draft-ietf-seamoby-paging-requirements-01.txt   rfc3154.txt 
Internet Draft James Kempf, Editor Network Working Group J. Kempf
Claude Castelluccia Request for Comments: 3154 C. Castelluccia
Pars Mutaf Category: Informational P. Mutaf
Nobuyasu Nakajima N. Nakajima
Yoshihiro Ohba Y. Ohba
Ramachandran Ramjee R. Ramjee
Yousuf Saifullah Y. Saifullah
Behcet Sarikaya B. Sarikaya
Xiaofeng Xu X. Xu
Category: Informational August 2001
Document:
draft-ietf-seamoby-paging-requirements-01.txt
Date: May 2001
Requirements and Functional Architecture for an IP Host Alerting Requirements and Functional Architecture for
Protocol an IP Host Alerting Protocol
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This document is a working group contribution for consideration by This memo provides information for the Internet community. It does
the Seamoby Working Group of the Internet Engineering Task Force. not specify an Internet standard of any kind. Distribution of this
Distribution of this memo is unlimited. The Seamoby Working Group memo is unlimited.
mailing list is seamoby@diameter.org.
This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance
with all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.
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Abstract Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2001). All Rights Reserved.
Abstract
This document develops an architecture and a set of requirements This document develops an architecture and a set of requirements
needed to support alerting of hosts that are in dormant mode. The needed to support alerting of hosts that are in dormant mode. The
architecture and requirements are designed to guide development of architecture and requirements are designed to guide development of an
an IP protocol for alerting dormant IP mobile hosts, commonly called IP protocol for alerting dormant IP mobile hosts, commonly called
paging. paging.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
Status of this Memo................................................1 1. Introduction ...................................................3
Abstract...........................................................1
1. Introduction ...................................................2
2. Terminology ....................................................3 2. Terminology ....................................................3
3. Security Considerations ........................................3 3. Security Considerations ........................................3
3.1. DoS Amplification .........................................3 3.1. DoS Amplification .........................................3
3.2. Queue Overflow ............................................4 3.2. Queue Overflow ............................................4
3.3. Selective DoS against Hosts ...............................4 3.3. Selective DoS against Hosts ...............................4
4. Requirements ...................................................5 4. Requirements ...................................................5
4.1. Impact on Power Consumption ...............................5 4.1. Impact on Power Consumption ...............................5
4.2. Scalability ...............................................5 4.2. Scalability ...............................................5
4.3. Control of Broadcast/Multicast/Anycast ....................5 4.3. Control of Broadcast/Multicast/Anycast ....................5
4.4. Efficient Signaling for Inactive Mode .....................5 4.4. Efficient Signaling for Inactive Mode .....................6
4.5. No Routers ................................................6
4.5. No Routers ................................................5 4.6. Multiple Dormant Modes ....................................6
4.6. Multiple Dormant Modes ....................................5
4.7. Independence of Mobility Protocol .........................6 4.7. Independence of Mobility Protocol .........................6
4.8. Support for Existing Mobility Protocols ...................6 4.8. Support for Existing Mobility Protocols ...................6
4.9. Dormant Mode Termination ..................................6 4.9. Dormant Mode Termination ..................................6
4.10. Network Updates ...........................................6 4.10. Network Updates ...........................................6
4.11. Efficient Utilization of L2 ...............................6 4.11. Efficient Utilization of L2 ...............................7
4.12. Orthogonality of Paging Area and Subnets ..................7
4.12. Orthogonality of Paging Area and Subnets ..................6 4.13. Future L3 Paging Support ..................................7
4.13. Future L3 Paging Support ..................................6
4.14. Robustness Against Failure of Network Elements ............7 4.14. Robustness Against Failure of Network Elements ............7
4.15. Reliability of Packet Delivery ............................7 4.15. Reliability of Packet Delivery ............................7
4.16. Robustness Against Message Loss ...........................7 4.16. Robustness Against Message Loss ...........................7
4.17. Flexibility of Administration .............................7 4.17. Flexibility of Administration .............................7
4.18. Flexibility of Paging Area Design .........................7 4.18. Flexibility of Paging Area Design .........................8
4.19. Availability of Security Support ..........................7 4.19. Availability of Security Support ..........................8
4.20. Authentication of Paging Location Registration ............8
4.20. Authentication of Paging Location Registration ............7 4.21. Authentication of Paging Area Information .................8
4.21. Authentication of Paging Area Information .................7
4.22. Authentication of Paging Messages .........................8 4.22. Authentication of Paging Messages .........................8
4.23. Paging Volume .............................................8 4.23. Paging Volume .............................................8
4.24. Parsimonious Security Messaging ...........................8 4.24. Parsimonious Security Messaging ...........................8
4.25. Noninterference with Host's Security Policy ...............8 4.25. Noninterference with Host's Security Policy ...............8
4.26. Noninterference with End-to-end Security ..................8 4.26. Noninterference with End-to-end Security ..................9
4.27. Detection of Bogus Correspondent Nodes ....................9
4.27. Detection of Bogus Correspondent Nodes ....................8 5. Functional Architecture ........................................9
5. Functional Architecture ........................................8 5.1. Functional Entities .......................................9
5.1. Functional Entities .......................................8
5.2. Interfaces ...............................................10 5.2. Interfaces ...............................................10
5.3. Functional Architecture Diagram ..........................11 5.3. Functional Architecture Diagram ..........................12
6. Acknowledgements ..............................................11 6. Acknowledgements ..............................................12
7. References ....................................................12 7. References ....................................................13
8. Author's Addresses ............................................12 8. Authors' Addresses ............................................13
9. Full Copyright Statement ......................................16
9. Full Copyright Statement ......................................14
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
In [1], a problem statement was developed to explain why an IP In [1], a problem statement was developed to explain why an IP
protocol was desirable for alerting hosts in dormant mode, commonly protocol was desirable for alerting hosts in dormant mode, commonly
called paging. In this draft, a set of requirements is developed for called paging. In this document, a set of requirements is developed
guiding the development of an IP paging protocol. Based on the for guiding the development of an IP paging protocol. Based on the
requirements, an architecture is developed to represent the requirements, an architecture is developed to represent the
functional relationships between logical functional entities functional relationships between logical functional entities
involved. involved.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
Please see [1] for definition of terms used in describing paging. In Please see [1] for definition of terms used in describing paging. In
addition, this document defines the following terms: addition, this document defines the following terms:
Wide Casting - Either broadcasting or multicasting. Wide Casting - Either broadcasting or multicasting.
