware (IPv6 dst)
6LR_ia are the intermediate routers from source to the root In this
case, "1 <= ia >= n", n is the number of intermediate routers (6LR)
6LR_id are the intermediate routers from the root to the destination.
In this case, "1 <= ia >= m", m is the number of the intermediate
routers (6LR).
This scenario is the combination of the previous two cases. This scenario is the combination of the previous two cases.
+---------+-----+--------------+--------------+--------------+------+ +---------+-----+--------------+---------------+-------------+------+
| Header | IPv | 6LR1 | 6LBR | 6LRn | IPv6 | | Header | IPv | 6LR_1 | 6LBR | 6LR_id | IPv6 |
| | 6 | | | | dst | | | 6 | | | | dst |
| | src | | | | | | | src | | | | |
+---------+-----+--------------+--------------+--------------+------+ +---------+-----+--------------+---------------+-------------+------+
| Inserte | -- | IP-in- | IP-in- | -- | -- | | Inserte | -- | IP-in- | IP-in-IP(RH3) | -- | -- |
| d | | IP(RPI1) | IP(RH3) | | | | d | | IP(RPI_1) | | | |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
| Removed | -- | -- | IP-in- | IP-in- | -- | | Removed | -- | -- | IP-in- | IP-in- | -- |
| headers | | | IP(RPI1) | IP(RH3, opt | | | headers | | | IP(RPI_1) | IP(RH3, opt | |
| | | | | RPI2) | | | | | | | RPI_2) | |
| Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Re- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| added | | | | | | | added | | | | | |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
| Modifie | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Modifie | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| d | | | | | | | d | | | | | |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
| Untouch | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Untouch | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| ed | | | | | | | ed | | | | | |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
+---------+-----+--------------+--------------+--------------+------+ +---------+-----+--------------+---------------+-------------+------+
Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL-aware-leaf to Non Storing: Summary of the use of headers from not-RPL-aware-leaf to
not-RPL-aware-leaf not-RPL-aware-leaf
7. Observations about the cases 7. Observations about the cases
7.1. Storing mode 7.1. Storing mode
[I-D.ietf-roll-routing-dispatch] shows that this hop-by-hop IP-in-IP [I-D.ietf-roll-routing-dispatch] shows that the hop-by-hop IP-in-IP
header can be compressed down to {TBD} bytes. header can be compressed using IP-in-IP 6LoRH (IP-in-IP-6LoRH) header
as described in Section 7 of the document.
There are potential significant advantages to having a single code There are potential significant advantages to having a single code
path that always processes IP-in-IP headers with no options. path that always processes IP-in-IP headers with no options.
Thanks to the relaxation of the RFC2406 rule about discarding unknown Thanks to the relaxation of the RFC2406 rule about discarding unknown
Hop-by-Hop options, there is no longer any uncertainty about when to Hop-by-Hop options, there is no longer any uncertainty about when to
use an IPIP header in the storing mode case. The RPI header SHOULD use an IPIP header in the storing mode case. The RPI header SHOULD
always be added when 6LRs originate packets (without IPIP headers), always be added when 6LRs originate packets (without IPIP headers),
and IPIP headers should always be added (addressed to the root when and IPIP headers should always be added (addressed to the root when
on the way up, to the end-host when on the way down) when a 6LR finds on the way up, to the end-host when on the way down) when a 6LR finds
it needs to insert an RPI header. (XXX - this is a problem for it needs to insert an RPI header.
storing mode optimization)
In order to support the above two cases with full generality, the In order to support the above two cases with full generality, the
different situations (always do IP-in-IP vs never use IP-in-IP) different situations (always do IP-in-IP vs never use IP-in-IP)
should be signaled in the RPL protocol itself. should be signaled in the RPL protocol itself.
7.2. Non-Storing mode 7.2. Non-Storing mode
In the non-storing case, dealing with non-RPL aware leaf nodes is In the non-storing case, dealing with non-RPL aware leaf nodes is
much easier as the 6LBR (DODAG root) has complete knowledge about the much easier as the 6LBR (DODAG root) has complete knowledge about the
connectivity of all DODAG nodes, and all traffic flows through the connectivity of all DODAG nodes, and all traffic flows through the
skipping to change at page 32, line 25 skipping to change at page 33, line 25
The authors would like to acknowledge the review, feedback, and The authors would like to acknowledge the review, feedback, and
comments of Robert Cragie, Simon Duquennoy, Cenk Guendogan, Peter van comments of Robert Cragie, Simon Duquennoy, Cenk Guendogan, Peter van
der Stok, Xavier Vilajosana and Thomas Watteyne. der Stok, Xavier Vilajosana and Thomas Watteyne.
12. References 12. References
12.1. Normative References 12.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-6man-rfc2460bis] [I-D.ietf-6man-rfc2460bis]
Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6 Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
(IPv6) Specification", draft-ietf-6man-rfc2460bis-07 (work (IPv6) Specification", draft-ietf-6man-rfc2460bis-08 (work
in progress), October 2016. in progress), November 2016.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC2460] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6 [RFC2460] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
(IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, DOI 10.17487/RFC2460, (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, DOI 10.17487/RFC2460,
December 1998, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2460>. December 1998, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2460>.
skipping to change at page 33, line 21 skipping to change at page 34, line 21
12.2. Informative References 12.2. Informative References
[I-D.ietf-6tisch-architecture] [I-D.ietf-6tisch-architecture]
Thubert, P., "An Architecture for IPv6 over the TSCH mode Thubert, P., "An Architecture for IPv6 over the TSCH mode
of IEEE 802.15.4", draft-ietf-6tisch-architecture-10 (work of IEEE 802.15.4", draft-ietf-6tisch-architecture-10 (work
in progress), June 2016. in progress), June 2016.
[I-D.ietf-roll-routing-dispatch] [I-D.ietf-roll-routing-dispatch]
Thubert, P., Bormann, C., Toutain, L., and R. Cragie, Thubert, P., Bormann, C., Toutain, L., and R. Cragie,
"6LoWPAN Routing Header", draft-ietf-roll-routing- "6LoWPAN Routing Header", draft-ietf-roll-routing-
dispatch-02 (work in progress), October 2016. dispatch-05 (work in progress), October 2016.
[RFC4443] Conta, A., Deering, S., and M. Gupta, Ed., "Internet [RFC4443] Conta, A., Deering, S., and M. Gupta, Ed., "Internet
Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet
Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Specification", RFC 4443, Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Specification", RFC 4443,
DOI 10.17487/RFC4443, March 2006, DOI 10.17487/RFC4443, March 2006,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4443>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4443>.
[RFC6775] Shelby, Z., Ed., Chakrabarti, S., Nordmark, E., and C. [RFC6775] Shelby, Z., Ed., Chakrabarti, S., Nordmark, E., and C.
Bormann, "Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over Bormann, "Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over
Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)", Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)",
 End of changes. 91 change blocks. 
336 lines changed or deleted 485 lines changed or added

This html diff was produced by rfcdiff 1.45. The latest version is available from http://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcdiff/