draft-ietf-seamoby-mobility-terminology-06.txt   rfc3753.txt 
INTERNET-DRAFT J. Manner, Editor Network Working Group J. Manner, Ed.
draft-ietf-seamoby-mobility-terminology-06.txt M. Kojo, Editor Request for Comments: 3753 M. Kojo, Ed.
Category: Informational February, 2004 Category: Informational June 2004
Expires: August, 2004
Mobility Related Terminology Mobility Related Terminology
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
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Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004). All Rights Reserved. Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).
Abstract Abstract
There is a need for common definitions of terminology in the work to There is a need for common definitions of terminology in the work to
be done around IP mobility. This document defines terms for mobility be done around IP mobility. This document defines terms for mobility
related terminology. The document originated out of work done in the related terminology. The document originated out of work done in the
Seamoby Working Group but has broader applicability for terminology Seamoby Working Group but has broader applicability for terminology
used in IETF-wide discourse on technology for mobility and IP used in IETF-wide discourse on technology for mobility and IP
networks. Other working groups dealing with mobility may want to take networks. Other working groups dealing with mobility may want to
advantage of this terminology. take advantage of this terminology.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1 Introduction ................................................. 2 1. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2 General Terms ................................................ 3 2. General Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
3 Mobile Access Networks and Mobile Networks ................... 9 3. Mobile Access Networks and Mobile Networks. . . . . . . . . . 10
4 Handover Terminology ......................................... 13 4. Handover Terminology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.1 Scope of Handover .......................................... 14 4.1. Scope of Handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.2 Handover Control ........................................... 15 4.2. Handover Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.3 Simultaneous connectivity to Access Routers ................ 17 4.3. Simultaneous connectivity to Access Routers . . . . . . 19
4.4 Performance and Functional Aspects ......................... 17 4.4. Performance and Functional Aspects. . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.5 Micro Diversity, Macro Diversity, and IP Diversity ......... 18 4.5. Micro Diversity, Macro Diversity, and IP Diversity. . . 21
4.6 Paging, and Mobile Node States and Modes ................... 19 4.6. Paging, and Mobile Node States and Modes. . . . . . . . 22
4.7 Context Transfer ........................................... 21 4.7. Context Transfer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.8 Candidate Access Router Discovery .......................... 21 4.8. Candidate Access Router Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.9 Types of Mobility .......................................... 22 4.9. Types of Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5 Specific Terminology for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networking ............ 23 5. Specific Terminology for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networking . . . . . . 26
6 Security-related Terminology ................................. 24 6. Security-related Terminology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
7 Security Considerations ...................................... 25 7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
8 Contributors ................................................. 25 8. Contributors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
9 Acknowledgments .............................................. 25 9. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
10 Informative References ...................................... 26 10. Informative References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
11 Authors' Addresses .......................................... 27 11. Appendix A - Index of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
12 Appendix A - Index of Terms ................................. 29 12. Authors' Addresses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
13. Full Copyright Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document presents terminology to be used for documents and This document presents terminology to be used for documents and
discussions within the Seamoby Working Group. Other mobility related discussions within the Seamoby Working Group. Other mobility related
working groups could take advantage of this terminology, in order to working groups could take advantage of this terminology, in order to
create a common terminology for the area of mobility in IP networks. create a common terminology for the area of mobility in IP networks.
These groups would include MIP, MANET, ROHC and NEMO.
Some terms and their definitions that are not directly related to the Some terms and their definitions that are not directly related to the
IP world are included for the purpose of harmonizing the terminology. IP world are included for the purpose of harmonizing the terminology.
For example, 'Access Point' and 'base station' refer to the same For example, 'Access Point' and 'base station' refer to the same
component, from the point of view of IP, but 'Access Router' has a component, from the point of view of IP, but 'Access Router' has a
very different meaning. The presented terminology may also, it is very different meaning. The presented terminology may also, it is
hoped, be adequate to cover mobile ad-hoc networks. hoped, be adequate to cover mobile ad-hoc networks.
The proposed terminology is not meant to assert any new terminology. The proposed terminology is not meant to assert any new terminology.
Rather the authors would welcome discussion on more exact definitions Rather the authors would welcome discussion on more exact definitions
as well as missing or unnecessary terms. This work is a as well as missing or unnecessary terms. This work is a
collaborative enterprise between people from many different collaborative enterprise between people from many different
engineering backgrounds and so already presents a first step in engineering backgrounds and so already presents a first step in
harmonizing the terminology. harmonizing the terminology.
The terminology in this draft is divided into several sections. The terminology in this document is divided into several sections.
First, there is a list of terms for general use and mobile access First, there is a list of terms for general use and mobile access
networks followed by terms related to handovers, and finally some networks followed by terms related to handovers, and finally some
terms used within the MANET and NEMO working group. terms used within the MANET and NEMO working groups.
2. General Terms 2. General Terms
Bandwidth Bandwidth
The total width of the frequency band available to or used by a The total width of the frequency band available to or used by a
communications channel. Usually measured in Hertz (Hz). The communications channel. Usually measured in Hertz (Hz). The
bandwidth of a channel limits the available channel capacity. bandwidth of a channel limits the available channel capacity.
Bandwidth utilization Bandwidth utilization
The actual rate of information transfer achieved over a link, The actual rate of information transfer achieved over a link,
expressed as a percentage of the theoretical maximum channel expressed as a percentage of the theoretical maximum channel
capacity on that link, according to Shannon's Law. capacity on that link, according to Shannon's Law.
Beacon Beacon
A control message broadcast by a node (especially, a base A control message broadcast by a node (especially, a base station)
station) informing all the other nodes in its neighborhood of the informing all the other nodes in its neighborhood of the
continuing presence of the broadcasting node, possibly along with continuing presence of the broadcasting node, possibly along with
additional status or configuration information. additional status or configuration information.
Binding Update (BU) Binding Update (BU)
A message indicating a mobile node's current mobility binding, A message indicating a mobile node's current mobility binding, and
and in particular its care-of address. in particular its care-of address.
Care-of-Address (CoA) Care-of-Address (CoA)
An IP address associated with a mobile node while visiting a An IP address associated with a mobile node while visiting a
foreign link; the subnet prefix of this IP address is a foreign foreign link; the subnet prefix of this IP address is a foreign
subnet prefix. A packet addressed to the mobile node which subnet prefix. A packet addressed to the mobile node which
arrives at the mobile node's home network when the mobile node is arrives at the mobile node's home network when the mobile node is
away from home and has registered a Care-of Address will be away from home and has registered a Care-of Address will be
forwarded to that address by the Home Agent in the home network. forwarded to that address by the Home Agent in the home network.
Channel Channel
A subdivision of the physical medium allowing possibly shared A subdivision of the physical medium allowing possibly shared
independent uses of the medium. Channels may be made available independent uses of the medium. Channels may be made available by
by subdividing the medium into distinct time slots, or distinct subdividing the medium into distinct time slots, or distinct
spectral bands, or decorrelated coding sequences. spectral bands, or decorrelated coding sequences.
Channel access protocol Channel access protocol
A protocol for mediating access to, and possibly allocation of, A protocol for mediating access to, and possibly allocation of,
the various channels available within the physical communications the various channels available within the physical communications
medium. Nodes participating in the channel access protocol agree medium. Nodes participating in the channel access protocol agree
to communicate only when they have uncontested access to one of to communicate only when they have uncontested access to one of
the channels, so that there will be no interference. the channels, so that there will be no interference.
Channel capacity Channel capacity
The total capacity of a link to carry information (typically The total capacity of a link to carry information (typically bits)
bits) per unit time. With a given bandwidth, the theoretical per unit time. With a given bandwidth, the theoretical maximum
maximum channel capacity is given by Shannon's Law. The actual channel capacity is given by Shannon's Law. The actual channel
channel capacity of a channel is determined by the channel capacity of a channel is determined by the channel bandwidth, the
bandwidth, the coding system used, and the signal to noise ratio. coding system used, and the signal to noise ratio.
Control message Control message
Information passed between two or more network nodes for Information passed between two or more network nodes for
maintaining protocol state, which may be unrelated to any maintaining protocol state, which may be unrelated to any specific
specific application. application.
Distance vector Distance vector
A characteristic of some routing protocols in which, for each A characteristic of some routing protocols in which, for each
desired destination, a node maintains information about the desired destination, a node maintains information about the
distance to that destination, and a vector (next hop) towards distance to that destination, and a vector (next hop) towards that
that destination. destination.
Fairness Fairness
A property of channel access protocols whereby a medium is made A property of channel access protocols whereby a medium is made
fairly available to all eligible nodes on the link. Fairness fairly available to all eligible nodes on the link. Fairness does
does not strictly imply equality, especially in cases where nodes not strictly imply equality, especially in cases where nodes are
are given link access according to unequal priority or given link access according to unequal priority or classification.
classification.
Flooding Flooding
The process of delivering data or control messages to every node The process of delivering data or control messages to every node
within the network under consideration. within the network under consideration.
Foreign subnet prefix Foreign subnet prefix
A bit string that consists of some number of initial bits of an A bit string that consists of some number of initial bits of an IP
IP address which identifies a node's foreign link within the address which identifies a node's foreign link within the Internet
Internet topology. topology.
Forwarding node Forwarding node
A node which performs the function of forwarding datagrams from A node which performs the function of forwarding datagrams from
one of its neighbors to another. one of its neighbors to another.
Home Address (HoA) Home Address (HoA)
An IP address assigned to a mobile node, used as the permanent An IP address assigned to a mobile node, used as the permanent
address of the mobile node. This address is within the mobile address of the mobile node. This address is within the mobile
node's home link. Standard IP routing mechanisms will deliver node's home link. Standard IP routing mechanisms will deliver
packets destined for a mobile node's home address to its home packets destined for a mobile node's home address to its home link
link [11]. [9].
