draft-ietf-seamoby-mobility-terminology-04.txt   draft-ietf-seamoby-mobility-terminology-05.txt 
Internet Engineering Task Force J. Manner (ed.) Internet Engineering Task Force J. Manner (ed.)
Internet-Draft M. Kojo (ed.) Internet-Draft M. Kojo (ed.)
Expires: October, 2003 University of Helsinki Expires: May, 2004 University of Helsinki
April, 2003 November, 2003
Mobility Related Terminology Mobility Related Terminology
<draft-ietf-seamoby-mobility-terminology-04.txt> <draft-ietf-seamoby-mobility-terminology-05.txt>
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This document is a working group document of the Seamoby Working This document is a working group document of the Seamoby Working
Group. Group.
Distribution of this memo is unlimited. Distribution of this memo is unlimited.
This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026. Internet-Drafts are working all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026. Internet-Drafts are working
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and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt. http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.
The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html. http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.
This Internet-Draft will expire in October, 2003. This Internet-Draft will expire in May, 2004.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2000). All Rights Reserved. Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2000). All Rights Reserved.
Abstract Abstract
There is a need for common definitions of terminology in the work to There is a need for common definitions of terminology in the work to
be done around IP mobility. This memo defines terms for mobility be done around IP mobility. This memo defines terms for mobility
related terminology. It is intended as a living document for use by related terminology. It is intended as a living document for use by
the Seamoby Working Group in Seamoby drafts and in WG discussions, the Seamoby Working Group in Seamoby drafts and in WG discussions,
but not limited in scope to the terms needed by the Seamoby Working but not limited in scope to the terms needed by the Seamoby Working
Group. Other working groups dealing with mobility may take advantage Group. Other working groups dealing with mobility may take advantage
of this terminology. of this terminology.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1 Introduction ................................................. 2 1 Introduction ................................................. 2
2 General Terms ................................................ 3 2 General Terms ................................................ 3
3 Mobile Access Networks and Mobile Networks ................... 8 3 Mobile Access Networks and Mobile Networks ................... 8
4 Handover Terminology ......................................... 12 4 Handover Terminology ......................................... 13
4.1 Scope of Handover .......................................... 13 4.1 Scope of Handover .......................................... 14
4.2 Handover Control ........................................... 14 4.2 Handover Control ........................................... 15
4.3 Simultaneous connectivity to Access Routers ................ 16 4.3 Simultaneous connectivity to Access Routers ................ 17
4.4 Performance and Functional Aspects ......................... 16 4.4 Performance and Functional Aspects ......................... 17
4.5 Micro Diversity, Macro Diversity, and IP Diversity ......... 17 4.5 Micro Diversity, Macro Diversity, and IP Diversity ......... 18
4.6 Paging, and Mobile Node States and Modes ................... 18 4.6 Paging, and Mobile Node States and Modes ................... 19
4.7 Context Transfer ........................................... 19 4.7 Context Transfer ........................................... 21
4.8 Candidate Access Router Discovery .......................... 20 4.8 Candidate Access Router Discovery .......................... 21
4.9 User, Personal and Host Mobility ........................... 20 4.9 Types of Mobility .......................................... 22
5 Specific Terminology for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networking ............ 22 5 Specific Terminology for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networking ............ 23
6 Security-related Terminology ................................. 23 6 Security-related Terminology ................................. 24
7 Security Considerations ...................................... 24 7 Security Considerations ...................................... 25
8 Contributors ................................................. 24 8 Contributors ................................................. 25
9 Change log ................................................... 25 9 Change log ................................................... 26
10 Acknowledgement ............................................. 25 10 Acknowledgement ............................................. 26
11 Informative References ...................................... 25 11 Informative References ...................................... 27
12 Author's Addresses .......................................... 26 12 Authors' Addresses .......................................... 28
13 Appendix A - Examples ....................................... 29 13 Appendix A - Examples ....................................... 30
14 Appendix B - Index of Terms ................................. 31 14 Appendix B - Index of Terms ................................. 33
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document presents terminology to be used for documents and This document presents terminology to be used for documents and
discussions within the Seamoby Working Group. Other mobility related discussions within the Seamoby Working Group. Other mobility related
working groups could take advantage of this terminology, in order to working groups could take advantage of this terminology, in order to
create a common terminology for the area of mobility in IP networks. create a common terminology for the area of mobility in IP networks.
These groups would include MIP, MANET, ROHC and NEMO. These groups would include MIP, MANET, ROHC and NEMO.
Some terms and their definitions that are not directly related to the Some terms and their definitions that are not directly related to the
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networks followed by terms related to handovers, and finally some networks followed by terms related to handovers, and finally some
terms used within the MANET and NEMO working group. terms used within the MANET and NEMO working group.
2. General Terms 2. General Terms
Bandwidth Bandwidth
The total capacity of a link to carry information (typically The total capacity of a link to carry information (typically
bits) per unit time. bits) per unit time.
Bandwidth Utilization Bandwidth utilization
The actual rate of information transfer achieved over a link, The actual rate of information transfer achieved over a link,
expressed as a percent of the available bandwidth on that link. expressed as a percent of the available bandwidth on that link.
Beacon Beacon
A control message broadcast by a node (especially, a base A control message broadcast by a node (especially, a base
station) informing all the other nodes in its neighborhood of the station) informing all the other nodes in its neighborhood of the
continuing presence of the broadcasting node, possibly along with continuing presence of the broadcasting node, possibly along with
additional status or configuration information. additional status or configuration information.
Binding update (BU) Binding Update (BU)
A message indicating a mobile node's current mobility binding, A message indicating a mobile node's current mobility binding,
and in particular its care-of address. and in particular its care-of address.
Care-of Address (CoA) Care-of-Address (CoA)
An IP address associated with a mobile node while visiting a An IP address associated with a mobile node while visiting a
foreign link; the subnet prefix of this IP address is a foreign foreign link; the subnet prefix of this IP address is a foreign
subnet prefix. Among the multiple care-of addresses that a subnet prefix. Among the multiple care-of addresses that a
mobile node may have at any given time (e.g., with different mobile node may have at any given time (e.g., with different
subnet prefixes), the one registered with the mobile node's home subnet prefixes), the one registered with the mobile node's home
agent is called its "primary" care-of address [11]. agent is called its "primary" care-of address [11].
Channel Channel
A subdivision of the physical medium allowing possibly shared A subdivision of the physical medium allowing possibly shared
independent uses of the medium. Channels may be made available independent uses of the medium. Channels may be made available
by subdividing the medium into distinct time slots, or distinct by subdividing the medium into distinct time slots, or distinct
spectral bands, or decorrelated coding sequences. spectral bands, or decorrelated coding sequences.
Channel Access Protocol Channel access protocol
A protocol for mediating access to, and possibly allocation of, A protocol for mediating access to, and possibly allocation of,
the various channels available within the physical communications the various channels available within the physical communications
medium. Nodes participating in the channel access protocol agree medium. Nodes participating in the channel access protocol agree
to communicate only when they have uncontested access to one of to communicate only when they have uncontested access to one of
the channels, so that there will be no interference. the channels, so that there will be no interference.
Control Message Control message
Information passed between two or more network nodes for Information passed between two or more network nodes for
maintaining protocol state, which may be unrelated to any maintaining protocol state, which may be unrelated to any
specific application. specific application.
