Network Working Group                                          S. Weiler
Internet-Draft                                              SPARTA, Inc.
Intended status: Standards Track                             A. Sonalker
Expires: January 17, 2013 April 23, 2014                      Battelle Memorial Institute
                                                              R. Austein
                                                    Dragon Research Labs
                                                           July 16, 2012
                                                        October 20, 2013

A Publication Protocol for the Resource Public Key Infrastructure (RPKI)
                     draft-ietf-sidr-publication-03
                     draft-ietf-sidr-publication-04

Abstract

   This document defines a protocol for publishing Resource Public Key
   Infrastructure (RPKI) objects.  Even though the RPKI will have many
   participants issuing certificates and creating other objects, it is
   operationally useful to consolidate the publication of those objects.
   This document provides the protocol for doing so.

Status of this This Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 17, 2013. April 23, 2014.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2012 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Protocol Specification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4   3
     3.1.  Common Details  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
       3.1.1.  Common XML Message Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.2.  Control Sub-Protocol  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       3.2.1.  Config Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       3.2.2.  Client Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.3.  Publication Sub-Protocol  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.4.  Error handling  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.5.  XML Schema  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   4.  Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9  11
     4.1.  Config  <config/> Set Query and Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9 . . . . .  11
     4.2.  Config  <config/> Set Reply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     4.3.  <config/> Get Query and Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     4.3.  Example 3: Client . . . . .  12
     4.4.  <config/> Get Reply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.5.  <client/> Create Query and  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.6.  <client/> Create Reply  . . . . . . . . . 11
     4.4.  Example 4: Client . . . . . . . .  14
     4.7.  <client/> Set Query and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     4.8.  <client/> Set Reply . . . . . . . . . . 12
     4.5.  Example 5: Client . . . . . . . . .  15
     4.9.  <client/> Get Query and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     4.10. <client/> Get Reply . . . . . . . . . . 13
     4.6.  Example 6: Client . . . . . . . . .  15
     4.11. <client/> List Query and  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     4.12. <client/> List Reply  . . . . . . . . . . 13
     4.7.  Example 7: Client . . . . . . . .  16
     4.13. <client/> Destroy Query and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     4.14. <client/> Destroy Reply . . . . . . . . 14
     4.8.  Example 8: Publish . . . . . . . . .  17
     4.15. <publish/> Query and  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     4.16. <publish/> Reply  . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     4.9.  Example 9: Withdraw . . . . . . . .  18
     4.17. <withdraw/> Query and Reply . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     4.10. Example 10: Report Error . . . . . . . . .  18
     4.18. <withdraw/> Reply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 . . . . . .  19
     4.19. <report_error/> With Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     4.20. <report_error/> Without Text  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   5.  Operational Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16  19
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17  20
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18  21
   8.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19  21
     8.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19  21
     8.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19  22
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19  22

1.  Introduction

   This document assumes a working knowledge of the Resource Public Key
   Infrastructure (RPKI), which is intended to support improved routing
   security on the Internet.  [RFC6480]

   In order to make participation in the RPKI easier, it is helpful to
   have a few consolidated repositories for RPKI objects, thus saving
   every participant from the cost of maintaining a new service.
   Similarly, relying parties using the RPKI objects will find it faster
   and more reliable to retrieve the necessary set from a smaller number
   of repositories.

   These consolidated RPKI object repositories will in many cases be
   outside the administrative scope of the organization issuing a given
   RPKI object.  Hence the need for a protocol to publish RPKI objects.

   This document defines the RPKI publication protocol, including a sub-
   protocol for configuring the publication engine.

1.1.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   "Publication engine" and "publication server" are used
   interchangeably to refer to the server providing the service
   described in this document.

   "Business Public Key Infrastructure" ("Business PKI" or "BPKI")
   refers to a PKI, separate from the RPKI, used to authenticate clients
   to the publication engine.

2.  Context

   This protocol was designed specifically for the case where an
   internet registry, already issuing RPKI certificates to its children,
   also wishes to run a publication service for its children.

   We use the term "Business PKI" here because an internet registry
   might already have a PKI, separate from the RPKI, for authenticating
   its clients and might wish to reuse that PKI for this protocol.  Such
   reuse is not a requirement.

3.  Protocol Specification
   In summary, the publication protocol uses XML messages wrapped in
   CMS, carried over HTTP transport.

   The publication procotol consists of two separate subprotocols.  The
   first is a control protocol used to configure a publication engine.
   The second subprotocol, which we refer to by the overloaded term
   "publication protocol", is used to request publication of specific
   objects.  The publication engine operates a single HTTP server on a
   single port.  It distinguishes between the two protocols by using
   different URLs for them.

3.1.  Common Details

   This section discusses details that the two subprotocols have in
   common, including the transport and CMS wrappers.

   Both protocols use a simple request/response interaction.  The client
   passes a request to the server, and the server generates a
   corresponding response.

   A message exchange commences with the client initiating an HTTP POST
   with content type of "application/rpki-publication", with the message
   object as the body.  The server's response will similarly be the body
   of the response with a content type of "application/
   rpki-publication". "application/rpki-
   publication".

   The content of the POST and the server's response will be a well-
   formed Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS) [RFC5652] object with OID =
   1.2.840.113549.1.7.2 as described in Section 3.1 of [RFC6492].

3.1.1.  Common XML Message Format

   The XML schema for this protocol (including both subprotocols) is
   below in Section 3.5.  Both subprotocols use the same basic XML
   message format, which looks like:

      <?xml version='1.0' encoding='us-ascii'?>
      <msg xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/"
         version="2"
     type="message type">
     [one or more PDUs]
      </msg>

   version:  The value of this attribute is the version of this
      protocol.  This document describes version 2.

   type:  The possible values of this attribute are "reply" and "query".

   A query PDU may be one of four types: config_query, client_query,
   publish_query, or withdraw_query.  The first two are used by the
   control sub-protocol, the latter two by the publication sub-protocol.

   A reply PDU may be one of five types: config_reply, client_reply,
   publish_reply, withdraw_reply, or report_error_reply.

   Each of these PDUs may include an optional tag to facilitate bulk
   operation.  If a tag is set in a query PDU, the corresponding
   reply(s) MUST have the tag attribute set to the same value.

3.2.  Control Sub-Protocol

   The control sub-protocol is used to configure a publication server.
   It can set global variables (at the moment, limited to a BPKI CRL)
   and manage clients who are allowed to publish data on the server.

3.2.1.  Config Object

   The <config/> object allows configuration of data that apply to the
   entire publication server rather than a particular client.  There is
   exactly one <config/> object in the publication server, and it only
   supports the "set" and "get" actions -- it cannot be created or
   destroyed.  Its use is typically restricted to the repository
   operator.

   The <config/> object only has one data element that can be set: the
   bpki_crl.  This is used by the publication server when authenticating
   clients.

3.2.2.  Client Object

   Unlike the <config/> object, the <client/> object represents one
   client authorized to use the publication server.  There may be more
   than one <client/> object on each publication server.  Again, its use
   is typically restricted to the respository operator.

   The <client/> object supports five actions: "create", "set", "get",
   "list", and "destroy".  Each client has a "client_handle" attribute,
   which is used in responses and must be specified in "create", "set",
   "get", or "destroy" actions.  The "create" and "set" actions take have an
   optional boolean attributes.  The only attribute currently defined is
   used flag to clear CMS-timestamp-based replay protection, to
   allow recovery from misconfigured clocks.