Home Agent (HA) Home Agent (HA)
A router on a mobile node's home link with which the mobile node A router on a mobile node's home link with which the mobile node
has registered its current care-of address. While the mobile node has registered its current care-of address. While the mobile node
is away from home, the home agent intercepts packets on the home is away from home, the home agent intercepts packets on the home
link destined to the mobile node's home address, encapsulates link destined to the mobile node's home address, encapsulates
them, and tunnels them to the mobile node's registered care-of them, and tunnels them to the mobile node's registered care-of
address. address.
Home subnet prefix Home subnet prefix
A bit string that consists of some number of initial bits of an A bit string that consists of some number of initial bits of an IP
IP address which identifies a node's home link within the address which identifies a node's home link within the Internet
Internet topology (i.e. the IP subnet prefix corresponding to the topology (i.e., the IP subnet prefix corresponding to the mobile
mobile node's home address, as defined in [11]). node's home address, as defined in [9]).
Interface Interface
A node's point of attachment to a link. A node's point of attachment to a link.
IP access address IP access address
An IP address (often dynamically allocated) which a node uses to An IP address (often dynamically allocated) which a node uses to
designate its current point of attachment to the local network. designate its current point of attachment to the local network.
The IP access address is typically to be distinguished from the The IP access address is typically to be distinguished from the
mobile node's home address; in fact, while visiting a foreign mobile node's home address; in fact, while visiting a foreign
network the former may be considered unsuitable for use as an network the IP access address may be considered unsuitable for use
end-point address by any but the most short-lived applications. as an end-point address by any but the most short-lived
Instead, the IP access address is typically used as the care-of applications. Instead, the IP access address is typically used as
address of the node. the care-of address of the node.
Link Link
A communication facility or physical medium that can sustain data A communication facility or physical medium that can sustain data
communications between multiple network nodes, such as an communications between multiple network nodes, such as an Ethernet
Ethernet (simple or bridged). A link is the layer immediately (simple or bridged). A link is the layer immediately below IP.
below IP. In a layered network stack model, the Link Layer (Layer In a layered network stack model, the Link Layer (Layer 2) is
2) is normally below the Network (IP) Layer (Layer 3), and above normally below the Network (IP) Layer (Layer 3), and above the
the Physical Layer (Layer 1). Physical Layer (Layer 1).
Asymmetric link Asymmetric link
A link with transmission characteristics which are different A link with transmission characteristics which are different
depending upon the relative position or design characteristics of depending upon the relative position or design characteristics of
the transmitter and the receiver of data on the link. For the transmitter and the receiver of data on the link. For
instance, the range of one transmitter may be much higher than instance, the range of one transmitter may be much higher than the
the range of another transmitter on the same medium. range of another transmitter on the same medium.
Link establishment Link establishment
The process of establishing a link between the mobile node and The process of establishing a link between the mobile node and the
the local network. This may involve allocating a channel, or local network. This may involve allocating a channel, or other
other local wireless resources, possibly including a minimum local wireless resources, possibly including a minimum level of
level of service or bandwidth. service or bandwidth.
Link-layer trigger (L2 Trigger) Link-layer trigger (L2 Trigger)
Information from the link layer that informs the network layer of Information from the link layer that informs the network layer of
the detailed events involved in handover sequencing at the link the detailed events involved in handover sequencing at the link
layer. L2 triggers are not specific to any particular link layer, layer. L2 triggers are not specific to any particular link layer,
but rather represent generalizations of link layer information but rather represent generalizations of link layer information
available from a wide variety of link layer protocols [4]. available from a wide variety of link layer protocols [4].
Link state Link state
A characterization of some routing protocols in which every node A characterization of some routing protocols in which every node
within the network is expected to maintain information about within the network is expected to maintain information about every
every link within the network topology. link within the network topology.
Link-level acknowledgment Link-level acknowledgment
A protocol strategy, typically employed over wireless media, A protocol strategy, typically employed over wireless media,
requiring neighbors to acknowledge receipt of packets (typically requiring neighbors to acknowledge receipt of packets (typically
unicast only) from the transmitter. Such strategies aim to avoid unicast only) from the transmitter. Such strategies aim to avoid
packet loss or delay resulting from lack of, or unwanted packet loss or delay resulting from lack of, or unwanted
characteristics of, higher level protocols. Link-layer characteristics of, higher level protocols. Link-layer
acknowledgments are often used as part of Automatic Repeat- acknowledgments are often used as part of Automatic Repeat-Request
Request (ARQ) algorithms for increasing link reliability. (ARQ) algorithms for increasing link reliability.
Local broadcast Local broadcast
The delivery of data to every node within range of the The delivery of data to every node within range of the
transmitter. transmitter.
Loop-free Loop-free
A property of routing protocols whereby the path taken by a data A property of routing protocols whereby the path taken by a data
packet from source to destination never transits the same packet from source to destination never traverses through the same
intermediate node twice before arrival at the destination. intermediate node twice before arrival at the destination.
Medium Access Protocol (MAC) Medium Access Protocol (MAC)
A protocol for mediating access to, and possibly allocation of, A protocol for mediating access to, and possibly allocation of,
the physical communications medium. Nodes participating in the the physical communications medium. Nodes participating in the
medium access protocol can communicate only when they have medium access protocol can communicate only when they have
uncontested access to the medium, so that there will be no uncontested access to the medium, so that there will be no
interference. When the physical medium is a radio channel, the interference. When the physical medium is a radio channel, the
MAC is the same as the Channel Access Protocol. MAC is the same as the Channel Access Protocol.
Mobile network prefix Mobile network prefix
A bit string that consists of some number of initial bits of an A bit string that consists of some number of initial bits of an IP
IP address which identifies the entire mobile network within the address which identifies the entire mobile network within the
Internet topology. All nodes in a mobile network necessarily have Internet topology. All nodes in a mobile network necessarily have
an address containing this prefix. an address containing this prefix.
Mobility factor Mobility factor
The relative frequency of node movement, compared to the The relative frequency of node movement, compared to the frequency
frequency of application initiation. of application initiation.
Multipoint relay (MPR) Multipoint relay (MPR)
A node which is selected by its one-hop neighbor to re-transmit A node which is selected by its one-hop neighbor to re-transmit
all broadcast messages that it receives. The message must be new all broadcast messages that it receives. The message must be new
and the time-to-live field of the message must be greater than and the time-to-live field of the message must be greater than
one. Multipoint relaying is a technique to reduce the number of one. Multipoint relaying is a technique to reduce the number of
redundant re-transmissions while diffusing a broadcast message in redundant re-transmissions while diffusing a broadcast message in
the network. the network.
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Next hop Next hop
A neighbor which has been selected to forward packets along the A neighbor which has been selected to forward packets along the
way to a particular destination. way to a particular destination.
Payload Payload
The actual data within a packet, not including network protocol The actual data within a packet, not including network protocol
headers which were not inserted by an application. Note that headers which were not inserted by an application. Note that
payloads are different between layers: user data is the payload payloads are different between layers: application data is the
of TCP, which are the payload of IP, which three are the payload payload of TCP, which are the payload of IP, which three are the
of link layer protocols etc. Thus, it is important to identify payload of link layer protocols etc. Thus, it is important to
the scope when talking about payloads. identify the scope when talking about payloads.
Prefix Prefix
A bit string that consists of some number of initial bits of an A bit string that consists of some number of initial bits of an
address. address.
Routing table Routing table
The table where forwarding nodes keep information (including next The table where forwarding nodes keep information (including next
hop) for various destinations. hop) for various destinations.
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The process of determining a route between a source and a The process of determining a route between a source and a
destination. destination.
Route activation Route activation
The process of putting a route into use after it has been The process of putting a route into use after it has been
determined. determined.
Routing proxy Routing proxy
A node that routes packets by overlays, e.g.. by tunneling, A node that routes packets by overlays, e.g., by tunneling,
between communicating partners. The Home Agent and Foreign Agent between communicating partners. The Home Agent and Foreign Agent
are examples of routing proxies, in that they receive packets are examples of routing proxies, in that they receive packets
destined for the mobile node and tunnel them to the current destined for the mobile node and tunnel them to the current
address of the mobile node. address of the mobile node.
Shannon's Law Shannon's Law
A statement defining the theoretical maximum rate at which error- A statement defining the theoretical maximum rate at which error-
free digits can be transmitted over a bandwidth-limited channel free digits can be transmitted over a bandwidth-limited channel in
in the presence of noise. No practical error correction coding the presence of noise. No practical error correction coding
system exists that can closely approach the theoretical system exists that can closely approach the theoretical
performance limit given by Shannon's law. performance limit given by Shannon's law.
Signal strength Signal strength
The detectable power of the signal carrying the data bits, as The detectable power of the signal carrying the data bits, as seen
seen by the receiver of the signal. by the receiver of the signal.
Source route Source route
A source route from node A to node B is an ordered list of IP A source route from node A to node B is an ordered list of IP
addresses, starting with the IP address of node A and ending with addresses, starting with the IP address of node A and ending with
the IP address of the node B. Between A and B, the source route the IP address of the node B. Between A and B, the source route
includes an ordered list intermediate hops between A and B, as includes an ordered list of intermediate hops between A and B, as
well as the interface index of the interface through which the well as the interface index of the interface through which the
packet should be transmitted to reach the next hop. The list of packet should be transmitted to reach the next hop. The list of
intermediate hops might not include all visited nodes, some hops intermediate hops might not include all visited nodes, some hops
might be omitted for a reason or another. might be omitted for a reason or another.
Spatial re-use Spatial re-use
Simultaneous use of channels with identical or close physical Simultaneous use of channels with identical or close physical
characteristics, but located spatially far enough apart to avoid characteristics, but located spatially far enough apart to avoid
interference (i.e., co-channel interference) interference (i.e., co-channel interference)
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Subnet Subnet
A subnet is a logical group of connected network nodes. In IP A subnet is a logical group of connected network nodes. In IP
networks, nodes in a subnet share a common network mask (in IPV4) networks, nodes in a subnet share a common network mask (in IPV4)
or a network prefix (in IPv6). or a network prefix (in IPv6).
