draft-ietf-roll-useofrplinfo-37.txt   draft-ietf-roll-useofrplinfo-38.txt 
ROLL Working Group M. Robles ROLL Working Group M. Robles
Internet-Draft UTN-FRM/Aalto Internet-Draft UTN-FRM/Aalto
Updates: 6553, 6550, 8138 (if approved) M. Richardson Updates: 6553, 6550, 8138 (if approved) M. Richardson
Intended status: Standards Track SSW Intended status: Standards Track SSW
Expires: September 15, 2020 P. Thubert Expires: September 24, 2020 P. Thubert
Cisco Cisco
March 14, 2020 March 23, 2020
Using RPI Option Type, Routing Header for Source Routes and IPv6-in-IPv6 Using RPI Option Type, Routing Header for Source Routes and IPv6-in-IPv6
encapsulation in the RPL Data Plane encapsulation in the RPL Data Plane
draft-ietf-roll-useofrplinfo-37 draft-ietf-roll-useofrplinfo-38
Abstract Abstract
This document looks at different data flows through LLN (Low-Power This document looks at different data flows through LLN (Low-Power
and Lossy Networks) where RPL (IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks) where RPL (IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power
and Lossy Networks) is used to establish routing. The document and Lossy Networks) is used to establish routing. The document
enumerates the cases where RFC6553 (RPI Option Type), RFC6554 enumerates the cases where RFC6553 (RPI Option Type), RFC6554
(Routing Header for Source Routes) and IPv6-in-IPv6 encapsulation is (Routing Header for Source Routes) and IPv6-in-IPv6 encapsulation is
required in data plane. This analysis provides the basis on which to required in data plane. This analysis provides the basis on which to
design efficient compression of these headers. This document updates design efficient compression of these headers. This document updates
skipping to change at page 1, line 44 skipping to change at page 1, line 44
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on September 15, 2020. This Internet-Draft will expire on September 24, 2020.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2020 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2020 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
skipping to change at page 2, line 33 skipping to change at page 2, line 33
1.1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Terminology and Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Terminology and Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. RPL Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. RPL Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. Updates to RFC6553, RFC6550 and RFC8138 . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. Updates to RFC6553, RFC6550 and RFC8138 . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1. Updates to RFC6550: Advertising External Routes with Non- 4.1. Updates to RFC6550: Advertising External Routes with Non-
Storing Mode Signaling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Storing Mode Signaling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.2. Updates to RFC6553: Indicating the new RPI Option Type. . 8 4.2. Updates to RFC6553: Indicating the new RPI Option Type. . 8
4.3. Updates to RFC6550: Indicating the new RPI in the 4.3. Updates to RFC6550: Indicating the new RPI in the
DODAG Configuration option Flag. . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 DODAG Configuration option Flag. . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.4. Updates to RFC8138: Indicating the way to decompress with 4.4. Updates to RFC8138: Indicating the way to decompress with
the new RPI Option Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 the new RPI Option Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5. Sample/reference topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5. Sample/reference topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6. Use cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 6. Use cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
7. Storing mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 7. Storing mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
7.1. Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Root . . . . . 20 7.1. Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Root . . . . . 20
7.1.1. SM: Example of Flow from RAL to root . . . . . . . . 21 7.1.1. SM: Example of Flow from RAL to Root . . . . . . . . 21
7.1.2. SM: Example of Flow from root to RAL . . . . . . . . 21 7.1.2. SM: Example of Flow from Root to RAL . . . . . . . . 22
7.1.3. SM: Example of Flow from root to RUL . . . . . . . . 22 7.1.3. SM: Example of Flow from Root to RUL . . . . . . . . 22
7.1.4. SM: Example of Flow from RUL to root . . . . . . . . 23 7.1.4. SM: Example of Flow from RUL to Root . . . . . . . . 24
7.2. SM: Interaction between Leaf and Internet. . . . . . . . 24 7.2. SM: Interaction between Leaf and Internet. . . . . . . . 25
7.2.1. SM: Example of Flow from RAL to Internet . . . . . . 24 7.2.1. SM: Example of Flow from RAL to Internet . . . . . . 25
7.2.2. SM: Example of Flow from Internet to RAL . . . . . . 26 7.2.2. SM: Example of Flow from Internet to RAL . . . . . . 27
7.2.3. SM: Example of Flow from RUL to Internet . . . . . . 26 7.2.3. SM: Example of Flow from RUL to Internet . . . . . . 28
7.2.4. SM: Example of Flow from Internet to RUL. . . . . . . 27 7.2.4. SM: Example of Flow from Internet to RUL. . . . . . . 29
7.3. SM: Interaction between Leaf and Leaf . . . . . . . . . . 28 7.3. SM: Interaction between Leaf and Leaf . . . . . . . . . . 30
7.3.1. SM: Example of Flow from RAL to RAL . . . . . . . . . 28 7.3.1. SM: Example of Flow from RAL to RAL . . . . . . . . . 30
7.3.2. SM: Example of Flow from RAL to RUL . . . . . . . . . 30 7.3.2. SM: Example of Flow from RAL to RUL . . . . . . . . . 31
7.3.3. SM: Example of Flow from RUL to RAL . . . . . . . . . 31 7.3.3. SM: Example of Flow from RUL to RAL . . . . . . . . . 33
7.3.4. SM: Example of Flow from RUL to RUL . . . . . . . . . 32 7.3.4. SM: Example of Flow from RUL to RUL . . . . . . . . . 34
8. Non Storing mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 8. Non Storing mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
8.1. Non-Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Root . . . 35 8.1. Non-Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Root . . . 37
8.1.1. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RAL to root . . . . . . 36 8.1.1. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RAL to root . . . . . . 38
8.1.2. Non-SM: Example of Flow from root to RAL . . . . . . 36 8.1.2. Non-SM: Example of Flow from root to RAL . . . . . . 39
8.1.3. Non-SM: Example of Flow from root to RUL . . . . . . 37 8.1.3. Non-SM: Example of Flow from root to RUL . . . . . . 39
8.1.4. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RUL to root . . . . . . 38 8.1.4. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RUL to root . . . . . . 40
8.2. Non-Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Internet . 39 8.2. Non-Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Internet . 41
8.2.1. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RAL to Internet . . . . 39 8.2.1. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RAL to Internet . . . . 42
8.2.2. Non-SM: Example of Flow from Internet to RAL . . . . 40 8.2.2. Non-SM: Example of Flow from Internet to RAL . . . . 43
8.2.3. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RUL to Internet . . . . 41 8.2.3. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RUL to Internet . . . . 44
8.2.4. Non-SM: Example of Flow from Internet to RUL . . . . 42 8.2.4. Non-SM: Example of Flow from Internet to RUL . . . . 45
8.3. Non-SM: Interaction between leaves . . . . . . . . . . . 43 8.3. Non-SM: Interaction between leaves . . . . . . . . . . . 46
8.3.1. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RAL to RAL . . . . . . . 43 8.3.1. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RAL to RAL . . . . . . . 46
8.3.2. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RAL to RUL . . . . . . . 46 8.3.2. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RAL to RUL . . . . . . . 49
8.3.3. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RUL to RAL . . . . . . . 48 8.3.3. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RUL to RAL . . . . . . . 51
8.3.4. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RUL to RUL . . . . . . . 49 8.3.4. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RUL to RUL . . . . . . . 52
9. Operational Considerations of supporting 9. Operational Considerations of supporting
RUL-leaves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 RUL-leaves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
10. Operational considerations of introducing 0x23 . . . . . . . 51 10. Operational considerations of introducing 0x23 . . . . . . . 54
11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
12. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 12. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
13. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 13. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
14. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 14. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
14.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 14.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
14.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 14.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
RPL (IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks) RPL (IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks)
[RFC6550] is a routing protocol for constrained networks. [RFC6553] [RFC6550] is a routing protocol for constrained networks. [RFC6553]
defines the RPL Option carried within the IPv6 Hop-by-Hop Header to defines the RPL Option carried within the IPv6 Hop-by-Hop Header to
carry the RPLInstanceID and quickly identify inconsistencies (loops) carry the RPLInstanceID and quickly identify inconsistencies (loops)
in the routing topology. The RPL Option is commonly referred to as in the routing topology. The RPL Option is commonly referred to as
the RPL Packet Information (RPI) though the RPI is really the the RPL Packet Information (RPI) though the RPI is really the
abstract information that is defined in [RFC6550] and transported in abstract information that is defined in [RFC6550] and transported in
skipping to change at page 6, line 16 skipping to change at page 6, line 16
between a 6LoWPAN network and another IP network. There may be one between a 6LoWPAN network and another IP network. There may be one
or more 6LBRs at the 6LoWPAN network boundary. A 6LBR is the or more 6LBRs at the 6LoWPAN network boundary. A 6LBR is the
responsible authority for IPv6 prefix propagation for the 6LoWPAN responsible authority for IPv6 prefix propagation for the 6LoWPAN
network it is serving. An isolated LoWPAN also contains a 6LBR in network it is serving. An isolated LoWPAN also contains a 6LBR in
the network, which provides the prefix(es) for the isolated network." the network, which provides the prefix(es) for the isolated network."
Flag Day: A transition that involves having a network with different Flag Day: A transition that involves having a network with different
values of RPI Option Type. Thus the network does not work correctly values of RPI Option Type. Thus the network does not work correctly
(Lack of interoperation). (Lack of interoperation).
Hop-by-Hop re-encapsulation: The term "Hop-by-Hop re-encapsulation"
header refers to adding a header that originates from a node to an
adjacent node, using the addresses (usually the Global Unicast
Address (GUA) or Unique Local Address (ULA) but could also use the
link-local addresses) of each node. If the packet must traverse
multiple hops, then it must be decapsulated at each hop, and then re-
encapsulated again in a similar fashion.
Non-Storing Mode (Non-SM): RPL mode of operation in which the RPL- Non-Storing Mode (Non-SM): RPL mode of operation in which the RPL-
aware-nodes send information to the root about their parents. Thus, aware-nodes send information to the root about their parents. Thus,
the root knows the topology. Because the root knows the topology, the root knows the topology. Because the root knows the topology,
the intermediate 6LRs do not maintain routing state and source the intermediate 6LRs do not maintain routing state and source
routing is needed. routing is needed.
Storing Mode (SM): RPL mode of operation in which RPL-aware-nodes Storing Mode (SM): RPL mode of operation in which RPL-aware-nodes
(6LRs) maintain routing state (of the children) so that source (6LRs) maintain routing state (of the children) so that source
routing is not needed. routing is not needed.
skipping to change at page 8, line 25 skipping to change at page 8, line 25
the parent (6LR) that injects the traffic always encapsulates to the the parent (6LR) that injects the traffic always encapsulates to the
root. This whole operation is transparent to intermediate routers root. This whole operation is transparent to intermediate routers
that only see traffic between the 6LR and the Root, and only the Root that only see traffic between the 6LR and the Root, and only the Root
and the 6LRs that inject external routes in the network need to be and the 6LRs that inject external routes in the network need to be
upgraded to add this function to the network. upgraded to add this function to the network.
A RUL is a special case of external target when the target is A RUL is a special case of external target when the target is
actually a host and it is known to support a consumed Routing Header actually a host and it is known to support a consumed Routing Header
and to ignore a HbH header as prescribed by [RFC8200]. The target and to ignore a HbH header as prescribed by [RFC8200]. The target
may have been learned through as a host route or may have been may have been learned through as a host route or may have been
registered to the 6LR using [RFC8505]. IP-in-IP encapsulation MAY be registered to the 6LR using [RFC8505].
avoided for Root to RUL communication if the RUL is known to process
the packets as forwarded by the parent 6LR without decapsulation.
In order to enable IP-in-IP all the way to a 6LN, it is beneficial In order to enable IP-in-IP all the way to a 6LN, it is beneficial
that the 6LN supports decapsulating IP-in-IP, but that is not assumed that the 6LN supports decapsulating IP-in-IP, but that is not assumed
by [RFC8504]. If the 6LN is a RUL, the Root that encapsulates a by [RFC8504]. If the 6LN is a RUL, the Root that encapsulates a
packet SHOULD terminate the tunnel at a parent 6LR unless it is aware packet SHOULD terminate the tunnel at a parent 6LR unless it is aware
that the RUL supports IP-in-IP decapsulation. that the RUL supports IP-in-IP decapsulation.
A node that is reachable over an external route is not expected to A node that is reachable over an external route is not expected to
support [RFC8138]. Whether a decapsulation took place or not and support [RFC8138]. Whether a decapsulation took place or not and
even when the 6LR is delivering the packet to a RUL, the 6LR that even when the 6LR is delivering the packet to a RUL, the 6LR that
skipping to change at page 11, line 30 skipping to change at page 11, line 28
to be addressed to the RPL root when on the way up, and to the end- to be addressed to the RPL root when on the way up, and to the end-
host when on the way down. host when on the way down.
In the non-storing case, dealing with not-RPL aware leaf nodes is In the non-storing case, dealing with not-RPL aware leaf nodes is
much easier as the 6LBR (DODAG root) has complete knowledge about the much easier as the 6LBR (DODAG root) has complete knowledge about the
connectivity of all DODAG nodes, and all traffic flows through the connectivity of all DODAG nodes, and all traffic flows through the
root node. root node.
The 6LBR can recognize not-RPL aware leaf nodes because it will The 6LBR can recognize not-RPL aware leaf nodes because it will
receive a DAO about that node from the 6LR immediately above that receive a DAO about that node from the 6LR immediately above that
not-RPL aware node. This means that the non-storing mode case can not-RPL aware node.
avoid ever using Hop-by-Hop re-encapsulation headers for traffic
originating from the root to the leaves.
