Network Working Group                                      Tom George
INTERNET-DRAFT                                                Alcatel
                                                            Ram Dantu
                                                        Cisco Systems
                                                      Malleswar Kalla
                                                            Telcordia
                                           Hanns Juergen Schwarzbauer
                                                              Siemens
                                                      Greg Sidebottom
                                                      Nortel Networks
                                                        Ken Morneault
                                                        Cisco Systems

Expires September 2001                                  March 2, January 2002                                    July 20, 2001

             SS7 MTP2-User Peer-to-Peer Adaptation Layer
                  <draft-ietf-sigtran-m2pa-02.txt>
                  <draft-ietf-sigtran-m2pa-03.txt>

Status of This Memo

This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with all
provisions of Section 10 of RFC 2026. Internet-Drafts are working
documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas,
and its working groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute
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Abstract

This Internet Draft defines a protocol supporting the transport of SS7
MTP
Signaling System Number 7 (SS7) Message Transfer Part (MTP) Layer 3
signaling messages over IP Internet Protocol (IP) using the services of
the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP).  This protocol would
be used between SS7 Signaling Points employing the MTP Level 3
protocol. The SS7 Signaling Points may also employ standard SS7 links
using the SS7 Message Transfer Part (MTP) MTP Layer 2 to provide transport of MTP Layer 3
signaling messages.

                        TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.  Introduction............................................. 4
  1.1  Scope................................................. 4
  1.2  Terminology........................................... 4
  1.3  Abbreviations......................................... 5
  1.4  Conventions........................................... 6
  1.5  Signaling Transport Architecture...................... 6
  1.6  Services Provided by M2PA............................. 7 8
  1.7  Functions Provided by M2PA............................ 8 9
  1.8  Definition of the M2PA Boundaries..................... 9 Boundaries.....................10
  1.9  Differences Between M2PA and M2UA.....................11 M2UA.....................12
2.  Protocol Elements........................................13 Elements........................................14
  2.1  Common Message Header.................................13 Header.................................14
  2.2  M2PA Messages.........................................14 Messages.........................................16
3.  M2PA Link States.........................................16 State Control..................................19
4.  Procedures...............................................19  Procedures...............................................22
  4.1  Procedures to Support MTP2 Features...................19 Features...................22
  4.2  Procedures to Support the MTP3/MTP2 Interface.........26 Interface.........31
5.  Examples of M2PA Procedures..............................31 Procedures..............................36
  5.1  Link Initialization (Alignment).......................31 (Alignment).......................36
  5.2  Message Transmission and Reception....................33 Reception....................39
  5.3  Link Status Indication................................33 Indication................................39
  5.4  Link Status Message (Processor Outage)................34 Outage)................40
  5.5  Level 2 Flow Control..................................35 Control..................................41
  5.6  MTP3 Signaling Link Congestion........................37 Congestion........................43
  5.7  Link Deactivation.....................................38 Deactivation.....................................44
  5.8  Link Changeover.......................................39 Changeover.......................................45
6.  Security.................................................41  Security.................................................47
  6.1  Threats...............................................47
  6.2  Protecting Confidentiality............................47
7.  IANA Considerations......................................42 Considerations......................................48
  7.1  SCTP Payload Protocol Identifier......................48
  7.2  M2PA Protocol Extensions..............................48
8.  Acknowledgements.........................................42  Acknowledgements.........................................49
9.  References...............................................43  References...............................................50
10. Author's Addresses.......................................44 Authors' Addresses.......................................51

1. Introduction

1.1 Scope

There is a need for Switched Circuit Network (SCN) signaling protocol
delivery over an IP network.  This includes delivery from message transfer between
the following:

   - a Signalling Signaling Gateway (SG) to and a Media Gateway Controller (MGC) or
     [1]

   - a SG and an IP Signaling
Point, as described in the Framework Architecture for Signalling
Transport [1]. Point (IPSP)

   - an IPSP and an IPSP

This could allow for convergence of some signaling and data
networks. SCN signaling nodes would have access to databases and other
devices in the IP network domain that do not employ SS7 signaling
links. Likewise, IP telephony applications would have access to SS7
services. There may also be operational cost and performance
advantages when traditional signaling links are replaced by IP network
"connections".