Distance Vector Distance vector
A style of routing protocol in which, for each desired A style of routing protocol in which, for each desired
destination, a node maintains information about the distance to destination, a node maintains information about the distance to
that destination, and a vector (next hop) towards that that destination, and a vector (next hop) towards that
destination. destination.
Fairness Fairness
A property of channel access protocols whereby a medium is made A property of channel access protocols whereby a medium is made
fairly available to all eligible nodes on the link. Fairness fairly available to all eligible nodes on the link. Fairness
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A bit string that consists of some number of initial bits of an A bit string that consists of some number of initial bits of an
IP address which identifies a node's foreign link within the IP address which identifies a node's foreign link within the
Internet topology. Internet topology.
Forwarding node Forwarding node
A node which performs the function of forwarding datagrams from A node which performs the function of forwarding datagrams from
one of its neighbors to another. one of its neighbors to another.
Home Address Home Address (HoA)
An IP address assigned to a mobile node, used as the permanent An IP address assigned to a mobile node, used as the permanent
address of the mobile node. This address is within the mobile address of the mobile node. This address is within the mobile
node's home link. Standard IP routing mechanisms will deliver node's home link. Standard IP routing mechanisms will deliver
packets destined for a mobile node's home address to its home packets destined for a mobile node's home address to its home
link [11]. link [11].
Home subnet prefix Home subnet prefix
A bit string that consists of some number of initial bits of an A bit string that consists of some number of initial bits of an
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network the former may be considered unsuitable for use as an network the former may be considered unsuitable for use as an
end-point address by any but the most short-lived applications. end-point address by any but the most short-lived applications.
Instead, the IP access address is typically used as the care-of Instead, the IP access address is typically used as the care-of
address of the node. address of the node.
Link Link
A communication facility or physical medium that can sustain data A communication facility or physical medium that can sustain data
communications between multiple network nodes, such as an communications between multiple network nodes, such as an
Ethernet (simple or bridged). A link is the layer immediately Ethernet (simple or bridged). A link is the layer immediately
below IP. below IP. In IP networks, a link usually connects two IP-based
nodes, for example, a mobile node and an access router (see below
the term "access link").
Asymmetric Link Asymmetric link
A link with transmission characteristics which are different A link with transmission characteristics which are different
depending upon the relative position or design characteristics of depending upon the relative position or design characteristics of
the transmitter and the receiver of data on the link. For the transmitter and the receiver of data on the link. For
instance, the range of one transmitter may be much higher than instance, the range of one transmitter may be much higher than
the range of another transmitter on the same medium. the range of another transmitter on the same medium.
Link Establishment Link establishment
The process of establishing a link between the mobile node and The process of establishing a link between the mobile node and
the local network. This may involve allocating a channel, or the local network. This may involve allocating a channel, or
other local wireless resources, possibly including a minimum other local wireless resources, possibly including a minimum
level of service or bandwidth. level of service or bandwidth.
Link-layer Trigger (L2 Trigger) Link-layer trigger (L2 Trigger)
Information from L2 that informs L3 of the detailed events Information from L2 that informs L3 of the detailed events
involved in handover sequencing at L2. L2 triggers are not involved in handover sequencing at L2. L2 triggers are not
specific to any particular L2, but rather represent specific to any particular L2, but rather represent
generalizations of L2 information available from a wide variety generalizations of L2 information available from a wide variety
of L2 protocols [4]. of L2 protocols [4].
Link State Link state
A style of routing protocol in which every node within the A style of routing protocol in which every node within the
network is expected to maintain information about every link network is expected to maintain information about every link
within the network topology. within the network topology.
Link-level Acknowledgement Link-level acknowledgement
A protocol strategy, typically employed over wireless media, A protocol strategy, typically employed over wireless media,
requiring neighbors to acknowledge receipt of packets (typically requiring neighbors to acknowledge receipt of packets (typically
unicast only) from the transmitter. Such strategies aim to avoid unicast only) from the transmitter. Such strategies aim to avoid
packet loss or delay resulting from lack of, or unwanted packet loss or delay resulting from lack of, or unwanted
characteristics of, higher level protocols. characteristics of, higher level protocols.
Link-layer acknowledgements are often used as part of ARQ Link-layer acknowledgements are often used as part of ARQ
algorithms for increasing link reliability. algorithms for increasing link reliability.
Local Broadcast Local broadcast
The delivery of data to every node within range of the The delivery of data to every node within range of the
transmitter. transmitter.
Loop-free Loop-free
A property of routing protocols whereby the path taken by a data A property of routing protocols whereby the path taken by a data
packet from source to destination never transits the same packet from source to destination never transits the same
intermediate node twice before arrival at the destination. intermediate node twice before arrival at the destination.
Medium-Access Protocol (MAC) Medium Access Protocol (MAC)
A protocol for mediating access to, and possibly allocation of, A protocol for mediating access to, and possibly allocation of,
the physical communications medium. Nodes participating in the the physical communications medium. Nodes participating in the
medium access protocol can communicate only when they have medium access protocol can communicate only when they have
uncontested access to the medium, so that there will be no uncontested access to the medium, so that there will be no
interference. When the physical medium is a radio channel, the interference. When the physical medium is a radio channel, the
MAC is the same as the Channel Access Protocol. MAC is the same as the Channel Access Protocol.
Mobile Network Prefix Mobile network prefix
A bit string that consists of some number of initial bits of an A bit string that consists of some number of initial bits of an
IP address which identifies the entire mobile network within the IP address which identifies the entire mobile network within the
Internet topology. All nodes in a mobile network necessarily have Internet topology. All nodes in a mobile network necessarily have
an address named after this prefix. an address named after this prefix.
Mobility Factor Mobility factor
The relative frequency of node movement, compared to the The relative frequency of node movement, compared to the
frequency of application initiation. frequency of application initiation.
Multipoint relay (MPR) Multipoint relay (MPR)
A node which is selected by its one-hop neighbor to re-transmit A node which is selected by its one-hop neighbor to re-transmit
all broadcast messages that it receives. The message must be new all broadcast messages that it receives. The message must be new
and the time-to-live field of the message must be greater than and the time-to-live field of the message must be greater than
one. Multipoint relaying is a technique to reduce the number of one. Multipoint relaying is a technique to reduce the number of
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A "neighbor" is any other node to which data may be propagated A "neighbor" is any other node to which data may be propagated
directly over the communications medium without relying the directly over the communications medium without relying the
assistance of any other forwarding node. assistance of any other forwarding node.
Neighborhood Neighborhood
All the nodes which can receive data on the same link from one All the nodes which can receive data on the same link from one
node whenever it transmits data. node whenever it transmits data.
Next Hop Next hop
A neighbor which has been selected to forward packets along the A neighbor which has been selected to forward packets along the
way to a particular destination. way to a particular destination.
Payload Payload
The actual data within a packet, not including network protocol The actual data within a packet, not including network protocol
headers which were not inserted by an application. Note that headers which were not inserted by an application. Note that
payloads are different between layers: user data is the payload payloads are different between layers: user data is the payload
of TCP, which are the payload of IP, which three are the payload of TCP, which are the payload of IP, which three are the payload
of link layer protocols etc. Thus, it is important to identify of link layer protocols etc. Thus, it is important to identify
the scope when talking about payloads. the scope when talking about payloads.
Prefix Prefix
A bit string that consists of some number of initial bits of an A bit string that consists of some number of initial bits of an
address. address.