The non-storing mode case does not require the type change from 0x63 The non-storing mode case does not require the type change from 0x63
to 0x23, as the root can always create the right packet. The type to 0x23, as the root can always create the right packet. The type
change does not adversely affect the non-storing case. change does not adversely affect the non-storing case.
4.3. Updates to RFC6550: Indicating the new RPI in the DODAG 4.3. Updates to RFC6550: Indicating the new RPI in the DODAG
Configuration option Flag. Configuration option Flag.
In order to avoid a Flag Day caused by lack of interoperation between In order to avoid a Flag Day caused by lack of interoperation between
new RPI Option Type (0x23) and old RPI Option Type (0x63) nodes, this new RPI Option Type (0x23) and old RPI Option Type (0x63) nodes, this
skipping to change at page 12, line 30 skipping to change at page 12, line 24
Currently, the DODAG Configuration option in [RFC6550] states: "the Currently, the DODAG Configuration option in [RFC6550] states: "the
unused bits MUST be initialize to zero by the sender and MUST be unused bits MUST be initialize to zero by the sender and MUST be
ignored by the receiver". If the flag is received with a value zero ignored by the receiver". If the flag is received with a value zero
(which is the default), then new nodes will remain in RFC6553 (which is the default), then new nodes will remain in RFC6553
Compatible Mode; originating traffic with the old-RPI Option Type Compatible Mode; originating traffic with the old-RPI Option Type
(0x63) value. If the flag is received with a value of 1, then the (0x63) value. If the flag is received with a value of 1, then the
value for the RPL Option MUST be set to 0x23. value for the RPL Option MUST be set to 0x23.
Bit number three of the flag field in the DODAG Configuration option Bit number three of the flag field in the DODAG Configuration option
is to be used as shown in Figure 4 (which is the same as Figure 29 in is to be used as shown in Figure 4 (which is the same as Figure 39 in
Section 11 and is shown here for convenience): Section 11 and is shown here for convenience):
+------------+-----------------+---------------+ +------------+-----------------+---------------+
| Bit number | Description | Reference | | Bit number | Description | Reference |
+------------+-----------------+---------------+ +------------+-----------------+---------------+
| 3 | RPI 0x23 enable | This document | | 3 | RPI 0x23 enable | This document |
+------------+-----------------+---------------+ +------------+-----------------+---------------+
Figure 4: DODAG Configuration option Flag to indicate the RPI-flag- Figure 4: DODAG Configuration option Flag to indicate the RPI-flag-
day. day.
skipping to change at page 19, line 22 skipping to change at page 19, line 22
The following table (Figure 7) itemizes which headers are needed in The following table (Figure 7) itemizes which headers are needed in
each of the following scenarios. It indicates whether an IPv6-in- each of the following scenarios. It indicates whether an IPv6-in-
IPv6 header must be added and what destination it must be addressed IPv6 header must be added and what destination it must be addressed
to: (1) the final destination (the RAL node that is the target to: (1) the final destination (the RAL node that is the target
(tgt)), (2) the "root", or (3) the 6LR parent of a RUL. (tgt)), (2) the "root", or (3) the 6LR parent of a RUL.
In cases where no IPv6-in-IPv6 header is needed, the column states as In cases where no IPv6-in-IPv6 header is needed, the column states as
"No". If the IPv6-in-IPv6 header is needed, the column shows "must". "No". If the IPv6-in-IPv6 header is needed, the column shows "must".
In all cases, the RPI is needed, since it identifies inconsistencies In all cases, the RPI is needed, since it identifies inconsistencies
(loops) in the routing topology. In all cases, the RH3 is not needed (loops) in the routing topology. In general, the RH3 is not needed
because it is not used in storing mode. because it is not used in storing mode. However, there is one
scenario (from the root to the RUL in SM) where the RH3 can be used
to indicate the RUL (Figure 11).
The leaf can be a router 6LR or a host, both indicated as 6LN. The The leaf can be a router 6LR or a host, both indicated as 6LN. The
root refers to the 6LBR (see Figure 6). root refers to the 6LBR (see Figure 6).
+---------------------+--------------+------------+----------------+ +---------------------+--------------+------------+----------------+
| Interaction between | Use Case |IPv6-in-IPv6|IPv6-in-IPv6 dst| | Interaction between | Use Case |IPv6-in-IPv6|IPv6-in-IPv6 dst|
+---------------------+--------------+------------+----------------+ +---------------------+--------------+------------+----------------+
| | RAL to root | No | No | | | RAL to root | No | No |
+ +--------------+------------+----------------+ + +--------------+------------+----------------+
| Leaf - Root | root to RAL | No | No | | Leaf - Root | root to RAL | No | No |
skipping to change at page 20, line 26 skipping to change at page 20, line 26
| | RAL to Int | may | root | | | RAL to Int | may | root |
+ +--------------+------------+----------------+ + +--------------+------------+----------------+
| Leaf - Internet | Int to RAL | must | RAL (tgt) | | Leaf - Internet | Int to RAL | must | RAL (tgt) |
+ +--------------+------------+----------------+ + +--------------+------------+----------------+
| | RUL to Int | must | root | | | RUL to Int | must | root |
+ +--------------+------------+----------------+ + +--------------+------------+----------------+
| | Int to RUL | must | 6LR | | | Int to RUL | must | 6LR |
+---------------------+--------------+------------+----------------+ +---------------------+--------------+------------+----------------+
| | RAL to RAL | No | No | | | RAL to RAL | No | No |
| Leaf - Leaf +--------------+------------+----------------+ | Leaf - Leaf +--------------+------------+----------------+
| | RAL to RUL | must(down) | 6LR | | | RAL to RUL | No(up) | 6LR |
| + +------------+----------------+
| | | must(down) | 6LR |
| +--------------+------------+----------------+ | +--------------+------------+----------------+
| | RUL to RAL | must(up) | root | | | RUL to RAL | must(up) | root |
| | +------------+----------------+ | | +------------+----------------+
| | | must(down) | RAL | | | | must(down) | RAL |
| +--------------+------------+----------------+ | +--------------+------------+----------------+
| | RUL to RUL | must(up) | root | | | RUL to RUL | must(up) | root |
| | +------------+----------------+ | | +------------+----------------+
| | | must(down) | 6LR | | | | must(down) | 6LR |
|---------------------+--------------+------------+----------------+ |---------------------+--------------+------------+----------------+
skipping to change at page 21, line 5 skipping to change at page 21, line 5
(SM) between, (SM) between,
RAL to root RAL to root
root to RAL root to RAL
RUL to root RUL to root
root to RUL root to RUL
7.1.1. SM: Example of Flow from RAL to root 7.1.1. SM: Example of Flow from RAL to Root
In storing mode, RFC 6553 (RPI) is used to send RPL Information In storing mode, RFC 6553 (RPI) is used to send RPL Information
instanceID and rank information. instanceID and rank information.
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
RAL (6LN) --> 6LR_i --> root(6LBR) RAL (6LN) --> 6LR_i --> root(6LBR)
For example, a communication flow could be: Node F (6LN) --> Node D For example, a communication flow could be: Node F (6LN) --> Node D
(6LR_i) --> Node B (6LR_i)--> Node A root(6LBR) (6LR_i) --> Node B (6LR_i)--> Node A root(6LBR)
skipping to change at page 21, line 30 skipping to change at page 21, line 30
packet is processed. packet is processed.
No IPv6-in-IPv6 header is required. No IPv6-in-IPv6 header is required.
The RPI can be removed by the 6LBR because the packet is addressed to The RPI can be removed by the 6LBR because the packet is addressed to
the 6LBR. The RAL must know that it is communicating with the 6LBR the 6LBR. The RAL must know that it is communicating with the 6LBR
to make use of this scenario. The RAL can know the address of the to make use of this scenario. The RAL can know the address of the
6LBR because it knows the address of the root via the DODAGID in the 6LBR because it knows the address of the root via the DODAGID in the
DIO messages. DIO messages.
The Table 1 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case. The Figure 8 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case.
+-------------------+---------+-------+----------+ +-----------+-----+-------+------+
| Header | RAL src | 6LR_i | 6LBR dst | | Header | RAL | 6LR_i | 6LBR |
+-------------------+---------+-------+----------+ | | src | | dst |
| Added headers | RPI | -- | -- | +-----------+-----+-------+------+
| Modified headers | -- | RPI | -- | | Added | RPI | -- | -- |
| Removed headers | -- | -- | RPI | | headers | | | |
| Untouched headers | -- | -- | -- | +-----------+-----+-------+------+
+-------------------+---------+-------+----------+ | Modified | -- | RPI | -- |
| headers | | | |
+-----------+-----+-------+------+
| Removed | -- | -- | RPI |
| headers | | | |
+-----------+-----+-------+------+
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | |
+-----------+-----+-------+------+
Table 1: SM: Summary of the use of headers from RAL to root Figure 8: SM: Summary of the use of headers from RAL to root
7.1.2. SM: Example of Flow from root to RAL 7.1.2. SM: Example of Flow from Root to RAL
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> RAL (6LN) root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> RAL (6LN)
For example, a communication flow could be: Node A root(6LBR) --> For example, a communication flow could be: Node A root(6LBR) -->
Node B (6LR_i) --> Node D (6LR_i) --> Node F (6LN) Node B (6LR_i) --> Node D (6LR_i) --> Node F (6LN)
In this case the 6LBR inserts RPI and sends the packet down, the 6LR In this case the 6LBR inserts RPI and sends the packet down, the 6LR
is going to increment the rank in RPI (it examines the RPLInstanceID is going to increment the rank in RPI (it examines the RPLInstanceID
to identify the right forwarding table), the packet is processed in to identify the right forwarding table), the packet is processed in
the RAL and the RPI removed. the RAL and the RPI removed.
No IPv6-in-IPv6 header is required. No IPv6-in-IPv6 header is required.
The Table 2 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case. The Figure 9 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case.
+-------------------+----------+-------+---------+ +-----------+------+-------+-----+
| Header | 6LBR src | 6LR_i | RAL dst | | Header | 6LBR | 6LR_i | RAL |
+-------------------+----------+-------+---------+ | | src | | dst |
| Added headers | RPI | -- | -- | +-----------+------+-------+-----+
| Modified headers | -- | RPI | -- | | Added | RPI | -- | -- |
| Removed headers | -- | -- | RPI | | headers | | | |
| Untouched headers | -- | -- | -- | +-----------+------+-------+-----+
+-------------------+----------+-------+---------+ | Modified | -- | RPI | -- |
| headers | | | |
+-----------+------+-------+-----+
| Removed | -- | -- | RPI |
| headers | | | |
+-----------+------+-------+-----+
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | |
+-----------+------+-------+-----+
Table 2: SM: Summary of the use of headers from root to RAL Figure 9: SM: Summary of the use of headers from root to RAL
7.1.3. SM: Example of Flow from root to RUL 7.1.3. SM: Example of Flow from Root to RUL
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> RUL (IPv6 dst node) root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> RUL (IPv6 dst node)
For example, a communication flow could be: Node A (6LBR) --> Node B For example, a communication flow could be: Node A (6LBR) --> Node B
(6LR_i) --> Node E (6LR_n) --> Node G (RUL) (6LR_i) --> Node E (6LR_n) --> Node G (RUL)
6LR_i (Node B) represents the intermediate routers from the source 6LR_i (Node B) represents the intermediate routers from the source
(6LBR) to the destination (RUL), 1 <= i <= n, where n is the total (6LBR) to the destination (RUL), 1 <= i <= n, where n is the total
number of routers (6LR) that the packet goes through from the 6LBR number of routers (6LR) that the packet goes through from the 6LBR
(Node A) to the RUL (Node G). (Node A) to the RUL (Node G).
The 6LBR will insert an RPI, encapsulated in a IPv6-in-IPv6 header. The 6LBR will insert an RPI, encapsulated in a IPv6-in-IPv6 header.
The IPv6-in-IPv6 header is addressed to the 6LR parent of the RUL The IPv6-in-IPv6 header is addressed to the 6LR parent of the RUL
(6LR_n). The 6LR parent of the RUL removes the header and sends the (6LR_n). The 6LR parent of the RUL removes the header and sends the
packet to the RUL. packet to the RUL.
The Figure 8 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case. The Figure 10 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case.
+-----------+---------+---------+---------+-----+ +-----------+---------+---------+---------+-----+
| Header | 6LBR | 6LR_i | 6LR_n | RUL | | Header | 6LBR | 6LR_i | 6LR_n | RUL |
| | src | | | dst | | | src | | | dst |
+-----------+---------+---------+---------+-----+ +-----------+---------+---------+---------+-----+
| Added | IP6-IP6 | -- | -- | -- | | Added | IP6-IP6 | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | (RPI) | | | | | headers | (RPI) | | | |
+-----------+---------+---------+---------+-----+ +-----------+---------+---------+---------+-----+
| Modified | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | -- | | Modified | -- | | -- | -- |
| headers | | (RPI) | | | | headers | | RPI | | |
+-----------+---------+---------+---------+-----+ +-----------+---------+---------+---------+-----+
| Removed | -- | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | | Removed | -- | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- |
| headers | | | (RPI) | | | headers | | | (RPI) | |
+-----------+---------+---------+---------+-----+ +-----------+---------+---------+---------+-----+
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
+-----------+---------+---------+---------+-----+ +-----------+---------+---------+---------+-----+
Figure 8: SM: Summary of the use of headers from root to RUL Figure 10: SM: Summary of the use of headers from root to RUL
7.1.4. SM: Example of Flow from RUL to root IP-in-IP encapsulation MAY be avoided for Root to RUL communication.
In SM, it can be replaced by a loose SRH header that indicates the
RUL, in which case the packet is routed to the 6LR as a normal SM
operation, then the 6LR forwards to the RUL based on the SRH, and the
RUL ignores both the consumed SRH and the RPI, as in Non-Storing
Mode.