Inactive Mode - The host is no longer listening for any Inactive Mode - The host is no longer listening for any
packets, not even periodically, and not sending packets. The packets, not even periodically, and not sending packets. The
host may be in a powered off state, it may have shut down all host may be in a powered off state, it may have shut down all
interfaces to drastically conserve power, or it may be out of interfaces to drastically conserve power, or it may be out of
range of a radio access point. range of a radio access point.
3. Security Considerations 3. Security Considerations
An IP paging protocol introduces new security issues. In this An IP paging protocol introduces new security issues. In this
section, security issues with relevance to formulating requirements section, security issues with relevance to formulating requirements
for an IP paging protocol are discussed. for an IP paging protocol are discussed.
3.1. DoS Amplification 3.1. DoS Amplification
A DoS (Denial-of-Service) or DDoS (Distributed DoS) attack generally A DoS (Denial-of-Service) or DDoS (Distributed DoS) attack generally
consists of flooding a target network with bogus IP packets in order consists of flooding a target network with bogus IP packets in order
to cause degraded network performance at victim nodes and/or to cause degraded network performance at victim nodes and/or routers.
routers. Performance can be degraded to the point that the network Performance can be degraded to the point that the network cannot be
cannot be used. Currently, there is no preventive solution against used. Currently, there is no preventive solution against these
these attacks, and the impacts can be very important. attacks, and the impacts can be very important.
In general a DoS attacker profits from a so-called "amplifier" in In general a DoS attacker profits from a so-called "amplifier" in
order to increase the damage caused by his attack. Paging can serve order to increase the damage caused by his attack. Paging can serve
for an attacker as a DoS amplifier. for an attacker as a DoS amplifier.
An attacker (a malicious correspondent node) can send large numbers An attacker (a malicious correspondent node) can send large numbers
of packets pretending to be sent from different (bogus) of packets pretending to be sent from different (bogus) correspondent
correspondent nodes and destined for large numbers of hosts in nodes and destined for large numbers of hosts in inactive and dormant
inactive and dormant modes. This attack, in turn, will be amplified modes. This attack, in turn, will be amplified by the paging agent
by the paging agent which wide casts paging messages over a paging which wide casts paging messages over a paging area, resulting in
area, resulting in more than one networks being flooded. Clearly, more than one networks being flooded. Clearly, the damage can be
the damage can be more important in wireless networks that already more important in wireless networks that already suffer from scarce
suffer from scarce radio bandwidth. radio bandwidth.
Alternatively, an attacker can sort out a host which: Alternatively, an attacker can sort out a host which:
1. sends periodic messages declaring that it is in dormant mode, 1. sends periodic messages declaring that it is in dormant mode,
2. never replies to paging requests. 2. never replies to paging requests.
Such a node may be the attacker's node itself, or a second node Such a node may be the attacker's node itself, or a second node
participating in the attack. participating in the attack.
That node is never in inactive mode because of behavior 1 above. In That node is never in inactive mode because of behavior 1 above. In
this case, the attacker can send large numbers of packets destined this case, the attacker can send large numbers of packets destined
for that host which periodically declares that it is in dormant mode for that host which periodically declares that it is in dormant mode
but never replies to paging messages. The impact will be the same as but never replies to paging messages. The impact will be the same as
above however in this case the attack will be amplified above however in this case the attack will be amplified indefinitely.
indefinitely.
3.2. Queue Overflow 3.2. Queue Overflow
For reliability reasons, the paging protocol may need to make For reliability reasons, the paging protocol may need to make
provisions for a paging queue where a paging request is buffered provisions for a paging queue where a paging request is buffered
until the requested host replies by sending a location registration until the requested host replies by sending a location registration
message. message.
An attacker can exploit that by sending large numbers of packets An attacker can exploit that by sending large numbers of packets
having different (bogus) correspondent node addresses and destined having different (bogus) correspondent node addresses and destined
for one or more inactive hosts. These packets will be buffered in for one or more inactive hosts. These packets will be buffered in
the paging queue. However, since the hosts are inactive, the paging the paging queue. However, since the hosts are inactive, the paging
queue may quickly overflow, blocking the incoming traffic from queue may quickly overflow, blocking the incoming traffic from
legitimate correspondent nodes. As a result, all registered dormant legitimate correspondent nodes. As a result, all registered dormant
hosts may be inaccessible for a while. The attacker can re-launch hosts may be inaccessible for a while. The attacker can re-launch
the attack in a continuous fashion. the attack in a continuous fashion.