Route Table Route table
The table where forwarding nodes keep information (including next The table where forwarding nodes keep information (including next
hop) for various destinations. hop) for various destinations.
Route Entry Route entry
An entry for a specific destination (unicast or multicast) in the An entry for a specific destination (unicast or multicast) in the
route table. route table.
Route Establishment Route establishment
The process of determining a route between a source and a The process of determining a route between a source and a
destination. destination.
Route Activation Route activation
The process of putting a route into use after it has been The process of putting a route into use after it has been
determined. determined.
Routing Proxy Routing proxy
A node that routes packets by overlays, eg. by tunneling, between A node that routes packets by overlays, eg. by tunneling, between
communicating partners. The Home Agent and Foreign Agent are communicating partners. The Home Agent and Foreign Agent are
examples of routing proxies, in that they receive packets examples of routing proxies, in that they receive packets
destined for the mobile node and tunnel them to the current destined for the mobile node and tunnel them to the current
address of the mobile node. address of the mobile node.
Signal Strength Signal strength
The detectable power of the signal carrying the data bits, as The detectable power of the signal carrying the data bits, as
seen by the receiver of the signal. seen by the receiver of the signal.
Source Route Source route
A source route from node A to node B is an ordered list of IP A source route from node A to node B is an ordered list of IP
addresses, starting with the IP address of node A and ending with addresses, starting with the IP address of node A and ending with
the IP address of the node B. Between A and B, the source route the IP address of the node B. Between A and B, the source route
includes an ordered list of all the intermediate hops between A includes an ordered list intermediate hops between A and B, as
and B, as well as the interface index of the interface through well as the interface index of the interface through which the
which the packet should be transmitted to reach the next hop. packet should be transmitted to reach the next hop. The list of
intermediate hops might not include all visited nodes, some hops
might be omitted for a reason or another.
Spatial re-use Spatial re-use
Simultaneous use of channels with identical or close physical Simultaneous use of channels with identical or close physical
characteristics, but located spatially far enough apart to avoid characteristics, but located spatially far enough apart to avoid
interference (i.e., co-channel interference) interference (i.e., co-channel interference)
System-wide Broadcast System-wide broadcast
Same as flooding, but used in contrast to local broadcast. Same as flooding, but used in contrast to local broadcast.
Subnet
A subnet is a logical group of connected network nodes. In IP
networks, nodes in a subnet share a common network mask (in IPV4)
or a network prefix (in IPv6).
Topology Topology
A network can be viewed abstractly as a "graph" whose "topology" A network can be viewed abstractly as a "graph" whose "topology"
at any point in time is defined by set of "points" connected by at any point in time is defined by set of "points" connected by
(possibly directed) "edges." (possibly directed) "edges."
Triggered Update Triggered update
An unsolicited route update transmitted by an router along a path An unsolicited route update transmitted by an router along a path
to a destination. to a destination.
3. Mobile Access Networks and Mobile Networks 3. Mobile Access Networks and Mobile Networks
In order to support host mobility a set of nodes towards the network In order to support host mobility a set of nodes towards the network
edge may need to have specific functions. Such a set of nodes forms a edge may need to have specific functions. Such a set of nodes forms a
mobile access network that may or may not be part of the global mobile access network that may or may not be part of the global
Internet. Figure 1 presents two examples of such access network Internet. Figure 1 presents two examples of such access network
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In addition, we present a few basic terms on mobile networks, that In addition, we present a few basic terms on mobile networks, that
is, mobile network, mobile router (MR), and mobile network node is, mobile network, mobile router (MR), and mobile network node
(MNN). More terminology for discussing mobile networks can be found (MNN). More terminology for discussing mobile networks can be found
in [15]. A more thorough discussion on mobile networks can be found in [15]. A more thorough discussion on mobile networks can be found
in the working group documents of the NEMO Working Group. in the working group documents of the NEMO Working Group.
Note: this reference architecture is not well suited for people Note: this reference architecture is not well suited for people
dealing with MANETs. dealing with MANETs.
|
--- ------ ------- | --- ------ ------- |
--- | <--> | | -------| AR | -------------------| | | --- | <--> | | -------| AR | -------------------| | |
| |--[] --- /------ \ /| ANG |--| | |--[] --- /------ \ /| ANG |--|
--- AP / \ / | | | --- AP / \ / | | |
MH / \ / ------- | MH / \ / ------- |
(+wireless ___ / ------- | (+wireless ___ / ------- |
device) | |---- | ANR | | device) | |---- | ANR | |
--- ------- | --- ------- |
AP / \ | AP / \ |
/ \ ------- | / \ ------- |
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/ | / |
| ------ --- ------ ------- | | ------ --- ------ ------- |
--- |- i MR e <->| |-------| AR |---------| ANR | | --- |- i MR e <->| |-------| AR |---------| ANR | |
| |--| ------ --- \ ------ ------- | | |--| ------ --- \ ------ ------- |
--- | AP \ / | --- | AP \ / |
MNN | \ / | MNN | \ / |
| --- \ ------ / | | --- \ ------ / |
--- | | |-------| AR |------- | --- | | |-------| AR |------- |
| |--| --- ------ | | |--| --- ------ |
--- | AP | --- | AP |
MNN 'i': MR ingress interface MNN 'i': MR ingress interface |
'e': MR egress interface 'e': MR egress interface |
|
Figure 1: Reference Network Architecture Figure 1: Reference Network Architecture
Mobile Node (MN) Mobile Node (MN)
An IP node capable of changing its point of attachment to the An IP node capable of changing its point of attachment to the
network. A Mobile Node may or may not have forwarding network. A Mobile Node may either be a Mobile Host (no forwarding
functionality. functionality) or a Mobile Router (forwarding functionality).
Mobile Host (MH) Mobile Host (MH)
A mobile node that is an end host and not a router. A Mobile host A mobile node that is an end host and not a router. A Mobile Host
is capable of sending and receiving packets, that is, being a is capable of sending and receiving packets, that is, being a
source or destination of traffic, but not a forwarder of it. source or destination of traffic, but not a forwarder of it.
Fixed Node (FN) Fixed Node (FN)
A node, either a host or a router, unable to change its point of A node, either a host or a router, unable to change its point of
attachment to the network and its IP address without breaking attachment to the network and its IP address without breaking
open sessions. open sessions.
Mobile Network Mobile network
An entire network, moving as a unit, which dynamically changes An entire network, moving as a unit, which dynamically changes
its point of attachment to the Internet and thus its reachability its point of attachment to the Internet and thus its reachability
in the topology. The mobile network is composed by one or more in the topology. The mobile network is composed by one or more
IP-subnets and is connected to the global Internet via one or IP-subnets and is connected to the global Internet via one or
more Mobile Routers (MR). The internal configuration of the more Mobile Routers (MR). The internal configuration of the
mobile network is assumed to be relatively stable with respect to mobile network is assumed to be relatively stable with respect to
the MR. the MR.
Mobile Router (MR) Mobile Router (MR)
A router capable of changing its point of attachment to the A router capable of changing its point of attachment to the
network, moving from one link to another link. The MR is capable network, moving from one link to another link. The MR is capable
of forwarding packets between two or more interfaces, and of forwarding packets between two or more interfaces, and
possibly running a dynamic routing protocol modifying the state possibly running a dynamic routing protocol modifying the state
by which to do packet forwarding. by which to do packet forwarding.