   Payload data which can be configured in a <client/> object include:

   o  base_uri (attribute): This attribute represents the base URI below
      which the client will be allowed to publish data.  Additional
      constraints may be imposed by the publication server in certain
      cases, for e.g., a child publishing directly under its parent.

   o  bpki_cert (element): This represents the X.509 BPKI CA certificate
      for this client.  This should be used as part of the certificate
      chain when validating incoming CMS messages.  Two valid approaches
      exist.  If the optional bpki_glue certificate is being used, then
      the bpki_cert certificate should be issued by the bpki_glue
      certificate; otherwise, the bpki_cert certificate should be issued
      by the publication engine's bpki_ta certificate.

   o  bpki_glue (element): This is an additional (optional) type of
      X.509 certificate for this client.  It may be used in certain
      pathological cross-certification cases which require a two-
      certificate chain due to issuer name conflicts.  When being used,
      issuing order is that the bpki_glue certificate should be the
      issuer of the bpki_cert certificate.  Otherwise, it should be
      issued by the publication engine's bpki_ta certificate.  Since
      this is an optional use certificate, it may be left unset if not
      needed.

3.3.  Publication Sub-Protocol

   The publication sub-protocol requests publication or withdrawal from
   publication of RPKI objects.

   The publication protocol uses a common message format to request
   publication of any RPKI object.  This format was chosen specifically
   to allow this protocol to accommodate new types of RPKI objects
   without needing changes to this protocol.

   Both the <publish/> and <withdraw/> objects have a payload of an
   optional tag and a URI.  The <publish/> query also contains the DER
   object to be published, encoded in Base64.

   Note that every publish and withdraw action requires a new manifest,
   thus every publish or withdraw action will involve at least two
   objects.

3.4.  Error handling

   Errors are handled similarly in both subprotocols, and they're
   handled at two levels.

   Since all messages in this protocol are conveyed over HTTP
   connections, basic errors are indicated via the HTTP response code.
   4xx and 5xx responses indicate that something bad happened.  Errors
   that make it impossible to decode a query or encode a response are
   handled in this way.

   Where possible, errors will result in an XML <report_error/> message
   which takes the place of the expected protocol response message.
   <report_error/> messages are CMS-signed XML messages like the rest of
   this protocol, and thus can be archived to provide an audit trail.

   <report_error/> messages only appear in replies, never in queries.
   The <report_error/> message can appear in both the control and
   publication subprotocols.

   Like all other messages in this protocol, the <report_error/> message
   includes a "tag" attribute to assist in matching the error with a
   particular query when using batching.  It is optional to set the tag
   on queries but, if set on the query, it MUST be set on the reply or
   error.

   The error itself is conveyed in the error_code (attribute).  The
   value of this attribute is a token indicating the specific error that
   occurred.

   The body of the <report_error/> element itself is an optional text
   string; if present, this is debugging information.

3.5.  XML Schema

   The following is a RelaxNG compact form schema describing the
   Publication Protocol.

   # $Id: rpki-publication.rnc 2601 2013-10-18 19:21:28Z sra $
   # RelaxNG schema for RPKI publication protocol.

   default namespace =
       "http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/"

   # This is version 2 of the protocol.

   version = "2"
   # Top level PDU is either a query or a reply.

   start = element msg {
     attribute version { "2" version } ,
     ( ( attribute type { "query" }, query_elt*) query_elt* ) |
       (attribute
       ( attribute type { "reply" }, reply_elt*)) reply_elt* ) )
   }

   # PDUs allowed in a query query.

   query_elt = ( |= config_query |
   query_elt |= client_query |
   query_elt |= publish_query |
   query_elt |= withdraw_query )

   # PDUs allowed in a reply reply.

   reply_elt = ( |= config_reply |
   reply_elt |= client_reply |
   reply_elt |= publish_reply |
   reply_elt |= withdraw_reply |
   reply_elt |= report_error_reply )

   # Tag attributes for bulk operations operations.

   tag = attribute tag { xsd:token {maxLength="1024" { maxLength="1024" } }

   # Base64 encoded DER stuff stuff.

   base64 = xsd:base64Binary

   # Publication URLs URLs.

   uri_t = xsd:anyURI { maxLength="4096" }
   uri = attribute uri { uri_t }

   # Handles on remote objects (replaces passing raw SQL IDs).  NB:
    # Unlike the up-down protocol, handles in this protocol allow
    # "/" as a hierarchy delimiter.

   object_handle = xsd:string {
       maxLength="255"
      maxLength = "255"
      pattern="[\-_A-Za-z0-9/]*"
   }

   # Error codes.

   error = xsd:token { maxLength="1024" }

   # <config/> element (use restricted to repository operator)
    # config_handle attribute: create, list, and destroy commands
    # omitted deliberately.
   config_payload = (element bpki_crl { base64 }?)

   config_query |= element config {
     attribute action { "set" },
     tag?,
     config_payload
   }

   config_reply |= element config {
     attribute action { "set" },
     tag?
   }

   config_query |= element config {
     attribute action { "get" },
     tag?
   }

   config_reply |= element config {
     attribute action { "get" },
     tag?,
     config_payload
   }

   # <client/> element (use restricted to repository operator)

   client_handle = attribute client_handle { object_handle }

   client_payload = (attribute (
     attribute base_uri { uri_t }?,
     element bpki_cert { base64 }?,
     element bpki_glue { base64 }?)
    client_bool }?
   )

   client_clear_replay = (
     attribute clear_replay_protection { "yes" }?
   )

   client_query |= element client {
     attribute action { "create" },
     tag?,
     client_handle, client_bool,
     client_clear_replay,
     client_payload
   }

   client_reply |= element client {
     attribute action { "create" },
     tag?,
     client_handle
   }

   client_query |= element client {
     attribute action { "set" },
     tag?,
     client_handle, client_bool,
     client_clear_replay,
     client_payload
   }

   client_reply |= element client {
     attribute action { "set" },
     tag?,
     client_handle
   }

   client_query |= element client {
     attribute action { "get" },
     tag?,
     client_handle
   }

   client_reply |= element client {
     attribute action { "get" },
     tag?,
     client_handle,
     client_payload
   }

   client_query |= element client {
     attribute action { "list" },
     tag?
   }

   client_reply |= element client {
     attribute action { "list" },
     tag?,
     client_handle,
     client_payload
   }

   client_query |= element client {
     attribute action { "destroy" },
     tag?,
     client_handle
   }
   client_reply |= element client {
     attribute action { "destroy" },
     tag?,
     client_handle
   }

   # <publish/> element

   publish_query |= element publish {
     tag?,
     uri,
     base64
   }

   publish_reply |= element publish {
     tag?,
     uri
   }

   # <withdraw/> element

   withdraw_query |= element withdraw {
     tag?,
     uri
   }

   withdraw_reply |= element withdraw {
     tag?,
     uri
   }

   # <report_error/> element
    error = xsd:token { maxLength="1024" }

   report_error_reply = element report_error {
     tag?,
     attribute error_code { error },
     xsd:string { maxLength="512000" }?
   }

4.  Examples

   Following are examples of various queries and the corresponding
   replies for the RPKI publication protocol