The delivery mechanism described in this document allows for full MTP3
message handling and network management capabilities between any two
SS7 nodes, communicating over an IP network. An SS7 node equipped with
an IP network connection is called an IP Signaling Point (IPSP). The
IPSPs function as traditional SS7 nodes using the IP network instead
of SS7 links.

The delivery mechanism should

   - Support seamless operation of MTP3 protocol peers over an IP
     network connection.

   - Support the MTP Level 2 / MTP Level 3 interface boundary.

   - Support management of SCTP transport associations and traffic
     instead of MTP2 Links.

   - Support asynchronous reporting of status changes to management.

1.2 Terminology

MTP - The Message Transfer Part of the SS7 protocol [2]. [2] [3].

MTP2 - MTP Level 2, the MTP signaling link layer.

MTP3 - MTP Level 3, the MTP signaling network layer.

MTP2-User - A protocol that normally uses the services of MTP Level
2. The only MTP2 user is MTP3. The MTP2 user is equivalent to the M2PA
user.

Signaling End Point (SEP) - A node in an SS7 network that originates
or terminates signaling messages.  One example is a central office
switch.

IP Signaling Point (IPSP) - An SS7 Signaling Point with an IP
network connection used for SS7 over IP.

Signaling Gateway (SG) - A signaling agent that receives/sends SCN
native signaling at the edge of the IP network [4]. In this context,
an SG is an SS7 Signaling Point that has both an IP network connection
used for SS7 over IP, and a traditional (non-IP) link to an SS7
network.

Signaling Transfer Point (STP) - A node in an SS7 network that routes
signaling messages based on their destination point code in the SS7
network.

Association - An association refers to a SCTP association [5]. The
association provides the transport for MTP3 protocol data units and
M2PA adaptation layer peer messages.

Network Byte Order - Most significant byte first, also known as "Big
Endian". See [15], Appendix B Data Transmission Order.

Stream - A stream refers to a SCTP stream [5].

1.3 Abbreviations

BSNT   - Backward Sequence Number to be Transmitted

FSNC   - Forward Sequence Number of last message accepted by
         remote level 2

LI     - Length Indicator

MSU    - Message Signal Unit

SCCP   - Signaling Connection Control Part

SCN    - Switched Circuit Network

SCTP   - Stream Control Transmission Protocol

SIF    - Signaling Information Field

SIO    - Service Information Octet

SLC    - Signaling Link Code

SS7    - Signaling System Number 7

SSN    - Stream Sequence Number

STP    - Signal Transfer Point

1.4 Conventions

The keywords MUST, MUST NOT, REQUIRED, SHALL, SHALL NOT, SHOULD,
SHOULD NOT, RECOMMENDED, NOT RECOMMENDED, MAY, and OPTIONAL, when they
appear in this document, are to be interpreted as described in
[8].

1.5 Signaling Transport Architecture

The architecture that has been defined [4] for Switched Circuit
Network (SCN) signaling transport over IP uses multiple components,
including an IP transport protocol, the Stream Control Transmission
Protocol (SCTP), and an adaptation module to support the services
expected by a particular SCN signaling protocol from its underlying
protocol layer.

Within this framework architecture, this document defines an SCN
adaptation module that is suitable for the transport of SS7 MTP3
messages.

Figure 1 shows the seamless interworking at the MTP3 layer.  MTP3 is
adapted to the SCTP layer using the MTP2 User Peer-to-peer Adaptation
Layer (M2PA).  All the primitives between MTP3 and MTP2 are supported
by M2PA.  The SCTP association acts as one SS7 link between the IPSPs.
An IPSP may have the Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP) and
other SS7 layers above MTP3.