The interface of a MR attached to a link inside the mobile
network is called the ingress interface. The interface of a MR
attached to the home link if the MR is at home, or attached to a
foreign link if the MR is in a foreign network is called the
egress interface.
A MR acting as a gateway between an entire mobile network and the A MR acting as a gateway between an entire mobile network and the
rest of the Internet has one or more egress interface(s) and one rest of the Internet has one or more egress interface(s) and one
or more ingress interface(s). Packets forwarded upstream to the or more ingress interface(s). Packets forwarded upstream to the
rest of the Internet are transmitted through one of the MR's rest of the Internet are transmitted through one of the MR's
egress interface; packets forwarded downstream to the mobile egress interface; packets forwarded downstream to the mobile
network are transmitted through one of the MR's ingress network are transmitted through one of the MR's ingress
interface. interface.
Ingress interface
The interface of a MR attached to a link inside the mobile
network.
Egress interface
The interface of a MR attached to the home link if the MR is at
home, or attached to a foreign link if the MR is in a foreign
network.
Mobile Network Node (MNN) Mobile Network Node (MNN)
Any node (host or router) located within a mobile network, either Any node (host or router) located within a mobile network, either
permanently or temporarily. A Mobile Network Node may either be a permanently or temporarily. A Mobile Network Node may either be a
mobile node or a fixed node. mobile node or a fixed node.
Access Link (AL) Access Link (AL)
A last-hop link between a Mobile Node and an Access Router. That A last-hop link between a Mobile Node and an Access Point. That
is, a facility or medium over which an Access Point and the is, a facility or medium over which an Access Point and the
Mobile Node can communicate at the link layer, i.e., the layer Mobile Node can communicate at the link layer, i.e., the layer
immediately below IP. immediately below IP.
Access Point (AP) Access Point (AP)
An Access Point is a layer 2 device which is connected to one or An Access Point is a layer 2 device which is connected to one or
more Access Routers and offers the wireless link connection to more Access Routers and offers the wireless link connection to
the Mobile Node. Access Points are sometimes called base the Mobile Node. Access Points are sometimes called base
stations or access point transceivers. An Access Point may be a stations or access point transceivers. An Access Point may be a
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An Access Network Router that separates an Access Network from An Access Network Router that separates an Access Network from
other IP networks, much in the same way as an ordinary gateway other IP networks, much in the same way as an ordinary gateway
router. The Access Network Gateway looks to the other IP networks router. The Access Network Gateway looks to the other IP networks
like a standard IP router. like a standard IP router.
Access Network (AN) Access Network (AN)
An IP network which includes one or more Access Network Routers. An IP network which includes one or more Access Network Routers.
Administrative Domain (AD) Administrative Domain (AD)
A collection of networks under the same administrative control A collection of networks under the same administrative control
and grouped together for administrative purposes [5]. and grouped together for administrative purposes [5].
Serving Access Router (SAR) Serving Access Router (SAR)
The Access Router currently offering the connectivity to the The Access Router currently offering the connectivity to the MN.
Mobile Host. This is usually the point of departure for the This is usually the point of departure for the MN as it makes its
Mobile Node as it makes its way towards a new Access Router (then way towards a new Access Router (then Serving Access Router takes
Serving Access Router takes the role of the Old Access Router). the role of the Old Access Router). There may be several Serving
There may be several Serving Access Routers serving the Mobile Access Routers serving the Mobile Node at the same time.
Node at the same time.
Old Access Router (OAR) Old Access Router (OAR)
An Access Router that offered connectivity to the Mobile Node An Access Router that offered connectivity to the Mobile Node
prior to a handover. This is the Serving Access Router that will prior to a handover. This is the Serving Access Router that will
cease or has ceased to offer connectivity to the Mobile Node. cease or has ceased to offer connectivity to the Mobile Node.
New Access Router (NAR) New Access Router (NAR)
The Access Router that offers connectivity to the Mobile Node The Access Router that offers connectivity to the Mobile Node
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terminology follows the description of [4]. terminology follows the description of [4].
4.1. Scope of Handover 4.1. Scope of Handover
Note that the definitions of horizontal and vertical handover are Note that the definitions of horizontal and vertical handover are
different than the ones commonly used today. These definitions try to different than the ones commonly used today. These definitions try to
look at the handover from the IP layer's point of view; the IP layer look at the handover from the IP layer's point of view; the IP layer
works with network interfaces, rather than specific technologies used works with network interfaces, rather than specific technologies used
by those interfaces. by those interfaces.
Layer 2 Handover Layer 2 handover
When a MN changes APs (or some other aspect of the radio channel) A handover where the MN changes APs (or some other aspect of the
connected to the same AR's interface then a layer 2 handover radio channel) connected to the same AR's interface. This type of
occurs. This type of handover is transparent to the routing at handover is transparent to the routing at the IP layer (or it
the IP layer (or it appears simply as a link layer appears simply as a link layer reconfiguration without any
reconfiguration without any mobility implications). mobility implications).
Intra-AR Handover Intra-AR handover
A handover which changes the AR's network interface to the A handover which changes the AR's network interface to the
mobile. That is, the Serving AR remains the same but routing mobile. That is, the Serving AR remains the same but routing
changes internal to the AR take place. changes internal to the AR take place.
Intra-AN Handover Intra-AN handover
When the MN changes ARs inside the same AN then this handover A handover where the MN changes ARs inside the same AN. Such a
occurs. Such a handover is not necessarily visible outside the handover is not necessarily visible outside the AN. In case the
AN. In case the ANG serving the MN changes, this handover is seen ANG serving the MN changes, this handover is seen outside the AN
outside the AN due to a change in the routing paths. Note that due to a change in the routing paths. Note that the ANG may
the ANG may change for only some of the MN's data flows. change for only some of the MN's data flows.
Inter-AN Handover Inter-AN handover
When the MN moves to a new AN then this handover occurs. This A handover where the MN moves to a new AN. This requires some
requires some sort of host mobility across ANs, which typically sort of host mobility across ANs, which typically is be provided
is be provided by the external IP core. Note that this would by the external IP core. Note that this would have to involve the
have to involve the assignment of a new IP access address (e.g., assignment of a new IP access address (e.g., a new care-of
a new care-of address [9]) to the MN. address [9]) to the MN.
Intra-technology Handover Intra-technology handover
A handover between equipment of the same technology. A handover between equipment of the same technology.
Inter-technology Handover Inter-technology handover
A handover between equipment of different technologies. A handover between equipment of different technologies.
Horizontal Handover Horizontal handover
A handover in which the mobile node's network interface does not A handover in which the mobile node's network interface does not
change (from the IP point of view); the MN communicates with the change (from the IP point of view); the MN communicates with the
access router via the same network interface before and after the access router via the same network interface before and after the
handover. A horizontal handover is typically also an intra- handover. A horizontal handover is typically also an intra-
technology handover but it can be an inter-technology handover if technology handover but it can be an inter-technology handover if
the MN can do a layer 2 handover between two different the MN can do a layer 2 handover between two different
technologies without changing the network interface seen by the technologies without changing the network interface seen by the
IP layer. IP layer.