4.1.  Config  <config/> Set Query and Response

   A. Config "Set" Query
   <msg xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/"
       type="query" version="2">
       version="2"
       xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/">
     <config
         action="set">
       <bpki_crl>
           MIIBezBlAgEBMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBCwUAMCMxITAfBgNVBAMTGFRlc3QgQ2Vyd
           GlmaWNhdGUgcHViZCBUQRcNMDgwNjAyMjE0OTQ1WhcNMDgwNzAyMjE0OTQ1Wq
           AOMAwwCgYDVR0UBAMCAQEwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQELBQADggEBAFWCWgBl4ljVqX/
           CHo+RpqYtvmKMnjPVflMXUB7i28RGP4DAq4l7deDU7Q82xEJyE4TXMWDWAV6U
           G6uUGum0VHWOcj9ohqyiZUGfOsKg2hbwkETm8sAENOsi1yNdyKGk6jZ16aF5f
           ubxQqZa1pdGCSac1/ZYC5sLLhEz3kmz+B9z9mXFVc5TgAh4dN3Gy5ftF8zZAF
           pDGnS4biCnRVqhGv6R0Lh/5xmii+ZU6kNDhbeMsjJg+ZOmtN+wMeHSIbjiy0W
           uuaZ3k2xSh0C94anrHBZAvvCRhbazjR0Ef5OMZ5lcllw3uO8IHuoisHKkehy4
           Y0GySdj98fV+OuiRTH9vt/M=
         MIIBezBlAgEBMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBCwUAMCMxITAfBgNVBAMTGFRlc3QgQ2Vy
         dGlmaWNhdGUgcHViZCBUQRcNMDgwNjAyMjE0OTQ1WhcNMDgwNzAyMjE0OTQ1
         WqAOMAwwCgYDVR0UBAMCAQEwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQELBQADggEBAFWCWgBl4ljV
         qX/CHo+RpqYtvmKMnjPVflMXUB7i28RGP4DAq4l7deDU7Q82xEJyE4TXMWDW
         AV6UG6uUGum0VHWOcj9ohqyiZUGfOsKg2hbwkETm8sAENOsi1yNdyKGk6jZ1
         6aF5fubxQqZa1pdGCSac1/ZYC5sLLhEz3kmz+B9z9mXFVc5TgAh4dN3Gy5ft
         F8zZAFpDGnS4biCnRVqhGv6R0Lh/5xmii+ZU6kNDhbeMsjJg+ZOmtN+wMeHS
         Ibjiy0WuuaZ3k2xSh0C94anrHBZAvvCRhbazjR0Ef5OMZ5lcllw3uO8IHuoi
         sHKkehy4Y0GySdj98fV+OuiRTH9vt/M=
       </bpki_crl>
     </config>
   </msg>

   B. Config "Set"

4.2.  <config/> Set Reply

   <msg xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/"
       type="reply" version="2">
       version="2"
       xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/">
     <config
         action="set"/>
   </msg>

4.2.  Config

4.3.  <config/> Get Query and Response

   A. Config "Get" Query

   <msg xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/"
       type="query" version="2">
       version="2"
       xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/">
     <config
         action="get"/>
   </msg>

   B. Config "Get"

4.4.  <config/> Get Reply

   <msg xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/"
       type="reply" version="2">
       version="2"
       xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/">
     <config
         action="get">
       <bpki_crl>
           MIIBezBlAgEBMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBCwUAMCMxITAfBgNVBAMTGFRlc3QgQ2Vyd
           GlmaWNhdGUgcHViZCBUQRcNMDgwNjAyMjE0OTQ1WhcNMDgwNzAyMjE0OTQ1Wq
           AOMAwwCgYDVR0UBAMCAQEwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQELBQADggEBAFWCWgBl4ljVqX/
           CHo+RpqYtvmKMnjPVflMXUB7i28RGP4DAq4l7deDU7Q82xEJyE4TXMWDWAV6U
           G6uUGum0VHWOcj9ohqyiZUGfOsKg2hbwkETm8sAENOsi1yNdyKGk6jZ16aF5f
           ubxQqZa1pdGCSac1/ZYC5sLLhEz3kmz+B9z9mXFVc5TgAh4dN3Gy5ftF8zZAF
           pDGnS4biCnRVqhGv6R0Lh/5xmii+ZU6kNDhbeMsjJg+ZOmtN+wMeHSIbjiy0W
           uuaZ3k2xSh0C94anrHBZAvvCRhbazjR0Ef5OMZ5lcllw3uO8IHuoisHKkehy4
           Y0GySdj98fV+OuiRTH9vt/M=
         MIIBezBlAgEBMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBCwUAMCMxITAfBgNVBAMTGFRlc3QgQ2Vy
         dGlmaWNhdGUgcHViZCBUQRcNMDgwNjAyMjE0OTQ1WhcNMDgwNzAyMjE0OTQ1
         WqAOMAwwCgYDVR0UBAMCAQEwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQELBQADggEBAFWCWgBl4ljV
         qX/CHo+RpqYtvmKMnjPVflMXUB7i28RGP4DAq4l7deDU7Q82xEJyE4TXMWDW
         AV6UG6uUGum0VHWOcj9ohqyiZUGfOsKg2hbwkETm8sAENOsi1yNdyKGk6jZ1
         6aF5fubxQqZa1pdGCSac1/ZYC5sLLhEz3kmz+B9z9mXFVc5TgAh4dN3Gy5ft
         F8zZAFpDGnS4biCnRVqhGv6R0Lh/5xmii+ZU6kNDhbeMsjJg+ZOmtN+wMeHS
         Ibjiy0WuuaZ3k2xSh0C94anrHBZAvvCRhbazjR0Ef5OMZ5lcllw3uO8IHuoi
         sHKkehy4Y0GySdj98fV+OuiRTH9vt/M=
       </bpki_crl>
     </config>
   </msg>