Topology (Network Topology) Topology (Network Topology)
The interconnection structure of a network: which nodes are The interconnection structure of a network: which nodes are
directly connected to each other, and through which links they directly connected to each other, and through which links they are
are connected. Some simple topologies have been given names, connected. Some simple topologies have been given names, such as
such as for instance 'bus topology', 'mesh topology', 'ring for instance 'bus topology', 'mesh topology', 'ring topology',
topology', 'star topology' and 'tree topology'. 'star topology' and 'tree topology'.
Triggered update Triggered update
A solicited route update transmitted by a router along a path to A solicited route update transmitted by a router along a path to a
a destination. destination.
3. Mobile Access Networks and Mobile Networks 3. Mobile Access Networks and Mobile Networks
In order to support host mobility a set of nodes towards the network In order to support host mobility a set of nodes towards the network
edge may need to have specific functions. Such a set of nodes forms a edge may need to have specific functions. Such a set of nodes forms
mobile access network that may or may not be part of the global a mobile access network that may or may not be part of the global
Internet. Figure 1 presents two examples of such access network Internet. Figure 1 presents two examples of such access network
topologies. The figure depicts a reference architecture which topologies. The figure depicts a reference architecture which
illustrates an IP network with components defined in this section. illustrates an IP network with components defined in this section.
We intend to define the concept of the Access Network (AN) which may We intend to define the concept of the Access Network (AN) which may
also support enhanced mobility. It is possible that to support also support enhanced mobility. It is possible that to support
routing and QoS for mobile nodes, existing routing protocols (e.g., routing and QoS for mobile nodes, existing routing protocols (e.g.,
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) [16]) may not be appropriate to Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) [14]) may not be appropriate to
maintain forwarding information for these mobile nodes as they change maintain forwarding information for these mobile nodes as they change
their points of attachment to the Access Network. These new functions their points of attachment to the Access Network. These new
are implemented in routers with additional capabilities. We can functions are implemented in routers with additional capabilities.
distinguish three types of Access Network components: Access Routers We can distinguish three types of Access Network components: Access
(AR) which handle the last hop to the mobile, typically over a Routers (AR) which handle the last hop to the mobile, typically over
wireless link; Access Network Gateways (ANG) which form the boundary a wireless link; Access Network Gateways (ANG) which form the
on the fixed network side and shield the fixed network from the boundary on the fixed network side and shield the fixed network from
specialized routing protocols; and (optionally) other internal Access the specialized routing protocols; and (optionally) other internal
Network Routers which may also be needed in some cases to support the Access Network Routers which may also be needed in some cases to
protocols. The Access Network consists of the equipment needed to support the functions. The Access Network consists of the equipment
support this specialized routing, i.e. AR or ANG. AR and ANG may be needed to support this specialized routing, i.e., AR or ANG. AR and
the same physical nodes. ANG may be the same physical nodes.
In addition, we present a few basic terms on mobile networks, that In addition, we present a few basic terms on mobile networks, that
is, mobile network, mobile router (MR), and mobile network node is, mobile network, mobile router (MR), and mobile network node
(MNN). More terminology for discussing mobile networks can be found (MNN). More terminology for discussing mobile networks can be found
in [15]. A more thorough discussion of mobile networks can be found in [13]. A more thorough discussion of mobile networks can be found
in the working group documents of the NEMO Working Group. in the working group documents of the NEMO Working Group.
Note: this reference architecture is not well suited for people Note: this reference architecture is not well suited for people
dealing with Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET). dealing with Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET).
| |
| |
--- ------ ------- | --- ------ ------- |
--- | <--> | | -------| AR | -------------------| | | --- | <--> | | -------| AR | -------------------| | |
| |--[] --- /------ \ /| ANG |--| | |--[] --- /------ \ /| ANG |--|
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Mobile Host (MH) Mobile Host (MH)
A mobile node that is an end host and not a router. A Mobile Host A mobile node that is an end host and not a router. A Mobile Host
is capable of sending and receiving packets, that is, being a is capable of sending and receiving packets, that is, being a
source or destination of traffic, but not a forwarder of it. source or destination of traffic, but not a forwarder of it.
Fixed Node (FN) Fixed Node (FN)
A node, either a host or a router, unable to change its point of A node, either a host or a router, unable to change its point of
attachment to the network and its IP address without breaking attachment to the network and its IP address without breaking open
open sessions. sessions.
Mobile network Mobile network
An entire network, moving as a unit, which dynamically changes An entire network, moving as a unit, which dynamically changes its
its point of attachment to the Internet and thus its reachability point of attachment to the Internet and thus its reachability in
in the topology. The mobile network is composed of one or more the topology. The mobile network is composed of one or more IP-
IP-subnets and is connected to the global Internet via one or subnets and is connected to the global Internet via one or more
more Mobile Routers (MR). The internal configuration of the Mobile Routers (MR). The internal configuration of the mobile
mobile network is assumed to be relatively stable with respect to network is assumed to be relatively stable with respect to the MR.
the MR.
Mobile Router (MR) Mobile Router (MR)
A router capable of changing its point of attachment to the A router capable of changing its point of attachment to the
network, moving from one link to another link. The MR is capable network, moving from one link to another link. The MR is capable
of forwarding packets between two or more interfaces, and of forwarding packets between two or more interfaces, and possibly
possibly running a dynamic routing protocol modifying the state running a dynamic routing protocol modifying the state by which it
by which it does packet forwarding. does packet forwarding.
A MR acting as a gateway between an entire mobile network and the A MR acting as a gateway between an entire mobile network and the
rest of the Internet has one or more egress interface(s) and one rest of the Internet has one or more egress interface(s) and one
or more ingress interface(s). Packets forwarded upstream to the or more ingress interface(s). Packets forwarded upstream to the
rest of the Internet are transmitted through one of the MR's rest of the Internet are transmitted through one of the MR's
egress interface; packets forwarded downstream to the mobile egress interface; packets forwarded downstream to the mobile
network are transmitted through one of the MR's ingress network are transmitted through one of the MR's ingress interface.
interface.
Ingress interface Ingress interface
The interface of a MR attached to a link inside the mobile The interface of a MR attached to a link inside the mobile
network. network.
Egress interface Egress interface
The interface of a MR attached to the home link if the MR is at The interface of a MR attached to the home link if the MR is at
home, or attached to a foreign link if the MR is in a foreign home, or attached to a foreign link if the MR is in a foreign
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Mobile Network Node (MNN) Mobile Network Node (MNN)
Any node (host or router) located within a mobile network, either Any node (host or router) located within a mobile network, either
permanently or temporarily. A Mobile Network Node may either be a permanently or temporarily. A Mobile Network Node may either be a
mobile node or a fixed node. mobile node or a fixed node.
Access Link (AL) Access Link (AL)
A last-hop link between a Mobile Node and an Access Point. That A last-hop link between a Mobile Node and an Access Point. That
is, a facility or medium over which an Access Point and the is, a facility or medium over which an Access Point and the Mobile
Mobile Node can communicate at the link layer, i.e., the layer Node can communicate at the link layer, i.e., the layer
immediately below IP. immediately below IP.
Access Point (AP) Access Point (AP)
An Access Point is a layer 2 device which is connected to one or An Access Point is a layer 2 device which is connected to one or
more Access Routers and offers the wireless link connection to more Access Routers and offers the wireless link connection to the
the Mobile Node. Access Points are sometimes called base Mobile Node. Access Points are sometimes called base stations or
stations or access point transceivers. An Access Point may be a access point transceivers. An Access Point may be a separate
separate entity or co-located with an Access Router. entity or co-located with an Access Router.
Radio Cell Radio Cell
The geographical area within which an Access Point provides radio The geographical area within which an Access Point provides radio
coverage, i.e. where radio communication between a Mobile Node coverage, i.e., where radio communication between a Mobile Node
and the specific Access Point is possible. and the specific Access Point is possible.
Access Network Router (ANR) Access Network Router (ANR)
An IP router in the Access Network. An Access Network Router may An IP router in the Access Network. An Access Network Router may
include Access Network specific functionalities, for example, include Access Network specific functionalities, for example,
related to mobility and/or QoS. This is to distinguish between related to mobility and/or QoS. This is to distinguish between
ordinary routers and routers that have Access Network-related ordinary routers and routers that have Access Network-related
special functionality. An ANR is neither an AR nor an ANG. special functionality.
Access Router (AR) Access Router (AR)
An Access Network Router residing on the edge of an Access An Access Network Router residing on the edge of an Access Network
Network and connected to one or more Access Points. The Access and connected to one or more Access Points. The Access Points may
Points may be of different technology. An Access Router offers be of different technology. An Access Router offers IP
IP connectivity to Mobile Nodes, acting as a default router to connectivity to Mobile Nodes, acting as a default router to the
the Mobile Nodes it is currently serving. The Access Router may Mobile Nodes it is currently serving. The Access Router may
include intelligence beyond a simple forwarding service offered include intelligence beyond a simple forwarding service offered by
by ordinary IP routers. ordinary IP routers.
Access Network Gateway (ANG) Access Network Gateway (ANG)
An Access Network Router that separates an Access Network from An Access Network Router that separates an Access Network from
other IP networks, much in the same way as an ordinary gateway other IP networks, much in the same way as an ordinary gateway
router. The Access Network Gateway looks to the other IP networks router. The Access Network Gateway looks to the other IP networks
like a standard IP router. In a small network, an ANG may also like a standard IP router. In a small network, an ANG may also
offer the services of an AR, namely offer the IP connectivity to offer the services of an AR, namely offer the IP connectivity to
the mobile nodes. the mobile nodes.
Access Network (AN) Access Network (AN)
An IP network which includes one or more Access Network Routers. An IP network which includes one or more Access Network Routers.
Administrative Domain (AD) Administrative Domain (AD)
A collection of networks under the same administrative control A collection of networks under the same administrative control and
and grouped together for administrative purposes [5]. grouped together for administrative purposes [5].
Serving Access Router (SAR) Serving Access Router (SAR)
The Access Router currently offering the connectivity to the MN. The Access Router currently offering the connectivity to the MN.
This is usually the point of departure for the MN as it makes its This is usually the point of departure for the MN as it makes its
way towards a new Access Router (at which time the Serving Access way towards a new Access Router (at which time the Serving Access
Router takes the role of the Old Access Router). There may be Router takes the role of the Previous Access Router). There may
several Serving Access Routers serving the Mobile Node at the be several Serving Access Routers serving the Mobile Node at the
same time. same time.
New Access Router (NAR) New Access Router (NAR)
The Access Router that offers connectivity to the Mobile Node The Access Router that offers connectivity to the Mobile Node
after a handover. after a handover.
Previous Access Router (PAR) Previous Access Router (PAR)
An Access Router that offered connectivity to the Mobile Node An Access Router that offered connectivity to the Mobile Node
prior to a handover. This is the Serving Access Router that will prior to a handover. This is the Serving Access Router that will
cease or has ceased to offer connectivity to the Mobile Node. cease or has ceased to offer connectivity to the Mobile Node.
Often also called Old Access Router (OAR).
Candidate Access Router (CAR) Candidate Access Router (CAR)
An Access Router to which the Mobile Node may do a handoff. An Access Router to which the Mobile Node may do a handoff. See
Section 4.8.
4. Handover Terminology 4. Handover Terminology
These terms refer to different perspectives and approaches to These terms refer to different perspectives and approaches to
supporting different aspects of mobility. Distinctions can be made supporting different aspects of mobility. Distinctions can be made
according to the scope, range overlap, performance characteristics, according to the scope, range overlap, performance characteristics,
diversity characteristics, state transitions, mobility types, and diversity characteristics, state transitions, mobility types, and
control modes of handover techniques. control modes of handover techniques.
Roaming Roaming
An operator-based term involving formal agreements between An operator-based term involving formal agreements between
operators that allows a mobile to get connectivity from a foreign operators that allows a mobile to get connectivity from a foreign
network. Roaming (a particular aspect of user mobility) network. Roaming (a particular aspect of user mobility) includes,
includes, for example, the functionality by which users can for example, the functionality by which users can communicate
communicate their identity to the local AN so that inter-AN their identity to the local AN so that inter-AN agreements can be
agreements can be activated and service and applications in the activated and service and applications in the MN's home network
MN's home network can be made available to the user locally. can be made available to the user locally.
Handover (also known as handoff) Handover
The process by which an active MN (in the Active State, see The process by which an active MN (in the Active State, see
section 4.6) changes its point of attachment to the network, or section 4.6) changes its point of attachment to the network, or
when such a change is attempted. The access network may provide when such a change is attempted. The access network may provide
features to minimize the interruption to sessions in progress. features to minimize the interruption to sessions in progress.
Also called handoff.
There are different types of handover classified according to There are different types of handover classified according to
different aspects involved in the handover. Some of this different aspects involved in the handover. Some of this
terminology follows the description in [4]. terminology follows the description in [4].
4.1. Scope of Handover 4.1. Scope of Handover
Layer 2 handover Layer 2 handover
A handover where the MN changes APs (or some other aspect of the A handover where the MN changes APs (or some other aspect of the
radio channel) connected to the same AR's interface. This type of radio channel) connected to the same AR's interface. This type of
handover is transparent to the routing at the IP layer (or it handover is transparent to the routing at the IP layer (or it
appears simply as a link layer reconfiguration without any appears simply as a link layer reconfiguration without any
mobility implications). mobility implications).
Intra-AR handover Intra-AR handover
A handover which changes the AR's network interface to the A handover which changes the AR's network interface to the mobile.
mobile. That is, the Serving AR remains the same but routing That is, the Serving AR remains the same but routing changes
changes internal to the AR take place. internal to the AR take place.
Intra-AN handover Intra-AN handover
A handover where the MN changes ARs inside the same AN. Such a A handover where the MN changes ARs inside the same AN. Such a
handover is not necessarily visible outside the AN. In case the handover is not necessarily visible outside the AN. In case the
ANG serving the MN changes, this handover is seen outside the AN ANG serving the MN changes, this handover is seen outside the AN
due to a change in the routing paths. Note that the ANG may due to a change in the routing paths. Note that the ANG may
change for only some of the MN's data flows. change for only some of the MN's data flows.
Inter-AN handover Inter-AN handover
A handover where the MN moves to a new AN. This requires some A handover where the MN moves to a new AN. This requires support
sort of host mobility ANs, which typically is be provided by the for macro mobility. Note that this would have to involve the
external IP core. Note that this would have to involve the
assignment of a new IP access address (e.g., a new care-of assignment of a new IP access address (e.g., a new care-of
address [9]) to the MN. address) to the MN.
Intra-technology handover Intra-technology handover
A handover between equipment of the same technology. A handover between equipment of the same technology.
Inter-technology handover Inter-technology handover
A handover between equipment of different technologies. A handover between equipment of different technologies.
Horizontal handover Horizontal handover
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horizontal and vertical handovers may or may not be noticed at the IP horizontal and vertical handovers may or may not be noticed at the IP
layer. Usually a handover can be noticed if the IP address assigned layer. Usually a handover can be noticed if the IP address assigned
to the interface changes, the network interface itself changes (which to the interface changes, the network interface itself changes (which
can also change the IP address), or there is a link outage, for can also change the IP address), or there is a link outage, for
example, when the mobile node moves out of coverage for a while. For example, when the mobile node moves out of coverage for a while. For
example, in a GPRS network a horizontal handover happens usually example, in a GPRS network a horizontal handover happens usually
unnoticed by the IP layer. Similarly, a WLAN horizontal handover may unnoticed by the IP layer. Similarly, a WLAN horizontal handover may
be noticed if the IP address of the interface changes. On the other be noticed if the IP address of the interface changes. On the other
hand, vertical handovers often change the network interface and are, hand, vertical handovers often change the network interface and are,
therefore, noticed on the IP layer. Still, some specific network therefore, noticed on the IP layer. Still, some specific network
cards may be able to switch between access technologies (e.g. GPRS to cards may be able to switch between access technologies (e.g., GPRS
UMTS) without changing the network interface. Moreover, either of the to UMTS) without changing the network interface. Moreover, either of
two handovers may or may not result in changing the AR. For example, the two handovers may or may not result in changing the AR. For
an AR could control WLAN and Bluetooth access points, and the mobile example, an AR could control WLAN and Bluetooth access points, and
node could do horizontal and vertical handovers under the same AR the mobile node could do horizontal and vertical handovers under the
without changing its IP address or even the network interface. same AR without changing its IP address or even the network
interface.
4.2. Handover Control 4.2. Handover Control
A handover must be one of the following two types (a): A handover must be one of the following two types (a):
Mobile-initiated handover Mobile-initiated handover
The MN is the one that makes the initial decision to initiate the The MN is the one that makes the initial decision to initiate
handover. the handover.
Network-initiated handover Network-initiated handover
The network makes the initial decision to initiate the handover. The network makes the initial decision to initiate the
handover.
A handover is also one of the following two types (b): A handover is also one of the following two types (b):
Mobile-controlled handover Mobile-controlled handover
The MN has the primary control over the handover process. The MN has the primary control over the handover process.
Network-controlled handover Network-controlled handover
The network has the primary control over the handover process. The network has the primary control over the handover process.
A handover decision usually involves some sort of measurements about A handover decision usually involves some sort of measurements about
when and where to handover to. Therefore, a handover is also either when and where to handover to. Therefore, a handover is also either
of these three types (c): of these three types (c):
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when and where to handover to. Therefore, a handover is also either when and where to handover to. Therefore, a handover is also either
of these three types (c): of these three types (c):
Mobile-assisted handover Mobile-assisted handover
Information and measurement from the MN are used by the AR to Information and measurement from the MN are used by the AR to
decide on the execution of a handover. decide on the execution of a handover.
Network-assisted handover Network-assisted handover
A handover where the AN collects information that can be used by A handover where the AN collects information that can be used
the MN in a handover decision. by the MN in a handover decision.
Unassisted handover Unassisted handover
A handover where no assistance is provided by the MN or the AR to A handover where no assistance is provided by the MN or the AR
each other. to each other.
Note that it is possible that the MN and the AR both do measurements Note that it is possible that the MN and the AR both do measurements
and decide on the handover. and decide on the handover.
A handover is also one of the following two types (d): A handover is also one of the following two types (d):
Push handover Push handover
A handover either initiated by the PAR, or where the MN initiates A handover either initiated by the PAR, or where the MN
a handover via the PAR. initiates a handover via the PAR.
Pull handover Pull handover
A handover either initiated by the NAR, or where the MN initiates A handover either initiated by the NAR, or where the MN
a handover via the NAR. initiates a handover via the NAR.
The handover is also either proactive or reactive (e): The handover is also either proactive or reactive (e):
Planned handover Planned handover
A proactive (expected) handover where some signaling can be done A proactive (expected) handover where some signaling can be
in advance of the MN getting connected to the new AR, e.g. done in advance of the MN getting connected to the new AR,
building a temporary tunnel from the previous AR to the new AR. e.g., building a temporary tunnel from the previous AR to the
new AR.
Unplanned handover Unplanned handover
A reactive (unexpected) handover where no signaling is done in A reactive (unexpected) handover where no signaling is done in
advance of the MN's move of the previous AR to the new AR. advance of the MN's move from the previous AR to the new AR.
The five handover types (a-e) are mostly independent, and every The five handover types (a-e) are mostly independent, and every
handover should be classifiable according to each of these types. handover should be classifiable according to each of these types.
4.3. Simultaneous connectivity to Access Routers 4.3. Simultaneous connectivity to Access Routers
Make-before-break (MBB) Make-before-break (MBB)
During a MBB handover the MN makes the new connection before the During a MBB handover the MN makes the new connection before the
old one is broken. Thus, the MN can communicate simultaneously old one is broken. Thus, the MN can communicate simultaneously
with the old and new AR during the handover. This should not be with the old and new AR during the handover. This should not be
confused with "soft handover" which relies on macro diversity, confused with "soft handover" which relies on macro diversity,
described in Section 4.5. described in Section 4.5.