The Figure 11 summarizes what headers are needed for this scenario.
+-----------+----------+--------------+----------------+----------+
| Header | 6LBR | 6LR_i | 6LR_n | RUL |
| | src | i=(1,..,n-1) | | dst |
| | | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+----------------+----------+
| Added | RPI, RH3 | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+----------------+----------+
| Modified | -- | RPI | RPI | -- |
| headers | | | RH3(consumed) | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+----------------+----------+
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+----------------+----------+
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | RPI, RH3 |
| headers | | | | (both |
| | | | | ignored) |
+-----------+----------+--------------+----------------+----------+
Figure 11: SM: Summary of the use of headers from root to RUL without
encapsulation
7.1.4. SM: Example of Flow from RUL to Root
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
RUL (IPv6 src node) --> 6LR_1 --> 6LR_i --> root (6LBR) RUL (IPv6 src node) --> 6LR_1 --> 6LR_i --> root (6LBR)
For example, a communication flow could be: Node G (RUL) --> Node E For example, a communication flow could be: Node G (RUL) --> Node E
(6LR_1)--> Node B (6LR_i)--> Node A root(6LBR) (6LR_1)--> Node B (6LR_i)--> Node A root(6LBR)
6LR_i represents the intermediate routers from the source (RUL) to 6LR_i represents the intermediate routers from the source (RUL) to
the destination (6LBR), 1 <= i <= n, where n is the total number of the destination (6LBR), 1 <= i <= n, where n is the total number of
routers (6LR) that the packet goes through from the RUL to the 6LBR. routers (6LR) that the packet goes through from the RUL to the 6LBR.
When the packet arrives from IPv6 node (Node G) to 6LR_1 (Node E), When the packet arrives from IPv6 node (Node G) to 6LR_1 (Node E),
the 6LR_1 will insert an RPI, encapsulated in a IPv6-in-IPv6 header. the 6LR_1 will insert an RPI, encapsulated in a IPv6-in-IPv6 header.
The IPv6-in-IPv6 header is addressed to the root (Node A). The root The IPv6-in-IPv6 header is addressed to the root (Node A). The root
removes the header and processes the packet. removes the header and processes the packet.
The Figure 9 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed The Figure 12 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed
for this use case where the IPv6-in-IPv6 header is addressed to the for this use case where the IPv6-in-IPv6 header is addressed to the
root (Node A). root (Node A).
+-----------+------+--------------+----------------+-----------------+ +-----------+------+--------------+----------------+-----------------+
| Header | RUL | 6LR_1 | 6LR_i | 6LBR dst | | Header | RUL | 6LR_1 | 6LR_i | 6LBR dst |
| | src | | | | | | src | | | |
| | node | | | | | | node | | | |
+-----------+------+--------------+----------------+-----------------+ +-----------+------+--------------+----------------+-----------------+
| Added | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI) | | -- | | Added | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI) | | -- |
| headers | | | -- | | | headers | | | -- | |
+-----------+------+--------------+----------------+-----------------+ +-----------+------+--------------+----------------+-----------------+
| Modified | -- | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI) | -- | | Modified | -- | -- | RPI | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
+-----------+------+--------------+----------------+-----------------+ +-----------+------+--------------+----------------+-----------------+
| Removed | -- | -- | --- | IP6-IP6(RPI) | | Removed | -- | -- | --- | IP6-IP6(RPI) |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
+-----------+------+--------------+----------------+-----------------+ +-----------+------+--------------+----------------+-----------------+
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
+-----------+------+--------------+----------------+-----------------+ +-----------+------+--------------+----------------+-----------------+
Figure 9: SM: Summary of the use of headers from RUL to root. Figure 12: SM: Summary of the use of headers from RUL to root.
7.2. SM: Interaction between Leaf and Internet. 7.2. SM: Interaction between Leaf and Internet.
In this section is described the communication flow in storing mode In this section is described the communication flow in storing mode
(SM) between, (SM) between,
RAL to Internet RAL to Internet
Internet to RAL Internet to RAL
skipping to change at page 25, line 18 skipping to change at page 26, line 18
On the other hand, the RAL may insert the RPI encapsulated in a IPv6- On the other hand, the RAL may insert the RPI encapsulated in a IPv6-
in-IPv6 header to the root. Thus, the root removes the RPI and send in-IPv6 header to the root. Thus, the root removes the RPI and send
the packet to the Internet. the packet to the Internet.
No IPv6-in-IPv6 header is required. No IPv6-in-IPv6 header is required.
Note: In this use case, it is used a node as a leaf, but this use Note: In this use case, it is used a node as a leaf, but this use
case can be also applicable to any RPL-aware-node type (e.g. 6LR) case can be also applicable to any RPL-aware-node type (e.g. 6LR)
The Table 3 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case when The Figure 13 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case
there is no encapsulation. The Figure 10 summarizes what headers are when there is no encapsulation. The Figure 14 summarizes what
needed when encapsulation to the root takes place. headers are needed when encapsulation to the root takes place.
+-------------------+---------+-------+------+----------------+ +-----------+-----+-------+------+-----------+
| Header | RAL src | 6LR_i | 6LBR | Internet dst | | Header | RAL | 6LR_i | 6LBR | Internet |
+-------------------+---------+-------+------+----------------+ | | src | | | dst |
| Added headers | RPI | -- | -- | -- | +-----------+-----+-------+------+-----------+
| Modified headers | -- | RPI | -- | -- | | Added | RPI | -- | -- | -- |
| Removed headers | -- | -- | -- | -- | | headers | | | | |
| Untouched headers | -- | -- | RPI | RPI (Ignored) | +-----------+-----+-------+------+-----------+
+-------------------+---------+-------+------+----------------+ | Modified | -- | RPI | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | |
+-----------+-----+-------+------+-----------+
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | |
+-----------+-----+-------+------+-----------+
| Untouched | -- | -- | RPI | RPI |
| headers | | | | (Ignored) |
+-----------+-----+-------+------+-----------+
Table 3: SM: Summary of the use of headers from RAL to Internet with Figure 13: SM: Summary of the use of headers from RAL to Internet
no encapsulation with no encapsulation
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+ +-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
| Header | RAL | 6LR_i | 6LBR | Internet dst | | Header | RAL | 6LR_i | 6LBR | Internet dst |
| | src | | | | | | src | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+ +-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
| Added |IP6-IP6 | -- | -- | -- | | Added |IP6-IP6 | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | (RPI) | | | | | headers | (RPI) | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+ +-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
| Modified | -- |IP6-IP6(RPI) | -- | -- | | Modified | -- | RPI | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+ +-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
| Removed | -- | -- |IP6-IP6(RPI) | -- | | Removed | -- | -- |IP6-IP6(RPI) | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+ +-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+ +-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
Figure 10: SM: Summary of the use of headers from RAL to Internet Figure 14: SM: Summary of the use of headers from RAL to Internet
with encapsulation to the root (6LBR). with encapsulation to the root (6LBR).
7.2.2. SM: Example of Flow from Internet to RAL 7.2.2. SM: Example of Flow from Internet to RAL
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
Internet --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> RAL (6LN) Internet --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> RAL (6LN)
For example, a communication flow could be: Internet --> Node A For example, a communication flow could be: Internet --> Node A
root(6LBR) --> Node B (6LR_1) --> Node D (6LR_n) --> Node F (RAL) root(6LBR) --> Node B (6LR_1) --> Node D (6LR_n) --> Node F (RAL)
When the packet arrives from Internet to 6LBR the RPI is added in a When the packet arrives from Internet to 6LBR the RPI is added in a
outer IPv6-in-IPv6 header (with the IPv6-in-IPv6 destination address outer IPv6-in-IPv6 header (with the IPv6-in-IPv6 destination address
set to the RAL) and sent to 6LR, which modifies the rank in the RPI. set to the RAL) and sent to 6LR, which modifies the rank in the RPI.
When the packet arrives at the RAL the RPI is removed and the packet When the packet arrives at the RAL the RPI is removed and the packet
processed. processed.
The Figure 11 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed The Figure 15 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed
for this use case. for this use case.
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+ +-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
| Header | Internet | 6LBR | 6LR_i | RAL dst | | Header | Internet | 6LBR | 6LR_i | RAL dst |
| | src | | | | | | src | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+ +-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
| Added | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI) | -- | -- | | Added | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI) | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+ +-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
| Modified | -- | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI) | -- | | Modified | -- | -- | RPI | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+ +-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI) | | Removed | -- | -- | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI) |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+ +-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+ +-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
Figure 11: SM: Summary of the use of headers from Internet to RAL. Figure 15: SM: Summary of the use of headers from Internet to RAL.
7.2.3. SM: Example of Flow from RUL to Internet 7.2.3. SM: Example of Flow from RUL to Internet
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
RUL (IPv6 src node) --> 6LR_1 --> 6LR_i -->root (6LBR) --> Internet RUL (IPv6 src node) --> 6LR_1 --> 6LR_i -->root (6LBR) --> Internet
For example, a communication flow could be: Node G (RUL)--> Node E For example, a communication flow could be: Node G (RUL)--> Node E
(6LR_1)--> Node B (6lR_i) --> Node A root(6LBR) --> Internet (6LR_1)--> Node B (6lR_i) --> Node A root(6LBR) --> Internet
The node 6LR_1 (i=1) will add an IPv6-in-IPv6(RPI) header addressed The node 6LR_1 (i=1) will add an IPv6-in-IPv6(RPI) header addressed
to the root such that the root can remove the RPI before passing to the root such that the root can remove the RPI before passing
upwards. In the intermediate 6LR, the rank in the RPI is modified. upwards. In the intermediate 6LR, the rank in the RPI is modified.
The originating node will ideally leave the IPv6 flow label as zero The originating node will ideally leave the IPv6 flow label as zero
so that the packet can be better compressed through the LLN. The so that the packet can be better compressed through the LLN. The
6LBR will set the flow label of the packet to a non-zero value when 6LBR will set the flow label of the packet to a non-zero value when
sending to the Internet, for details check [RFC6437]. sending to the Internet, for details check [RFC6437].
The Figure 12 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed The Figure 16 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed
for this use case. for this use case.
+---------+-------+------------+-------------+-------------+--------+ +---------+-------+------------+-------------+-------------+--------+
| Header | IPv6 | 6LR_1 | 6LR_i | 6LBR |Internet| | Header | IPv6 | 6LR_1 | 6LR_i | 6LBR |Internet|
| | src | | [i=2,...,n] | | dst | | | src | | [i=2,...,n] | | dst |
| | node | | | | | | | node | | | | |
| | (RUL) | | | | | | | (RUL) | | | | |
+---------+-------+------------+-------------+-------------+--------+ +---------+-------+------------+-------------+-------------+--------+
| Added | -- |IP6-IP6(RPI)| -- | -- | -- | | Added | -- |IP6-IP6(RPI)| -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
+---------+-------+------------+-------------+-------------+--------+ +---------+-------+------------+-------------+-------------+--------+
| Modified| -- | -- |IP6-IP6(RPI) | -- | -- | | Modified| -- | -- | RPI | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
+---------+-------+------------+-------------+-------------+--------+ +---------+-------+------------+-------------+-------------+--------+
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI)| -- | | Removed | -- | -- | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI)| -- |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
+---------+-------+------------+-------------+-------------+--------+ +---------+-------+------------+-------------+-------------+--------+
|Untouched| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | |Untouched| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
+---------+-------+------------+-------------+-------------+--------+ +---------+-------+------------+-------------+-------------+--------+
Figure 12: SM: Summary of the use of headers from RUL to Internet. Figure 16: SM: Summary of the use of headers from RUL to Internet.
7.2.4. SM: Example of Flow from Internet to RUL. 7.2.4. SM: Example of Flow from Internet to RUL.
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
Internet --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> RUL (IPv6 dst node) Internet --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> RUL (IPv6 dst node)
For example, a communication flow could be: Internet --> Node A For example, a communication flow could be: Internet --> Node A
root(6LBR) --> Node B (6LR_i)--> Node E (6LR_n) --> Node G (RUL) root(6LBR) --> Node B (6LR_i)--> Node E (6LR_n) --> Node G (RUL)
The 6LBR will have to add an RPI within an IPv6-in-IPv6 header. The The 6LBR will have to add an RPI within an IPv6-in-IPv6 header. The
IPv6-in-IPv6 is addressed to the 6LR parent of the RUL. IPv6-in-IPv6 is addressed to the 6LR parent of the RUL.
Further details about this are mentioned in Further details about this are mentioned in
[I-D.ietf-roll-unaware-leaves], which specifies RPL routing for a 6LN [I-D.ietf-roll-unaware-leaves], which specifies RPL routing for a 6LN
acting as a plain host and not being aware of RPL. acting as a plain host and not being aware of RPL.
The 6LBR may set the flow label on the inner IPv6-in-IPv6 header to The 6LBR may set the flow label on the inner IPv6-in-IPv6 header to
zero in order to aid in compression [RFC8138][RFC6437]. zero in order to aid in compression [RFC8138][RFC6437].