4.3.  Example 3: Client

4.5.  <client/> Create Query and Reply

   A. Client "Create" Query

   <msg xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/"
       type="query"
       version="2" type="query">
       xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/">
     <client
         action="create" client_handle="3"
           base_uri="rsync://wombat.invalid/">
         base_uri="rsync://wombat.invalid/"
         client_handle="3">
       <bpki_cert>
           MIIDGzCCAgOgAwIBAgIJAKi+/+wUhQlxMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBQUAMCQxIjAgB
           gNVBAMTGVRlc3QgQ2VydGlmaWNhdGUgQm9iIFJvb3QwHhcNMDcwODAxMTk1Mz
           EwWhcNMDcwODMxMTk1MzEwWjAkMSIwIAYDVQQDExlUZXN0IENlcnRpZmljYXR
           lIEJvYiBSb290MIIBIjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOCAQ8AMIIBCgKCAQEArKYU
           tJaM5PH5917SG2ACc7iBYdQO2HYyu8Gb6i9Q2Gxc3cWEX7RTBvgOL79pWf3GI
           dnoupzMnoZVtY3GUx2G/0WkmLui2TCeDhcfXdQ4rcp8J3V/6ESj+yuEPPOG8U
           N17mUKKgujrch6ZvgCDO9AyOK/uXu+ABQXTPsn2pVe2EVh3V004ShLi8GKgVd
           qb/rW/6GTg0Xb/zLT6WWMuT++6sXTlztJdQYkRamJvKfQDU1naC8mAkGf79Tb
           a0xyBGAUII0GfREY6t4/+NAP2Yyb3xNlBqcJoTov0JfNKHZcCZePr79j7LK/h
           kZxxip+Na9xDpE+oQRV+DRukCRJdiqg+wIDAQABo1AwTjAMBgNVHRMEBTADAQ
           H/MB0GA1UdDgQWBBTDEsXJe6pjAQD4ULlB7+GMDBlimTAfBgNVHSMEGDAWgBT
           DEsXJe6pjAQD4ULlB7+GMDBlimTANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQUFAAOCAQEAWWkNcW6S
           1tKKqtzJsdfhjJiAAPQmOXJskv0ta/8f6Acgcum1YieNdtT0n96P7CUHOWP8Q
           Bb91JzeewR7b6WJLwb1Offs3wNq3kk75pJe89r4XY39EZHhMW+Dv0PhIKu2Cg
           D4LeyH1FVTQkF/QObGEmkn+s+HTsuzd1l2VLwcP1Smsqep6LAlFj62qqaIJzN
           eQ9NVkBqtkygnYlBOkaBTHfQTux3jYNpEo8JJB5e/WFdHYyMNrG2xMOtIC7T4
           +IOHgT8PgrNhaeDg9ctewj0X8Qi9nI9nXeinicLX8vj6hdEq3ORv7RZMJNYqv
           1HQ3wUE2B7fCPFv7EUwzaCds1kgRQ==
         MIIDGzCCAgOgAwIBAgIJAKi+/+wUhQlxMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBQUAMCQxIjAg
         BgNVBAMTGVRlc3QgQ2VydGlmaWNhdGUgQm9iIFJvb3QwHhcNMDcwODAxMTk1
         MzEwWhcNMDcwODMxMTk1MzEwWjAkMSIwIAYDVQQDExlUZXN0IENlcnRpZmlj
         YXRlIEJvYiBSb290MIIBIjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOCAQ8AMIIBCgKCAQEA
         rKYUtJaM5PH5917SG2ACc7iBYdQO2HYyu8Gb6i9Q2Gxc3cWEX7RTBvgOL79p
         Wf3GIdnoupzMnoZVtY3GUx2G/0WkmLui2TCeDhcfXdQ4rcp8J3V/6ESj+yuE
         PPOG8UN17mUKKgujrch6ZvgCDO9AyOK/uXu+ABQXTPsn2pVe2EVh3V004ShL
         i8GKgVdqb/rW/6GTg0Xb/zLT6WWMuT++6sXTlztJdQYkRamJvKfQDU1naC8m
         AkGf79Tba0xyBGAUII0GfREY6t4/+NAP2Yyb3xNlBqcJoTov0JfNKHZcCZeP
         r79j7LK/hkZxxip+Na9xDpE+oQRV+DRukCRJdiqg+wIDAQABo1AwTjAMBgNV
         HRMEBTADAQH/MB0GA1UdDgQWBBTDEsXJe6pjAQD4ULlB7+GMDBlimTAfBgNV
         HSMEGDAWgBTDEsXJe6pjAQD4ULlB7+GMDBlimTANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQUFAAOC
         AQEAWWkNcW6S1tKKqtzJsdfhjJiAAPQmOXJskv0ta/8f6Acgcum1YieNdtT0
         n96P7CUHOWP8QBb91JzeewR7b6WJLwb1Offs3wNq3kk75pJe89r4XY39EZHh
         MW+Dv0PhIKu2CgD4LeyH1FVTQkF/QObGEmkn+s+HTsuzd1l2VLwcP1Smsqep
         6LAlFj62qqaIJzNeQ9NVkBqtkygnYlBOkaBTHfQTux3jYNpEo8JJB5e/WFdH
         YyMNrG2xMOtIC7T4+IOHgT8PgrNhaeDg9ctewj0X8Qi9nI9nXeinicLX8vj6
         hdEq3ORv7RZMJNYqv1HQ3wUE2B7fCPFv7EUwzaCds1kgRQ==
       </bpki_cert>
     </client>
   </msg>

   B. Client "Create"

4.6.  <client/> Create Reply

   <msg xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/"
       type="reply"
       version="2" type="reply">
       xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/">
     <client
         action="create"
         client_handle="3"/>
   </msg>

4.4.  Example 4: Client

4.7.  <client/> Set Query and Reply

   A. Client "Set" Query

   <msg xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/"
       type="query"
       version="2" type="query">
       xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/">
     <client
         action="set"
         client_handle="3">
           <bpki_glue>
           MIIDGzCCAgOgAwIBAgIJAKi+/+wUhQlxMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBQUAMCQxIjAgB
           gNVBAMTGVRlc3QgQ2VydGlmaWNhdGUgQm9iIFJvb3QwHhcNMDcwODAxMTk1Mz
           EwWhcNMDcwODMxMTk1MzEwWjAkMSIwIAYDVQQDExlUZXN0IENlcnRpZmljYXR
           lIEJvYiBSb290MIIBIjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOCAQ8AMIIBCgKCAQEArKYU
           tJaM5PH5917SG2ACc7iBYdQO2HYyu8Gb6i9Q2Gxc3cWEX7RTBvgOL79pWf3GI
           dnoupzMnoZVtY3GUx2G/0WkmLui2TCeDhcfXdQ4rcp8J3V/6ESj+yuEPPOG8U
           N17mUKKgujrch6ZvgCDO9AyOK/uXu+ABQXTPsn2pVe2EVh3V004ShLi8GKgVd
           qb/rW/6GTg0Xb/zLT6WWMuT++6sXTlztJdQYkRamJvKfQDU1naC8mAkGf79Tb
           a0xyBGAUII0GfREY6t4/+NAP2Yyb3xNlBqcJoTov0JfNKHZcCZePr79j7LK/h
           kZxxip+Na9xDpE+oQRV+DRukCRJdiqg+wIDAQABo1AwTjAMBgNVHRMEBTADAQ
           H/MB0GA1UdDgQWBBTDEsXJe6pjAQD4ULlB7+GMDBlimTAfBgNVHSMEGDAWgBT
           DEsXJe6pjAQD4ULlB7+GMDBlimTANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQUFAAOCAQEAWWkNcW6S
           1tKKqtzJsdfhjJiAAPQmOXJskv0ta/8f6Acgcum1YieNdtT0n96P7CUHOWP8Q
           Bb91JzeewR7b6WJLwb1Offs3wNq3kk75pJe89r4XY39EZHhMW+Dv0PhIKu2Cg
           D4LeyH1FVTQkF/QObGEmkn+s+HTsuzd1l2VLwcP1Smsqep6LAlFj62qqaIJzN
           eQ9NVkBqtkygnYlBOkaBTHfQTux3jYNpEo8JJB5e/WFdHYyMNrG2xMOtIC7T4
           +IOHgT8PgrNhaeDg9ctewj0X8Qi9nI9nXeinicLX8vj6hdEq3ORv7RZMJNYqv
           1HQ3wUE2B7fCPFv7EUwzaCds1kgRQ==
           </bpki_glue>
       <bpki_cert>
         MIIDGzCCAgOgAwIBAgIJAKi+/+wUhQlxMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBQUAMCQxIjAg
         BgNVBAMTGVRlc3QgQ2VydGlmaWNhdGUgQm9iIFJvb3QwHhcNMDcwODAxMTk1
         MzEwWhcNMDcwODMxMTk1MzEwWjAkMSIwIAYDVQQDExlUZXN0IENlcnRpZmlj
         YXRlIEJvYiBSb290MIIBIjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOCAQ8AMIIBCgKCAQEA
         rKYUtJaM5PH5917SG2ACc7iBYdQO2HYyu8Gb6i9Q2Gxc3cWEX7RTBvgOL79p
         Wf3GIdnoupzMnoZVtY3GUx2G/0WkmLui2TCeDhcfXdQ4rcp8J3V/6ESj+yuE
         PPOG8UN17mUKKgujrch6ZvgCDO9AyOK/uXu+ABQXTPsn2pVe2EVh3V004ShL
         i8GKgVdqb/rW/6GTg0Xb/zLT6WWMuT++6sXTlztJdQYkRamJvKfQDU1naC8m
         AkGf79Tba0xyBGAUII0GfREY6t4/+NAP2Yyb3xNlBqcJoTov0JfNKHZcCZeP
         r79j7LK/hkZxxip+Na9xDpE+oQRV+DRukCRJdiqg+wIDAQABo1AwTjAMBgNV
         HRMEBTADAQH/MB0GA1UdDgQWBBTDEsXJe6pjAQD4ULlB7+GMDBlimTAfBgNV
         HSMEGDAWgBTDEsXJe6pjAQD4ULlB7+GMDBlimTANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQUFAAOC
         AQEAWWkNcW6S1tKKqtzJsdfhjJiAAPQmOXJskv0ta/8f6Acgcum1YieNdtT0
         n96P7CUHOWP8QBb91JzeewR7b6WJLwb1Offs3wNq3kk75pJe89r4XY39EZHh
         MW+Dv0PhIKu2CgD4LeyH1FVTQkF/QObGEmkn+s+HTsuzd1l2VLwcP1Smsqep
         6LAlFj62qqaIJzNeQ9NVkBqtkygnYlBOkaBTHfQTux3jYNpEo8JJB5e/WFdH
         YyMNrG2xMOtIC7T4+IOHgT8PgrNhaeDg9ctewj0X8Qi9nI9nXeinicLX8vj6
         hdEq3ORv7RZMJNYqv1HQ3wUE2B7fCPFv7EUwzaCds1kgRQ==
       </bpki_cert>
     </client>
   </msg>