An attacker together with a bogus host that fails to respond to An attacker together with a bogus host that fails to respond to pages
pages can overflow the buffering provided to hold packets for can overflow the buffering provided to hold packets for dormant mode
dormant mode hosts. If the attacker keeps sending packets while the hosts. If the attacker keeps sending packets while the dormant mode
dormant mode host fails to reply, the buffer can overflow. host fails to reply, the buffer can overflow.
3.3. Selective DoS against Hosts 3.3. Selective DoS against Hosts
The following vulnerabilities already exist in the absence of IP The following vulnerabilities already exist in the absence of IP
paging. However, they are included here since they can affect the paging. However, they are included here since they can affect the
correct operation of the IP paging protocol. correct operation of the IP paging protocol.
These vulnerabilities can be exploited by an attacker in order to These vulnerabilities can be exploited by an attacker in order to
eliminate a particular host. This, in turn, can be used by an eliminate a particular host. This, in turn, can be used by an
attacker as a stepping stone to launch other attacks. attacker as a stepping stone to launch other attacks.
Forced Battery Consumption Forced Battery Consumption
An attacker can frequently send packets to a host in order to An attacker can frequently send packets to a host in order to prevent
prevent that host from switching to dormant mode. As a result the that host from switching to dormant mode. As a result the host may
host may quickly run out of battery. quickly run out of battery.
Bogus Paging Areas Bogus Paging Areas
An attacker can periodically emit malicious packets in order to An attacker can periodically emit malicious packets in order to
confuse one or more hosts about their actual locations. Currently, confuse one or more hosts about their actual locations. Currently,
there is no efficient way to authenticate such packets. there is no efficient way to authenticate such packets.
In the case of IP paging, these packets may also contain bogus In the case of IP paging, these packets may also contain bogus paging
paging area information. Upon receipt of such a packet, a host may area information. Upon receipt of such a packet, a host may move and
move and send a location registration message pointing to a non- send a location registration message pointing to a non-existing or
existing or wrong paging area. The functional entities of the IP wrong paging area. The functional entities of the IP paging protocol
paging protocol may loose contact with the host. may loose contact with the host.
More importantly, this attack can serve for sorting out a host which More importantly, this attack can serve for sorting out a host which
shows the behaviors 1 and 2 described in Section 3.1. shows the behaviors 1 and 2 described in Section 3.1.
Bogus Paging Agents Bogus Paging Agents
An attacker can wide cast fake paging messages pretending to be sent An attacker can wide cast fake paging messages pretending to be sent
by a paging agent. The impacts will be similar to the ones described by a paging agent. The impacts will be similar to the ones described
in Sections 4.1 and 4.3.1. However, depending on how the IP paging in Sections 4.1 and 4.3.1. However, depending on how the IP paging
protocol is designed, additional harm may be caused. protocol is designed, additional harm may be caused.
4. Requirements 4. Requirements
The following requirements are identified for the IP paging The following requirements are identified for the IP paging protocol.
protocol.
4.1. Impact on Power Consumption 4.1. Impact on Power Consumption
The IP paging protocol MUST minimize impact on the Host's dormant The IP paging protocol MUST minimize impact on the Host's dormant
mode operation, in order to minimize excessive power drain. mode operation, in order to minimize excessive power drain.
4.2. Scalability 4.2. Scalability
The IP paging protocol MUST be scalable to millions of Hosts. The IP paging protocol MUST be scalable to millions of Hosts.
4.3. Control of Broadcast/Multicast/Anycast 4.3. Control of Broadcast/Multicast/Anycast
The protocol SHOULD provide a filter mechanism to allow a Host prior The protocol SHOULD provide a filter mechanism to allow a Host prior
to entering dormant mode to filter which broadcast/multicast/anycast to entering dormant mode to filter which broadcast/multicast/anycast
packets active a page. This prevents the Host from awakening out of packets active a page. This prevents the Host from awakening out of
dormant mode for all broadcast/multicast/anycast traffic. dormant mode for all broadcast/multicast/anycast traffic.
4.4. Efficient Signaling for Inactive Mode 4.4. Efficient Signaling for Inactive Mode
The IP paging protocol SHOULD provide a mechanism for the Tracking The IP paging protocol SHOULD provide a mechanism for the Tracking
Agent to determine whether the Host is in inactive mode, to avoid Agent to determine whether the Host is in inactive mode, to avoid
paging when a host is completely unreachable. paging when a host is completely unreachable.
4.5. No Routers 4.5. No Routers
Since the basic issues involved in handling mobile routers are not Since the basic issues involved in handling mobile routers are not
well understood and since mobile routers have not exhibited a well understood and since mobile routers have not exhibited a
requirement for paging, the IP paging protocol MAY NOT support requirement for paging, the IP paging protocol MAY NOT support
routers. However, the IP paging protocol MAY support a router acting routers. However, the IP paging protocol MAY support a router acting
as a Host. as a Host.