Break-before-make (BBM) Break-before-make (BBM)
During a BBM handover the MN breaks the old connection before the During a BBM handover the MN breaks the old connection before the
new connection is made. Thus the MN cannot communicate new connection is made. Thus, the MN cannot communicate
simultaneously with the old and the new AR. simultaneously with the old and the new AR.
4.4. Performance and Functional Aspects 4.4. Performance and Functional Aspects
Handover latency Handover latency
Handover latency is the difference between the time a MN is last Handover latency is the difference between the time a MN is last
able to send and/or receive an IP packet by way of the PAR, and able to send and/or receive an IP packet by way of the PAR, and
the time the MN is able to send and/or receive an IP packet the time the MN is able to send and/or receive an IP packet
through the NAR. Adapted from [4]. through the NAR. Adapted from [4].
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A handover that aims primarily to minimize handover latency, with A handover that aims primarily to minimize handover latency, with
no explicit interest in packet loss. no explicit interest in packet loss.
Seamless handover Seamless handover
A handover in which there is no change in service capability, A handover in which there is no change in service capability,
security, or quality. In practice, some degradation in service is security, or quality. In practice, some degradation in service is
to be expected. The definition of a seamless handover in the to be expected. The definition of a seamless handover in the
practical case should be that other protocols, applications, or practical case should be that other protocols, applications, or
end users do not detect any change in service capability, end users do not detect any change in service capability, security
security or quality, which would have a bearing on their (normal) or quality, which would have a bearing on their (normal)
operation. As a consequence, what would be a seamless handover operation. As a consequence, what would be a seamless handover
for one less demanding application might not be seamless for for one less demanding application might not be seamless for
another more demanding application. See [7] for more discussion another more demanding application. See [7] for more discussion
on the topic. on the topic.
Throughput Throughput
The amount of data from a source to a destination processed by
the protocol for which throughput is to be measured for instance, The amount of data from a source to a destination processed by the
IP, TCP, or the MAC protocol. The throughput differs between protocol for which throughput is to be measured, for instance, IP,
protocol layers. TCP, or the MAC protocol. The throughput differs between protocol
layers.
Goodput Goodput
The total bandwidth used, less the volume of control messages, The total bandwidth used, less the volume of control messages,
protocol overhead from the data packets, and packets dropped due protocol overhead from the data packets, and packets dropped due
to CRC errors. to CRC errors.
Pathloss Pathloss
A reduction in signal strength caused by traversing the physical A reduction in signal strength caused by traversing the physical
medium constituting the link. medium constituting the link.
Hidden-terminal problem Hidden-terminal problem
The problem whereby a transmitting node can fail in its attempt The problem whereby a transmitting node can fail in its attempt to
to transmit data because of destructive interference which is transmit data because of destructive interference which is only
only detectable at the receiving node, not the transmitting node. detectable at the receiving node, not the transmitting node.
Exposed terminal problem Exposed terminal problem
The problem whereby a transmitting node A prevents another node B The problem whereby a transmitting node A prevents another node B
from transmitting, although node B could have safely transmitted from transmitting, although node B could have safely transmitted
to anyone else but the transmitting node A. to anyone else but the transmitting node A.
4.5. Micro Diversity, Macro Diversity, and IP Diversity 4.5. Micro Diversity, Macro Diversity, and IP Diversity
Certain air interfaces (e.g. the Universal Mobile Telephone System Certain air interfaces (e.g., the Universal Mobile Telephone System
(UMTS) Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) running in Frequency (UMTS) Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) running in Frequency
Division Duplex (FDD) mode) require or at least support macro Division Duplex (FDD) mode) require or at least support macro
diversity combining. Essentially, this refers to the fact that a diversity combining. Essentially, this refers to the fact that a
single MN is able to send and receive over two independent radio single MN is able to send and receive over two independent radio
channels ('diversity branches') at the same time; the information channels ('diversity branches') at the same time; the information
received over different branches is compared and that from the better received over different branches is compared and that from the better
branch passed to the upper layers. This can be used both to improve branch passed to the upper layers. This can be used both to improve
overall performance, and to provide a seamless type of handover at overall performance, and to provide a seamless type of handover at
layer 2, since a new branch can be added before the old is deleted. layer 2, since a new branch can be added before the old is deleted.
See also [6]. See also [6].
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occurs at the physical and radio link layers, where the relevant unit occurs at the physical and radio link layers, where the relevant unit
of data is the radio frame, and that which occurs at layer 3, the of data is the radio frame, and that which occurs at layer 3, the
network layer, where what is considered is the IP packet itself. network layer, where what is considered is the IP packet itself.
In the following definitions micro- and macro diversity refer to In the following definitions micro- and macro diversity refer to
protocol layers below the network layer, and IP diversity refers to protocol layers below the network layer, and IP diversity refers to
the network layer. the network layer.
Micro diversity Micro diversity
for example, two antennas on the same transmitter send the same For example, two antennas on the same transmitter send the same
signal to a receiver over a slightly different path to overcome signal to a receiver over a slightly different path to overcome
fading. fading.
Macro diversity Macro diversity
Duplicating or combining actions taking place over multiple APs, Duplicating or combining actions taking place over multiple APs,
possibly attached to different ARs. This may require support possibly attached to different ARs. This may require support from
from the network layer to move the radio frames between the base the network layer to move the radio frames between the base
stations and a central combining point. stations and a central combining point.
IP diversity IP diversity
Refers to the process of duplicating IP packets and sending them Refers to the process of duplicating IP packets and sending them
to the receiver through more than one point of attachment. This to the receiver through more than one point of attachment. This
is semantically allowed by IP because it does not guarantee is semantically allowed by IP because it does not guarantee packet
packet uniqueness, and higher level protocols are assumed to uniqueness, and higher level protocols are assumed to eliminate
eliminate duplicates whenever that is important for the duplicates whenever that is important for the application.
application.
4.6. Paging, and Mobile Node States and Modes 4.6. Paging, and Mobile Node States and Modes
Mobile systems may employ the use of MN states in order to operate Mobile systems may employ the use of MN states in order to operate
more efficiently without degrading the performance of the system. The more efficiently without degrading the performance of the system.
term 'mode' is also common and means the same as 'state'. The term 'mode' is also common and means the same as 'state'.
A MN is always in one of the following three states: A MN is always in one of the following three states:
Active state Active state
When the AN knows the MN's SAR and the MN can send and receive IP When the AN knows the MN's SAR and the MN can send and receive IP
packets. The access link may not be active, but the radio layer packets. The access link may not be active, but the radio layer
is able to establish one without assistance from the network is able to establish one without assistance from the network
layer. The MN has an IP address assigned. layer. The MN has an IP address assigned.
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A state in which the mobile restricts its ability to receive A state in which the mobile restricts its ability to receive
normal IP traffic by reducing its monitoring of radio channels. normal IP traffic by reducing its monitoring of radio channels.
The AN knows the MN's Paging Area, but the MN has no SAR and so The AN knows the MN's Paging Area, but the MN has no SAR and so
packets cannot be delivered to the MN without the AN initiating packets cannot be delivered to the MN without the AN initiating
paging. Often also called Idle state. paging. Often also called Idle state.
Time-slotted dormant mode Time-slotted dormant mode
A dormant mode implementation in which the mobile alternates A dormant mode implementation in which the mobile alternates
between periods of not listening for any radio traffic and between periods of not listening for any radio traffic and
listening for traffic. Time-slotted dormant mode implementations listening for traffic. Time-slotted dormant mode
are typically synchronized with the network so the network can implementations are typically synchronized with the network so
deliver paging messages to the mobile during listening periods. the network can deliver paging messages to the mobile during
listening periods.
Inactive state Inactive state
the MN is in neither the Active nor Dormant State. The MN is no the MN is in neither the Active nor Dormant State. The MN is no
longer listening for any packets, not even periodically, and not longer listening for any packets, not even periodically, and not
sending packets. The MN may be in a powered off state, it may sending packets. The MN may be in a powered off state, it may
have shut down all interfaces to drastically conserve power, or have shut down all interfaces to drastically conserve power, or it
it may be out of range of a radio access point. The MN does not may be out of range of a radio access point. The MN does not
necessarily have an IP access address from the AN. necessarily have an IP access address from the AN.
Note: in fact, as well as the MN being in one of these three states, Note: in fact, as well as the MN being in one of these three states,
the AN also stores which state it believes the MN is in. Normally the AN also stores which state it believes the MN is in. Normally
these are consistent; the definitions above assume so. these are consistent; the definitions above assume so.
Here are some additional definitions for paging, taking into account Here are some additional definitions for paging, taking into account
the above state definitions. the above state definitions.
Paging Paging
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Paging area Paging area
A part of the Access Network, typically containing a number of A part of the Access Network, typically containing a number of
ARs/APs, which corresponds to some geographical area. The AN ARs/APs, which corresponds to some geographical area. The AN
keeps and updates a list of all the Dormant MNs present in the keeps and updates a list of all the Dormant MNs present in the
area. If the MN is within the radio coverage of the area it will area. If the MN is within the radio coverage of the area it will
be able to receive paging messages sent within that Paging Area. be able to receive paging messages sent within that Paging Area.
Paging area registrations Paging area registrations
Signaling from a dormant mode mobile node to the network, by Signaling from a dormant mode mobile node to the network, by which
which it establishes its presence in a new paging area. Paging it establishes its presence in a new paging area. Paging Area
Area Registrations thus enable the network to maintain a rough Registrations thus enable the network to maintain a rough idea of
idea of where the mobile is located. where the mobile is located.
Paging channel Paging channel
A radio channel dedicated to signaling dormant mode mobiles for A radio channel dedicated to signaling dormant mode mobiles for
paging purposes. By current practice, the paging channel carries paging purposes. By current practice, the paging channel carries
only control traffic necessary for the radio link, although some only control traffic necessary for the radio link, although some
paging protocols have provision for carrying arbitrary traffic paging protocols have provision for carrying arbitrary traffic
(and thus could potentially be used to carry IP). (and thus could potentially be used to carry IP).