The Figure 13 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed The Figure 17 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed
for this use case. for this use case.
+---------+-------+------------+--------------+-------------+-------+ +---------+-------+------------+--------------+-------------+-------+
| Header |Inter- | 6LBR | 6LR_i | 6LR_n | RUL | | Header |Inter- | 6LBR | 6LR_i | 6LR_n | RUL |
| | net | |[i=1,..,n-1] | | dst | | | net | |[i=1,..,n-1] | | dst |
| | src | | | | | | | src | | | | |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | |
+---------+-------+------------+--------------+-------------+-------+ +---------+-------+------------+--------------+-------------+-------+
| Inserted| -- |IP6-IP6(RPI)| -- | -- | -- | | Inserted| -- |IP6-IP6(RPI)| -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
+---------+-------+------------+--------------+-------------+-------+ +---------+-------+------------+--------------+-------------+-------+
| Modified| -- | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI) | -- | -- | | Modified| -- | -- | RPI | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
+---------+-------+------------+--------------+-------------+-------+ +---------+-------+------------+--------------+-------------+-------+
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI)| -- | | Removed | -- | -- | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI)| -- |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
+---------+-------+------------+--------------+-------------+-------+ +---------+-------+------------+--------------+-------------+-------+
|Untouched| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | |Untouched| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
+---------+-------+------------+--------------+-------------+-------+ +---------+-------+------------+--------------+-------------+-------+
Figure 13: SM: Summary of the use of headers from Internet to RUL. Figure 17: SM: Summary of the use of headers from Internet to RUL.
7.3. SM: Interaction between Leaf and Leaf 7.3. SM: Interaction between Leaf and Leaf
In this section is described the communication flow in storing mode In this section is described the communication flow in storing mode
(SM) between, (SM) between,
RAL to RAL RAL to RAL
RAL to RUL RAL to RUL
skipping to change at page 29, line 32 skipping to change at page 31, line 25
through from the common parent (6LR_x) to destination RAL (Node H). through from the common parent (6LR_x) to destination RAL (Node H).
It is assumed that the two nodes are in the same RPL domain (that It is assumed that the two nodes are in the same RPL domain (that
they share the same DODAG root). At the common parent (Node B), the they share the same DODAG root). At the common parent (Node B), the
direction flag ('O' flag) of the RPI is changed (from decreasing direction flag ('O' flag) of the RPI is changed (from decreasing
ranks to increasing ranks). ranks to increasing ranks).
While the 6LR nodes will update the RPI, no node needs to add or While the 6LR nodes will update the RPI, no node needs to add or
remove the RPI, so no IPv6-in-IPv6 headers are necessary. remove the RPI, so no IPv6-in-IPv6 headers are necessary.
The Table 4 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case. The Figure 18 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case.
+---------------+--------+--------+---------------+--------+--------+ +-----------+-----+--------+---------+--------+-----+
| Header | RAL | 6LR_ia | 6LR_x (common | 6LR_id | RAL | | Header | RAL | 6LR_ia | 6LR_x | 6LR_id | RAL |
| | src | | parent) | | dst | | | src | | (common | | dst |
+---------------+--------+--------+---------------+--------+--------+ | | | | parent) | | |
| Added headers | RPI | -- | -- | -- | -- | +-----------+-----+--------+---------+--------+-----+
| Modified | -- | RPI | RPI | RPI | -- | | Added | RPI | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | -- | RPI | +-----------+-----+--------+---------+--------+-----+
| headers | | | | | | | Modified | -- | RPI | RPI | RPI | -- |
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | | headers | | | | | |
| headers | | | | | | +-----------+-----+--------+---------+--------+-----+
+---------------+--------+--------+---------------+--------+--------+ | Removed | -- | -- | -- | -- | RPI |
| headers | | | | | |
+-----------+-----+--------+---------+--------+-----+
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | |
+-----------+-----+--------+---------+--------+-----+
Table 4: SM: Summary of the Use of Headers from RAL to RAL Figure 18: SM: Summary of the Use of Headers from RAL to RAL
7.3.2. SM: Example of Flow from RAL to RUL 7.3.2. SM: Example of Flow from RAL to RUL
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
RAL src (6LN) --> 6LR_ia --> common parent (6LR_x) --> 6LR_id --> RUL RAL src (6LN) --> 6LR_ia --> common parent (6LBR - The root-) -->
(IPv6 dst node) 6LR_id --> RUL (IPv6 dst node)
For example, a communication flow could be: Node F (RAL)--> Node D For example, a communication flow could be: Node F (RAL)--> Node D
--> Node B --> Node E --> Node G (RUL) --> Node B --> Node E --> Node G (RUL)
6LR_ia represents the intermediate routers from source (RAL) to the 6LR_ia represents the intermediate routers from source (RAL) to the
common parent (6LR_x), 1 <= ia <= n, where n is the total number of common parent (the Root), 1 <= ia <= n, where n is the total number
routers (6LR) that the packet goes through from RAL to the common of routers (6LR) that the packet goes through from RAL to the Root.
parent (6LR_x).
6LR_id (Node E) represents the intermediate routers from the common 6LR_id (Node E) represents the intermediate routers from the Root
parent (6LR_x) (Node B) to destination RUL (Node G). In this case, 1 (Node B) to destination RUL (Node G). In this case, 1 <= id <= m,
<= id <= m, where m is the total number of routers (6LR) that the where m is the total number of routers (6LR) that the packet goes
packet goes through from the common parent (6LR_x) to destination through from the Root down to the destination RUL.
RUL.
In this case, the packet from the RAL goes to 6LBR because the route In this case, the packet from the RAL goes to 6LBR because the route
to the RUL is not injected into the RPL-SM. Thus, the RAL inserts an to the RUL is not injected into the RPL-SM. Thus, the RAL inserts an
RPI (RPI1) addressed to the root(6LBR). The root removes the RPI1 RPI (RPI1) addressed to the root(6LBR). The root removes the RPI1
and inserts an RPI2 encapsulated to the 6LR parent of the RUL, which and inserts an RPI2 encapsulated to the 6LR parent of the RUL, which
removes the RPI2 before pasing the packet to the RUL. removes the RPI2 before pasing the packet to the RUL.
The Figure 14 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case. The Figure 19 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case.
+-----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------+ +----------+-------+-------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
| Header | RAL | 6LR_ia | 6LBR | 6LR_id | 6LR_m | RUL | | Header | RAL |6LR_ia | 6LBR | 6LR_id | 6LR_m | RUL |
| | src | | | | | dst | | | src | | | | | dst |
| | node | | | | | node | | | node | | | | | node |
+-----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------+ +----------+-------+-------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
| Added | | | IP6-IP6 | -- | -- | -- | | Added | | | IP6-IP6 | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | RPI1 | -- | (RPI2) | | | | | headers | RPI1 | -- | (RPI2) | | | |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
+-----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------+ +----------+-------+-------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
| Modified | -- | | -- | IP6-IP6 | | -- | | Modified | -- | | -- | | | -- |
| headers | | RPI1 | | (RPI2) | -- | | | headers | | RPI1 | | RPI2 | -- | |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
+-----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------+ +----------+-------+-------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
| Removed | -- | -- | | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | | Removed | -- | -- | | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- |
| headers | | | RPI1 | | (RPI2) | | | headers | | | -- | | (RPI2) | |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
+-----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------+ +----------+-------+-------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | |Untouched | -- | -- | RPI1 | RPI1 | RPI1 | RPI1 |
| headers | | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |(Ignored)|
+-----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------+ | | | | | | | |
+----------+-------+-------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
Figure 14: SM: Summary of the Use of Headers from RAL to RUL Figure 19: SM: Summary of the Use of Headers from RAL to RUL
7.3.3. SM: Example of Flow from RUL to RAL 7.3.3. SM: Example of Flow from RUL to RAL
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
RUL (IPv6 src node) --> 6LR_ia --> 6LBR --> 6LR_id --> RAL dst (6LN) RUL (IPv6 src node) --> 6LR_ia --> 6LBR --> 6LR_id --> RAL dst (6LN)
For example, a communication flow could be: Node G (RUL)--> Node E For example, a communication flow could be: Node G (RUL)--> Node E
--> Node B --> Node A --> Node B --> Node D --> Node F (RAL) --> Node B --> Node A --> Node B --> Node D --> Node F (RAL)
skipping to change at page 32, line 5 skipping to change at page 33, line 30
destination RAL (Node F). In this case, 1 <= id <= m, where m is the destination RAL (Node F). In this case, 1 <= id <= m, where m is the
total number of routers (6LR) that the packet goes through from the total number of routers (6LR) that the packet goes through from the
root to the destination RAL. root to the destination RAL.
The 6LR_ia (ia=1) (Node E) receives the packet from the RUL (Node G) The 6LR_ia (ia=1) (Node E) receives the packet from the RUL (Node G)
and inserts the RPI (RPI1) encapsulated in a IPv6-in-IPv6 header to and inserts the RPI (RPI1) encapsulated in a IPv6-in-IPv6 header to
the root. The root removes the outer header including the RPI (RPI1) the root. The root removes the outer header including the RPI (RPI1)
and inserts a new RPI (RPI2) addressed to the destination RAL (Node and inserts a new RPI (RPI2) addressed to the destination RAL (Node
F). F).
The Figure 15 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed The Figure 20 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed
for this use case. for this use case.
+-----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+ +-----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
| Header | RUL | 6LR_1 | 6LR_ia | 6LBR | 6LR_id | RAL | | Header | RUL | 6LR_1 | 6LR_ia | 6LBR | 6LR_id | RAL |
| | src | | | | | dst | | | src | | | | | dst |
| | node | | | | | node | | | node | | | | | node |
+-----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+ +-----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
| Added | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | -- | | Added | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | -- |
| headers | | (RPI1) | | (RPI2) | | | | headers | | (RPI1) | | (RPI2) | | |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
+-----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+ +-----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
| Modified | -- | | IP6-IP6 | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | | Modified | -- | | | -- | | -- |
| headers | | -- | (RPI1) | | (RPI2) | | | headers | | -- | RPI1 | | RPI2 | |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
+-----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+ +-----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
| Removed | -- | | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | IP6-IP6 | | Removed | -- | | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | IP6-IP6 |
| headers | | -- | | (RPI1) | | (RPI2) | | headers | | -- | | (RPI1) | | (RPI2) |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
+-----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+ +-----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | | headers | | | | | | |
+-----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+ +-----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
Figure 15: SM: Summary of the use of headers from RUL to RAL. Figure 20: SM: Summary of the use of headers from RUL to RAL.
7.3.4. SM: Example of Flow from RUL to RUL 7.3.4. SM: Example of Flow from RUL to RUL
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
RUL (IPv6 src node)--> 6LR_1--> 6LR_ia --> 6LBR --> 6LR_id --> RUL RUL (IPv6 src node)--> 6LR_1--> 6LR_ia --> 6LBR --> 6LR_id --> RUL
(IPv6 dst node) (IPv6 dst node)
For example, a communication flow could be: Node G (RUL src)--> Node For example, a communication flow could be: Node G (RUL src)--> Node
E --> Node B --> Node A (root) --> Node C --> Node J (RUL dst) E --> Node B --> Node A (root) --> Node C --> Node J (RUL dst)
skipping to change at page 33, line 11 skipping to change at page 35, line 8
packet goes through from the root to destination RUL. packet goes through from the root to destination RUL.
The RPI is ignored at the RUL dst node. The RPI is ignored at the RUL dst node.
The 6LR_1 (Node E) receives the packet from the RUL (Node G) and The 6LR_1 (Node E) receives the packet from the RUL (Node G) and
inserts the RPI (RPI), encapsulated in an IPv6-in-IPv6 header inserts the RPI (RPI), encapsulated in an IPv6-in-IPv6 header
directed to the root. The root removes the outer header including directed to the root. The root removes the outer header including
the RPI (RPI1) and inserts a new RPI (RPI2) addressed to the 6LR the RPI (RPI1) and inserts a new RPI (RPI2) addressed to the 6LR
father of the RUL. father of the RUL.
The Figure 16 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed The Figure 21 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed
for this use case. for this use case.