Vertical Handover Vertical handover
In a vertical handover the mobile node's network interface to the A handover in which the mobile node's network interface to the
access network changes. A vertical handover is typically an access network changes. A vertical handover is typically an
inter-technology handover but it may also be an intra- technology inter-technology handover but it may also be an intra- technology
handover if the MN has several network interfaces of the same handover if the MN has several network interfaces of the same
type. That is, after the handover, the IP layer communicates with type. That is, after the handover, the IP layer communicates with
the access network through a different network interface. the access network through a different network interface.
The different handover types defined in this section and in section The different handover types defined in this section and in section
4.1 have no direct relationship. In particular, a MN can do an 4.1 have no direct relationship. In particular, a MN can do an
intra-AN handover of any of the types defined above. intra-AN handover of any of the types defined above.
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change in the link layer technology. They define whether, after a change in the link layer technology. They define whether, after a
handover, the IP packet flow goes through the same (horizontal handover, the IP packet flow goes through the same (horizontal
handover) or a different (vertical handover) network interface. handover) or a different (vertical handover) network interface.
These two handovers do not define whether the AR changes as a result These two handovers do not define whether the AR changes as a result
of a handover. of a handover.
4.2. Handover Control 4.2. Handover Control
A handover must be one of the following two types (a): A handover must be one of the following two types (a):
Mobile-initiated Handover Mobile-initiated handover
the MN is the one that makes the initial decision to initiate the the MN is the one that makes the initial decision to initiate the
handover. handover.
Network-initiated Handover Network-initiated handover
the network makes the initial decision to initiate the handover. the network makes the initial decision to initiate the handover.
A handover is also one of the following two types (b): A handover is also one of the following two types (b):
Mobile-controlled Handover (MCHO) Mobile-controlled handover
the MN has the primary control over the handover process. the MN has the primary control over the handover process.
Network-controlled Handover (NCHO) Network-controlled handover
the network has the primary control over the handover process. the network has the primary control over the handover process.
A handover is also either of these three types (c): A handover is also either of these three types (c):
Mobile-assisted handover Mobile-assisted handover
information and measurement from the MN are used by the AR to information and measurement from the MN are used by the AR to
decide on the execution of a handover. decide on the execution of a handover.
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the old and new AR. This should not be confused with "soft the old and new AR. This should not be confused with "soft
handover" which relies on macro diversity. handover" which relies on macro diversity.
Break-before-make (BBM) Break-before-make (BBM)
During a BBM handover the MN cannot communicate simultaneously During a BBM handover the MN cannot communicate simultaneously
with the old and the new AR. with the old and the new AR.
4.4. Performance and Functional Aspects 4.4. Performance and Functional Aspects
Handover Latency Handover latency
Handover latency is the time difference between when a MN is last Handover latency is the time difference between when a MN is last
able to send and/or receive an IP packet by way of the OAR, until able to send and/or receive an IP packet by way of the OAR, until
when the MN is able to send and/or receive an IP packet through when the MN is able to send and/or receive an IP packet through
the NAR. Adapted from [4]. the NAR. Adapted from [4].
Smooth handover Smooth handover
A handover that aims primarily to minimize packet loss, with no A handover that aims primarily to minimize packet loss, with no
explicit concern for additional delays in packet forwarding. explicit concern for additional delays in packet forwarding.
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The splitting and combining of packets at the IP level. The splitting and combining of packets at the IP level.
4.6. Paging, and Mobile Node States and Modes 4.6. Paging, and Mobile Node States and Modes
Mobile systems may employ the use of MN states in order to operate Mobile systems may employ the use of MN states in order to operate
more efficiently without degrading the performance of the system. The more efficiently without degrading the performance of the system. The
term 'mode' is also common and means the same as 'state'. term 'mode' is also common and means the same as 'state'.
A MN is always in one of the following three states: A MN is always in one of the following three states:
Active State Active state
When the AN knows the MN's SAR and the MN can send and receive IP When the AN knows the MN's SAR and the MN can send and receive IP
packets. The AL may not be active, but the radio layer is able packets. The AL may not be active, but the radio layer is able
to establish one without assistance from the network layer. The to establish one without assistance from the network layer. The
MN has an IP address assigned. MN has an IP address assigned.
Dormant State Dormant state
A state in which the mobile restricts its ability to receive A state in which the mobile restricts its ability to receive
normal IP traffic by reducing its monitoring of radio channels. normal IP traffic by reducing its monitoring of radio channels.
The AN knows the MH's Paging Area, but the MH has no SAR and so The AN knows the MN's Paging Area, but the MN has no SAR and so
packets cannot be delivered to the MH without the AN initiating packets cannot be delivered to the MN without the AN initiating
paging. paging.
Time-slotted Dormant Mode Time-slotted dormant mode
A dormant mode implementation in which the mobile alternates A dormant mode implementation in which the mobile alternates
between periods of not listening for any radio traffic and between periods of not listening for any radio traffic and
listening for traffic. Time-slotted dormant mode implementations listening for traffic. Time-slotted dormant mode implementations
are typically synchronized with the network so the network can are typically synchronized with the network so the network can
deliver traffic to the mobile during listening periods. deliver traffic to the mobile during listening periods.
Inactive State Inactive state
the MH is in neither the Active nor Dormant State. The host is no the MN is in neither the Active nor Dormant State. The MN is no
longer listening for any packets, not even periodically, and not longer listening for any packets, not even periodically, and not
sending packets. The host may be in a powered off state, it may sending packets. The MN may be in a powered off state, it may
have shut down all interfaces to drastically conserve power, or have shut down all interfaces to drastically conserve power, or
it may be out of range of a radio access point. The MN does not it may be out of range of a radio access point. The MN does not
necessarily have an IP access address from the AN. necessarily have an IP access address from the AN.
Note: in fact, as well as the MN being in one of these three states, Note: in fact, as well as the MN being in one of these three states,
the AN also stores which state it believes the MN is in. Normally the AN also stores which state it believes the MN is in. Normally
these are consistent; the definitions above assume so. these are consistent; the definitions above assume so.
Here are some additional definitions for paging, taking into account Here are some additional definitions for paging, taking into account
the above state definitions. the above state definitions.
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A procedure initiated by the Access Network to move an Idle MN A procedure initiated by the Access Network to move an Idle MN
into the Active State. As a result of paging, the MN establishes into the Active State. As a result of paging, the MN establishes
a SAR and the IP routes are set up. a SAR and the IP routes are set up.
Location updating Location updating
A procedure initiated by the MN, by which it informs the AN that A procedure initiated by the MN, by which it informs the AN that
it has moved into a new paging area. it has moved into a new paging area.
Paging Area Paging area
A part of the Access Network, typically containing a number of A part of the Access Network, typically containing a number of
ARs/APs, which corresponds to some geographical area. The AN ARs/APs, which corresponds to some geographical area. The AN
keeps and updates a list of all the Idle MNs present in the area. keeps and updates a list of all the Idle MNs present in the area.
If the MN is within the radio coverage of the area it will be If the MN is within the radio coverage of the area it will be
able to receive paging messages sent within that Paging Area. able to receive paging messages sent within that Paging Area.
Paging Area Registrations Paging area registrations
Signaling from a dormant mode mobile node to the network, by Signaling from a dormant mode mobile node to the network, by
which it establishes its presence in a new paging area. Paging which it establishes its presence in a new paging area. Paging
Area Registrations thus enable the network to maintain a rough Area Registrations thus enable the network to maintain a rough
idea of where the mobile is located. idea of where the mobile is located.