Traffic channel Traffic channel
The radio channel on which IP traffic to an active mobile is The radio channel on which IP traffic to an active mobile is
typically sent. This channel is used by a mobile that is typically sent. This channel is used by a mobile that is actively
actively sending and receiving IP traffic, and is not sending and receiving IP traffic, and is not continuously active
continuously active in a dormant mode mobile. For some radio in a dormant mode mobile. For some radio link protocols, this may
link protocols, this may be the only channel available. be the only channel available.
4.7. Context Transfer 4.7. Context Transfer
Context Context
The information on the current state of a routing-related service The information on the current state of a routing-related service
required to re-establish the routing-related service on a new required to re-establish the routing-related service on a new
subnet without having to perform the entire protocol exchange subnet without having to perform the entire protocol exchange with
with the MN from scratch. the MN from scratch.
Feature context Feature context
The collection of information representing the context for a The collection of information representing the context for a given
given feature. The full context associated with a MN is the feature. The full context associated with a MN is the collection
collection of one or more feature contexts. of one or more feature contexts.
Context transfer Context transfer
The movement of context from one router or other network entity The movement of context from one router or other network entity to
to another as a means of re-establishing routing related services another as a means of re-establishing routing-related services on
on a new subnet or collection of subnets. a new subnet or collection of subnets.
Routing-related service Routing-related service
A modification to the default routing treatment of packets to and A modification to the default routing treatment of packets to and
from the MN. Initially establishing routing-related services from the MN. Initially establishing routing-related services
usually requires a protocol exchange with the MN. An example of a usually requires a protocol exchange with the MN. An example of a
routing-related service is header compression. The service may routing-related service is header compression. The service may
also be indirectly related to routing, for example, security. also be indirectly related to routing, for example, security.
Security may not affect the forwarding decision of all Security may not affect the forwarding decision of all
intermediate routers, but a packet may be dropped if it fails a intermediate routers, but a packet may be dropped if it fails a
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We can differentiate between host and network mobility, and various We can differentiate between host and network mobility, and various
types of network mobility. Terminology related more to applications types of network mobility. Terminology related more to applications
such as the Session Initiation Protocol, such as personal mobility, such as the Session Initiation Protocol, such as personal mobility,
is out of scope for this document. is out of scope for this document.
Host mobility support Host mobility support
Refers to the function of allowing a mobile node to change its Refers to the function of allowing a mobile node to change its
point of attachment to the network, without interrupting IP point of attachment to the network, without interrupting IP
packet delivery to/from that node. There may be different sub- packet delivery to/from that node. There may be different sub-
functions depending on what the current level of service is being functions depending on what the current level of service is
provided; in particular, support for host mobility usually being provided; in particular, support for host mobility
implies active and dormant modes of operation, depending on usually implies active and dormant modes of operation,
whether the node has any current sessions or not. Access Network depending on whether the node has any current sessions or not.
procedures are required to keep track of the current point of Access Network procedures are required to keep track of the
attachment of all the MNs or establish it at will. Accurate current point of attachment of all the MNs or establish it at
location and routing procedures are required in order to maintain will. Accurate location and routing procedures are required in
the integrity of the communication. Host mobility is often order to maintain the integrity of the communication. Host
called 'terminal mobility'. mobility is often called 'terminal mobility'.
Network mobility support Network mobility support
Refers to the function of allowing an entire network to change Refers to the function of allowing an entire network to change
its point of attachment to the Internet, and, thus, its its point of attachment to the Internet, and, thus, its
reachability in the topology, without interrupting IP packet reachability in the topology, without interrupting IP packet
delivery to/from that mobile network. delivery to/from that mobile network.
Two subcategories of mobility can be identified within both host Two subcategories of mobility can be identified within both host
mobility and network mobility: mobility and network mobility:
skipping to change at page 22, line 55 skipping to change at page 26, line 8
Same as Macro mobility. Same as Macro mobility.
Local mobility Local mobility
Same as Micro mobility. Same as Micro mobility.
Macro mobility Macro mobility
Mobility over a large area. This includes mobility support and Mobility over a large area. This includes mobility support and
associated address registration procedures that are needed when a associated address registration procedures that are needed when
MN moves between IP domains. Inter-AN handovers typically involve a MN moves between IP domains. Inter-AN handovers typically
macro-mobility protocols. Mobile-IP can be seen as a means to involve macro-mobility protocols. Mobile-IP can be seen as a
provide macro mobility. means to provide macro mobility.
Micro mobility Micro mobility
Mobility over a small area. Usually this means mobility within Mobility over a small area. Usually this means mobility within
an IP domain with an emphasis on support for active mode using an IP domain with an emphasis on support for active mode using
handover, although it may include idle mode procedures also. handover, although it may include idle mode procedures also.
Micro-mobility protocols exploit the locality of movement by Micro-mobility protocols exploit the locality of movement by
confining movement related changes and signaling to the access confining movement related changes and signaling to the access
network. network.
Local mobility management Local mobility management
Local mobility management (LMM) is a generic term for protocols Local mobility management (LMM) is a generic term for protocols
dealing with IP mobility management confined within the access dealing with IP mobility management confined within the access
network. LMM messages are not routed outside the access network, network. LMM messages are not routed outside the access
although a handover may trigger Mobile IP messages to be sent to network, although a handover may trigger Mobile IP messages to
correspondent nodes and home agents. be sent to correspondent nodes and home agents.
5. Specific Terminology for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networking 5. Specific Terminology for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networking
Cluster Cluster
A group of nodes located within close physical proximity, A group of nodes located within close physical proximity,
typically all within range of one another, which can be grouped typically all within range of one another, which can be grouped
together for the purpose of limiting the production and together for the purpose of limiting the production and
propagation of routing information. propagation of routing information.
Cluster head Cluster head
A cluster head is a node (often elected in the cluster formation A cluster head is a node (often elected in the cluster formation
process) that has complete knowledge about group membership and process) that has complete knowledge about group membership and
link state information in the cluster. Each cluster should have link state information in the cluster. Each cluster should have
one and only one cluster head. one and only one cluster head.
Cluster member Cluster member
All nodes within a cluster EXCEPT the cluster head are called All nodes within a cluster except the cluster head are called
members of that cluster. members of that cluster.
Convergence Convergence
The process of approaching a state of equilibrium in which all The process of approaching a state of equilibrium in which all
nodes in the network agree on a consistent collection of state nodes in the network agree on a consistent collection of state
about the topology of the network, and in which no further about the topology of the network, and in which no further control
control messages are needed to establish the consistency of the messages are needed to establish the consistency of the network
network topology. topology.
Convergence time Convergence time
The time which is required for a network to reach convergence The time which is required for a network to reach convergence
after an event (typically, the movement of a mobile node) which after an event (typically, the movement of a mobile node) which
changes the network topology. changes the network topology.
Laydown Laydown
The relative physical location of the nodes within the ad hoc The relative physical location of the nodes within the ad hoc
skipping to change at page 24, line 29 skipping to change at page 27, line 43
characterizing a class of ad hoc networks. characterizing a class of ad hoc networks.
6. Security-related Terminology 6. Security-related Terminology
This section includes terminology commonly used around mobile and This section includes terminology commonly used around mobile and
wireless networking. Only a mobility-related subset of the entire wireless networking. Only a mobility-related subset of the entire
security terminology is presented. security terminology is presented.
Authorization-enabling extension Authorization-enabling extension
An authentication which makes a (registration) message acceptable An authentication which makes a (registration) message
to the ultimate recipient of the registration message. An acceptable to the ultimate recipient of the registration
authorization-enabling extension must contain an SPI (see below) message. An authorization-enabling extension must contain an
[12]. SPI (see below) [10].
Mobility security association Mobility security association
A collection of security contexts, between a pair of nodes, which A collection of security contexts, between a pair of nodes,
may be applied to mobility-related protocol messages exchanged which may be applied to mobility-related protocol messages
between them. In Mobile IP, each context indicates an exchanged between them. In Mobile IP, each context indicates
authentication algorithm and mode, a secret (a shared key, or an authentication algorithm and mode, a secret (a shared key,
appropriate public/private key pair), and a style of replay or appropriate public/private key pair), and a style of replay
protection in use. Mobility security associations may be stored protection in use. Mobility security associations may be
separately from the node's IPsec Security Policy Database (SPD) stored separately from the node's IPsec Security Policy
[12]. Database (SPD) [10].
Registration key Registration key
A key used in the Mobility Security Association between a mobile A key used in the Mobility Security Association between a
node and a foreign agent. A registration key is typically only mobile node and a foreign agent. A registration key is
used once or a very few times, and only for the purposes of typically only used once or a very few times, and only for the
verifying a small volume of Authentication data [14]. purposes of verifying a small volume of Authentication data
[12].
Security context Security context
A security context between two nodes defines the manner in which A security context between two nodes defines the manner in
two nodes choose to mutually authenticate each other, and which two nodes choose to mutually authenticate each other, and
indicates an authentication algorithm and mode. indicates an authentication algorithm and mode.
Security Parameter Index (SPI) Security Parameter Index (SPI)
An index identifying a security context between a pair of routers An index identifying a security context between a pair of
among the contexts available in the mobility security routers among the contexts available in the mobility security
association. association.
The Mobile IPv6 specification includes more security terminology The Mobile IPv6 specification includes more security terminology
related to MIPv6 bindings [11]. Terminology about the MIP related to MIPv6 bindings [9]. Terminology about the MIP
challenge/response mechanism can be found in [13]. challenge/response mechanism can be found in [11].
7. Security Considerations 7. Security Considerations
This document presents only terminology. There are no security issues This document presents only terminology. There are no security
in this document. issues in this document.