4.6. Multiple Dormant Modes 4.6. Multiple Dormant Modes
Recognizing that there are multiple possible dormant modes on the Recognizing that there are multiple possible dormant modes on the
Host, the IP paging protocol MUST work with different Host, the IP paging protocol MUST work with different implementations
implementations of dormant mode on the Host. of dormant mode on the Host.
4.7. Independence of Mobility Protocol 4.7. Independence of Mobility Protocol
Recognizing that IETF may support multiple mobility protocols in the Recognizing that IETF may support multiple mobility protocols in the
future and that paging may be of value to hosts that do not support future and that paging may be of value to hosts that do not support a
a mobility protocol, the IP paging protocol MUST be designed so mobility protocol, the IP paging protocol MUST be designed so there
there is no dependence on the underlying mobility protocol or on any is no dependence on the underlying mobility protocol or on any
mobility protocol at all. The protocol SHOULD specify and provide mobility protocol at all. The protocol SHOULD specify and provide
support for a mobility protocol, if the Host supports one. support for a mobility protocol, if the Host supports one.
4.8. Support for Existing Mobility Protocols 4.8. Support for Existing Mobility Protocols
The IP paging protocol MUST specify the binding to the existing IP The IP paging protocol MUST specify the binding to the existing IP
mobility protocols, namely mobile IPv4 [2] and mobile IPv6 [3]. The mobility protocols, namely mobile IPv4 [2] and mobile IPv6 [3]. The
IP paging protocol SHOULD make use of existing registration support. IP paging protocol SHOULD make use of existing registration support.
4.9. Dormant Mode Termination 4.9. Dormant Mode Termination
Upon receipt of a page (either with or without an accompanying L3 Upon receipt of a page (either with or without an accompanying L3
packet), the Host MUST execute the steps in its mobility protocol to packet), the Host MUST execute the steps in its mobility protocol to
re-establish a routable L3 link with the Internet. re-establish a routable L3 link with the Internet.
4.10. Network Updates 4.10. Network Updates
Recognizing that locating a dormant mode mobile requires the network Recognizing that locating a dormant mode mobile requires the network
to have a rough idea of where the Host is located, the IP paging to have a rough idea of where the Host is located, the IP paging
protocol SHOULD provide the network a way for the Paging Agent to protocol SHOULD provide the network a way for the Paging Agent to
inform a dormant mode Host what paging area it is in and the IP inform a dormant mode Host what paging area it is in and the IP
paging protocol SHOULD provide a means whereby the Host can inform paging protocol SHOULD provide a means whereby the Host can inform
the Target Agent when it changes paging area. The IP paging protocol the Target Agent when it changes paging area. The IP paging protocol
MAY additionally provide a way for the Host to inform the Tracking MAY additionally provide a way for the Host to inform the Tracking
Agent what paging area it is in at some indeterminate point prior to Agent what paging area it is in at some indeterminate point prior to
entering dormant mode. entering dormant mode.
4.11. Efficient Utilization of L2 4.11. Efficient Utilization of L2
Recognizing that many existing wireless link protocols support Recognizing that many existing wireless link protocols support paging
paging at L2 and that these protocols are often intimately tied into at L2 and that these protocols are often intimately tied into the
the Host's dormant mode support, the IP paging protocol SHOULD Host's dormant mode support, the IP paging protocol SHOULD provide
provide support to efficiently utilize an L2 paging protocol if support to efficiently utilize an L2 paging protocol if available.
available.
4.12. Orthogonality of Paging Area and Subnets 4.12. Orthogonality of Paging Area and Subnets
The IP paging protocol MUST allow an arbitrary mapping between The IP paging protocol MUST allow an arbitrary mapping between
subnets and paging areas. subnets and paging areas.
4.13. Future L3 Paging Support 4.13. Future L3 Paging Support
Recognizing that future dormant mode and wireless link protocols may Recognizing that future dormant mode and wireless link protocols may
be designed that more efficiently utilize IP, the IP paging protocol be designed that more efficiently utilize IP, the IP paging protocol
SHOULD NOT require L2 support for paging. SHOULD NOT require L2 support for paging.
4.14. Robustness Against Failure of Network Elements 4.14. Robustness Against Failure of Network Elements
The IP paging protocol MUST be designed to be robust with respect to The IP paging protocol MUST be designed to be robust with respect to
failure of network elements involved in the protocol. The self- failure of network elements involved in the protocol. The self-
healing characteristics SHOULD NOT be any worse than existing healing characteristics SHOULD NOT be any worse than existing routing
routing protocols. protocols.
4.15. Reliability of Packet Delivery 4.15. Reliability of Packet Delivery
The IP paging protocol MUST be designed so that packet delivery is The IP paging protocol MUST be designed so that packet delivery is
reliable to a high degree of probability. This does not necessarily reliable to a high degree of probability. This does not necessarily
mean that a reliable transport protocol is required. mean that a reliable transport protocol is required.
4.16. Robustness Against Message Loss 4.16. Robustness Against Message Loss
The IP paging protocol MUST be designed to be robust with respect to The IP paging protocol MUST be designed to be robust with respect to
loss of messages. loss of messages.
4.17. Flexibility of Administration 4.17. Flexibility of Administration
The IP paging protocol SHOULD provide a way to flexibly auto- The IP paging protocol SHOULD provide a way to flexibly auto-
configure Paging Agents to reduce the amount of administration configure Paging Agents to reduce the amount of administration
necessary in maintaining a wireless network with paging. necessary in maintaining a wireless network with paging.
4.18. Flexibility of Paging Area Design 4.18. Flexibility of Paging Area Design
The IP paging protocol MUST be flexible in the support of different The IP paging protocol MUST be flexible in the support of different
types of paging areas. Examples are fixed paging areas, where a types of paging areas. Examples are fixed paging areas, where a
fixed set of bases stations belong to the paging area for all Hosts, fixed set of bases stations belong to the paging area for all Hosts,
and customized paging areas, where the set of base stations is and customized paging areas, where the set of base stations is
customized for each Host. customized for each Host.
4.19. Availability of Security Support 4.19. Availability of Security Support
The IP paging protocol MUST have available authentication and The IP paging protocol MUST have available authentication and
encryption functionality at least equivalent to that provided by encryption functionality at least equivalent to that provided by
IPSEC [5]. IPSEC [5].
4.20. Authentication of Paging Location Registration 4.20. Authentication of Paging Location Registration
The IP paging protocol MUST provide mutually authenticated paging The IP paging protocol MUST provide mutually authenticated paging
location registration to insulate against replay attacks and to location registration to insulate against replay attacks and to avoid
avoid the danger of malicious nodes registering for paging. the danger of malicious nodes registering for paging.
4.21. Authentication of Paging Area Information 4.21. Authentication of Paging Area Information
The IP paging protocol MUST provide a mechanism for authenticating The IP paging protocol MUST provide a mechanism for authenticating
paging area information distributed by the Paging Agent. paging area information distributed by the Paging Agent.
4.22. Authentication of Paging Messages 4.22. Authentication of Paging Messages
The IP paging protocol MUST provide a mechanism for authenticating The IP paging protocol MUST provide a mechanism for authenticating L3
L3 paging messages sent by the Paging Agent to dormant mode Hosts. paging messages sent by the Paging Agent to dormant mode Hosts. The
The protocol MUST support the use of L2 security mechanisms so protocol MUST support the use of L2 security mechanisms so
implementations that take advantage of L2 paging can also be implementations that take advantage of L2 paging can also be secured.
secured.
4.23. Paging Volume 4.23. Paging Volume
The IP paging protocol SHOULD be able to handle large numbers of The IP paging protocol SHOULD be able to handle large numbers of
paging requests without denying access to any legitimate Host nor paging requests without denying access to any legitimate Host nor
degrading its performance. degrading its performance.
4.24. Parsimonious Security Messaging 4.24. Parsimonious Security Messaging
The security of the IP paging protocol SHOULD NOT call for The security of the IP paging protocol SHOULD NOT call for additional
additional power consumption while the Host is in dormant mode, nor power consumption while the Host is in dormant mode, nor require
require excessive message exchanges. excessive message exchanges.
4.25. Noninterference with Host's Security Policy 4.25. Noninterference with Host's Security Policy
The IP paging protocol MUST NOT impose any limitations on a Host's The IP paging protocol MUST NOT impose any limitations on a Host's
security policies. security policies.
4.26. Noninterference with End-to-end Security 4.26. Noninterference with End-to-end Security
The IP paging protocol MUST NOT impose any limitations on a Host's The IP paging protocol MUST NOT impose any limitations on a Host's
ability to conduct end-to-end security. ability to conduct end-to-end security.
skipping to change at line 408 skipping to change at page 9, line 20
4.27. Detection of Bogus Correspondent Nodes 4.27. Detection of Bogus Correspondent Nodes
The IP paging protocol SHOULD make provisions for detecting and The IP paging protocol SHOULD make provisions for detecting and
ignoring bogus correspondent nodes prior to paging messages being ignoring bogus correspondent nodes prior to paging messages being
wide cast on behalf of the correspondent node. wide cast on behalf of the correspondent node.
5. Functional Architecture 5. Functional Architecture
In this section, a functional architecture is developed that In this section, a functional architecture is developed that
describes the logical functional entities involved in IP paging and describes the logical functional entities involved in IP paging and
the interfaces between them. Please note that the logical the interfaces between them. Please note that the logical
architecture makes absolutely no commitment to any physical architecture makes absolutely no commitment to any physical
implementation of these functional entities whatsoever. A physical implementation of these functional entities whatsoever. A physical
implementation may merge particular functional entities. For implementation may merge particular functional entities. For
example, the Paging Agent, Tracking Agent, and Dormant Monitoring example, the Paging Agent, Tracking Agent, and Dormant Monitoring
Agent may all be merged into one in a particular physical Agent may all be merged into one in a particular physical
implementation. The purpose of the functional architecture is to implementation. The purpose of the functional architecture is to
identify the relevant system interfaces upon which protocol identify the relevant system interfaces upon which protocol
development may be required, but not to mandate that protocol development may be required, but not to mandate that protocol
development will be required on all. development will be required on all.