+---------+----+-------------+--------+---------+--------+-------+---+ +---------+----+-------------+--------+---------+--------+-------+---+
| Header |RUL | 6LR_1 | 6LR_ia | 6LBR | 6LR_id |6LR_n |RUL| | Header |RUL | 6LR_1 | 6LR_ia | 6LBR | 6LR_id |6LR_n |RUL|
| |src | | | | | |dst| | |src | | | | | |dst|
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
+---------+----+-------------+--------+---------+--------+-------+---+ +---------+----+-------------+--------+---------+--------+-------+---+
| Added | -- |IP6-IP6(RPI1)| -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | -- | --| | Added | -- |IP6-IP6(RPI1)| -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | -- | --|
| Headers | | | | (RPI2) | | | | | Headers | | | | (RPI2) | | | |
+---------+----+-------------+--------+---------+--------+-------+---+ +---------+----+-------------+--------+---------+--------+-------+---+
|Modified | -- | -- |IP6-IP6 | -- |IP6-IP6 | -- | --| |Modified | -- | -- | | -- | | -- | --|
|headers | | | (RPI1) | | (RPI2) | | | |headers | | | RPI1 | | RPI2 | | |
+---------+----+-------------+--------+---------+--------+-------+---+ +---------+----+-------------+--------+---------+--------+-------+---+
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- |IP6-IP6| --| | Removed | -- | -- | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- |IP6-IP6| --|
| headers | | | | (RPI1) | | (RPI2)| | | headers | | | | (RPI1) | | (RPI2)| |
+---------+----+-------------+--------+---------+--------+-------+---+ +---------+----+-------------+--------+---------+--------+-------+---+
|Untouched| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | --| |Untouched| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | --|
| headers | | | | | | | | | headers | | | | | | | |
+---------+----+-------------+--------+---------+--------+-------+---+ +---------+----+-------------+--------+---------+--------+-------+---+
Figure 16: SM: Summary of the use of headers from RUL to RUL Figure 21: SM: Summary of the use of headers from RUL to RUL
8. Non Storing mode 8. Non Storing mode
In Non Storing Mode (Non-SM) (fully source routed), the 6LBR (DODAG In Non Storing Mode (Non-SM) (fully source routed), the 6LBR (DODAG
root) has complete knowledge about the connectivity of all DODAG root) has complete knowledge about the connectivity of all DODAG
nodes, and all traffic flows through the root node. Thus, there is nodes, and all traffic flows through the root node. Thus, there is
no need for all nodes to know about the existence of RPL-unaware no need for all nodes to know about the existence of RPL-unaware
nodes. Only the 6LBR needs to act if compensation is necessary for nodes. Only the 6LBR needs to act if compensation is necessary for
not-RPL aware receivers. not-RPL aware receivers.
The table (Figure 17) summarizes what headers are needed in the The table (Figure 22) summarizes what headers are needed in the
following scenarios, and indicates when the RPI, RH3 and IPv6-in-IPv6 following scenarios, and indicates when the RPI, RH3 and IPv6-in-IPv6
header are to be inserted. The last column depicts the target header are to be inserted. The last column depicts the target
destination of the IPv6-in-IPv6 header: 6LN (indicated by "RAL"), 6LR destination of the IPv6-in-IPv6 header: 6LN (indicated by "RAL"), 6LR
(parent of a RUL) or the root. In cases where no IPv6-in-IPv6 header (parent of a RUL) or the root. In cases where no IPv6-in-IPv6 header
is needed, the column indicates "No". There is no expectation on RPL is needed, the column indicates "No". There is no expectation on RPL
that RPI can be omitted, because it is needed for routing, quality of that RPI can be omitted, because it is needed for routing, quality of
service and compression. This specification expects that an RPI is service and compression. This specification expects that an RPI is
always present. The term "may(up)" means that the IPv6-in-IPv6 always present. The term "may(up)" means that the IPv6-in-IPv6
header may be necessary in the upwards direction. The term header may be necessary in the upwards direction. The term
"must(up)" means that the IPv6-in-IPv6 header must be present in the "must(up)" means that the IPv6-in-IPv6 header must be present in the
upwards direction. The term "must(down)" means that the IPv6-in-IPv6 upwards direction. The term "must(down)" means that the IPv6-in-IPv6
header must be present in the downward direction. header must be present in the downward direction.
The leaf can be a router 6LR or a host, both indicated as 6LN The leaf can be a router 6LR or a host, both indicated as 6LN
(Figure 6). In the table (Figure 17) the (1) indicates a 6tisch case (Figure 6). In the table (Figure 22) the (1) indicates a 6tisch case
[RFC8180], where the RPI may still be needed for the RPLInstanceID to [RFC8180], where the RPI may still be needed for the RPLInstanceID to
be available for priority/channel selection at each hop. be available for priority/channel selection at each hop.
The root always have to encapuslate on the way down The root always have to encapuslate on the way down
+--- ------------+-------------+-----+-----+--------------+----------+ +--- ------------+-------------+-----+-----+--------------+----------+
| Interaction | Use Case | RPI | RH3 | IPv6-in-IPv6 | IP-in-IP | | Interaction | Use Case | RPI | RH3 | IPv6-in-IPv6 | IP-in-IP |
| between | | | | | dst | | between | | | | | dst |
+----------------+-------------+-----+-----+--------------+----------+ +----------------+-------------+-----+-----+--------------+----------+
| | RAL to root | Yes | No | No | No | | | RAL to root | Yes | No | No | No |
skipping to change at page 35, line 43 skipping to change at page 37, line 43
| +-------------+-----+-----+--------------+----------+ | +-------------+-----+-----+--------------+----------+
| | RUL to RAL | Yes | Yes | must(up) | root | | | RUL to RAL | Yes | Yes | must(up) | root |
| | | | +--------------+----------+ | | | | +--------------+----------+
| | | | | must(down) | RAL | | | | | | must(down) | RAL |
| +-------------+-----+-----+--------------+----------+ | +-------------+-----+-----+--------------+----------+
| | RUL to RUL | Yes | Yes | must(up) | root | | | RUL to RUL | Yes | Yes | must(up) | root |
| | | | +--------------+----------+ | | | | +--------------+----------+
| | | | | must(down) | 6LR | | | | | | must(down) | 6LR |
+----------------+-------------+-----+-----+--------------+----------+ +----------------+-------------+-----+-----+--------------+----------+
Figure 17: Table that shows headers needed in Non-Storing mode: RPI, Figure 22: Table that shows headers needed in Non-Storing mode: RPI,
RH3, IPv6-in-IPv6 encapsulation. RH3, IPv6-in-IPv6 encapsulation.
8.1. Non-Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Root 8.1. Non-Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Root
In this section is described the communication flow in Non Storing In this section is described the communication flow in Non Storing
Mode (Non-SM) between, Mode (Non-SM) between,
RAL to root RAL to root
root to RAL root to RAL
skipping to change at page 36, line 28 skipping to change at page 38, line 28
For example, a communication flow could be: Node F --> Node D --> For example, a communication flow could be: Node F --> Node D -->
Node B --> Node A (root) Node B --> Node A (root)
6LR_i represents the intermediate routers from source to destination. 6LR_i represents the intermediate routers from source to destination.
In this case, 1 <= i <= n, where n is the total number of routers In this case, 1 <= i <= n, where n is the total number of routers
(6LR) that the packet goes through from source (RAL) to destination (6LR) that the packet goes through from source (RAL) to destination
(6LBR). (6LBR).
This situation is the same case as storing mode. This situation is the same case as storing mode.
The Table 5 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case. The Figure 23 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case.
+-------------------+---------+-------+----------+ +-----------+-----+-------+------+
| Header | RAL src | 6LR_i | 6LBR dst | | Header | RAL | 6LR_i | 6LBR |
+-------------------+---------+-------+----------+ | | src | | dst |
| Added headers | RPI | -- | -- | +-----------+-----+-------+------+
| Modified headers | -- | RPI | -- | | Added | RPI | -- | -- |
| Removed headers | -- | -- | RPI | | headers | | | |
| Untouched headers | -- | -- | -- | +-----------+-----+-------+------+
+-------------------+---------+-------+----------+ | Modified | -- | RPI | -- |
| headers | | | |
+-----------+-----+-------+------+
| Removed | -- | -- | RPI |
| headers | | | |
+-----------+-----+-------+------+
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | |
+-----------+-----+-------+------+
Table 5: Non-SM: Summary of the use of headers from RAL to root Figure 23: Non-SM: Summary of the use of headers from RAL to root
8.1.2. Non-SM: Example of Flow from root to RAL 8.1.2. Non-SM: Example of Flow from root to RAL
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> RAL (6LN) root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> RAL (6LN)
For example, a communication flow could be: Node A (root) --> Node B For example, a communication flow could be: Node A (root) --> Node B
--> Node D --> Node F --> Node D --> Node F
6LR_i represents the intermediate routers from source to destination. 6LR_i represents the intermediate routers from source to destination.
In this case, 1 <= i <= n, where n is the total number of routers In this case, 1 <= i <= n, where n is the total number of routers
(6LR) that the packet goes through from source (6LBR) to destination (6LR) that the packet goes through from source (6LBR) to destination
(RAL). (RAL).
The 6LBR inserts an RH3, and an RPI. No IPv6-in-IPv6 header is The 6LBR inserts an RH3, and an RPI. No IPv6-in-IPv6 header is
necessary as the traffic originates with a RPL aware node, the 6LBR. necessary as the traffic originates with a RPL aware node, the 6LBR.
The destination is known to be RPL-aware because the root knows the The destination is known to be RPL-aware because the root knows the
whole topology in non-storing mode. whole topology in non-storing mode.
The Table 6 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case. The Figure 24 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case.
+-------------------+----------+-----------+-----------+ +-----------+----------+----------+----------+
| Header | 6LBR src | 6LR_i | RAL dst | | Header | 6LBR | 6LR_i | RAL |
+-------------------+----------+-----------+-----------+ | | src | | dst |
| Added headers | RPI, RH3 | -- | -- | +-----------+----------+----------+----------+
| Modified headers | -- | RPI, RH3 | -- | | Added | RPI, RH3 | -- | -- |
| Removed headers | -- | -- | RH3, RPI | | headers | | | |
| Untouched headers | -- | -- | -- | +-----------+----------+----------+----------+
+-------------------+----------+-----------+-----------+ | Modified | -- | RPI, RH3 | -- |
| headers | | | |
+-----------+----------+----------+----------+
| Removed | -- | -- | RPI, RH3 |
| headers | | | |
+-----------+----------+----------+----------+
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | |
+-----------+----------+----------+----------+
Table 6: Non-SM: Summary of the use of headers from root to RAL Figure 24: Non-SM: Summary of the use of headers from root to RAL
8.1.3. Non-SM: Example of Flow from root to RUL 8.1.3. Non-SM: Example of Flow from root to RUL
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> RUL (IPv6 dst node) root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> RUL (IPv6 dst node)
For example, a communication flow could be: Node A (root) --> Node B For example, a communication flow could be: Node A (root) --> Node B
--> Node E --> Node G (RUL) --> Node E --> Node G (RUL)
6LR_i represents the intermediate routers from source to destination. 6LR_i represents the intermediate routers from source to destination.
In this case, 1 <= i <= n, where n is the total number of routers In this case, 1 <= i <= n, where n is the total number of routers
(6LR) that the packet goes through from source (6LBR) to destination (6LR) that the packet goes through from source (6LBR) to destination
(RUL). (RUL).
In the 6LBR, the RH3 is added; it is then modified at each In the 6LBR, the RH3 is added; it is then modified at each
intermediate 6LR (6LR_1 and so on), and it is fully consumed in the intermediate 6LR (6LR_1 and so on), and it is fully consumed in the
last 6LR (6LR_n) but is left in place. When the RPI is added, the last 6LR (6LR_n) but is left in place. When the RPI is added, the
IPv6 node, which does not understand the RPI, will ignore it (per IPv6 node, which does not understand the RPI, will ignore it (per
[RFC8200]); thus, encapsulation is not necessary. [RFC8200]); thus, encapsulation is not necessary.
skipping to change at page 37, line 45 skipping to change at page 40, line 15
In this case, 1 <= i <= n, where n is the total number of routers In this case, 1 <= i <= n, where n is the total number of routers
(6LR) that the packet goes through from source (6LBR) to destination (6LR) that the packet goes through from source (6LBR) to destination
(RUL). (RUL).
In the 6LBR, the RH3 is added; it is then modified at each In the 6LBR, the RH3 is added; it is then modified at each
intermediate 6LR (6LR_1 and so on), and it is fully consumed in the intermediate 6LR (6LR_1 and so on), and it is fully consumed in the
last 6LR (6LR_n) but is left in place. When the RPI is added, the last 6LR (6LR_n) but is left in place. When the RPI is added, the
IPv6 node, which does not understand the RPI, will ignore it (per IPv6 node, which does not understand the RPI, will ignore it (per
[RFC8200]); thus, encapsulation is not necessary. [RFC8200]); thus, encapsulation is not necessary.
The Figure 18 depicts the table that summarizes what headers are The Figure 25 depicts the table that summarizes what headers are
needed for this use case. needed for this use case.
+-----------+----------+--------------+----------------+----------+ +-----------+----------+--------------+----------------+----------+
| Header | 6LBR | 6LR_i | 6LR_n | RUL | | Header | 6LBR | 6LR_i | 6LR_n | RUL |
| | src | i=(1,..,n-1) | | dst | | | src | i=(1,..,n-1) | | dst |
| | | | | | | | | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+----------------+----------+ +-----------+----------+--------------+----------------+----------+
| Added | RPI, RH3 | -- | -- | -- | | Added | RPI, RH3 | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+----------------+----------+ +-----------+----------+--------------+----------------+----------+
skipping to change at page 38, line 24 skipping to change at page 40, line 37
| headers | | | RH3(consumed) | | | headers | | | RH3(consumed) | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+----------------+----------+ +-----------+----------+--------------+----------------+----------+
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Removed | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+----------------+----------+ +-----------+----------+--------------+----------------+----------+
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | RPI, RH3 | | Untouched | -- | -- | -- | RPI, RH3 |
| headers | | | | (both | | headers | | | | (both |
| | | | | ignored) | | | | | | ignored) |
+-----------+----------+--------------+----------------+----------+ +-----------+----------+--------------+----------------+----------+
Figure 18: Non-SM: Summary of the use of headers from root to RUL Figure 25: Non-SM: Summary of the use of headers from root to RUL
8.1.4. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RUL to root 8.1.4. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RUL to root
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
RUL (IPv6 src node) --> 6LR_1 --> 6LR_i --> root (6LBR) dst RUL (IPv6 src node) --> 6LR_1 --> 6LR_i --> root (6LBR) dst
For example, a communication flow could be: Node G --> Node E --> For example, a communication flow could be: Node G --> Node E -->
Node B --> Node A (root) Node B --> Node A (root)
skipping to change at page 38, line 46 skipping to change at page 41, line 12
In this case, 1 <= i <= n, where n is the total number of routers In this case, 1 <= i <= n, where n is the total number of routers
(6LR) that the packet goes through from source (RUL) to destination (6LR) that the packet goes through from source (RUL) to destination
(6LBR). For example, 6LR_1 (i=1) is the router that receives the (6LBR). For example, 6LR_1 (i=1) is the router that receives the
packets from the IPv6 node. packets from the IPv6 node.