Paging Channel Paging channel
A radio channel dedicated to signaling dormant mode mobiles for A radio channel dedicated to signaling dormant mode mobiles for
paging purposes. By current practice, the protocol used on a paging purposes. By current practice, the protocol used on a
paging channel is usually dictated by the radio link protocol, paging channel is usually dictated by the radio link protocol,
although some paging protocols have provision for carrying although some paging protocols have provision for carrying
arbitrary traffic (and thus could potentially be used to carry arbitrary traffic (and thus could potentially be used to carry
IP). IP).
Traffic Channel Traffic channel
The radio channel on which IP traffic to an active mobile is The radio channel on which IP traffic to an active mobile is
typically sent. This channel is used by a mobile that is typically sent. This channel is used by a mobile that is
actively sending and receiving IP traffic, and is not actively sending and receiving IP traffic, and is not
continuously active in a dormant mode mobile. For some radio continuously active in a dormant mode mobile. For some radio
link protocols, this may be the only channel available. link protocols, this may be the only channel available.
4.7. Context Transfer 4.7. Context Transfer
Context Context
The information on the current state of a routing-related service The information on the current state of a routing-related service
required to re-establish the routing-related service on a new required to re-establish the routing-related service on a new
subnet without having to perform the entire protocol exchange subnet without having to perform the entire protocol exchange
with the mobile host from scratch. with the MN from scratch.
Feature context Feature context
The collection of information representing the context for a The collection of information representing the context for a
given feature. The full context associated with a mobile host is given feature. The full context associated with a MN is the
the collection of one or more feature contexts. collection of one or more feature contexts.
Context transfer Context transfer
The movement of context from one router or other network entity The movement of context from one router or other network entity
to another as a means of re-establishing routing related services to another as a means of re-establishing routing related services
on a new subnet or collection of subnets. on a new subnet or collection of subnets.
Routing-related service Routing-related service
A modification to the default routing treatment of packets to and A modification to the default routing treatment of packets to and
from the mobile host. Initially establishing routing-related from the MN. Initially establishing routing-related services
services usually requires a protocol exchange with the mobile usually requires a protocol exchange with the MN. An example of a
host. An example of a routing-related service is header routing-related service is header compression. The service may
compression. The service may also be indirectly related to also be indirectly related to routing, for example, security.
routing, for example, security. Security may not affect the Security may not affect the forwarding decision of all
forwarding decision of all intermediate routers, but a packet may intermediate routers, but a packet may be dropped if it fails a
be dropped if it fails a security check (can't be encrypted, security check (can't be encrypted, authentication failed, etc.).
authentication failed, etc.). Dropping the packet is basically a Dropping the packet is basically a routing decision.
routing decision.
4.8. Candidate Access Router Discovery 4.8. Candidate Access Router Discovery
Capability of AR Capability of AR
A characteristic of the service offered by an AR that may be of A characteristic of the service offered by an AR that may be of
interest to an MN when the AR is being considered as a handoff interest to an MN when the AR is being considered as a handoff
candidate. candidate.
Candidate AR (CAR) Candidate AR (CAR)
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AP that is served by this AR, as well as the coverage of this AR AP that is served by this AR, as well as the coverage of this AR
overlaps with that of the AR to which MN is currently attached. overlaps with that of the AR to which MN is currently attached.
Target AR (TAR) Target AR (TAR)
An AR with which the procedures for the MN's IP-level handoff are An AR with which the procedures for the MN's IP-level handoff are
initiated. TAR is selected after running a TAR Selection initiated. TAR is selected after running a TAR Selection
Algorithm that takes into account the capabilities of CARs, Algorithm that takes into account the capabilities of CARs,
preferences of MN and any local policies. preferences of MN and any local policies.
4.9. User, Personal and Host Mobility 4.9. Types of Mobility
Different sorts of mobility management may be required of a mobile Different sorts of mobility management may be required of a mobile
system. We can differentiate between user, personal, host and system. We can differentiate between personal, host and network
network mobility. mobility.
User mobility
refers to the ability of a user to access services from different
physical hosts. This usually means the user has an account on
these different hosts or that a host does not restrict users from
using the host to access services.
Personal mobility Personal mobility support
complements user mobility with the ability to track the user's Provides the ability to track the user's location and provide the
location and provide the user's current location to allow user's current location to allow sessions to be initiated by and
sessions to be initiated by and towards the user by anyone on any towards the user by anyone on any other network. Personal
other network. Personal mobility is also concerned with enabling mobility is also concerned with enabling associated security,
associated security, billing and service subscription billing and service subscription authorization made between
authorization made between administrative domains. administrative domains.
Host mobility Host mobility support
refers to the function of allowing a mobile host to change its Refers to the function of allowing a mobile node to change its
point of attachment to the network, without interrupting IP point of attachment to the network, without interrupting IP
packet delivery to/from that host. There may be different sub- packet delivery to/from that node. There may be different sub-
functions depending on what the current level of service is being functions depending on what the current level of service is being
provided; in particular, support for host mobility usually provided; in particular, support for host mobility usually
implies active and idle modes of operation, depending on whether implies active and idle modes of operation, depending on whether
the host has any current sessions or not. Access Network the node has any current sessions or not. Access Network
procedures are required to keep track of the current point of procedures are required to keep track of the current point of
attachment of all the MNs or establish it at will. Accurate attachment of all the MNs or establish it at will. Accurate
location and routing procedures are required in order to maintain location and routing procedures are required in order to maintain
the integrity of the communication. Host mobility is often the integrity of the communication. Host mobility is often called
called 'terminal mobility'. 'terminal mobility'.
Network mobility Network mobility support
Network mobility occurs when an entire network changes its point Refers to the function of allowing an entire network to change
of attachment to the Internet and, thus, its reachability in the its point of attachment to the Internet, and, thus, its
topology, which is referred to as a mobile network. reachability in the topology, without interrupting IP packet
delivery to/from that mobile network.
Two subcategories of mobility can be identified withing either host Two subcategories of mobility can be identified withing either host
mobility and network mobility: mobility and network mobility:
Global mobility Global mobility
Same as Macro mobility. Same as Macro mobility.
Local mobility Local mobility
Same as Micro mobility. Same as Micro mobility.
Macro mobility Macro mobility
Mobility over a large area. This includes mobility support and Mobility over a large area. This includes mobility support and
associated address registration procedures that are needed when a associated address registration procedures that are needed when a
mobile host moves between IP domains. Inter-AN handovers MN moves between IP domains. Inter-AN handovers typically involve
typically involve macro-mobility protocols. Mobile-IP can be macro-mobility protocols. Mobile-IP can be seen as a means to
seen as a means to provide macro mobility. provide macro mobility.
Micro mobility Micro mobility
Mobility over a small area. Usually this means mobility within Mobility over a small area. Usually this means mobility within
an IP domain with an emphasis on support for active mode using an IP domain with an emphasis on support for active mode using
handover, although it may include idle mode procedures also. handover, although it may include idle mode procedures also.
Micro-mobility protocols exploit the locality of movement by Micro-mobility protocols exploit the locality of movement by
confining movement related changes and signalling to the access confining movement related changes and signalling to the access
network. network.
Local Mobility Management Local mobility management
Local Mobility Management (LMM) is a generic term for protocols Local mobility management (LMM) is a generic term for protocols
dealing with IP mobility management confined within the access dealing with IP mobility management confined within the access
network. LMM messages are not routed outside the access network, network. LMM messages are not routed outside the access network,
although a handover may trigger Mobile IP messages to be sent to although a handover may trigger Mobile IP messages to be sent to
correspondent nodes and home agents. correspondent nodes and home agents.