5.1. Functional Entities 5.1. Functional Entities
The functional architecture contains the following elements: The functional architecture contains the following elements:
Host - The Host (H) is a standard IP host in the sense of [4]. Host - The Host (H) is a standard IP host in the sense of [4]. The
The Host may be connected to a wired IP backbone through a Host may be connected to a wired IP backbone through a wireless
wireless link over which IP datagrams are exchanged (mobile usage link over which IP datagrams are exchanged (mobile usage pattern),
pattern), or it may be connected directly to a wired IP network, or it may be connected directly to a wired IP network, either
either intermittently (nomadic usage pattern) or constantly intermittently (nomadic usage pattern) or constantly (wired usage
(wired usage pattern). The Host may support some type of IP pattern). The Host may support some type of IP mobility protocol
mobility protocol (for example, mobile IP [2] [3]). The Host is (for example, mobile IP [2] [3]). The Host is capable of entering
capable of entering dormant mode in order to save power (see [1] dormant mode in order to save power (see [1] for a detailed
for a detailed discussion of dormant mode). The Host also discussion of dormant mode). The Host also supports a protocol
supports a protocol allowing the network to awaken it from allowing the network to awaken it from dormant mode if a packet
dormant mode if a packet arrives. This protocol may be a arrives. This protocol may be a specialized L2 paging channel or
specialized L2 paging channel or it may be a time-slotted dormant it may be a time-slotted dormant mode in which the Host
mode in which the Host periodically wakes up and listens to L2 periodically wakes up and listens to L2 for IP traffic, the
for IP traffic, the details of the L2 implementation are not details of the L2 implementation are not important. A dormant
important. A dormant Host is also responsible for determining Host is also responsible for determining when its paging area has
when its paging area has changed and for responding to changes in changed and for responding to changes in paging area by directly
paging area by directly or indirectly informing the Tracking or indirectly informing the Tracking Agent about its location.
Agent about its location. Since routers are presumed not to Since routers are presumed not to require dormant mode support, a
require dormant mode support, a Host is never a router. Host is never a router.
Paging Agent - The Paging Agent is responsible for alerting the Paging Agent - The Paging Agent is responsible for alerting the
Host when a packet arrives and the Host is in dormant mode. Host when a packet arrives and the Host is in dormant mode.
Alerting of the Host proceeds through a protocol that is peculiar Alerting of the Host proceeds through a protocol that is peculiar
to the L2 link and to the Host's dormant mode implementation, to the L2 link and to the Host's dormant mode implementation,
though it may involve IP if supported by the L2. Additionally, though it may involve IP if supported by the L2. Additionally,
the Paging Agent maintains paging areas by periodically wide the Paging Agent maintains paging areas by periodically wide
casting information over the Host's link to identify the paging casting information over the Host's link to identify the paging
area. The paging area information may be wide cast at L2 or it area. The paging area information may be wide cast at L2 or it
may also involve IP. Each paging area is served by a unique may also involve IP. Each paging area is served by a unique
Paging Agent. Paging Agent.
Tracking Agent - The Tracking Agent is responsible for tracking a Tracking Agent - The Tracking Agent is responsible for tracking a
Host's location while it is in dormant mode or active mode, and Host's location while it is in dormant mode or active mode, and
for determining when Host enters inactive mode. It receives for determining when Host enters inactive mode. It receives
updates from a dormant Host when the Host changes paging area. updates from a dormant Host when the Host changes paging area.
When a packet arrives for the Host at the Dormant Monitoring When a packet arrives for the Host at the Dormant Monitoring
Agent, the Tracking Agent is responsible for notifying the Agent, the Tracking Agent is responsible for notifying the Dormant
Dormant Monitoring Agent, upon request, what Paging Agent is in Monitoring Agent, upon request, what Paging Agent is in the Host's
the Host's last reported paging area. There is a one to one last reported paging area. There is a one to one mapping between
mapping between a Host and a Tracking Agent. a Host and a Tracking Agent.
Dormant Monitoring Agent - The Dormant Monitoring Agent detects Dormant Monitoring Agent - The Dormant Monitoring Agent detects
the delivery of packets to a Host that is in Dormant Mode (and the delivery of packets to a Host that is in Dormant Mode (and
thus does not have an active L2 connection to the Internet). It thus does not have an active L2 connection to the Internet). It
is the responsibility of the Dormant Monitoring Agent to query is the responsibility of the Dormant Monitoring Agent to query the
the Tracking Agent for the last known Paging Agent for the Host, Tracking Agent for the last known Paging Agent for the Host, and
and inform the Paging Agent to page the Host. Once the Paging inform the Paging Agent to page the Host. Once the Paging Agent
Agent has reported that a routable connection to the Internet has reported that a routable connection to the Internet exists to
exists to the Host, the Dormant Monitoring Agent arranges for the Host, the Dormant Monitoring Agent arranges for delivery of
delivery of the packet to the Host. In addition, the Host or its the packet to the Host. In addition, the Host or its Tracking
Tracking Agent may select a Dormant Monitoring Agent for a Host Agent may select a Dormant Monitoring Agent for a Host when the
when the Host enters dormant mode, and periodically as the Host Host enters dormant mode, and periodically as the Host changes
changes paging area. paging area.
5.2. Interfaces 5.2. Interfaces
The functional architecture generates the following list of The functional architecture generates the following list of
interfaces. Note that the interfaces between functional entities interfaces. Note that the interfaces between functional entities
that are combined into a single network element will require no that are combined into a single network element will require no
protocol development. protocol development.
Host - Paging Agent (H-PA) - The H-PA interface supports the Host - Paging Agent (H-PA) - The H-PA interface supports the
following types of traffic: following types of traffic:
- Wide casting of paging area information from the Paging - Wide casting of paging area information from the Paging
Agent. Agent.