In this case, the RPI is added by the first 6LR (6LR_1) (Node E), In this case, the RPI is added by the first 6LR (6LR_1) (Node E),
encapsulated in an IPv6-in-IPv6 header, and modified in the encapsulated in an IPv6-in-IPv6 header, and modified in the
subsequent 6LRs in the flow. The RPI and the entire packet are subsequent 6LRs in the flow. The RPI and the entire packet are
consumed by the root. consumed by the root.
The Figure 19 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed The Figure 26 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed
for this use case. for this use case.
+---------+----+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+ +---------+----+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
| |RUL | | | | | |RUL | | | |
| Header |src | 6LR_1 | 6LR_i | 6LBR dst | | Header |src | 6LR_1 | 6LR_i | 6LBR dst |
| |node| | | | | |node| | | |
+---------+----+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+ +---------+----+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
| Added | -- |IPv6-in-IPv6(RPI)| -- | -- | | Added | -- |IPv6-in-IPv6(RPI)| -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
+---------+----+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+ +---------+----+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
| Modified| -- | -- |IPv6-in-IPv6(RPI)| -- | | Modified| -- | -- | RPI | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
+---------+----+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+ +---------+----+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
| Removed | -- | -- | -- |IPv6-in-IPv6(RPI)| | Removed | -- | -- | -- |IPv6-in-IPv6(RPI)|
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
+---------+----+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+ +---------+----+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
|Untouched| -- | -- | -- | -- | |Untouched| -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | |
+---------+----+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+ +---------+----+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
Figure 19: Non-SM: Summary of the use of headers from RUL to root Figure 26: Non-SM: Summary of the use of headers from RUL to root
8.2. Non-Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Internet 8.2. Non-Storing Mode: Interaction between Leaf and Internet
This section will describe the communication flow in Non Storing Mode This section will describe the communication flow in Non Storing Mode
(Non-SM) between: (Non-SM) between:
RAL to Internet RAL to Internet
Internet to RAL Internet to RAL
skipping to change at page 40, line 7 skipping to change at page 42, line 20
For example, a communication flow could be: Node F (RAL) --> Node D For example, a communication flow could be: Node F (RAL) --> Node D
--> Node B --> Node A --> Internet --> Node B --> Node A --> Internet
6LR_i represents the intermediate routers from source to destination, 6LR_i represents the intermediate routers from source to destination,
1 <= i <= n, where n is the total number of routers (6LR) that the 1 <= i <= n, where n is the total number of routers (6LR) that the
packet goes through from source (RAL) to 6LBR. packet goes through from source (RAL) to 6LBR.
In this case, the encapsulation from the RAL to the root is optional. In this case, the encapsulation from the RAL to the root is optional.
The simplest case is when the RPI gets to the Internet (as the The simplest case is when the RPI gets to the Internet (as the
Table 7 shows it), knowing that the Internet is going to ignore it. Figure 27 shows it), knowing that the Internet is going to ignore it.
The IPv6 flow label should be set to zero to aid in compression The IPv6 flow label should be set to zero to aid in compression
[RFC8138], and the 6LBR will set it to a non-zero value when sending [RFC8138], and the 6LBR will set it to a non-zero value when sending
towards the Internet [RFC6437]. towards the Internet [RFC6437].
The Table 7 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case when The Figure 27 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case
no encapsulation is used. The Table 8 summarizes what headers are when no encapsulation is used. The Figure 28 summarizes what headers
needed for this use case when encapsulation to the root is used. are needed for this use case when encapsulation to the root is used.
+-------------------+---------+-------+------+----------------+ +-----------+-----+-------+------+-----------+
| Header | RAL src | 6LR_i | 6LBR | Internet dst | | Header | RAL | 6LR_i | 6LBR | Internet |
+-------------------+---------+-------+------+----------------+ | | src | | | dst |
| Added headers | RPI | -- | -- | -- | +-----------+-----+-------+------+-----------+
| Modified headers | -- | RPI | -- | -- | | Added | RPI | -- | -- | -- |
| Removed headers | -- | -- | -- | -- | | headers | | | | |
| Untouched headers | -- | -- | RPI | RPI (Ignored) | +-----------+-----+-------+------+-----------+
+-------------------+---------+-------+------+----------------+ | Modified | -- | RPI | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | |
+-----------+-----+-------+------+-----------+
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | |
+-----------+-----+-------+------+-----------+
| Untouched | -- | -- | RPI | RPI |
| headers | | | | (Ignored) |
+-----------+-----+-------+------+-----------+
Table 7: Non-SM: Summary of the use of headers from RAL to Internet Figure 27: Non-SM: Summary of the use of headers from RAL to Internet
with no encapsulation with no encapsulation
+-----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+----------+ +-----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+----------+
| Header | RAL src | 6LR_i | 6LBR | Internet | | Header | RAL | 6LR_i | 6LBR | Internet |
| | | | | dst | | | src | | | dst |
+-----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+----------+ +-----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+----------+
| Added | IPv6-in-IPv6 | -- | -- | -- | | Added | IPv6-in-IPv6 | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | (RPI) | | | | | headers | (RPI) | | | |
| Modified | -- | IPv6-in-IPv6 | -- | -- | +-----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+----------+
| headers | | (RPI) | | | | Modified | -- | | -- | -- |
| Removed | -- | -- | IPv6-in-IPv6 | -- | | headers | | RPI | | |
| headers | | | (RPI) | | +-----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+----------+
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Removed | -- | -- | IPv6-in-IPv6 | -- |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | (RPI) | |
+-----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+----------+
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | |
+-----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+----------+ +-----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+----------+
Table 8: Non-SM: Summary of the use of headers from RAL to Internet Figure 28: Non-SM: Summary of the use of headers from RAL to Internet
with encapsulation to the root with encapsulation to the root
8.2.2. Non-SM: Example of Flow from Internet to RAL 8.2.2. Non-SM: Example of Flow from Internet to RAL
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
Internet --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> RAL dst (6LN) Internet --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> RAL dst (6LN)
For example, a communication flow could be: Internet --> Node A For example, a communication flow could be: Internet --> Node A
(root) --> Node B --> Node D --> Node F (RAL) (root) --> Node B --> Node D --> Node F (RAL)
6LR_i represents the intermediate routers from source to destination, 6LR_i represents the intermediate routers from source to destination,
1 <= i <= n, where n is the total number of routers (6LR) that the 1 <= i <= n, where n is the total number of routers (6LR) that the
packet goes through from 6LBR to destination (RAL). packet goes through from 6LBR to destination (RAL).
The 6LBR must add an RH3 header. As the 6LBR will know the path and The 6LBR must add an RH3 header. As the 6LBR will know the path and
address of the target node, it can address the IPv6-in-IPv6 header to address of the target node, it can address the IPv6-in-IPv6 header to
that node. The 6LBR will zero the flow label upon entry in order to that node. The 6LBR will zero the flow label upon entry in order to
skipping to change at page 41, line 16 skipping to change at page 43, line 43
6LR_i represents the intermediate routers from source to destination, 6LR_i represents the intermediate routers from source to destination,
1 <= i <= n, where n is the total number of routers (6LR) that the 1 <= i <= n, where n is the total number of routers (6LR) that the
packet goes through from 6LBR to destination (RAL). packet goes through from 6LBR to destination (RAL).
The 6LBR must add an RH3 header. As the 6LBR will know the path and The 6LBR must add an RH3 header. As the 6LBR will know the path and
address of the target node, it can address the IPv6-in-IPv6 header to address of the target node, it can address the IPv6-in-IPv6 header to
that node. The 6LBR will zero the flow label upon entry in order to that node. The 6LBR will zero the flow label upon entry in order to
aid compression [RFC8138]. aid compression [RFC8138].
The Table 9 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case. The Figure 29 summarizes what headers are needed for this use case.
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+ +-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
| Header | Internet | 6LBR | 6LR_i | RAL dst | | Header | Internet | 6LBR | 6LR_i | RAL |
| | src | | | | | | src | | | dst |
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+ +-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
| Added | -- | IPv6-in-IPv6 | -- | -- | | Added | -- | IPv6-in-IPv6 | -- | -- |
| headers | | (RH3,RPI) | | | | headers | | (RH3, RPI) | | |
| Modified | -- | -- | IPv6-in-IPv6 | -- | +-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
| headers | | | (RH3,RPI) | | | Modified | -- | -- | IPv6-in-IPv6 | -- |
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | IPv6-in-IPv6 | | headers | | | (RH3, RPI) | |
| headers | | | | (RH3,RPI) | +-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Removed | -- | -- | -- | IPv6-in-IPv6 |
| headers | | | | | | headers | | | | (RH3, RPI) |
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | |
+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+ +-----------+----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
Table 9: Non-SM: Summary of the use of headers from Internet to RAL Figure 29: Non-SM: Summary of the use of headers from Internet to RAL
8.2.3. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RUL to Internet 8.2.3. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RUL to Internet
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
RUL (IPv6 src node) --> 6LR_1 --> 6LR_i -->root (6LBR) --> Internet RUL (IPv6 src node) --> 6LR_1 --> 6LR_i -->root (6LBR) --> Internet
dst dst
For example, a communication flow could be: Node G --> Node E --> For example, a communication flow could be: Node G --> Node E -->
Node B --> Node A --> Internet Node B --> Node A --> Internet
skipping to change at page 42, line 7 skipping to change at page 44, line 44
6LR_i are the intermediate routers from source to destination, 1 <= i 6LR_i are the intermediate routers from source to destination, 1 <= i
<= n, where n is the total number of routers (6LRs) that the packet <= n, where n is the total number of routers (6LRs) that the packet
goes through from the source (RUL) to the 6LBR, e.g., 6LR_1 (i=1). goes through from the source (RUL) to the 6LBR, e.g., 6LR_1 (i=1).
In this case the flow label is recommended to be zero in the IPv6 In this case the flow label is recommended to be zero in the IPv6
node. As RPL headers are added in the IPv6 node packet, the first node. As RPL headers are added in the IPv6 node packet, the first
6LR (6LR_1) will add an RPI inside a new IPv6-in-IPv6 header. The 6LR (6LR_1) will add an RPI inside a new IPv6-in-IPv6 header. The
IPv6-in-IPv6 header will be addressed to the root. This case is IPv6-in-IPv6 header will be addressed to the root. This case is
identical to the storing-mode case (see Section 7.2.3). identical to the storing-mode case (see Section 7.2.3).
The Figure 20 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed The Figure 30 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed
for this use case. for this use case.
+---------+----+-------------+--------------+--------------+--------+ +---------+----+-------------+--------------+--------------+--------+
| Header |RUL | 6LR_1 | 6LR_i | 6LBR |Internet| | Header |RUL | 6LR_1 | 6LR_i | 6LBR |Internet|
| |src | | [i=2,..,n] | | dst | | |src | | [i=2,..,n] | | dst |
| |node| | | | | | |node| | | | |
+---------+----+-------------+--------------+--------------+--------+ +---------+----+-------------+--------------+--------------+--------+
| Added | -- |IP6-IP6(RPI) | -- | -- | -- | | Added | -- |IP6-IP6(RPI) | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
+---------+----+-------------+--------------+--------------+--------+ +---------+----+-------------+--------------+--------------+--------+
| Modified| -- | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI) | -- | -- | | Modified| -- | -- | RPI | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
+---------+----+-------------+--------------+--------------+--------+ +---------+----+-------------+--------------+--------------+--------+
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI) | -- | | Removed | -- | -- | -- | IP6-IP6(RPI) | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
+---------+----+-------------+--------------+--------------+--------+ +---------+----+-------------+--------------+--------------+--------+
|Untouched| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | |Untouched| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
+---------+----+-------------+--------------+--------------+--------+ +---------+----+-------------+--------------+--------------+--------+
Figure 20: Non-SM: Summary of the use of headers from RUL to Internet Figure 30: Non-SM: Summary of the use of headers from RUL to Internet
8.2.4. Non-SM: Example of Flow from Internet to RUL 8.2.4. Non-SM: Example of Flow from Internet to RUL
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
Internet src --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> RUL (IPv6 dst node) Internet src --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_i --> RUL (IPv6 dst node)
For example, a communication flow could be: Internet --> Node A For example, a communication flow could be: Internet --> Node A
(root) --> Node B --> Node E --> Node G (root) --> Node B --> Node E --> Node G
skipping to change at page 42, line 50 skipping to change at page 45, line 45
1 <= i <= n, where n is the total number of routers (6LR) that the 1 <= i <= n, where n is the total number of routers (6LR) that the
packet goes through from 6LBR to RUL. packet goes through from 6LBR to RUL.