5. Specific Terminology for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networking 5. Specific Terminology for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networking
Cluster Cluster
A group of nodes located within close physical proximity, A group of nodes located within close physical proximity,
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This section includes terminology commonly used around mobile and This section includes terminology commonly used around mobile and
wireless networking. Only a mobility-related subset of the entire wireless networking. Only a mobility-related subset of the entire
security terminology is presented. security terminology is presented.
Authorization-enabling extension Authorization-enabling extension
An authentication which makes a (registration) message acceptable An authentication which makes a (registration) message acceptable
to the ultimate recipient of the registration message. An to the ultimate recipient of the registration message. An
authorization-enabling extension must contain an SPI [12]. authorization-enabling extension must contain an SPI [12].
Mobility Security Association Mobility security association
A collection of security contexts, between a pair of nodes, which A collection of security contexts, between a pair of nodes, which
may be applied to mobility-related protocol messages exchanged may be applied to mobility-related protocol messages exchanged
between them. In Mobile IP, each context indicates an between them. In Mobile IP, each context indicates an
authentication algorithm and mode, a secret (a shared key, or authentication algorithm and mode, a secret (a shared key, or
appropriate public/private key pair), and a style of replay appropriate public/private key pair), and a style of replay
protection in use. Mobility security associations may be stored protection in use. Mobility security associations may be stored
separately from the node's IPsec Security Policy Database (SPD) separately from the node's IPsec Security Policy Database (SPD)
[12]. [12].
Registration Key Registration key
A key used as the basis of a Mobility Security Association A key used as the basis of a Mobility Security Association
between a mobile node and a foreign agent. A registration key is between a mobile node and a foreign agent. A registration key is
typically only used once or a very few times, and only for the typically only used once or a very few times, and only for the
purposes of verifying a small volume of Authentication data [14]. purposes of verifying a small volume of Authentication data [14].
Security Context Security context
A security context between two routers defines the manner in A security context between two routers defines the manner in
which two routers choose to mutually authentication each other, which two routers choose to mutually authenticate each other, and
and indicates an authentication algorithm and mode. indicates an authentication algorithm and mode.
Security Parameter Index (SPI) Security Parameter Index (SPI)
An index identifying a security context between a pair of routers An index identifying a security context between a pair of routers
among the contexts possible in the mobility security association. among the contexts possible in the mobility security association.
Stale challenge Stale challenge
Any challenge that has been used by the mobile node in a Any challenge that has been used by the mobile node in a
Registration Request message and processed by the Foreign Agent Registration Request message and processed by the Foreign Agent
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Since revision -02 of the document draft-manner-seamoby-terms-02.txt, Since revision -02 of the document draft-manner-seamoby-terms-02.txt,
Charles Perkins has given as input terminology related to ad-hoc Charles Perkins has given as input terminology related to ad-hoc
networks. networks.
Thierry Ernst has provided the terminology for discussing mobile Thierry Ernst has provided the terminology for discussing mobile
networks. networks.
9. Change log 9. Change log
Changes from -04
- Removed User mobility, and related discussions elsewhere
- Added terms to Appendix B
- Capitalizing fixes
- Added "Subnet"
- Clarified "link" and gave pointer to "access link"
- Added "(HoA)" to "Home Address"
- Refined definition of Mobile Node (added MH and MR)
- Separated ingress and egress interfaces from the definition of MR
- Revised use of terms MN/MH/node/host
- minor edits
Changes from -03 Changes from -03
- Added comments from Randy Presuhn and Thierry Ernst - Added comments from Randy Presuhn and Thierry Ernst
Changes from -02 Changes from -02
- Updated the terminology related to mobile networks - Updated the terminology related to mobile networks
Changes from -01 Changes from -01
- Added security terminology - Added security terminology
- Miscellaneous small refinements of definitions - Miscellaneous small refinements of definitions
skipping to change at page 26, line 43 skipping to change at page 28, line 6
[13] Perkins, C., Calhoun, P. and Bharatia, J., "Mobile [13] Perkins, C., Calhoun, P. and Bharatia, J., "Mobile
IPv4 Challenge/Response Extensions (revised)", Work in IPv4 Challenge/Response Extensions (revised)", Work in
Progress. Progress.
[14] Perkins, C. and Calhoun, P., "AAA Registration Keys for Mobile [14] Perkins, C. and Calhoun, P., "AAA Registration Keys for Mobile
IP", Work in Progress. IP", Work in Progress.
[15] Ernst, T. and Lach, H., "Network Mobility Support [15] Ernst, T. and Lach, H., "Network Mobility Support
Terminology", Work in Progress. Terminology", Work in Progress.
12. Author's Addresses 12. Authors' Addresses
Questions about this document may be directed to: Questions about this document may be directed to:
Jukka Manner Jukka Manner
Department of Computer Science Department of Computer Science
University of Helsinki University of Helsinki
P.O. Box 26 (Teollisuuskatu 23) P.O. Box 26 (Teollisuuskatu 23)
FIN-00014 HELSINKI FIN-00014 HELSINKI
Finland Finland
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Voice: +44-20-78482889 Voice: +44-20-78482889
Fax: +44-20-78482664 Fax: +44-20-78482664
E-Mail: nikolaos.georganopoulos@kcl.ac.uk E-Mail: nikolaos.georganopoulos@kcl.ac.uk
13. Appendix A - Examples 13. Appendix A - Examples
This appendix provides examples for the terminology presented. This appendix provides examples for the terminology presented.
A.1. Mobility A.1. Mobility
Host mobility is logically independent of user mobility, although in Host mobility is logically independent of the mobility of users,
real networks, at least the address management functions are often although in real networks, at least the address management functions
required to initially attach the host to the network. In addition, are often required to initially attach the MN to the network. In
if the network wishes to determine whether access is authorized (and addition, if the network wishes to determine whether access is
if so, who to charge for it), then this may be tied to the identity authorized (and if so, who to charge for it), then this may be tied
of the user of the terminal. to the identity of the user of the terminal.
An example of user mobility would be a campus network, where a
student can log into the campus network from several workstations and
still retrieve files, emails, and other services automatically.
Personal mobility support typically amounts to the maintenance and Personal mobility support typically amounts to the maintenance and
update of some sort of address mapping database, such as a SIP server update of some sort of address mapping database, such as a SIP server
or DNS server; it is also possible for the personal mobility support or DNS server; it is also possible for the personal mobility support
function to take a part in forwarding control messages between end function to take a part in forwarding control messages between end
user and correspondent rather than simply acting as a database. SIP user and correspondent rather than simply acting as a database. SIP
is a protocol for session initiation in IP networks. It includes is a protocol for session initiation in IP networks. It includes
registration procedures which partially support personal mobility registration procedures which partially support personal mobility
(namely, the ability for the network to route a session towards a (namely, the ability for the network to route a session towards a
user at a local IP address). user at a local IP address).
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connect to the networks owned by operators other than the one having connect to the networks owned by operators other than the one having
a direct formal relationship with the user. More recently (e.g., in a direct formal relationship with the user. More recently (e.g., in
data networks and UMTS) it also refers providing user-customized data networks and UMTS) it also refers providing user-customized
services in foreign networks (e.g., QoS profiles for specific services in foreign networks (e.g., QoS profiles for specific
applications). applications).