            ********   IP   ********
            * IPSP *--------* IPSP *
            ********        ********

            +------+        +------+
            | TCAP |        | TCAP |
            +------+        +------+
            | SCCP |        | SCCP |
            +------+        +------+
            | MTP3 |        | MTP3 |
            +------+        +------+
            | M2PA |        | M2PA |
            +------+        +------+
            | SCTP |        | SCTP |
            +------+        +------+
            | IP   |        | IP   |
            +------+        +------+

    IP    - Internet Protocol
    IPSP  - IP Signaling Point
    SCTP  - Stream Control Transmission Protocol
            (see Reference [5])

         Figure 1:  M2PA Symmetrical Peer-to-Peer Architecture

An IPSP may have SCCP and other SS7 layers above MTP3.

Figure 2 shows an example. The example of M2PA used in a Signaling Gateway
(SG). The SG is an IPSP equipped with both traditional SS7 and IP
network connections.  In effect, the Signaling Gateway acts as an STP. a
Signal Transfer Point (STP).  Any of the nodes in the diagram could
have SCCP or other SS7 layers. STPs may or may not be present in the
SS7 path between the SEP and the SG.

    ********  SS7   ***************   IP   ********
    * SEP  *--------*     SG      *--------* IPSP *
    ********        ***************        ********

    +------+                               +------+
    | TCAP |                               | TCAP |
    +------+                               +------+
    | SCCP |                               | SCCP |
    +------+        +-------------+        +------+
    | MTP3 |        |    MTP3     |        | MTP3 |
    +------+        +------+------+        +------+
    | MTP2 |        | MTP2 | M2PA |        | M2PA |
    +------+        +------+------+        +------+
    | MTP1 |        | MTP1 | SCTP |        | SCTP |
    |      |        |      +------+        +------+
    |      |        |      | IP   |        | IP   |
    +------+        +------+------+        +------+

    SEP   - SS7 Signaling Endpoint

         Figure 2:  M2PA in IP Signaling Gateway

Figure 2 is only an example. Other configurations are possible. For
example, IPSPs without traditional SS7 links could use the protocol
layers MTP3/M2PA/SCTP/IP to route SS7 messages in a network with all
IP links.

Another example, related to Figure 2, is that two SGs could be
connected over an IP network to form an SG mated pair similar to the
way STPs are provisioned in traditional SS7 networks.

1.5.1  Point Code Representation

The MTP specification requires that each node with an MTP3 layer is
represented
identified by an SS7 point code. In particular, each IPSP must have
its own SS7 point code.

1.6 Services Provided by M2PA

The SS7 MTP3/MTP2 (MTP2-User) interface is retained in the IPSP. The
M2PA protocol layer is required to provide the equivalent set of
services to its user as provided by MTP Level 2 to MTP Level 3.

These services are described in the following subsections.

1.6.1 Support for MTP Level 2 / MTP Level 3 interface boundary

This interface is the same as the MTP2/MTP3 interface described in [2]
[2], [3] and [10], with the addition of support for larger sequence
numbers in [3] and [7].

Because SCTP uses larger sequence numbers than MTP, the MTP3
Changeover procedure must use the Extended Changeover Order and
Extended Changeover Acknowledgment messages described in [7]. [7] and
[3]. This will allow for use of the SCTP stream sequence numbers in
the changeover messages.

Also, the following MTP3/MTP2 primitives must use the larger sequence
numbers:

   - BSNT Indication Confirmation

   - Retrieval Request and FSNC

1.6.2 Support for peer-to-peer communication

In SS7, MTP Level 2 sends three types of messages, known as signal
units: Message Signal Units (MSUs), Link Status Signal Units (LSSUs),
and Fill-In Signal Units (FISUs).

MSUs originate at a higher level than MTP2, and are destined for a
peer at another node. Likewise, M2PA passes these messages from MTP3
to SCTP as data for transport across a link. These are called User
Data messages in M2PA.

LSSUs allow peer MTP2 layers to exchange status information. Analogous
messages are needed for M2PA. The Link Status message serves this
purpose.

FISUs are sent when no other signal units are waiting to be sent. This
purpose is served by the heartbeat messages in SCTP. FISUs also carry
acknowledgment of messages. This function is performed by
SCTP. Therefore, it is unnecessary for M2PA to provide a protocol data
unit like the FISU.