The 6LBR must add an RH3 header inside an IPv6-in-IPv6 header. The The 6LBR must add an RH3 header inside an IPv6-in-IPv6 header. The
6LBR will know the path, and will recognize that the final node is 6LBR will know the path, and will recognize that the final node is
not a RPL capable node as it will have received the connectivity DAO not a RPL capable node as it will have received the connectivity DAO
from the nearest 6LR. The 6LBR can therefore make the IPv6-in-IPv6 from the nearest 6LR. The 6LBR can therefore make the IPv6-in-IPv6
header destination be the last 6LR. The 6LBR will set to zero the header destination be the last 6LR. The 6LBR will set to zero the
flow label upon entry in order to aid compression [RFC8138]. flow label upon entry in order to aid compression [RFC8138].
The Figure 21 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed The Figure 31 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed
for this use case. for this use case.
+----------+--------+------------------+-----------+-----------+-----+ +----------+--------+------------------+-----------+-----------+-----+
| Header |Internet| 6LBR | 6LR_i | 6LR_n | RUL | | Header |Internet| 6LBR | 6LR_i | 6LR_n | RUL |
| | src | | | | dst | | | src | | | | dst |
+----------+--------+------------------+-----------+-----------+-----+ +----------+--------+------------------+-----------+-----------+-----+
| Added | -- | IP6-IP6(RH3,RPI) | -- | -- | -- | | Added | -- | IP6-IP6(RH3,RPI) | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
+----------+--------+------------------+-----------+-----------+-----+ +----------+--------+------------------+-----------+-----------+-----+
| Modified | -- | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | -- | | Modified | -- | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | -- |
| headers | | | (RH3,RPI) | | | | headers | | | (RH3,RPI) | | |
+----------+--------+------------------+-----------+-----------+-----+ +----------+--------+------------------+-----------+-----------+-----+
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | | Removed | -- | -- | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- |
| headers | | | | (RH3,RPI) | | | headers | | | | (RH3,RPI) | |
+----------+--------+------------------+-----------+-----------+-----+ +----------+--------+------------------+-----------+-----------+-----+
|Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | |Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
+----------+--------+------------------+-----------+-----------+-----+ +----------+--------+------------------+-----------+-----------+-----+
Figure 21: Non-SM: Summary of the use of headers from Internet to Figure 31: Non-SM: Summary of the use of headers from Internet to
RUL. RUL.
8.3. Non-SM: Interaction between leaves 8.3. Non-SM: Interaction between leaves
In this section is described the communication flow in Non Storing In this section is described the communication flow in Non Storing
Mode (Non-SM) between, Mode (Non-SM) between,
RAL to RAL RAL to RAL
RAL to RUL RAL to RUL
skipping to change at page 44, line 29 skipping to change at page 47, line 29
add an IPv6-in-IPv6 header. It should be able to remove the add an IPv6-in-IPv6 header. It should be able to remove the
RPI(RPI1), as it was contained in an IPv6-in-IPv6 header addressed to RPI(RPI1), as it was contained in an IPv6-in-IPv6 header addressed to
it. Otherwise, there may be an RPI buried inside the inner IP it. Otherwise, there may be an RPI buried inside the inner IP
header, which should get ignored. The root inserts an RPI (RPI2) header, which should get ignored. The root inserts an RPI (RPI2)
alongside the RH3. alongside the RH3.
Networks that use the RPL P2P extension [RFC6997] are essentially Networks that use the RPL P2P extension [RFC6997] are essentially
non-storing DODAGs and fall into this scenario or scenario non-storing DODAGs and fall into this scenario or scenario
Section 8.1.2, with the originating node acting as 6LBR. Section 8.1.2, with the originating node acting as 6LBR.
The Figure 22 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed The Figure 32 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed
for this use case when encapsulation to the root takes place. for this use case when encapsulation to the root takes place.
The Figure 23 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed The Figure 33 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed
for this use case when there is no encapsulation to the root. for this use case when there is no encapsulation to the root. Note
that in the Modified headers row, going up in each 6LR_ia only the
RPI1 is changed. Going down, in each 6LR_id the IPv6 header is
swapped with the SRH so both are changed alongside with the RPI2.
+---------+-------+----------+------------+----------+------------+ +---------+-------+----------+------------+----------+------------+
| Header | RAL | 6LR_ia | 6LBR | 6LR_id | RAL | | Header | RAL | 6LR_ia | 6LBR | 6LR_id | RAL |
| | src | | | | dst | | | src | | | | dst |
+---------+-------+----------+------------+----------+------------+ +---------+-------+----------+------------+----------+------------+
| Added |IP6-IP6| | IP6-IP6 | -- | -- | | Added |IP6-IP6| | IP6-IP6 | -- | -- |
| headers |(RPI1) | -- |(RH3-> RAL, | | | | headers |(RPI1) | -- |(RH3-> RAL, | | |
| | | | RPI2) | | | | | | | RPI2) | | |
+---------+-------+----------+------------+----------+------------+ +---------+-------+----------+------------+----------+------------+
| Modified| -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | | Modified| -- | | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- |
| headers | | (RPI1) | |(RH3,RPI) | | | headers | | RPI1 | |(RH3,RPI2)| |
+---------+-------+----------+------------+----------+------------+ +---------+-------+----------+------------+----------+------------+
| Removed | -- | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | IP6-IP6 | | Removed | -- | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | IP6-IP6 |
| headers | | | (RPI1) | | (RH3, | | headers | | | (RPI1) | | (RH3, |
| | | | | | RPI2) | | | | | | | RPI2) |
+---------+-------+----------+------------+----------+------------+ +---------+-------+----------+------------+----------+------------+
|Untouched| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | |Untouched| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | | |
+---------+-------+----------+------------+----------+------------+ +---------+-------+----------+------------+----------+------------+
Figure 22: Non-SM: Summary of the Use of Headers from RAL to RAL with Figure 32: Non-SM: Summary of the Use of Headers from RAL to RAL with
encapsulation to the root. encapsulation to the root.
+-----------+------+--------+---------+---------+---------+ +-----------+------+--------+---------+---------+---------+
| Header | RAL | 6LR_ia | 6LBR | 6LR_id | RAL | | Header | RAL | 6LR_ia | 6LBR | 6LR_id | RAL |
+-----------+------+--------+---------+---------+---------+ +-----------+------+--------+---------+---------+---------+
| Inserted | RPI1 | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | -- | | Inserted | RPI1 | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | -- |
| headers | | | (RH3, | | | | headers | | | (RH3, | | |
| | | | RPI2) | | | | | | | RPI2) | | |
+-----------+------+--------+---------+---------+---------+ +-----------+------+--------+---------+---------+---------+
| Modified | -- | RPI1 | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | | Modified | -- | RPI1 | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- |
| headers | | | | (RH3, | | | headers | | | | (RH3, | |
| | | | | RPI2) | | | | | | | RPI2) | |
+-----------+------+--------+---------+---------+---------+ +-----------+------+--------+---------+---------+---------+
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | -- | IP6-IP6 | | Removed | -- | -- | -- | -- | IP6-IP6 |
| headers | | | | | (RH3, | | headers | | | | | (RH3, |
| | | | | | RPI2) | | | | | | | RPI2) |
| | | | | | RPI1 | | | | | | | |
+-----------+------+--------+---------+---------+---------+ +-----------+------+--------+---------+---------+---------+
| Untouched | -- | -- | RPI1 | RPI1 | -- | | Untouched | -- | -- | RPI1 | RPI1 | RPI |
| headers | | | | | | | headers | | | | |(Ignored)|
+-----------+------+--------+---------+---------+---------+ +-----------+------+--------+---------+---------+---------+
Figure 23: Non-SM: Summary of the Use of Headers from RAL to RAL Figure 33: Non-SM: Summary of the Use of Headers from RAL to RAL
without encapsulation to the root. without encapsulation to the root.
8.3.2. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RAL to RUL 8.3.2. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RAL to RUL
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
RAL --> 6LR_ia --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_id --> RUL (IPv6 dst node) RAL --> 6LR_ia --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_id --> RUL (IPv6 dst node)
For example, a communication flow could be: Node F (RAL) --> Node D For example, a communication flow could be: Node F (RAL) --> Node D
--> Node B --> Node A (root) --> Node B --> Node E --> Node G (RUL) --> Node B --> Node A (root) --> Node B --> Node E --> Node G (RUL)
skipping to change at page 46, line 31 skipping to change at page 49, line 31
As in the previous case, the RAL (6LN) may insert an RPI (RPI1) As in the previous case, the RAL (6LN) may insert an RPI (RPI1)
header which must be in an IPv6-in-IPv6 header addressed to the root header which must be in an IPv6-in-IPv6 header addressed to the root
so that the 6LBR can remove this RPI. The 6LBR will then insert an so that the 6LBR can remove this RPI. The 6LBR will then insert an
RH3 inside a new IPv6-in-IPv6 header addressed to the last 6LR_id RH3 inside a new IPv6-in-IPv6 header addressed to the last 6LR_id
(6LR_id = m) alongside the insertion of RPI2. (6LR_id = m) alongside the insertion of RPI2.
If the originating node does not not put the RPI (RPI1) into an IPv6- If the originating node does not not put the RPI (RPI1) into an IPv6-
in-IPv6 header addressed to the root. Then, the RPI1 is forwarded in-IPv6 header addressed to the root. Then, the RPI1 is forwarded
down from the root in the inner header to no avail. down from the root in the inner header to no avail.
The Figure 24 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed The Figure 34 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed
for this use case when encapsulation to the root takes place. The for this use case when encapsulation to the root takes place. The
Figure 25 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed for Figure 35 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed for
this use case when no encapsulation to the root takes place. this use case when no encapsulation to the root takes place.
+-----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------+ +-----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------+
| Header | RAL | 6LR_ia | 6LBR | 6LR_id | 6LR_m | RUL | | Header | RAL | 6LR_ia | 6LBR | 6LR_id | 6LR_m | RUL |
| | src | | | | | dst | | | src | | | | | dst |
| | node | | | | | node | | | node | | | | | node |
+-----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------+ +-----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------+
| Added | IP6-IP6 | | IP6-IP6 | -- | -- | -- | | Added | IP6-IP6 | | IP6-IP6 | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | (RPI1) | -- | (RH3, | | | | | headers | (RPI1) | -- | (RH3, | | | |
| | | | RPI2) | | | | | | | | RPI2) | | | |
+-----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------+ +-----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------+
| Modified | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | IP6-IP6 | | -- | | Modified | -- | | -- | IP6-IP6 | | -- |
| headers | | (RPI1) | | (RH3, | -- | | | headers | | RPI1 | | (RH3, | -- | |
| | | | | RPI2) | | | | | | | | RPI2) | | |
+-----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------+ +-----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------+
| Removed | -- | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | | Removed | -- | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- |
| headers | | | (RPI1) | | (RH3, | | | headers | | | (RPI1) | | (RH3, | |
| | | | | | RPI2) | | | | | | | | RPI2) | |
+-----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------+ +-----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------+
| Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | | Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | | headers | | | | | | |
+-----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------+ +-----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------+
Figure 24: Non-SM: Summary of the use of headers from RAL to RUL with Figure 34: Non-SM: Summary of the use of headers from RAL to RUL with
encapsulation to the root. encapsulation to the root.
+-----------+------+--------+---------+---------+---------+---------+ +-----------+------+--------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
| Header | RAL | 6LR_ia | 6LBR | 6LR_id | 6LR_n | RUL | | Header | RAL | 6LR_ia | 6LBR | 6LR_id | 6LR_n | RUL |
| | src | | | | | dst | | | src | | | | | dst |
| | node | | | | | node | | | node | | | | | node |
+-----------+------+--------+---------+---------+---------+---------+ +-----------+------+--------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
| Inserted | RPI1 | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | -- | -- | | Inserted | RPI1 | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | (RH3, | | | | | headers | | | (RH3, | | | |
| | | | RPI2) | | | | | | | | RPI2) | | | |
skipping to change at page 47, line 50 skipping to change at page 50, line 50
| | | | | RPI2) | | | | | | | | RPI2) | | |
+-----------+------+--------+---------+---------+---------+---------+ +-----------+------+--------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | | Removed | -- | -- | -- | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- |
| headers | | | | | (RH3, | | | headers | | | | | (RH3, | |
| | | | | | RPI2) | | | | | | | | RPI2) | |
+-----------+------+--------+---------+---------+---------+---------+ +-----------+------+--------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
| Untouched | -- | -- | RPI1 | RPI1 | RPI1 | RPI1 | | Untouched | -- | -- | RPI1 | RPI1 | RPI1 | RPI1 |
| headers | | | | | |(Ignored)| | headers | | | | | |(Ignored)|
+-----------+------+--------+---------+---------+---------+---------+ +-----------+------+--------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
Figure 25: Non-SM: Summary of the use of headers from RAL to RUL Figure 35: Non-SM: Summary of the use of headers from RAL to RUL
without encapsulation to the root. without encapsulation to the root.
8.3.3. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RUL to RAL 8.3.3. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RUL to RAL
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
RUL (IPv6 src node) --> 6LR_1 --> 6LR_ia --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_id RUL (IPv6 src node) --> 6LR_1 --> 6LR_ia --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_id
--> RAL dst (6LN) --> RAL dst (6LN)
For example, a communication flow could be: Node G (RUL)--> Node E For example, a communication flow could be: Node G (RUL)--> Node E
skipping to change at page 48, line 27 skipping to change at page 51, line 27
6LR_id represents the intermediate routers from the root to the 6LR_id represents the intermediate routers from the root to the
destination, 1 <= id <= m, where m is the total number of the destination, 1 <= id <= m, where m is the total number of the
intermediate routers (6LR). intermediate routers (6LR).