   B. Client "Set"

4.8.  <client/> Set Reply

   <msg xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/"
       type="reply"
       version="2" type="reply">
       xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/">
     <client
         action="set"
         client_handle="3"/>
   </msg>

4.5.  Example 5: Client

4.9.  <client/> Get Query and Reply

   A. Client "Get" Query

   <msg xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/"
       type="query"
       version="2" type="query">
       xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/">
     <client
         action="get"
         client_handle="3"/>
   </msg>

   B. Client "Get"

4.10.  <client/> Get Reply

   <msg xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/"
       type="reply"
       version="2" type="reply">
       xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/">
     <client
         action="get" client_handle="3"
           base_uri="rsync://wombat.invalid/">
         base_uri="rsync://wombat.invalid/"
         client_handle="3">
       <bpki_cert>
           MIIDGzCCAgOgAwIBAgIJAKi+/+wUhQlxMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBQUAMCQxIjAgB
           gNVBAMTGVRlc3QgQ2VydGlmaWNhdGUgQm9iIFJvb3QwHhcNMDcwODAxMTk1Mz
           EwWhcNMDcwODMxMTk1MzEwWjAkMSIwIAYDVQQDExlUZXN0IENlcnRpZmljYXR
           lIEJvYiBSb290MIIBIjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOCAQ8AMIIBCgKCAQEArKYU
           tJaM5PH5917SG2ACc7iBYdQO2HYyu8Gb6i9Q2Gxc3cWEX7RTBvgOL79pWf3GI
           dnoupzMnoZVtY3GUx2G/0WkmLui2TCeDhcfXdQ4rcp8J3V/6ESj+yuEPPOG8U
           N17mUKKgujrch6ZvgCDO9AyOK/uXu+ABQXTPsn2pVe2EVh3V004ShLi8GKgVd
           qb/rW/6GTg0Xb/zLT6WWMuT++6sXTlztJdQYkRamJvKfQDU1naC8mAkGf79Tb
           a0xyBGAUII0GfREY6t4/+NAP2Yyb3xNlBqcJoTov0JfNKHZcCZePr79j7LK/h
           kZxxip+Na9xDpE+oQRV+DRukCRJdiqg+wIDAQABo1AwTjAMBgNVHRMEBTADAQ
           H/MB0GA1UdDgQWBBTDEsXJe6pjAQD4ULlB7+GMDBlimTAfBgNVHSMEGDAWgBT
           DEsXJe6pjAQD4ULlB7+GMDBlimTANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQUFAAOCAQEAWWkNcW6S
           1tKKqtzJsdfhjJiAAPQmOXJskv0ta/8f6Acgcum1YieNdtT0n96P7CUHOWP8Q
           Bb91JzeewR7b6WJLwb1Offs3wNq3kk75pJe89r4XY39EZHhMW+Dv0PhIKu2Cg
           D4LeyH1FVTQkF/QObGEmkn+s+HTsuzd1l2VLwcP1Smsqep6LAlFj62qqaIJzN
           eQ9NVkBqtkygnYlBOkaBTHfQTux3jYNpEo8JJB5e/WFdHYyMNrG2xMOtIC7T4
           +IOHgT8PgrNhaeDg9ctewj0X8Qi9nI9nXeinicLX8vj6hdEq3ORv7RZMJNYqv
           1HQ3wUE2B7fCPFv7EUwzaCds1kgRQ==
         MIIDGzCCAgOgAwIBAgIJAKi+/+wUhQlxMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBQUAMCQxIjAg
         BgNVBAMTGVRlc3QgQ2VydGlmaWNhdGUgQm9iIFJvb3QwHhcNMDcwODAxMTk1
         MzEwWhcNMDcwODMxMTk1MzEwWjAkMSIwIAYDVQQDExlUZXN0IENlcnRpZmlj
         YXRlIEJvYiBSb290MIIBIjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOCAQ8AMIIBCgKCAQEA
         rKYUtJaM5PH5917SG2ACc7iBYdQO2HYyu8Gb6i9Q2Gxc3cWEX7RTBvgOL79p
         Wf3GIdnoupzMnoZVtY3GUx2G/0WkmLui2TCeDhcfXdQ4rcp8J3V/6ESj+yuE
         PPOG8UN17mUKKgujrch6ZvgCDO9AyOK/uXu+ABQXTPsn2pVe2EVh3V004ShL
         i8GKgVdqb/rW/6GTg0Xb/zLT6WWMuT++6sXTlztJdQYkRamJvKfQDU1naC8m
         AkGf79Tba0xyBGAUII0GfREY6t4/+NAP2Yyb3xNlBqcJoTov0JfNKHZcCZeP
         r79j7LK/hkZxxip+Na9xDpE+oQRV+DRukCRJdiqg+wIDAQABo1AwTjAMBgNV
         HRMEBTADAQH/MB0GA1UdDgQWBBTDEsXJe6pjAQD4ULlB7+GMDBlimTAfBgNV
         HSMEGDAWgBTDEsXJe6pjAQD4ULlB7+GMDBlimTANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQUFAAOC
         AQEAWWkNcW6S1tKKqtzJsdfhjJiAAPQmOXJskv0ta/8f6Acgcum1YieNdtT0
         n96P7CUHOWP8QBb91JzeewR7b6WJLwb1Offs3wNq3kk75pJe89r4XY39EZHh
         MW+Dv0PhIKu2CgD4LeyH1FVTQkF/QObGEmkn+s+HTsuzd1l2VLwcP1Smsqep
         6LAlFj62qqaIJzNeQ9NVkBqtkygnYlBOkaBTHfQTux3jYNpEo8JJB5e/WFdH
         YyMNrG2xMOtIC7T4+IOHgT8PgrNhaeDg9ctewj0X8Qi9nI9nXeinicLX8vj6
         hdEq3ORv7RZMJNYqv1HQ3wUE2B7fCPFv7EUwzaCds1kgRQ==
       </bpki_cert>
     </client>
   </msg>