HAWAII, Cellular IP, Regional Registration and Edge Mobility HAWAII, Cellular IP, Regional Registration and Edge Mobility
Architecture (EMA) are examples of micro mobility schemes, with the Architecture (EMA) are examples of micro mobility schemes, with the
assumption that Mobile IP is used for macro mobility. assumption that Mobile IP is used for macro mobility.
Wireless LAN technologies such as IEEE 802.11 typically support
aspects of user and host mobility in a minimal way. User mobility
procedures (for access control and so on) are defined only over the
air interface (and the way these are handled within the network is
not further defined).
Public Land Mobile Networks (GSM/UMTS) typically have extensive Public Land Mobile Networks (GSM/UMTS) typically have extensive
support for both user and host mobility. Complete sets of protocols support for both user and host mobility. Complete sets of protocols
(both over the air and on the network side) are provided for user (both over the air and on the network side) are provided for user
mobility, including customized service provision. Handover for host mobility, including customized service provision. Handover for host
mobility is also supported, both within access networks, and also mobility is also supported, both within access networks, and also
within the GSM/UMTS core network for mobility between access networks within the GSM/UMTS core network for mobility between access networks
of the same operator. of the same operator.
A.2. Handovers A.2. Handovers
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AR. AR.
When the mobile moves through the network, depending on the mobility When the mobile moves through the network, depending on the mobility
mechanism, the OAR will forward packets destined to the old MNs mechanism, the OAR will forward packets destined to the old MNs
address to the SAR which currently serves the MN. At the same time address to the SAR which currently serves the MN. At the same time
the handover mechanism may be studying CARs to find the best NAR the handover mechanism may be studying CARs to find the best NAR
where the MN will be handed next. where the MN will be handed next.
14. Appendix B - Index of Terms 14. Appendix B - Index of Terms
<TBA when terminology finalized> Access Link (AL) ............................................... 12
Access Network (AN) ............................................ 13
Access Network Gateway (ANG) ................................... 12
Access Network Router (ANR) .................................... 12
Access Point (AP) .............................................. 12
Access Router (AR) ............................................. 12
Active state ................................................... 19
Administrative Domain (AD) ..................................... 13
Asymmetric link ................................................. 5
Authorization-enabling extension ............................... 24
Backward handover .............................................. 16
Bandwidth ....................................................... 3
Bandwidth utilization ........................................... 3
Beacon .......................................................... 3
Binding Update (BU) ............................................. 3
Break-before-make (BBM) ........................................ 17
Candidate AR (CAR) ............................................. 21
Candidate Access Router (CAR) .................................. 13
Capability of AR ............................................... 21
Care-of-Address (CoA) ........................................... 3
Channel ......................................................... 3
Channel access protocol ......................................... 3
Cluster ........................................................ 23
Cluster head ................................................... 23
Cluster member ................................................. 23
Context ........................................................ 21
Context transfer ............................................... 21
Control message ................................................. 3
Convergence .................................................... 23
Convergence time ............................................... 24
Distance vector ................................................. 4
Dormant state .................................................. 19
Egress interface ............................................... 11
Exposed terminal problem ....................................... 18
Fairness ........................................................ 4
Fast handover .................................................. 17
Feature context ................................................ 21
Fixed Node (FN) ................................................ 11
Flooding ........................................................ 4
Foreign subnet prefix ........................................... 4
Forward handover ............................................... 16
Forwarding node ................................................. 4
Global mobility ................................................ 22
Goodput ........................................................ 18
Handover ....................................................... 14
Handover latency ............................................... 17
Hidden-terminal problem ........................................ 18
Home Address (HoA) .............................................. 4
Home subnet prefix .............................................. 4
Horizontal Handover ............................................ 15
Host mobility support .......................................... 22
IP access address ............................................... 4
IP diversity ................................................... 19
Inactive state ................................................. 19
Ingress interface .............................................. 11
Inter-AN handover .............................................. 14
Interface ....................................................... 4
Inter-technology handover ...................................... 15
Intra-AN handover .............................................. 14
Intra-AR handover .............................................. 14
Intra-technology handover ...................................... 15
Laydown ........................................................ 24
Layer 2 handover ............................................... 14
Link ............................................................ 5
Link establishment .............................................. 5
Link state ...................................................... 5
Link-layer trigger (L2 Trigger) ................................. 5
Link-level acknowledgement ...................................... 5
Local broadcast ................................................. 6
Local mobility ................................................. 22
Local mobility management ...................................... 23
Location updating .............................................. 20
Loop-free ....................................................... 6
Macro diversity ................................................ 19
Macro mobility ................................................. 22
Make-before-break (MBB) ........................................ 17
Medium Access Protocol (MAC) .................................... 6
Micro diversity ................................................ 18
Micro mobility ................................................. 23
Mobile Host (MH) ............................................... 11
Mobile Network Node (MNN) ...................................... 12
Mobile Node (MN) ............................................... 11
Mobile Router (MR) ............................................. 11
Mobile network ................................................. 11
Mobile network prefix ........................................... 6
Mobile-assisted handover ....................................... 16
Mobile-controlled handover ..................................... 16
Mobile-initiated handover ...................................... 15
Mobility factor ................................................. 6
Mobility security association .................................. 24
Multipoint relay (MPR) .......................................... 6
Neighbor ........................................................ 6
Neighborhood .................................................... 6
Network mobility support ....................................... 22
Network-assisted handover ...................................... 16
Network-controlled handover .................................... 16
Network-initiated handover ..................................... 15
New Access Router (NAR) ........................................ 13
Next hop ........................................................ 7
Old Access Router (OAR) ........................................ 13
Paging ......................................................... 20
Paging area .................................................... 20
Paging area registrations ...................................... 20
Paging channel ................................................. 20
Pathloss ....................................................... 18
Pathloss matrix ................................................ 24
Payload ......................................................... 7
Personal mobility support ...................................... 22
Planned handover ............................................... 16
Prefix .......................................................... 7
Previous Access Router (PAR) ................................... 13
Radio Cell ..................................................... 12
Registration key ............................................... 24
Roaming ........................................................ 13
Route activation ................................................ 7
Route entry ..................................................... 7
Route establishment ............................................. 7
Route table ..................................................... 7
Routing proxy ................................................... 7
Routing-related service ........................................ 21
Scenario ....................................................... 24
Seamless handover .............................................. 17
Security Parameter Index (SPI) ................................. 25
Security context ............................................... 25
Serving Access Router (SAR) .................................... 13
Signal strength ................................................. 7
Smooth handover ................................................ 17
Source route .................................................... 8
Spatial re-use .................................................. 8
Stale challenge ................................................ 25
Subnet .......................................................... 8
System-wide broadcast ........................................... 8
Target AR (TAR) ................................................ 21
Throughput ..................................................... 17
Time-slotted dormant mode ...................................... 19
Topology ........................................................ 8
Traffic channel ................................................ 20
Triggered update ................................................ 8
Unassisted handover ............................................ 16
Unknown challenge .............................................. 25
Unplanned handover ............................................. 16
Unused challenge ............................................... 25
Vertical Handover .............................................. 15
Full Copyright Statement Full Copyright Statement
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2001). All Rights Reserved. Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2001). All Rights Reserved.
This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this
 End of changes. 

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