- The Paging Agent alerting the Host when informed by the - The Paging Agent alerting the Host when informed by the
Dormant Monitoring Agent that a packet has arrived. Dormant Monitoring Agent that a packet has arrived.
Host - Tracking Agent (H-TA) - The H-TA interface supports the Host - Tracking Agent (H-TA) - The H-TA interface supports the
following types of traffic: following types of traffic:
- The Host informing the Tracking Agent when it has changed - The Host informing the Tracking Agent when it has changed
paging area, and, optionally, prior to entering dormant mode, paging area, and, optionally, prior to entering dormant
in what paging area it is located. mode, in what paging area it is located.
- Optionally, the Host informs the Tracking Agent at a planned - Optionally, the Host informs the Tracking Agent at a planned
transition to inactive mode. transition to inactive mode.
Dormant Monitoring Agent - Tracking Agent (DMA-TA) - The DMA-TA Dormant Monitoring Agent - Tracking Agent (DMA-TA) - The DMA-TA
interface supports the following types of traffic: interface supports the following types of traffic:
- A report from the Dormant Monitoring Agent to the Tracking - A report from the Dormant Monitoring Agent to the Tracking
Agent that a packet has arrived for a dormant Host for which Agent that a packet has arrived for a dormant Host for which
no route is available. no route is available.
- A report from the Tracking Agent to the Dormant Monitoring - A report from the Tracking Agent to the Dormant Monitoring
Agent giving the Paging Agent to contact in order to page the Agent giving the Paging Agent to contact in order to page
Host. the Host.
- A report from the Tracking Agent to the Dormant Monitoring - A report from the Tracking Agent to the Dormant Monitoring
Agent that a Host has entered inactive mode, if not provided Agent that a Host has entered inactive mode, if not provided
directly by the Host directly by the Host
- A report from the Tracking Agent to the Dormant Monitoring - A report from the Tracking Agent to the Dormant Monitoring
Agent that a Host has entered dormant mode, if not provided Agent that a Host has entered dormant mode, if not provided
directly by the Host. directly by the Host.
Dormant Monitoring Agent - Paging Agent (DMA-PA) - The DMA-PA Dormant Monitoring Agent - Paging Agent (DMA-PA) - The DMA-PA
interface supports the following types of traffic: interface supports the following types of traffic:
- A request from the Dormant Monitoring Agent to the Paging - A request from the Dormant Monitoring Agent to the Paging
Agent to page a particular Host in dormant mode because a Agent to page a particular Host in dormant mode because a
packet has arrived for the Host. packet has arrived for the Host.
- Negative response indication from the Paging Agent if the - Negative response indication from the Paging Agent if the
Host does not respond to a page. Host does not respond to a page.
- Positive response from the Paging Agent indication if the - Positive response from the Paging Agent indication if the
Host does respond to a page. Host does respond to a page.
- Delivery of the packet to the Host. - Delivery of the packet to the Host.
Host - Dormant Monitoring Agent (H-DMA) - The H-DMA interface Host - Dormant Monitoring Agent (H-DMA) - The H-DMA interface
supports the following types of traffic: supports the following types of traffic:
- The Host registers to the Dormant Monitoring Agent prior to - The Host registers to the Dormant Monitoring Agent prior to
entering dormant mode, (if needed) with filtering information entering dormant mode, (if needed) with filtering
on which broadcast/multicast/anycast packets trigger a page. information on which broadcast/multicast/anycast packets
trigger a page.
- The Host informs the Dormant Monitoring Agent, when it - The Host informs the Dormant Monitoring Agent, when it
directly deregisters from the Dormant Monitoring Agent due to directly deregisters from the Dormant Monitoring Agent due
a change from dormant mode to active or inactive mode. to a change from dormant mode to active or inactive mode.
5.3. Functional Architecture Diagram 5.3. Functional Architecture Diagram
The functional architecture and interfaces lead to the following The functional architecture and interfaces lead to the following
diagram. diagram.
+------+ H-TA +----------+ +------+ H-TA +----------+
| Host | <----------------------> | Tracking | | Host | <----------------------> | Tracking |
+------+ | Agent | +------+ | Agent |
^ ^ +----------+ ^ ^ +----------+
skipping to change at line 574 skipping to change at page 12, line 45
| Paging | <--------------------> | Dormant | | Paging | <--------------------> | Dormant |
| Agent | | Monitoring | | Agent | | Monitoring |
+--------+ | Agent | +--------+ | Agent |
+------------+ +------------+
Figure 1 - Paging Functional Architecture Figure 1 - Paging Functional Architecture
6. Acknowledgements 6. Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Arthur Ross for helpful comments on The authors would like to thank Arthur Ross for helpful comments on
the draft. this memo.
7. References 7. References
[1] Kempf, J., "Sending IP Traffic to Dormant Mobile Devices: [1] Kempf, J., "Dormant Mode Host Alerting ("IP Paging") Problem
Problem Statement," draft-ietf-seamoby-paging-problem-statement- Statement", RFC 3132, June 2001.
02.txt, a work in progress.
[2] Perkins, C., ed., "IP Mobility Support," RFC 2002, October, [2] Perkins, C., ed., "IP Mobility Support", RFC 2002, October,
1996. 1996.
[3] Johnson, D., and Perkins, C., "Mobility Support in Ipv6," draft- [3] Johnson, D., and Perkins, C., "Mobility Support in Ipv6", Work
ietf-mobileip-ipv6-13.txt, a work in progress. in Progress.