In this scenario the RPI (RPI1) is added by the first 6LR (6LR_1) In this scenario the RPI (RPI1) is added by the first 6LR (6LR_1)
inside an IPv6-in-IPv6 header addressed to the root. The 6LBR will inside an IPv6-in-IPv6 header addressed to the root. The 6LBR will
remove this RPI, and add it's own IPv6-in-IPv6 header containing an remove this RPI, and add it's own IPv6-in-IPv6 header containing an
RH3 header and an RPI (RPI2). RH3 header and an RPI (RPI2).
The Figure 26 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed The Figure 36 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed
for this use case. for this use case.
+----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+ +----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
| Header | RUL | 6LR_1 | 6LR_ia | 6LBR | 6LR_id | RAL | | Header | RUL | 6LR_1 | 6LR_ia | 6LBR | 6LR_id | RAL |
| | src | | | | | dst | | | src | | | | | dst |
| | node | | | | | node | | | node | | | | | node |
+----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+ +----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
| Added | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | -- | | Added | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | -- |
| headers | | (RPI1) | | (RH3, | | | | headers | | (RPI1) | | (RH3, | | |
| | | | | RPI2) | | | | | | | | RPI2) | | |
+----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+ +----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
| Modified | -- | | IP6-IP6 | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | | Modified | -- | | | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- |
| headers | | -- | (RPI1) | | (RH3, | | | headers | | -- | RPI1 | | (RH3, | |
| | | | | | RPI2) | | | | | | | | RPI2) | |
+----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+ +----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
| Removed | -- | | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | IP6-IP6 | | Removed | -- | | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | IP6-IP6 |
| headers | | -- | | (RPI1) | | (RH3, | | headers | | -- | | (RPI1) | | (RH3, |
| | | | | | | RPI2) | | | | | | | | RPI2) |
+----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+ +----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
|Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | |Untouched | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | | headers | | | | | | |
+----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+ +----------+------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
Figure 26: Non-SM: Summary of the use of headers from RUL to RAL. Figure 36: Non-SM: Summary of the use of headers from RUL to RAL.
8.3.4. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RUL to RUL 8.3.4. Non-SM: Example of Flow from RUL to RUL
In this case the flow comprises: In this case the flow comprises:
RUL (IPv6 src node) --> 6LR_1 --> 6LR_ia --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_id RUL (IPv6 src node) --> 6LR_1 --> 6LR_ia --> root (6LBR) --> 6LR_id
--> RUL (IPv6 dst node) --> RUL (IPv6 dst node)
For example, a communication flow could be: Node G --> Node E --> For example, a communication flow could be: Node G --> Node E -->
Node B --> Node A (root) --> Node C --> Node J Node B --> Node A (root) --> Node C --> Node J
6LR_ia represents the intermediate routers from source to the root, 1 6LR_ia represents the intermediate routers from source to the root, 1
<= ia <= n, where n is the total number of intermediate routers (6LR) <= ia <= n, where n is the total number of intermediate routers (6LR)
6LR_id represents the intermediate routers from the root to the 6LR_id represents the intermediate routers from the root to the
destination, 1 <= id <= m, where m is the total number of the destination, 1 <= id <= m, where m is the total number of the
intermediate routers (6LR). intermediate routers (6LR).
This scenario is the combination of the previous two cases. This scenario is the combination of the previous two cases.
The Figure 27 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed The Figure 37 shows the table that summarizes what headers are needed
for this use case. for this use case.
+---------+------+-------+-------+---------+-------+---------+------+ +---------+------+-------+-------+---------+-------+---------+------+
| Header | RUL | 6LR_1 | 6LR_ia| 6LBR |6LR_id | 6LR_m | RUL | | Header | RUL | 6LR_1 | 6LR_ia| 6LBR |6LR_id | 6LR_m | RUL |
| | src | | | | | | dst | | | src | | | | | | dst |
| | node | | | | | | node | | | node | | | | | | node |
+---------+------+-------+-------+---------+-------+---------+------+ +---------+------+-------+-------+---------+-------+---------+------+
| Added | -- |IP6-IP6| -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | -- | -- | | Added | -- |IP6-IP6| -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | (RPI1)| | (RH3, | | | | | headers | | (RPI1)| | (RH3, | | | |
| | | | | RPI2) | | | | | | | | | RPI2) | | | |
+---------+------+-------+-------+---------+-------+---------+------+ +---------+------+-------+-------+---------+-------+---------+------+
| Modified| -- | -- |IP6-IP6| -- |IP6-IP6| -- | -- | | Modified| -- | -- | | -- |IP6-IP6| -- | -- |
| headers | | | (RPI1)| | (RH3, | | | | headers | | | RPI1 | | (RH3, | | |
| | | | | | RPI2)| | | | | | | | | RPI2)| | |
+---------+------+-------+-------+---------+-------+---------+------+ +---------+------+-------+-------+---------+-------+---------+------+
| Removed | -- | -- | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | | Removed | -- | -- | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- | IP6-IP6 | -- |
| headers | | | | (RPI1) | | (RH3, | | | headers | | | | (RPI1) | | (RH3, | |
| | | | | | | RPI2) | | | | | | | | | RPI2) | |
+---------+------+-------+-------+---------+-------+---------+------+ +---------+------+-------+-------+---------+-------+---------+------+
|Untouched| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | |Untouched| -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- | -- |
| headers | | | | | | | | | headers | | | | | | | |
+---------+------+-------+-------+---------+-------+---------+------+ +---------+------+-------+-------+---------+-------+---------+------+
Figure 27: Non-SM: Summary of the use of headers from RUL to RUL Figure 37: Non-SM: Summary of the use of headers from RUL to RUL
9. Operational Considerations of supporting RUL-leaves 9. Operational Considerations of supporting RUL-leaves
Roughly half of the situations described in this document involve Roughly half of the situations described in this document involve
leaf ("host") nodes that do not speak RPL. These nodes fall into two leaf ("host") nodes that do not speak RPL. These nodes fall into two
further categories: ones that drop a packet that have RPI or RH3 further categories: ones that drop a packet that have RPI or RH3
headers, and ones that continue to process a packet that has RPI and/ headers, and ones that continue to process a packet that has RPI and/
or RH3 headers. or RH3 headers.
[RFC8200] provides for new rules that suggest that nodes that have [RFC8200] provides for new rules that suggest that nodes that have
skipping to change at page 51, line 43 skipping to change at page 54, line 43
In case that a node join to a network that only process 0x63, it In case that a node join to a network that only process 0x63, it
would produce a flag day as was mentioned previously. Indicating the would produce a flag day as was mentioned previously. Indicating the
new RPI in the DODAG Configuration option Flag is a way to avoid the new RPI in the DODAG Configuration option Flag is a way to avoid the
flag day in a network. It is recommended that a network process both flag day in a network. It is recommended that a network process both
options to enable interoperability. options to enable interoperability.
11. IANA Considerations 11. IANA Considerations
This document updates the registration made in [RFC6553] Destination This document updates the registration made in [RFC6553] Destination
Options and Hop-by-Hop Options registry from 0x63 to 0x23 as shown in Options and Hop-by-Hop Options registry from 0x63 to 0x23 as shown in
Figure 28. Figure 38.
+-------+-------------------+------------------------+---------- -+ +-------+-------------------+------------------------+---------- -+
| Hex | Binary Value | Description | Reference | | Hex | Binary Value | Description | Reference |
+ Value +-------------------+ + + + Value +-------------------+ + +
| | act | chg | rest | | | | | act | chg | rest | | |
+-------+-----+-----+-------+------------------------+------------+ +-------+-----+-----+-------+------------------------+------------+
| 0x23 | 00 | 1 | 00011 | RPL Option |[RFCXXXX](*)| | 0x23 | 00 | 1 | 00011 | RPL Option |[RFCXXXX](*)|
+-------+-----+-----+-------+------------------------+------------+ +-------+-----+-----+-------+------------------------+------------+
| 0x63 | 01 | 1 | 00011 | RPL Option(DEPRECATED) | [RFC6553] | | 0x63 | 01 | 1 | 00011 | RPL Option(DEPRECATED) | [RFC6553] |
| | | | | |[RFCXXXX](*)| | | | | | |[RFCXXXX](*)|
+-------+-----+-----+-------+------------------------+------------+ +-------+-----+-----+-------+------------------------+------------+
Figure 28: Option Type in RPL Option.(*)represents this document Figure 38: Option Type in RPL Option.(*)represents this document
DODAG Configuration option is updated as follows (Figure 29): DODAG Configuration option is updated as follows (Figure 39):
+------------+-----------------+---------------+ +------------+-----------------+---------------+
| Bit number | Description | Reference | | Bit number | Description | Reference |
+------------+-----------------+---------------+ +------------+-----------------+---------------+
| 3 | RPI 0x23 enable | This document | | 3 | RPI 0x23 enable | This document |
+------------+-----------------+---------------+ +------------+-----------------+---------------+
Figure 29: DODAG Configuration option Flag to indicate the RPI-flag- Figure 39: DODAG Configuration option Flag to indicate the RPI-flag-
day. day.
12. Security Considerations 12. Security Considerations
The security considerations covered in [RFC6553] and [RFC6554] apply The security considerations covered in [RFC6553] and [RFC6554] apply
when the packets are in the RPL Domain. when the packets are in the RPL Domain.
The IPv6-in-IPv6 mechanism described in this document is much more The IPv6-in-IPv6 mechanism described in this document is much more
limited than the general mechanism described in [RFC2473]. The limited than the general mechanism described in [RFC2473]. The
willingness of each node in the LLN to decapsulate packets and willingness of each node in the LLN to decapsulate packets and
skipping to change at page 56, line 8 skipping to change at page 59, line 8
This work is done thanks to the grant given by the StandICT.eu This work is done thanks to the grant given by the StandICT.eu
project. project.
A special BIG thanks to C. M. Heard for the help with the A special BIG thanks to C. M. Heard for the help with the
Section 4. Much of the redaction in that section is based on his Section 4. Much of the redaction in that section is based on his
comments. comments.
Additionally, the authors would like to acknowledge the review, Additionally, the authors would like to acknowledge the review,
feedback, and comments of (alphabetical order): Dominique Barthel, feedback, and comments of (alphabetical order): Dominique Barthel,
Robert Cragie, Simon Duquennoy, Ralph Droms, Cenk Guendogan, Rahul Robert Cragie, Simon Duquennoy, Ralph Droms, Cenk Guendogan, Rahul
Jadhav, Benjamin Kaduk, Matthias Kovatsch, Charlie Perkins, Alvaro Jadhav, Benjamin Kaduk, Matthias Kovatsch, Gustavo Mercado,
Retana, Peter van der Stok, Xavier Vilajosana, Eric Vyncke and Thomas Subramanian Moonesamy, Marcela Orbiscay, Charlie Perkins, Cristian
Watteyne. Perez, Alvaro Retana, Peter van der Stok, Xavier Vilajosana, Eric
Vyncke and Thomas Watteyne.
14. References 14. References
14.1. Normative References 14.1. Normative References
[BCP38] Ferguson, P. and D. Senie, "Network Ingress Filtering: [BCP38] Ferguson, P. and D. Senie, "Network Ingress Filtering:
Defeating Denial of Service Attacks which employ IP Source Defeating Denial of Service Attacks which employ IP Source
Address Spoofing", BCP 38, RFC 2827, DOI 10.17487/RFC2827, Address Spoofing", BCP 38, RFC 2827, DOI 10.17487/RFC2827,
May 2000, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/bcp38>. May 2000, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/bcp38>.
skipping to change at page 58, line 28 skipping to change at page 61, line 33
Infrastructures (BRSKI)", draft-ietf-anima-bootstrapping- Infrastructures (BRSKI)", draft-ietf-anima-bootstrapping-
keyinfra-38 (work in progress), March 2020. keyinfra-38 (work in progress), March 2020.
[I-D.ietf-intarea-tunnels] [I-D.ietf-intarea-tunnels]
Touch, J. and M. Townsley, "IP Tunnels in the Internet Touch, J. and M. Townsley, "IP Tunnels in the Internet
Architecture", draft-ietf-intarea-tunnels-10 (work in Architecture", draft-ietf-intarea-tunnels-10 (work in
progress), September 2019. progress), September 2019.
[I-D.ietf-roll-unaware-leaves] [I-D.ietf-roll-unaware-leaves]
Thubert, P. and M. Richardson, "Routing for RPL Leaves", Thubert, P. and M. Richardson, "Routing for RPL Leaves",
draft-ietf-roll-unaware-leaves-11 (work in progress), draft-ietf-roll-unaware-leaves-13 (work in progress),
March 2020. March 2020.
[RFC2460] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6 [RFC2460] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
(IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, DOI 10.17487/RFC2460, (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, DOI 10.17487/RFC2460,
December 1998, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2460>. December 1998, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2460>.
[RFC2473] Conta, A. and S. Deering, "Generic Packet Tunneling in [RFC2473] Conta, A. and S. Deering, "Generic Packet Tunneling in
IPv6 Specification", RFC 2473, DOI 10.17487/RFC2473, IPv6 Specification", RFC 2473, DOI 10.17487/RFC2473,
December 1998, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2473>. December 1998, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2473>.
 End of changes. 116 change blocks. 
273 lines changed or deleted 360 lines changed or added

This html diff was produced by rfcdiff 1.47. The latest version is available from http://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcdiff/