draft-ietf-seamoby-mobility-terminology-02.txt   draft-ietf-seamoby-mobility-terminology-03.txt 
Internet Engineering Task Force J. Manner (ed.) Internet Engineering Task Force J. Manner (ed.)
Internet-Draft M. Kojo (ed.) Internet-Draft M. Kojo (ed.)
Expires: September, 2003 University of Helsinki Expires: October, 2003 University of elsinki
March, 2003 April, 2003
Mobility Related Terminology Mobility Related Terminology
<draft-ietf-seamoby-mobility-terminology-02.txt> <draft-ietf-seamoby-mobility-terminology-03.txt>
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This document is a working group document of the Seamoby Working This document is a working group document of the Seamoby Working
Group. Group.
Distribution of this memo is unlimited. Distribution of this memo is unlimited.
This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026. Internet-Drafts are working all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026. Internet-Drafts are working
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and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt. http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.
The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html. http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.
This Internet-Draft will expire in September, 2003. This Internet-Draft will expire in October, 2003.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2000). All Rights Reserved. Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2000). All Rights Reserved.
Abstract Abstract
There is a need for common definitions of terminology in the work to There is a need for common definitions of terminology in the work to
be done around IP mobility. This memo defines terms for mobility be done around IP mobility. This memo defines terms for mobility
related terminology. It is intended as a living document for use by related terminology. It is intended as a living document for use by
the Seamoby Working Group in Seamoby drafts and in WG discussions, the Seamoby Working Group in Seamoby drafts and in WG discussions,
but not limited in scope to the terms needed by the Seamoby Working but not limited in scope to the terms needed by the Seamoby Working
Group. Other working groups dealing with mobility may take advantage Group. Other working groups dealing with mobility may take advantage
of this terminology. of this terminology.
Changes from -02
- Updated the terminology related to mobile networks
Changes from -01 Changes from -01
- Added security terminology - Added security terminology
- Miscellaneous small refinements of definitions - Miscellaneous small refinements of definitions
Changes from -00 Changes from -00
- Added definition for Routing Proxy - Added definition for Routing Proxy
- Added basic terminology about mobile networks - Added basic terminology about mobile networks
- Added Link-Layer Trigger from FMIPv6 - Added Link-Layer Trigger from FMIPv6
- Edited the CAR terminology section - Edited the CAR terminology section
- Added definitions for MPR, CoA, BU - Added definitions for MPR, CoA, BU
- Changed the definition of Home Address - Changed the definition of Home Address
- Added a mobile network into Figure 1 - Added a mobile network into Figure 1
- Edited the Network Components section - Edited the Network Components section
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1 Introduction ................................................. 2 1 Introduction ................................................. 2
2 General Terms ................................................ 3 2 General Terms ................................................ 3
3 Mobile Access Networks and Mobile Networks ................... 8 3 Mobile Access Networks and Mobile Networks ................... 8
4 Handover Terminology ......................................... 12 4 Handover Terminology ......................................... 13
4.1 Scope of Handover .......................................... 12 4.1 Scope of Handover .......................................... 14
4.2 Handover Control ........................................... 14 4.2 Handover Control ........................................... 15
4.3 Simultaneous connectivity to Access Routers ................ 15 4.3 Simultaneous connectivity to Access Routers ................ 16
4.4 Performance and Functional Aspects ......................... 15 4.4 Performance and Functional Aspects ......................... 17
4.5 Micro Diversity, Macro Diversity, and IP Diversity ......... 16 4.5 Micro Diversity, Macro Diversity, and IP Diversity ......... 18
4.6 Paging, and Mobile Node States and Modes ................... 17 4.6 Paging, and Mobile Node States and Modes ................... 18
4.7 Context Transfer ........................................... 19 4.7 Context Transfer ........................................... 20
4.8 Candidate Access Router Discovery .......................... 19 4.8 Candidate Access Router Discovery .......................... 21
4.9 User, Personal and Host Mobility ........................... 20 4.9 User, Personal and Host Mobility ........................... 21
5 Specific Terminology for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networking ............ 21 5 Specific Terminology for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networking ............ 23
6 Security-related Terminology ................................. 22 6 Security-related Terminology ................................. 24
7 Security Considerations ...................................... 23 7 Security Considerations ...................................... 25
8 Contributors ................................................. 23 8 Contributors ................................................. 25
9 Acknowledgement .............................................. 24 9 Acknowledgement .............................................. 25
10 References .................................................. 24 10 References .................................................. 26
11 Author's Addresses .......................................... 26 11 Author's Addresses .......................................... 27
12 Appendix A - Examples ....................................... 28 12 Appendix A - Examples ....................................... 29
13 Appendix B - Index of Terms ................................. 30 13 Appendix B - Index of Terms ................................. 31
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document presents terminology to be used for documents and This document presents terminology to be used for documents and
discussions within the Seamoby Working Group. Other mobility related discussions within the Seamoby Working Group. Other mobility related
working groups could like take advantage of this terminology, in working groups could like take advantage of this terminology, in
order to create a common terminology for the area of mobility in IP order to create a common terminology for the area of mobility in IP
networks. These groups would include MIP, MANET, ROHC and NEMO. networks. These groups would include MIP, MANET, ROHC and NEMO.
Some terms and their definitions that are not directly related to the Some terms and their definitions that are not directly related to the
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A message indicating a mobile node's current mobility binding, A message indicating a mobile node's current mobility binding,
and in particular its care-of address. and in particular its care-of address.
Care-of Address (CoA) Care-of Address (CoA)
An IP address associated with a mobile node while visiting a An IP address associated with a mobile node while visiting a
foreign link; the subnet prefix of this IP address is a foreign foreign link; the subnet prefix of this IP address is a foreign
subnet prefix. Among the multiple care-of addresses that a subnet prefix. Among the multiple care-of addresses that a
mobile node may have at any given time (e.g., with different mobile node may have at any given time (e.g., with different
subnet prefixes), the one registered with the mobile node's home subnet prefixes), the one registered with the mobile node's home
agent is called its "primary" care-of address [12]. agent is called its "primary" care-of address [11].
Channel Channel
A subdivision of the physical medium allowing possibly shared A subdivision of the physical medium allowing possibly shared
independent uses of the medium. Channels may be made available independent uses of the medium. Channels may be made available
by subdividing the medium into distinct time slots, or distinct by subdividing the medium into distinct time slots, or distinct
spectral bands, or decorrelated coding sequences. spectral bands, or decorrelated coding sequences.
Channel Access Protocol Channel Access Protocol
A protocol for mediating access to, and possibly allocation of, A protocol for mediating access to, and possibly allocation of,
the various channels available within the physical communications the various channels available within the physical communications
medium. Nodes participating in the channel access protocol can medium. Nodes participating in the channel access protocol can
communicate only when they have uncontested access to the medium, communicate only when they have uncontested access to the medium,
so that there will be no interference. so that there will be no interference.
Control Message Control Message
Information passed between two or more network nodes for Information passed between two or more network nodes for
maintaining protocol state, which may be unrelated to any maintaining protocol state, which may be unrelated to any
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fairly equal to all eligible nodes on the link. Fairness does fairly equal to all eligible nodes on the link. Fairness does
not strictly imply equality, especially in cases where nodes are not strictly imply equality, especially in cases where nodes are
given link access according to unequal priority or given link access according to unequal priority or
classification. classification.
Flooding Flooding
The process of delivering data or control messages to every node The process of delivering data or control messages to every node
within the network under consideration. within the network under consideration.
Foreign subnet prefix
A bit string that consists of some number of initial bits of an
IP address which identifies a node's foreign link within the
Internet topology.
Forwarding node Forwarding node
A node which performs the function of forwarding datagrams from A node which performs the function of forwarding datagrams from
one of its neighbors to another. one of its neighbors to another.
Home Address Home Address
An IP address assigned to a mobile node, used as the permanent An IP address assigned to a mobile node, used as the permanent
address of the mobile node. This address is within the mobile address of the mobile node. This address is within the mobile
node's home link. Standard IP routing mechanisms will deliver node's home link. Standard IP routing mechanisms will deliver
packets destined for a mobile node's home address to its home packets destined for a mobile node's home address to its home
link [12]. link [11].
Home subnet prefix
A bit string that consists of some number of initial bits of an
IP address which identifies a node's home link within the
Internet topology (i.e. the IP subnet prefix corresponding to the
mobile node's home address, as defined in [11]).
Interface Interface
A node's attachment to a link. A node's attachment to a link.
IP access address IP access address
An IP address (often dynamically allocated) which a node uses to An IP address (often dynamically allocated) which a node uses to
designate its current point of attachment to the local network. designate its current point of attachment to the local network.
The IP access address is typically to be distinguished from the The IP access address is typically to be distinguished from the
mobile node's home address; in fact, while visiting a foreign mobile node's home address; in fact, while visiting a foreign
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Medium-Access Protocol (MAC) Medium-Access Protocol (MAC)
A protocol for mediating access to, and possibly allocation of, A protocol for mediating access to, and possibly allocation of,
the physical communications medium. Nodes participating in the the physical communications medium. Nodes participating in the
medium access protocol can communicate only when they have medium access protocol can communicate only when they have
uncontested access to the medium, so that there will be no uncontested access to the medium, so that there will be no
interference. When the physical medium is a radio channel, the interference. When the physical medium is a radio channel, the
MAC is the same as the Channel Access Protocol. MAC is the same as the Channel Access Protocol.
Mobile Network Prefix
A bit string that consists of some number of initial bits of an
IP address which identifies the entire mobile network within the
Internet topology. All nodes in a mobile network necessarily have
an address named after this prefix.
Mobility Factor Mobility Factor
The relative frequency of node movement, compared to the The relative frequency of node movement, compared to the
frequency of application initiation. frequency of application initiation.
Multipoint relay (MPR) Multipoint relay (MPR)
A node which is selected by its one-hop neighbor to re-transmit A node which is selected by its one-hop neighbor to re-transmit
all broadcast messages that it receives. The message must be new all broadcast messages that it receives. The message must be new
and the time-to-live field of the message must be greater than and the time-to-live field of the message must be greater than
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network side and shield the fixed network from the specialized network side and shield the fixed network from the specialized
routing protocols; and (optionally) other internal Access Network routing protocols; and (optionally) other internal Access Network
Routers which may also be needed in some cases to support the Routers which may also be needed in some cases to support the
protocols. The Access Network consists of the equipment needed to protocols. The Access Network consists of the equipment needed to
support this specialized routing, i.e. AR/ANG/ANR. AR and ANG may be support this specialized routing, i.e. AR/ANG/ANR. AR and ANG may be
the same physical nodes. the same physical nodes.
In addition, we present a few basic terms on mobile networks, that In addition, we present a few basic terms on mobile networks, that
is, mobile network, mobile router (MR), and mobile network node is, mobile network, mobile router (MR), and mobile network node
(MNN). A more thorough discussion on mobile networks can be found in (MNN). A more thorough discussion on mobile networks can be found in
the working group documents of the NEMO Working Group [13]. the working group documents of the NEMO Working Group.
Note: this reference architecture is not well suited for people Note: this reference architecture is not well suited for people
dealing with MANETs. dealing with MANETs.
--- ------ ------- | --- ------ ------- |
--- | <--> | | -------| AR | -------------------| | | --- | <--> | | -------| AR | -------------------| | |
| |--[] --- /------ \ /| ANG |--| | |--[] --- /------ \ /| ANG |--|
--- AP / \ / | | | --- AP / \ / | | |
MH / \ / ------- | MH / \ / ------- |
(+wireless ___ / ------- | (+wireless ___ / ------- |
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--- ------ ------- | --- ------ ------- |
--- |<--> | | -------| AR | -------------------| | | --- |<--> | | -------| AR | -------------------| | |
| |--[] --- /------ /| ANG |--| | |--[] --- /------ /| ANG |--|
--- AP / / | | | --- AP / / | | |
MH / / ------- | MH / / ------- |
(+wireless ___ / / | (+wireless ___ / / |
device) | |---- / | device) | |---- / |
--- / | --- / |
AP / | AP / |
/ | / |
--- ------ ------- | | ------ --- ------ ------- |
--- | I<--> | |-------| AR |---------| ANR | | --- |- i MR e <->| |-------| AR |---------| ANR | |
| |--| ------ --- \ ------ ------- | | |--| ------ --- \ ------ ------- |
--- |--| MR | AP \ / | --- | AP \ / |
MNN | ------ \ / | MNN | \ / |
| --- \ ------ / | | --- \ ------ / |
--- | | |-------| AR |------- | --- | | |-------| AR |------- |
| |--| --- ------ | | |--| --- ------ |
--- | AP | --- | AP |
MNN MNN 'i': MR ingress interface
'e': MR egress interface
Figure 1: Reference Network Architecture Figure 1: Reference Network Architecture
Mobile Node (MN) Mobile Node (MN)
An IP node capable of changing its point of attachment to the An IP node capable of changing its point of attachment to the
network. A Mobile Node may or may not have forwarding network. A Mobile Node may or may not have forwarding
functionality. functionality.
Mobile Host (MH) Mobile Host (MH)
A mobile node that is an end host and not a router. A Mobile host A mobile node that is an end host and not a router. A Mobile host
is capable of sending and receiving packets, that is, being a is capable of sending and receiving packets, that is, being a
source or destination of traffic, but not a forwarder of it. source or destination of traffic, but not a forwarder of it.
Fixed Node (FN)
A node, either a host or a router, unable to change its point of
attachment to the network and its IP address without breaking
open sessions.
Mobile Network Mobile Network
An entire network, moving as a unit, which dynamically changes An entire network, moving as a unit, which dynamically changes
its point of attachment to the Internet and thus its reachability its point of attachment to the Internet and thus its reachability
in the topology. The mobile network is connected to the global in the topology. The mobile network is composed by one or more
Internet via one or more mobile router(s). The internal IP-subnets and is connected to the global Internet via one or
configuration of the mobile network is assumed to be relatively more Mobile Routers (MR). The internal configuration of the
stable with respect to the MR and is not a matter of concern. mobile network is assumed to be relatively stable with respect to
the MR.
Mobile Router (MR) Mobile Router (MR)
A router which is capable of changing its point of attachment to A router capable of changing its point of attachment to the
IP networks, moving from one link to another link. A mobile network, moving from one link to another link. The MR is capable
router is capable of forwarding packets between two or more of forwarding packets between two or more interfaces, and
interfaces, and possibly running a dynamic routing protocol possibly running a dynamic routing protocol modifying the state
modifying the state by which to do packet forwarding. by which to do packet forwarding.
The interface of a MR attached to a link inside the mobile
network is called the ingress interface. The interface of a MR
attached to the home link if the MR is at home, or attached to a
foreign link if the MR is in a foreign network is called the
egress interface.
A MR acting as a gateway between an entire mobile network and the
rest of the Internet has one or more egress interface(s) and one
or more ingress interface(s). Packets forwarded upstream to the
rest of the Internet are transmitted through one of the MR's
egress interface; packets forwarded downstream to the mobile
network are transmitted through one of the MR's ingress
interface.
Mobile Network Node (MNN) Mobile Network Node (MNN)
Any node (host or router) located within a mobile network, either Any node (host or router) located within a mobile network, either
permanently or temporarily. A Mobile Network Node may be a Mobile permanently or temporarily. A Mobile Network Node may either be a
Router. mobile node or a fixed node.
Access Link (AL) Access Link (AL)
A last-hop link between a Mobile Node and an Access Router. That A last-hop link between a Mobile Node and an Access Router. That
is, a facility or medium over which an Access Point and the is, a facility or medium over which an Access Point and the
Mobile Node can communicate at the link layer, i.e., the layer Mobile Node can communicate at the link layer, i.e., the layer
immediately below IP. immediately below IP.
Access Point (AP) Access Point (AP)
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router. The Access Network Gateway looks to the other IP networks router. The Access Network Gateway looks to the other IP networks
like a standard IP router. like a standard IP router.
Access Network (AN) Access Network (AN)
An IP network which includes one or more Access Network Routers. An IP network which includes one or more Access Network Routers.
Administrative Domain (AD) Administrative Domain (AD)
A collection of networks under the same administrative control A collection of networks under the same administrative control
and grouped together for administrative purposes. [5] and grouped together for administrative purposes [5].
Serving Access Router (SAR) Serving Access Router (SAR)
The Access Router currently offering the connectivity to the The Access Router currently offering the connectivity to the
Mobile Host. This is usually the point of departure for the Mobile Host. This is usually the point of departure for the
Mobile Node as it makes its way towards a new Access Router (then Mobile Node as it makes its way towards a new Access Router (then
Serving Access Router takes the role of the Old Access Router). Serving Access Router takes the role of the Old Access Router).
There may be several Serving Access Routers serving the Mobile There may be several Serving Access Routers serving the Mobile
Node at the same time. Node at the same time.
Old Access Router (OAR) Old Access Router (OAR)
An Access Router that offered connectivity to the Mobile Node An Access Router that offered connectivity to the Mobile Node
prior to a handover. This is the Serving Access Router that will prior to a handover. This is the Serving Access Router that will
cease or has ceased to offer connectivity to the Mobile Node. cease or has ceased to offer connectivity to the Mobile Node.
New Access Router (NAR) New Access Router (NAR)
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Micro mobility Micro mobility
Mobility over a small area. Usually this means mobility within Mobility over a small area. Usually this means mobility within
an IP domain with an emphasis on support for active mode using an IP domain with an emphasis on support for active mode using
handover, although it may include idle mode procedures also. handover, although it may include idle mode procedures also.
Micro-mobility protocols exploit the locality of movement by Micro-mobility protocols exploit the locality of movement by
confining movement related changes and signalling to the access confining movement related changes and signalling to the access
network. network.
Network mobility
Network mobility occurs when an entire network changes its point
of attachment to the Internet and, thus, its reachability in the
topology, which is referred to as a mobile network.
Local Mobility Management Local Mobility Management
Local Mobility Management (LMM) is a generic term for protocols Local Mobility Management (LMM) is a generic term for protocols
dealing with IP mobility management confined within the access dealing with IP mobility management confined within the access
network. LMM messages itself are not routed outside the access network. LMM messages itself are not routed outside the access
network, although, a handover may trigger Mobile IP messages to network, although, a handover may trigger Mobile IP messages to
be sent to correspondent nodes and home agents. be sent to correspondent nodes and home agents.
5. Specific Terminology for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networking 5. Specific Terminology for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networking
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6. Security-related Terminology 6. Security-related Terminology
This section includes terminology commonly used around mobile and This section includes terminology commonly used around mobile and
wireless networking. Only a mobility-related subset of the entire wireless networking. Only a mobility-related subset of the entire
security terminology is presented. security terminology is presented.
Authorization-enabling extension Authorization-enabling extension
An authentication which makes a (registration) message acceptable An authentication which makes a (registration) message acceptable
to the ultimate recipient of the registration message. An to the ultimate recipient of the registration message. An
authorization-enabling extension must contain an SPI [14]. authorization-enabling extension must contain an SPI [12].
Mobility Security Association Mobility Security Association
A collection of security contexts, between a pair of nodes, which A collection of security contexts, between a pair of nodes, which
may be applied to mobility-related protocol messages exchanged may be applied to mobility-related protocol messages exchanged
between them. In Mobile IP, each context indicates an between them. In Mobile IP, each context indicates an
authentication algorithm and mode, a secret (a shared key, or authentication algorithm and mode, a secret (a shared key, or
appropriate public/private key pair), and a style of replay appropriate public/private key pair), and a style of replay
protection in use. Mobility security associations may be stored protection in use. Mobility security associations may be stored
separately from the node's IPsec Security Policy Database (SPD) separately from the node's IPsec Security Policy Database (SPD)
[14]. [12].
Registration Key Registration Key
A key used as the basis of a Mobility Security Association A key used as the basis of a Mobility Security Association
between a mobile node and a foreign agent. A registration key is between a mobile node and a foreign agent. A registration key is
typically only used once or a very few times, and only for the typically only used once or a very few times, and only for the
purposes of verifying a small volume of Authentication data [16]. purposes of verifying a small volume of Authentication data [14].
Security Context Security Context
A security context between two routers defines the manner in A security context between two routers defines the manner in
which two routers choose to mutually authentication each other, which two routers choose to mutually authentication each other,
and indicates an authentication algorithm and mode. and indicates an authentication algorithm and mode.
Security Parameter Index (SPI) Security Parameter Index (SPI)
An index identifying a security context between a pair of routers An index identifying a security context between a pair of routers
among the contexts possible in the mobility security association. among the contexts possible in the mobility security association.
Stale challenge Stale challenge
Any challenge that has been used by the mobile node in a Any challenge that has been used by the mobile node in a
Registration Request message and processed by the Foreign Agent Registration Request message and processed by the Foreign Agent
by relaying or generating The Foreign Agent may not be able to by relaying or generating The Foreign Agent may not be able to
keep records for all previously used challenges [15]. keep records for all previously used challenges [13].
Unknown challenge Unknown challenge
Any challenge from a particular mobile node that the foreign Any challenge from a particular mobile node that the foreign
agent has no record of having put either into one of its recent agent has no record of having put either into one of its recent
Agent Advertisements or into a registration reply message to that Agent Advertisements or into a registration reply message to that
mobile node [15]. mobile node [13].
Unused challenge Unused challenge
A challenge that has not been already accepted by the Foreign A challenge that has not been already accepted by the Foreign
Agent challenge in a corresponding Registration Reply message -- Agent challenge in a corresponding Registration Reply message --
i.e., a challenge that is neither unknown nor previously used i.e., a challenge that is neither unknown nor previously used
[15]. [13].
The Mobile IPv6 specification includes more security terminology The Mobile IPv6 specification includes more security terminology
related to MIPv6 bindings [RFC3xxx]. related to MIPv6 bindings [11].
7. Security Considerations 7. Security Considerations
This document presents only terminology. There are no security issues This document presents only terminology. There are no security issues
in this document. in this document.
8. Contributors 8. Contributors
This draft was initially based on the work of This draft was initially based on the work of
o Tapio Suihko, VTT Information Technology, Finland o Tapio Suihko, VTT Information Technology, Finland
o Phil Eardley and Dave Wisely, BT, UK o Phil Eardley and Dave Wisely, BT, UK
o Robert Hancock, Siemens/Roke Manor Research, UK, o Robert Hancock, Siemens/Roke Manor Research, UK,
o Nikos Georganopoulos, King's College London o Nikos Georganopoulos, King's College London
o Markku Kojo and Jukka Manner, University of Helsinki, Finland. o Markku Kojo and Jukka Manner, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Since revision -02 of the document draft-manner-seamoby-terms-02.txt, Since revision -02 of the document draft-manner-seamoby-terms-02.txt,
Charles Perkins has given as input terminology related to ad-hoc Charles Perkins has given as input terminology related to ad-hoc
networks. networks.
Thierry Ernst has provided the terminology for discussing mobile
networks.
9. Acknowledgement 9. Acknowledgement
This work has been partially performed in the framework of the IST This work has been partially performed in the framework of the IST
project IST-2000-28584 MIND, which is partly funded by the European project IST-2000-28584 MIND, which is partly funded by the European
Union. The authors would like to acknowledge the help of their Union. The authors would like to acknowledge the help of their
colleagues in preparing this document. colleagues in preparing this document.
Some definitions of terminology have been adapted from [1], [7], [3], Some definitions of terminology have been adapted from [1], [7], [3],
[2], [4], [9], [10], [11], [12] and [13]. [2], [4], [9], [10], [11] and [12].
10. References 10. References
[1] D. Blair, A. Tweedly, M. Thomas, J. Trostle, and [1] D. Blair, A. Tweedly, M. Thomas, J. Trostle, and
M. Ramalho. Realtime Mobile IPv6 Framework (work in M. Ramalho. Realtime Mobile IPv6 Framework (work in
progress). Internet Draft, Internet Engineering Task Force. progress). Internet Draft, Internet Engineering Task Force.
draft-blair-rt-mobileipv6-seamoby-00.txt, November 2000. draft-blair-rt-mobileipv6-seamoby-00.txt, November 2000.
[2] P. Calhoun, G. Montenegro, and C. Perkins. Mobile IP [2] P. Calhoun, G. Montenegro, and C. Perkins. Mobile IP
Regionalized Tunnel Management (work in progress). Internet Regionalized Tunnel Management (work in progress). Internet
Draft, Internet Engineering Task Force, November 1998. Draft, Internet Engineering Task Force, November 1998.
[3] S. Deering and R. Hinden. Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) [3] S. Deering and R. Hinden. Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6)
Specification. Request for Comments (Draft Standard) 2460, Specification. Request for Comments 2460, Internet Engineering
Internet Engineering Task Force, December 1998. Task Force, December 1998.
[4] G. Dommety (ed.). Fast Handovers for Mobile IPv6 (work [4] G. Dommety (ed.). Fast Handovers for Mobile IPv6 (work
in progress). draft-ietf-mobileip-fast-mipv6-05.txt, in progress). draft-ietf-mobileip-fast-mipv6-06.txt,
September, 2002. March, 2003.
[5] Yavatkar et al. A Framework for Policy-based Admission [5] Yavatkar et al. A Framework for Policy-based Admission
Control. Request for Comments 2753, Internet Engineering Task Control. Request for Comments 2753, Internet Engineering Task
Force, January 2000. Force, January 2000.
[6] J. Kempf, P. McCann, and P. Roberts. IP Mobility and the CDMA [6] J. Kempf, P. McCann, and P. Roberts. IP Mobility and the CDMA
Radio Access Network: Applicability Statement for Soft Handoff Radio Access Network: Applicability Statement for Soft Handoff
(work in progress). Internet Draft, (work in progress). Internet Draft,
draft-kempf-cdma-appl-00.txt, July 2000. draft-kempf-cdma-appl-00.txt, July 2000.
[7] J. Kempf (ed.). Problem Description: Reasons For Doing [7] J. Kempf (ed.). Problem Description: Reasons For Doing
Context Transfers Between Nodes in an IP Access Network. Context Transfers Between Nodes in an IP Access Network.
RFC 3374, Internet Engineering Task Force, September, 2002. RFC 3374, Internet Engineering Task Force, September, 2002.
[8] R. Pandya. Emerging Mobile and Personal Communication Systems. [8] R. Pandya. Emerging Mobile and Personal Communication Systems.
IEEE Communications Magazine, 33:44--52, June 1995. IEEE Communications Magazine, 33:44--52, June 1995.
[9] C. Perkins. IP Mobility Support. Request for Comments [9] R. Ramjee, T. La Porta, S. Thuel, K. Varadhan, and
(Proposed Standard) 2002, Internet Engineering Task Force,
October 1996.
[10] R. Ramjee, T. La Porta, S. Thuel, K. Varadhan, and
L. Salgarelli. IP micro-mobility support using HAWAII (work in L. Salgarelli. IP micro-mobility support using HAWAII (work in
progress). Internet Draft, Internet Engineering Task Force, progress). Internet Draft, Internet Engineering Task Force,
June 1999. June 1999.
[11] D. Trossen, G. Krishnamurthi, H. Chaskar, J. Kempf, "Issues in [10] D. Trossen, G. Krishnamurthi, H. Chaskar, J. Kempf, "Issues in
candidate access router discovery for seamless IP-level candidate access router discovery for seamless IP-level
handoffs. Internet Draft (work in progress), handoffs. Internet Draft (work in progress),
draft-ietf-seamoby-cardiscovery-issues-04.txt, October 2002. draft-ietf-seamoby-cardiscovery-issues-04.txt, October 2002.
[12] David B. Johnson, Charles E. Perkins, Jari Arkko, "Mobility [11] David B. Johnson, Charles E. Perkins, Jari Arkko, "Mobility
Support in IPv6". Internet Draft, Support in IPv6". Internet Draft,
draft-ietf-mobileip-ipv6-18.txt (work in progress), June 2002. draft-ietf-mobileip-ipv6-21.txt (work in progress), February
2003.
[13] Thierry Ernst and Hong-Yon Lach, "Network Mobility Support [12] Charles Perkins (ed.), "IP Mobility Support for IPv4". Request
Terminology". Internet Draft,
draft-ernst-monet-terminology-01.txt (work in progress), July
2002.
[14] Charles Perkins (ed.), "IP Mobility Support for IPv4". Request
for Comments 3344, August 2002. for Comments 3344, August 2002.
[15] Charles Perkins, Pat Calhoun, Jayshree Bharatia, "Mobile [13] Charles Perkins, Pat Calhoun, Jayshree Bharatia, "Mobile
IPv4 Challenge/Response Extensions (revised)". Internet Draft, IPv4 Challenge/Response Extensions (revised)". Internet Draft,
December, 2002 (draft-ietf-mobileip-rfc3012bis-04.txt). December, 2002 (draft-ietf-mobileip-rfc3012bis-04.txt).
[16] Charles Perkins, Pat Calhoun, "AAA Registration Keys for Mobile [14] Charles Perkins, Pat Calhoun, "AAA Registration Keys for Mobile
IP". Internet Draft, October 2002, IP". Internet Draft, March 2003,
(draft-ietf-mobileip-aaa-key-10.txt). (draft-ietf-mobileip-aaa-key-11.txt).
11. Author's Addresses 11. Author's Addresses
Questions about this document may be directed to: Questions about this document may be directed to:
Jukka Manner Jukka Manner
Department of Computer Science Department of Computer Science
University of Helsinki University of Helsinki
P.O. Box 26 (Teollisuuskatu 23) P.O. Box 26 (Teollisuuskatu 23)
FIN-00014 HELSINKI FIN-00014 HELSINKI
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