8. Contributors 8. Contributors
This draft was initially based on the work of This document was initially based on the work of Tapio Suihko, Phil
Eardley, Dave Wisely, Robert Hancock, Nikos Georganopoulos, Markku
o Tapio Suihko, VTT Information Technology, Finland Kojo, and Jukka Manner.
o Phil Eardley and Dave Wisely, BT, UK
o Robert Hancock, Siemens/Roke Manor Research, UK,
o Nikos Georganopoulos, King's College London
o Markku Kojo and Jukka Manner, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Since revision -02 of the document draft-manner-seamoby-terms-02.txt, Charles Perkins has provided input terminology related to ad-hoc
Charles Perkins has given as input terminology related to ad-hoc
networks. networks.
Thierry Ernst has provided the terminology for discussing mobile Thierry Ernst has provided the terminology for discussing mobile
networks. networks.
Henrik Levkowetz did a final check of the definitions in revision -05 Henrik Levkowetz did a final check of the definitions in revision -05
and suggested a number of changes. and suggested a number of changes.
9. Acknowledgments 9. Acknowledgments
This work has been partially performed in the framework of the IST This work has been partially performed in the framework of the IST
project IST-2000-28584 MIND, which is partly funded by the European project IST-2000-28584 MIND, which is partly funded by the European
Union. Some of the authors would like to acknowledge the help of Union. Some of the authors would like to acknowledge the help of
their colleagues in preparing this document. their colleagues in preparing this document.
Randy Presuhn did a very thorough and helpful review of the -02 Randy Presuhn did a very thorough and helpful review of the -02
version of the terminology. version of the terminology.
Some definitions of terminology have been adapted from [1], [7], [3], Some definitions of terminology have been adapted from [1], [2], [3],
[2], [4], [9], [10], [11] and [12]. [4], [7], [8], [9] and [10].
10. Informative References 10. Informative References
[1] Blair, D., Tweedly, A., Thomas, M., Trostle, J. and [1] Blair, D., Tweedly, A., Thomas, M., Trostle, J. and M. Ramalho,
Ramalho, M., "Realtime Mobile IPv6 Framework", Work in "Realtime Mobile IPv6 Framework", Work in Progress.
Progress.
[2] Calhoun, P., Montenegro, G. and Perkins, C., "Mobile IP [2] Calhoun, P., Montenegro, G. and C. Perkins, "Mobile IP
Regionalized Tunnel Management", Work in Progress. Regionalized Tunnel Management", Work in Progress.
[3] Deering, S. and Hinden, R., "Internet Protocol, Version 6 [3] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6)
(IPv6) Specification". RFC 2460, December 1998. Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.
[4] Dommety, G. (ed.), "Fast Handovers for Mobile IPv6", Work in [4] Koodli, R., Ed., "Fast Handovers for Mobile IPv6", Work in
Progress. Progress.
[5] Yavatkar, R., Pendarakis, D. and Guerin, R., "A Framework for [5] Yavatkar, R., Pendarakis, D. and R. Guerin, "A Framework for
Policy-based Admission Control". RFC 2753, January 2000. Policy-based Admission Control", RFC 2753, January 2000.
[6] Kempf, J., McCann, P. and Roberts, P., "IP Mobility and the [6] Kempf, J., McCann, P. and P. Roberts, "IP Mobility and the CDMA
CDMA Radio Access Network: Applicability Statement for Soft Radio Access Network: Applicability Statement for Soft
Handoff", Work in Progress. Handoff", Work in Progress.
[7] Kempf, J. (ed.), "Problem Description: Reasons For Doing [7] Kempf, J., Ed., "Problem Description: Reasons For Performing
Context Transfers Between Nodes in an IP Access Network". Context Transfers Between Nodes in an IP Access Network", RFC
RFC 3374, September 2002. 3374, September 2002.
[8] Pandya, R., "Emerging Mobile and Personal Communication
Systems". IEEE Communications Magazine, 33:44--52, June 1995.
[9] Ramjee, R., La Porta, T., Thuel, S., Varadhan, K. and
Salgarelli, L., "IP micro-mobility support using HAWAII", Work
in Progress.
[10] Trossen, D., Krishnamurthi, G., Chaskar, H. and Kempf, J., [8] Trossen, D., Krishnamurthi, G., Chaskar, H. and J. Kempf,
"Issues in candidate access router discovery for seamless "Issues in candidate access router discovery for seamless IP-
IP-level handoffs", Work in Progress. level handoffs", Work in Progress.
[11] Johnson, D., Perkins, D. and Arkko, J., "Mobility [9] Johnson, D., Perkins, C. and J. Arkko, "Mobility Support in
Support in IPv6", Work in Progress. IPv6", RFC 3775, June 2004.
[12] Perkins, C. (ed.), "IP Mobility Support for IPv4". RFC 3344, [10] Perkins, C., Ed., "IP Mobility Support for IPv4", RFC 3344,
August 2002. August 2002.
[13] Perkins, C., Calhoun, P. and Bharatia, J., "Mobile [11] Perkins, C., Calhoun, P. and J. Bharatia, "Mobile IPv4
IPv4 Challenge/Response Extensions (revised)", Work in Challenge/Response Extensions (revised)", Work in Progress.
Progress.
[14] Perkins, C. and Calhoun, P., "AAA Registration Keys for Mobile [12] Perkins, C. and P. Calhoun, "AAA Registration Keys for Mobile
IP", Work in Progress. IP", Work in Progress.
[15] Ernst, T. and Lach, H., "Network Mobility Support [13] Ernst, T. and H. Lach, "Network Mobility Support Terminology",
Terminology", Work in Progress. Work in Progress.
[16] Moy, J., OSPF Version 2. RFC 2328, April 1998.
11. Authors' Addresses
Jukka Manner
Department of Computer Science
University of Helsinki
P.O. Box 26 (Teollisuuskatu 23)
FIN-00014 HELSINKI
Finland
Voice: +358-9-191-44210
Fax: +358-9-191-44441
E-Mail: jmanner@cs.helsinki.fi
Markku Kojo
Department of Computer Science
University of Helsinki
P.O. Box 26 (Teollisuuskatu 23)
FIN-00014 HELSINKI
Finland
Voice: +358-9-191-44179
Fax: +358-9-191-44441
E-Mail: kojo@cs.helsinki.fi
Charles E. Perkins
Communications Systems Lab
Nokia Research Center
313 Fairchild Drive
Mountain View, California 94043
USA
Phone: +1-650 625-2986
E-Mail: charliep@iprg.nokia.com
Fax: +1 650 625-2502
Tapio Suihko
VTT Information Technology
P.O. Box 1203
FIN-02044 VTT
Finland
Voice: +358-9-456-6078
Fax: +358-9-456-7028
E-Mail: tapio.suihko@vtt.fi
Phil Eardley
BTexaCT
Adastral Park
Martlesham
Ipswich IP5 3RE
United Kingdom
Voice: +44-1473-645938
Fax: +44-1473-646885
E-Mail: philip.eardley@bt.com
Dave Wisely
BTexaCT
Adastral Park
Martlesham
Ipswich IP5 3RE
United Kingdom
Voice: +44-1473-643848
Fax: +44-1473-646885
E-Mail: dave.wisely@bt.com
Robert Hancock
Roke Manor Research Ltd
Romsey, Hants, SO51 0ZN
United Kingdom
Voice: +44-1794-833601
Fax: +44-1794-833434
E-Mail: robert.hancock@roke.co.uk
Nikos Georganopoulos
King's College London
Strand
London WC2R 2LS
United Kingdom
Voice: +44-20-78482889 [14] Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", STD 54, RFC 2328, April 1998.