[4] Braden, R., "Requirements for Internet Hosts - Communication [4] Braden, R., "Requirements for Internet Hosts - Communication
Layers," STD003, October, 1989. Layers", STD 3, RFC 1122, October 1989.
[5] Kent, S., and Atkinson, R., "Security Architecture for the [5] Kent, S., and R. Atkinson, "Security Architecture for the
Internet Protocol," RFC 2401, November, 1998. Internet Protocol", RFC 2401, November 1998.
8. Author's Addresses 8. Authors' Addresses
James Kempf James Kempf
Sun Microsystems Laboratories Sun Microsystems Laboratories
901 San Antonio Rd. 901 San Antonio Rd.
UMTV29-235 UMTV29-235
Palo Alto, CA Palo Alto, CA
95303-4900 95303-4900
USA USA
Phone: +1 650 336 1684 Phone: +1 650 336 1684
Fax: +1 650 691 0893 Fax: +1 650 691 0893
Email: James.Kempf@Sun.COM EMail: James.Kempf@Sun.COM
Pars Mutaf Pars Mutaf
INRIA Rhone-Alpes INRIA Rhone-Alpes
655 avenue de l'Europe 655 avenue de l'Europe
38330 Montbonnot Saint-Martin 38330 Montbonnot Saint-Martin
FRANCE FRANCE
Phone: Phone:
Fax: +33 4 76 61 52 52 Fax: +33 4 76 61 52 52
Email: pars.mutaf@inria.fr EMail: pars.mutaf@inria.fr
Claude Castelluccia Claude Castelluccia
INRIA Rhone-Alpes INRIA Rhone-Alpes
655 avenue de l'Europe 655 avenue de l'Europe
38330 Montbonnot Saint-Martin 38330 Montbonnot Saint-Martin
FRANCE FRANCE
Phone: +33 4 76 61 52 15 Phone: +33 4 76 61 52 15
Fax: +33 4 76 61 52 52 Fax: +33 4 76 61 52 52
Email: claude.castelluccia@inria.fr EMail: claude.castelluccia@inria.fr
Nobuyasu Nakajima Nobuyasu Nakajima
Toshiba America Research, Inc. Toshiba America Research, Inc.
P.O. Box 136 P.O. Box 136
Convent Station, NJ Convent Station, NJ
07961-0136 07961-0136
USA USA
Phone: +1 973 829 4752 Phone: +1 973 829 4752
Email: nnakajima@tari.toshiba.com EMail: nnakajima@tari.toshiba.com
Yoshihiro Ohba Yoshihiro Ohba
Toshiba America Research, Inc. Toshiba America Research, Inc.
P.O. Box 136 P.O. Box 136
Convent Station, NJ Convent Station, NJ
07961-0136 07961-0136
USA USA
Phone: +1 973 829 5174 Phone: +1 973 829 5174
Fax: +1 973 829 5601 Fax: +1 973 829 5601
Email: yohba@tari.toshiba.com EMail: yohba@tari.toshiba.com
Ramachandran Ramjee Ramachandran Ramjee
Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies
Room 4g-526 Room 4g-526
101 Crawfords Corner Road 101 Crawfords Corner Road
Holmdel, NJ Holmdel, NJ
07733 07733
USA USA
Phone: +1 732 949 3306 Phone: +1 732 949 3306
Fax: +1 732 949 4513 Fax: +1 732 949 4513
Email: ramjee@bell-labs.com EMail: ramjee@bell-labs.com
Yousuf Saifullah Yousuf Saifullah
Nokia Research Center Nokia Research Center
6000 Connection Dr. 6000 Connection Dr.
Irving, TX Irving, TX
75039 75039
USA USA
Phone: +1 972 894 6966 Phone: +1 972 894 6966
Fax: +1 972 894 4589 Fax: +1 972 894 4589
Email: Yousuf.Saifullah@nokia.com EMail: Yousuf.Saifullah@nokia.com
Behcet Sarikaya Behcet Sarikaya
Alcatel USA, M/S CT02 Alcatel USA, M/S CT02
1201 Campbell Rd. 1201 Campbell Rd.
Richardson, TX Richardson, TX
75081-1936 75081-1936
USA USA
Phone: +1 972 996 5075 Phone: +1 972 996 5075
Fax: +1 972 996 5174 Fax: +1 972 996 5174
Email: Behcet.Sarikaya@usa.alcatel.com EMail: Behcet.Sarikaya@usa.alcatel.com
Xiaofeng Xu Xiaofeng Xu
Alcatel USA, M/S CT02 Alcatel USA, M/S CT02
1201 Campbell Rd. 1201 Campbell Rd.
Richardson, TX Richardson, TX
75081-1936 75081-1936
USA USA
Email: xaiofeng.xu@usa.alcatel.com Phone: +1 972 996 2047
Fax: +1 972 996 5174
Email: xiaofeng.xu@usa.alcatel.com
9. Full Copyright Statement 9. Full Copyright Statement
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2001). All Rights Reserved. Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2001). All Rights Reserved.
This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
are included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this
document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
English. The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and English.
will not be revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or
assigns. This document and the information contained herein is The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
provided on an "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.
INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
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BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION
HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
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Acknowledgement
Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
Internet Society.
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