4.6.  Example 6: Client

4.11.  <client/> List Query and Reply

   A. Client "List" Query

   <msg xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/"
       type="query"
       version="2" type="query">
       xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/">
     <client
         action="list"/>
   </msg>

   B. Client "List"

4.12.  <client/> List Reply

   <msg xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/"
       type="reply"
       version="2" type="reply">
       xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/">
     <client
         action="list"
         client_handle="3">
       <bpki_cert>
           MIIDGzCCAgOgAwIBAgIJAKi+/+wUhQlxMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBQUAMCQxIjAgB
           gNVBAMTGVRlc3QgQ2VydGlmaWNhdGUgQm9iIFJvb3QwHhcNMDcwODAxMTk1Mz
           EwWhcNMDcwODMxMTk1MzEwWjAkMSIwIAYDVQQDExlUZXN0IENlcnRpZmljYXR
           lIEJvYiBSb290MIIBIjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOCAQ8AMIIBCgKCAQEArKYU
           tJaM5PH5917SG2ACc7iBYdQO2HYyu8Gb6i9Q2Gxc3cWEX7RTBvgOL79pWf3GI
           dnoupzMnoZVtY3GUx2G/0WkmLui2TCeDhcfXdQ4rcp8J3V/6ESj+yuEPPOG8U
           N17mUKKgujrch6ZvgCDO9AyOK/uXu+ABQXTPsn2pVe2EVh3V004ShLi8GKgVd
           qb/rW/6GTg0Xb/zLT6WWMuT++6sXTlztJdQYkRamJvKfQDU1naC8mAkGf79Tb
           a0xyBGAUII0GfREY6t4/+NAP2Yyb3xNlBqcJoTov0JfNKHZcCZePr79j7LK/h
           kZxxip+Na9xDpE+oQRV+DRukCRJdiqg+wIDAQABo1AwTjAMBgNVHRMEBTADAQ
           H/MB0GA1UdDgQWBBTDEsXJe6pjAQD4ULlB7+GMDBlimTAfBgNVHSMEGDAWgBT
           DEsXJe6pjAQD4ULlB7+GMDBlimTANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQUFAAOCAQEAWWkNcW6S
           1tKKqtzJsdfhjJiAAPQmOXJskv0ta/8f6Acgcum1YieNdtT0n96P7CUHOWP8Q
           Bb91JzeewR7b6WJLwb1Offs3wNq3kk75pJe89r4XY39EZHhMW+Dv0PhIKu2Cg
           D4LeyH1FVTQkF/QObGEmkn+s+HTsuzd1l2VLwcP1Smsqep6LAlFj62qqaIJzN
           eQ9NVkBqtkygnYlBOkaBTHfQTux3jYNpEo8JJB5e/WFdHYyMNrG2xMOtIC7T4
           +IOHgT8PgrNhaeDg9ctewj0X8Qi9nI9nXeinicLX8vj6hdEq3ORv7RZMJNYqv
           1HQ3wUE2B7fCPFv7EUwzaCds1kgRQ==
         MIIDGzCCAgOgAwIBAgIJAKi+/+wUhQlxMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBQUAMCQxIjAg
         BgNVBAMTGVRlc3QgQ2VydGlmaWNhdGUgQm9iIFJvb3QwHhcNMDcwODAxMTk1
         MzEwWhcNMDcwODMxMTk1MzEwWjAkMSIwIAYDVQQDExlUZXN0IENlcnRpZmlj
         YXRlIEJvYiBSb290MIIBIjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOCAQ8AMIIBCgKCAQEA
         rKYUtJaM5PH5917SG2ACc7iBYdQO2HYyu8Gb6i9Q2Gxc3cWEX7RTBvgOL79p
         Wf3GIdnoupzMnoZVtY3GUx2G/0WkmLui2TCeDhcfXdQ4rcp8J3V/6ESj+yuE
         PPOG8UN17mUKKgujrch6ZvgCDO9AyOK/uXu+ABQXTPsn2pVe2EVh3V004ShL
         i8GKgVdqb/rW/6GTg0Xb/zLT6WWMuT++6sXTlztJdQYkRamJvKfQDU1naC8m
         AkGf79Tba0xyBGAUII0GfREY6t4/+NAP2Yyb3xNlBqcJoTov0JfNKHZcCZeP
         r79j7LK/hkZxxip+Na9xDpE+oQRV+DRukCRJdiqg+wIDAQABo1AwTjAMBgNV
         HRMEBTADAQH/MB0GA1UdDgQWBBTDEsXJe6pjAQD4ULlB7+GMDBlimTAfBgNV
         HSMEGDAWgBTDEsXJe6pjAQD4ULlB7+GMDBlimTANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQUFAAOC
         AQEAWWkNcW6S1tKKqtzJsdfhjJiAAPQmOXJskv0ta/8f6Acgcum1YieNdtT0
         n96P7CUHOWP8QBb91JzeewR7b6WJLwb1Offs3wNq3kk75pJe89r4XY39EZHh
         MW+Dv0PhIKu2CgD4LeyH1FVTQkF/QObGEmkn+s+HTsuzd1l2VLwcP1Smsqep
         6LAlFj62qqaIJzNeQ9NVkBqtkygnYlBOkaBTHfQTux3jYNpEo8JJB5e/WFdH
         YyMNrG2xMOtIC7T4+IOHgT8PgrNhaeDg9ctewj0X8Qi9nI9nXeinicLX8vj6
         hdEq3ORv7RZMJNYqv1HQ3wUE2B7fCPFv7EUwzaCds1kgRQ==
       </bpki_cert>
     </client>
   </msg>

4.7.  Example 7: Client

4.13.  <client/> Destroy Query and Reply

   A. Client "Destroy" Query

   <msg xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/"
       type="query"
       version="2" type="query">
       xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/">
     <client
         action="destroy"
         client_handle="3"/>
   </msg>

   B. Client "Destroy"

4.14.  <client/> Destroy Reply

   <msg xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/"
       type="reply"
       version="2" type="reply">
       xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/">
     <client
         action="destroy"
         client_handle="3"/>
   </msg>

4.8.  Example 8: Publish Query and Reply

   A. Publish

4.15.  <publish/> Query

   <msg xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/"
       type="query"
       version="2" type="query">
       xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/">
     <publish uri="rsync://wombat.invalid/testbed/RIR/1/j7ghjwblCr
           cCp9ltyPDNzYKPfxc.cer">
           MIIE+jCCA+KgAwIBAgIBDTANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQsFADAzMTEwLwYDVQQDEyhER
           jRBODAxN0U2NkE5RTkxNzJFNDYxMkQ4Q0Y0QzgzRjIzOERFMkEzMB4XDTA4MD
           UyMjE4MDUxMloXDTA4MDUyNDE3NTQ1M1owMzExMC8GA1UEAxMoOEZCODIxOEY
           wNkU1MEFCNzAyQTdEOTZEQzhGMENEQ0Q4MjhGN0YxNzCCASIwDQYJKoZIhvcN
           AQEBBQADggEPADCCAQoCggEBAMeziKp0k5nP7v6SZoNsXIMQYRgNtC6Fr/9Xm
           /1yQHomiPqHUk47rHhGojYiK5AhkrwoYhkH4UjJl2iwklDYczXuaBU3F5qrKl
           Z4aZnjIxdlP7+hktVpeApL6yuJTUAYeC3UIxnLDVdD6phydZ/FOQluffiNDjz
           teCCvoyOUatqt8WB+oND6LToHp028g1YUYLHG6mur0dPdcHOVXLSmUDuZ1HDz
           1nDuYvIVKjB/MpH9aW9XeaQ6ZFIlZVPwuuvI2brR+ThH7Gv27GL/o8qFdC300
           VQfoTZ+rKPGDE8K1cI906BL4kiwx9z0oiDcE96QCz+B0vsjc9mGaA1jgAxlXW
           sCAwEAAaOCAhcwggITMB0GA1UdDgQWBBSPuCGPBuUKtwKn2W3I8M3Ngo9/FzA
           fBgNVHSMEGDAWgBTfSoAX5mqekXLkYS2M9Mg/I43iozBVBgNVHR8ETjBMMEqg
           SKBGhkRyc3luYzovL2xvY2FsaG9zdDo0NDAwL3Rlc3RiZWQvUklSLzEvMzBxQ
           UYtWnFucEZ5NUdFdGpQVElQeU9ONHFNLmNybDBFBggrBgEFBQcBAQQ5MDcwNQ
           YIKwYBBQUHMAKGKXJzeW5jOi8vbG9jYWxob3N0OjQ0MDAvdGVzdGJlZC9XT01
           CQVQuY2VyMBgGA1UdIAEB/wQOMAwwCgYIKwYBBQUHDgIwDwYDVR0TAQH/BAUw
           AwEB/zAOBgNVHQ8BAf8EBAMCAQYwgZsGCCsGAQUFBwELBIGOMIGLMDQGCCsGA
           QUFBzAFhihyc3luYzovL2xvY2FsaG9zdDo0NDAwL3Rlc3RiZWQvUklSL1IwLz
           EvMFMGCCsGAQUFBzAKhkdyc3luYzovL2xvY2FsaG9zdDo0NDAwL3Rlc3RiZWQ
           vUklSL1IwLzEvajdnaGp3YmxDcmNDcDlsdHlQRE56WUtQZnhjLm1uZjAaBggr
           BgEFBQcBCAEB/wQLMAmgBzAFAgMA/BUwPgYIKwYBBQUHAQcBAf8ELzAtMCsEA
           gABMCUDAwAKAzAOAwUAwAACAQMFAcAAAiAwDgMFAsAAAiwDBQDAAAJkMA0GCS
           qGSIb3DQEBCwUAA4IBAQCEhuH7jtI2PJY6+zwv306vmCuXhtu9Lr2mmRw2ZEr
           B8EMcb5xypMrNqMoKeu14K2x4a4RPJkK4yAThM81FPNRsU5mM0acIRnAPtxjH
           vPME7PHN2w2nGLASRsZmaa+b8A7SSOxVcFURazENztppsolHeTpm0cpLItK7m
           NpudUg1JGuFo94VLf1MnE2EqARG1vTsNhel/SM/UvOArCCOBvf0Gz7kSuupDS
           Z7qx+LiDmtEsLdbGNQBiYPbLrDk41PHrxdx28qIj7ejZkRzNFw/3pi8/XK281
           h8zeHoFVu6ghRPy5dbOA4akX/KG6b8XIx0iwPYdLiDbdWFbtTdPcXBauY
         uri="rsync://wombat.invalid/Alice/blCrcCp9ltyPDNzYKPfxc.cer">
         MIIE+jCCA+KgAwIBAgIBDTANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQsFADAzMTEwLwYDVQQDEyhE
         RjRBODAxN0U2NkE5RTkxNzJFNDYxMkQ4Q0Y0QzgzRjIzOERFMkEzMB4XDTA4
         MDUyMjE4MDUxMloXDTA4MDUyNDE3NTQ1M1owMzExMC8GA1UEAxMoOEZCODIx
         OEYwNkU1MEFCNzAyQTdEOTZEQzhGMENEQ0Q4MjhGN0YxNzCCASIwDQYJKoZI
         hvcNAQEBBQADggEPADCCAQoCggEBAMeziKp0k5nP7v6SZoNsXIMQYRgNtC6F
         r/9Xm/1yQHomiPqHUk47rHhGojYiK5AhkrwoYhkH4UjJl2iwklDYczXuaBU3
         F5qrKlZ4aZnjIxdlP7+hktVpeApL6yuJTUAYeC3UIxnLDVdD6phydZ/FOQlu
         ffiNDjzteCCvoyOUatqt8WB+oND6LToHp028g1YUYLHG6mur0dPdcHOVXLSm
         UDuZ1HDz1nDuYvIVKjB/MpH9aW9XeaQ6ZFIlZVPwuuvI2brR+ThH7Gv27GL/
         o8qFdC300VQfoTZ+rKPGDE8K1cI906BL4kiwx9z0oiDcE96QCz+B0vsjc9mG
         aA1jgAxlXWsCAwEAAaOCAhcwggITMB0GA1UdDgQWBBSPuCGPBuUKtwKn2W3I
         8M3Ngo9/FzAfBgNVHSMEGDAWgBTfSoAX5mqekXLkYS2M9Mg/I43iozBVBgNV
         HR8ETjBMMEqgSKBGhkRyc3luYzovL2xvY2FsaG9zdDo0NDAwL3Rlc3RiZWQv
         UklSLzEvMzBxQUYtWnFucEZ5NUdFdGpQVElQeU9ONHFNLmNybDBFBggrBgEF
         BQcBAQQ5MDcwNQYIKwYBBQUHMAKGKXJzeW5jOi8vbG9jYWxob3N0OjQ0MDAv
         dGVzdGJlZC9XT01CQVQuY2VyMBgGA1UdIAEB/wQOMAwwCgYIKwYBBQUHDgIw
         DwYDVR0TAQH/BAUwAwEB/zAOBgNVHQ8BAf8EBAMCAQYwgZsGCCsGAQUFBwEL
         BIGOMIGLMDQGCCsGAQUFBzAFhihyc3luYzovL2xvY2FsaG9zdDo0NDAwL3Rl
         c3RiZWQvUklSL1IwLzEvMFMGCCsGAQUFBzAKhkdyc3luYzovL2xvY2FsaG9z
         dDo0NDAwL3Rlc3RiZWQvUklSL1IwLzEvajdnaGp3YmxDcmNDcDlsdHlQRE56
         WUtQZnhjLm1uZjAaBggrBgEFBQcBCAEB/wQLMAmgBzAFAgMA/BUwPgYIKwYB
         BQUHAQcBAf8ELzAtMCsEAgABMCUDAwAKAzAOAwUAwAACAQMFAcAAAiAwDgMF
         AsAAAiwDBQDAAAJkMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBCwUAA4IBAQCEhuH7jtI2PJY6+zwv
         306vmCuXhtu9Lr2mmRw2ZErB8EMcb5xypMrNqMoKeu14K2x4a4RPJkK4yATh
         M81FPNRsU5mM0acIRnAPtxjHvPME7PHN2w2nGLASRsZmaa+b8A7SSOxVcFUR
         azENztppsolHeTpm0cpLItK7mNpudUg1JGuFo94VLf1MnE2EqARG1vTsNhel
         /SM/UvOArCCOBvf0Gz7kSuupDSZ7qx+LiDmtEsLdbGNQBiYPbLrDk41PHrxd
         x28qIj7ejZkRzNFw/3pi8/XK281h8zeHoFVu6ghRPy5dbOA4akX/KG6b8XIx
         0iwPYdLiDbdWFbtTdPcXBauY
       </publish>
   </msg>

   B. Publish

4.16.  <publish/> Reply

   <msg xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/"
       type="reply"
       version="2" type="reply">
       xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/">
     <publish uri="rsync://wombat.invalid/testbed/RIR/1/j7ghjwblCr
           cCp9ltyPDNzYKPfxc.cer"/>
         uri="rsync://wombat.invalid/Alice/blCrcCp9ltyPDNzYKPfxc.cer"/>
   </msg>

4.9.  Example 9: Withdraw Query and Reply

   A. Withdraw

4.17.  <withdraw/> Query

   <msg xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/"
       type="query"
       version="2" type="query">
       xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/">
     <withdraw uri="rsync://wombat.invalid/testbed/RIR/1/j7ghjwblCr
           cCp9ltyPDNzYKPfxc.cer"/>
         uri="rsync://wombat.invalid/Alice/blCrcCp9ltyPDNzYKPfxc.cer"/>

   </msg>

   B. Withdraw

4.18.  <withdraw/> Reply

   <msg xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/"
       type="reply"
       version="2" type="reply">
       xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/">
     <withdraw uri="rsync://wombat.invalid/testbed/RIR/1/j7ghjwblCr
           cCp9ltyPDNzYKPfxc.cer"/>
         uri="rsync://wombat.invalid/Alice/blCrcCp9ltyPDNzYKPfxc.cer"/>
   </msg>

4.10.  Example 10: Report Error Reply

   A. Report Error Reply 1

4.19.  <report_error/> With Text

   <msg xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/"
       type="reply"
       version="2" type="reply">
       xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/">
     <report_error error_code="your_hair_is_on_fire">text string</
           report_error>
         error_code="your_hair_is_on_fire">
       Shampooing with sterno again, are we?
     </report_error>
   </msg>

   B. Report Error Reply 2

4.20.  <report_error/> Without Text

   <msg xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/"
       type="reply"
       version="2" type="reply">
       xmlns="http://www.hactrn.net/uris/rpki/publication-spec/">
     <report_error
         error_code="your_hair_is_on_fire"/>
   </msg>

5.  Operational Considerations

   There are two basic options open to the repository operator as to how
   the publication tree is laid out.  The first option is simple: each
   publication client is given its own directory one level below the top
   of the rcynic module, and there is no overlap between the publication
   spaces used by different clients.  For example:

   rsync://example.org/rpki/Alice/
   rsync://example.org/rpki/Bob/
   rsync://example.org/rpki/Carol/

   This has the advantage of being very easy for the publication
   operator to manage, but has the drawback of making it difficult for
   relying parties to fetch published objects both safely and as
   efficiently as possible.

   Given that the mandatory-to-implement retrieval protocol for relying
   parties is rsync, a more efficient repository structure would be one
   which minimized the number of rsync fetches required.  One such
   structure would be one in which the publication directories for
   subjects were placed underneath the publication directories of their
   issuers: since the normal synchronization tree walk is top-down, this
   can significantly reduce the total number of rsync connections
   required to synchronize.  For example:

   rsync://example.org/rpki/Alice/
   rsync://example.org/rpki/Alice/Bob/
   rsync://example.org/rpki/Alice/Bob/Carol/

   Preliminary measurement suggests that, in the case of large numbers
   of small publication directories, the time needed to set up and tear
   down individual rsync connections becomes significant, and that a
   properly optimized tree structure can reduce synchronization time by
   an order of magnitude.

   The more complex tree structure does require careful attention to the
   base_uri attribute values when setting up clients.  In the example
   above, assuming that Alice issues to Bob who in turn issues to Carol,
   Alice has ceded control of a portion of her publication space to Bob,
   who has in turn ceded a portion of that to Carol, and the base_uri
   attributes in the <client/> setup messages should reflect this.

   The details of how the repository operator determines that Alice has
   given Bob permission to nest Bob's publication directory under
   Alice's is outside the scope of this protocol.

6.  IANA Considerations

   IANA is asked to register the application/rpki-publication MIME media
   type as follows:

   MIME media type name:  application
   MIME subtype name:  rpki-publication
   Required parameters:  None
   Optional parameters:  None
   Encoding considerations:  binary
   Security considerations:  Carries an RPKI Publication Protocol
      Message, as defined in this document.
   Interoperability considerations:  None
   Published specification:  This document
   Applications which use this media type: HTTP
   Additional information:
      Magic number(s):  None
      File extension(s):
      Macintosh File Type Code(s):
   Person & email address to contact for further information:
      Rob Austein <sra@hactrn.net>
   Intended usage:  COMMON
   Author/Change controller: Rob Austein <sra@hactrn.net>

7.  Security Considerations

   The RPKI publication protocol and the data it publishes use entirely
   separate PKIs for authentication.  The published data is
   authenticated within the RPKI, and this protocol has nothing to do
   with that authentication, nor does it require that the published
   objects be valid in the RPKI.  The publication protocol uses a
   separate Business PKI (BPKI) to authenticate its messages.

   Each of the RPKI publication protocol messages is CMS-signed.
   Because of that protection at the application layer, this protocol
   does not require the use of HTTPS or other transport security
   mechanisms.

   Compromise of a publication server, perhaps through mismanagement of
   BPKI keys, could lead to a denial-of-service attack on the RPKI.  An
   attacker gaining access to BPKI keys could use this protocol delete
   (withdraw) RPKI objects, leading to routing changes or failures.
   Accordingly, as in most PKIs, good key management practices are
   important.

8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, BCP 14, March 1997.

   [RFC5652]  Housley, R., "Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)", STD 70, RFC
              5652, STD 70, September 2009.

   [RFC6492]  Huston, G., Loomans, R., Ellacott, B., and R. Austein, "A
              Protocol for Provisioning Resource Certificates", RFC
              6492, February 2012.

8.2.  Informative References

   [RFC6480]  Lepinski, M. and S. Kent, "An Infrastructure to Support
              Secure Internet Routing", RFC 6480, February 2012.

Authors' Addresses

   Samuel Weiler
   SPARTA, Inc.
   7110 Samuel Morse Drive
   Columbia, Maryland  21046
   US

   Email: weiler@tislabs.com

   Anuja Sonalker
   Battelle Memorial Institute
   Columbia, Maryland  21046
   US

   Email: sonalkera@battelle.org

   Rob Austein
   Dragon Research Labs

   Email: sra@hactrn.net