Fax: +44-20-78482664
E-Mail: nikolaos.georganopoulos@kcl.ac.uk
12. Appendix A - Index of Terms 11. Appendix A - Index of Terms
AD ............................................................. 13 AD ............................................................. 14
AL ............................................................. 12 AL ............................................................. 13
AN ............................................................. 13 AN ............................................................. 14
ANG ............................................................ 12 ANG ............................................................ 14
ANR ............................................................ 12 ANR ............................................................ 13
AP ............................................................. 12 AP ............................................................. 13
AR ............................................................. 12 AR ............................................................. 14
Access Link .................................................... 12 Access Link .................................................... 13
Access Network ................................................. 13 Access Network ................................................. 14
Access Network Gateway ......................................... 12 Access Network Gateway ......................................... 14
Access Network Router .......................................... 12 Access Network Router .......................................... 13
Access Point ................................................... 12 Access Point ................................................... 13
Access Router .................................................. 12 Access Router .................................................. 14
Active state ................................................... 19 Active state ................................................... 22
Administrative Domain .......................................... 13 Administrative Domain .......................................... 14
Asymmetric link ................................................. 5 Asymmetric link ................................................. 5
Authorization-enabling extension ............................... 24 Authorization-enabling extension ............................... 27
BBM ............................................................ 17 BBM ............................................................ 19
BU .............................................................. 3 BU .............................................................. 3
Bandwidth ....................................................... 3 Bandwidth ....................................................... 2
Bandwidth utilization ........................................... 3 Bandwidth utilization ........................................... 2
Beacon .......................................................... 3 Beacon .......................................................... 3
Binding Update .................................................. 3 Binding Update .................................................. 3
Break-before-make .............................................. 17 Break-before-make .............................................. 19
CAR ............................................................ 13 CAR ............................................................ 15
CAR ............................................................ 21 CAR ............................................................ 24
Candidate AR ................................................... 21 Candidate AR ................................................... 24
Candidate Access Router ........................................ 13 Candidate Access Router ........................................ 15
Capability of an AR ............................................ 21 Capability of an AR ............................................ 24
Care-of-Address ................................................. 3 Care-of-Address ................................................. 3
Channel ......................................................... 3 Channel ......................................................... 3
Channel access protocol ......................................... 3 Channel access protocol ......................................... 3
Channel capacity ................................................ 3 Channel capacity ................................................ 3
Cluster ........................................................ 23 Cluster ........................................................ 26
Cluster head ................................................... 23 Cluster head ................................................... 26
Cluster member ................................................. 23 Cluster member ................................................. 26
CoA ............................................................. 3 CoA ............................................................. 3
Context ........................................................ 21 Context ........................................................ 24
Context transfer ............................................... 21 Context transfer ............................................... 24
Control message ................................................. 4 Control message ................................................. 4
Convergence .................................................... 23 Convergence .................................................... 27
Convergence time ............................................... 23 Convergence time ............................................... 27
Distance vector ................................................. 4 Distance vector ................................................. 4
Dormant state .................................................. 19 Dormant state .................................................. 22
Egress interface ............................................... 11 Egress interface ............................................... 13
Exposed terminal problem ....................................... 18 Exposed terminal problem ....................................... 20
FN ............................................................. 11 FN ............................................................. 12
Fairness ........................................................ 4 Fairness ........................................................ 4
Fast handover .................................................. 17 Fast handover .................................................. 20
Feature context ................................................ 21 Feature context ................................................ 24
Fixed Node ..................................................... 11 Fixed Node ..................................................... 12
Flooding ........................................................ 4 Flooding ........................................................ 4
Foreign subnet prefix ........................................... 4 Foreign subnet prefix ........................................... 4
Forwarding node ................................................. 4 Forwarding node ................................................. 4
Global mobility ................................................ 22 Global mobility ................................................ 25
Goodput ........................................................ 18 Goodput ........................................................ 20
HA .............................................................. 4 HA .............................................................. 5
Handoff ........................................................ 14 Handoff ........................................................ 15
Handover ....................................................... 14 Handover ....................................................... 15
Handover latency ............................................... 17 Handover latency ............................................... 19
Hidden-terminal problem ........................................ 18 Hidden-terminal problem ........................................ 20
HoA ............................................................. 4 HoA ............................................................. 4
Home Address .................................................... 4 Home Address .................................................... 4
Home Agent ...................................................... 4 Home Agent ...................................................... 5
Home subnet prefix .............................................. 5 Home subnet prefix .............................................. 5
Horizontal Handover ............................................ 15 Horizontal Handover ............................................ 16
Host mobility support .......................................... 22 Host mobility support .......................................... 25
IP access address ............................................... 5 IP access address ............................................... 5
IP diversity ................................................... 19 IP diversity ................................................... 21
Inactive state ................................................. 19 Inactive state ................................................. 22
Ingress interface .............................................. 11 Ingress interface .............................................. 12
Inter-AN handover .............................................. 14 Inter-AN handover .............................................. 16
Inter-technology handover ...................................... 14 Inter-technology handover ...................................... 16
Interface ....................................................... 5 Interface ....................................................... 5
Intra-AN handover .............................................. 14 Intra-AN handover .............................................. 16
Intra-AR handover .............................................. 14 Intra-AR handover .............................................. 16
Intra-technology handover ...................................... 14 Intra-technology handover ...................................... 16
L2 Trigger ...................................................... 5 L2 Trigger ...................................................... 6
Laydown ........................................................ 24 Laydown ........................................................ 27
Layer 2 handover ............................................... 14 Layer 2 handover ............................................... 16
Link ............................................................ 5 Link ............................................................ 5
Link establishment .............................................. 5 Link establishment .............................................. 6
Link state ...................................................... 6 Link state ...................................................... 6
Link-layer trigger .............................................. 5 Link-layer trigger .............................................. 6
Link-level acknowledgment ....................................... 6 Link-level acknowledgment ....................................... 6
Local broadcast ................................................. 6 Local broadcast ................................................. 6
Local mobility ................................................. 22 Local mobility ................................................. 25
Local mobility management ...................................... 23 Local mobility management ...................................... 26
Location updating .............................................. 20 Location updating .............................................. 23
Loop-free ....................................................... 6 Loop-free ....................................................... 6
MAC ............................................................. 6 MAC ............................................................. 7
MBB ............................................................ 17 MBB ............................................................ 19
MH ............................................................. 11 MH ............................................................. 12
MN ............................................................. 11 MN ............................................................. 12
MNN ............................................................ 12 MNN ............................................................ 13
MPR ............................................................. 7 MPR ............................................................. 7
MR ............................................................. 11 MR ............................................................. 12
Macro diversity ................................................ 19 Macro diversity ................................................ 21
Macro mobility ................................................. 22 Macro mobility ................................................. 26
Make-before-break .............................................. 17 Make-before-break .............................................. 19
Medium Access Protocol .......................................... 6 Medium Access Protocol .......................................... 7
Micro diversity ................................................ 18 Micro diversity ................................................ 21
Micro mobility ................................................. 23 Micro mobility ................................................. 26
Mobile Host .................................................... 11 Mobile Host .................................................... 12
Mobile Network Node ............................................ 12 Mobile Network Node ............................................ 13
Mobile Node .................................................... 11 Mobile Node .................................................... 12
Mobile Router .................................................. 11 Mobile Router .................................................. 12
Mobile network ................................................. 11 Mobile network ................................................. 12
Mobile network prefix ........................................... 6 Mobile network prefix ........................................... 7
Mobile-assisted handover ....................................... 16 Mobile-assisted handover ....................................... 18
Mobile-controlled handover ..................................... 15 Mobile-controlled handover ..................................... 18
Mobile-initiated handover ...................................... 15 Mobile-initiated handover ...................................... 17
Mobility factor ................................................. 6 Mobility factor ................................................. 7
Mobility security association .................................. 24 Mobility security association .................................. 27
Multipoint relay ................................................ 7 Multipoint relay ................................................ 7
NAR ............................................................ 13 NAR ............................................................ 14
Neighbor ........................................................ 7 Neighbor ........................................................ 7
Neighborhood .................................................... 7 Neighborhood .................................................... 7
Network mobility support ....................................... 22 Network mobility support ....................................... 25
Network-assisted handover ...................................... 16 Network-assisted handover ...................................... 18
Network-controlled handover .................................... 15 Network-controlled handover .................................... 18
Network-initiated handover ..................................... 15 Network-initiated handover ..................................... 17
New Access Router .............................................. 13 New Access Router .............................................. 14
Next hop ........................................................ 7 Next hop ........................................................ 7
PAR ............................................................ 13 PAR ............................................................ 15
Paging ......................................................... 20 Paging ......................................................... 23
Paging area .................................................... 20 Paging area .................................................... 23
Paging area registrations ...................................... 20 Paging area registrations ...................................... 23
Paging channel ................................................. 20 Paging channel ................................................. 23
Pathloss ....................................................... 18 Pathloss ....................................................... 20
Pathloss matrix ................................................ 24 Pathloss matrix ................................................ 27
Payload ......................................................... 7 Payload ......................................................... 8
Planned handover ............................................... 16 Planned handover ............................................... 19
Prefix .......................................................... 7 Prefix .......................................................... 8
Previous Access Router ......................................... 13 Previous Access Router ......................................... 15
Pull handover .................................................. 16 Pull handover .................................................. 18
Push handover .................................................. 16 Push handover .................................................. 18
Radio Cell ..................................................... 12 Radio Cell ..................................................... 13
Registration key ............................................... 24 Registration key ............................................... 28
Roaming ........................................................ 13 Roaming ........................................................ 15
Route activation ................................................ 8 Route activation ................................................ 8
Route entry ..................................................... 7 Route entry ..................................................... 8
Route establishment ............................................. 7 Route establishment ............................................. 8
Route table ..................................................... 7 Routing table ................................................... 8
Routing proxy ................................................... 8 Routing proxy ................................................... 8
Routing-related service ........................................ 21 Routing-related service ........................................ 24
SAR ............................................................ 13 SAR ............................................................ 14
SPI ............................................................ 25 SPI ............................................................ 28
Scenario ....................................................... 24 Scenario ....................................................... 27
Seamless handover .............................................. 17 Seamless handover .............................................. 19
Security Parameter Index ....................................... 25 Security Parameter Index ....................................... 28
Security context ............................................... 24 Security context ............................................... 28
Serving Access Router .......................................... 13 Serving Access Router .......................................... 14
Shannon's Law ................................................... 8 Shannon's Law ................................................... 9
Signal strength ................................................. 8 Signal strength ................................................. 9
Smooth handover ................................................ 17 Smooth handover ................................................ 19
Source route .................................................... 8 Source route .................................................... 9
Spatial re-use .................................................. 8 Spatial re-use .................................................. 9
Subnet .......................................................... 8 Subnet .......................................................... 9
System-wide broadcast ........................................... 8 System-wide broadcast ........................................... 9
TAR ............................................................ 21 TAR ............................................................ 25
Target AR ...................................................... 21 Target AR ...................................................... 25
Throughput ..................................................... 17 Throughput ..................................................... 20
Time-slotted dormant mode ...................................... 19 Time-slotted dormant mode ...................................... 22
Topology ........................................................ 9 Topology ........................................................ 9
Traffic channel ................................................ 20 Traffic channel ................................................ 23
Triggered update ................................................ 9 Triggered update ................................................10
Unassisted handover ............................................ 16 Unassisted handover ............................................ 18
Unplanned handover ............................................. 16 Unplanned handover ............................................. 19
Vertical Handover .............................................. 15 Vertical handover .............................................. 17
Full Copyright Statement 12. Authors' Addresses
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004). All Rights Reserved. Jukka Manner
Department of Computer Science
University of Helsinki
P.O. Box 26 (Teollisuuskatu 23)
FIN-00014 HELSINKI
Finland
This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to Phone: +358-9-191-44210
others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it Fax: +358-9-191-44441
or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published EMail: jmanner@cs.helsinki.fi
and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this
document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
English.
The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be Markku Kojo
revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns. Department of Computer Science
University of Helsinki
P.O. Box 26 (Teollisuuskatu 23)
FIN-00014 HELSINKI
Finland
This document and the information contained herein is provided on an Phone: +358-9-191-44179
"AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING Fax: +358-9-191-44441
TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING EMail: kojo@cs.helsinki.fi
BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION
HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF 13. Full Copyright Statement
MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004). This document is subject
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