1.7 Functions Provided by M2PA

1.7.1 Support of MTP3/MTP2 Primitives

M2PA receives the primitives sent from MTP3 to its lower layer. M2PA
processes these primitives or maps them to appropriate primitives at
the M2PA/SCTP interface. Likewise, M2PA sends primitives to MTP3 like
those used in the MTP3/MTP2 interface.

1.7.2 MTP2 Functionality

M2PA provides MTP2 functionality that is not provided by SCTP. This
includes
   - Data retrieval to support the MTP3 changeover procedure

   - Reporting of link status changes to MTP3

   - Processor outage procedure

   - Link alignment procedure

1.7.3 Mapping of SS7 and IP Entities

For each IP link, the

The M2PA layer must maintain a map of the each of its SS7 link links to its SCTP association and its the
corresponding IP destination. SCTP association.

1.7.4 SCTP Stream Management

SCTP allows a user-specified number of streams to be opened during the
initialization.  It is the responsibility of the M2PA layer to ensure
proper management of the streams allowed within each association.

M2PA uses two streams in each direction in for each association. Stream 0
in each direction is designated for Link Status messages. Stream 1 is
designated for User Data and Proving Data messages. Separating the
Link Status and User Data messages onto separate stream allows M2PA to
prioritize the messages in a manner similar to MTP2.

1.7.5  Retention of MTP3 in the SS7 Network

M2PA allows MTP3 to perform all of its Message Handling and Network
Management functions with IPSPs as with other SS7 nodes.

1.8 Definition of the M2PA Boundaries

1.8.1 Definition of the M2PA / MTP Level 3 boundary

The upper layer primitives provided by M2PA are the same as those
provided by MTP2 to MTP3. These primitives are described in [2] [2], [3],
and [10]. Following is a list of the primitives.

Primitives sent from MTP3 to M2PA:

Data Request - Used to send a Data Message for transmission.

Start Request - Used to establish activate a link.

Stop Request - Used to release deactivate a link.

Retrieve BSNT Request - Request the BSNT for the changeover procedure.

Retrieval Request and FSNC - Request retrieval of unacknowledged and
unsent messages. This request includes the FSNC received from the
remote end.

Local Processor Outage Request - Informs M2PA of a local processor
outage condition.

Local Processor Outage Recovered Request - Informs M2PA that a local
processor outage condition has ceased.

Flush Buffers Request - Requests that all transmit and receive
buffers be emptied.

Continue Request - Requests that processing resume after a processor
outage.

Emergency Request - This is ignored by M2PA. Requests that M2PA use the emergency alignment
procedure.

Emergency Ceases Request - This is ignored by M2PA. Requests that M2PA use the normal alignment
procedure.

Primitives sent from M2PA to MTP3:

Data Indication - Used to deliver received Data Message to MTP3.

Congestion Indication - Indicates change in congestion level. status. The
indication includes the congestion level, status, if the protocol is using the
optional congestion levels. The indication also includes the discard
level.
status.

In Service Indication - Indicates that the link is in service.

Out of Service Indication - Indicates that the link is out of service.

Retrieved Messages Indication - Indicates delivery of unacknowledged
and unsent messages.

Retrieval Complete Indication - Indicates that delivery of
unacknowledged and unsent messages is complete.

BSNT Confirm - Replies to the BSNT Request. The confirmation includes
the BSNT.

BSNT Not Retrievable Confirm - Replies to the BSNT Request when the
BSNT cannot be determined.

Remote Processor Outage Indication - Indicates processor outage at
remote end.

Remote Processor Recovered Indication - Indicates recovery from
processor outage at remote end.

1.8.2 Definition of the Lower Layer Boundary between M2PA and SCTP

The upper layer primitives provided by SCTP are described in Reference
[5] Section 10 "Interface with Upper Layer".

1.9 Differences Between M2PA and M2UA

The MTP2 User Adaptation Layer (M2UA) [6] also adapts the MTP3 layer
to the SCTP/IP stack. It does so through a backhauling architecture
[4]. This section intends to clarify some of the differences between
the M2PA and M2UA approaches.

A possible M2PA architecture is shown in Figure 3. Here the IPSP's
MTP3 uses its underlying M2PA as a replacement for MTP2. Commmunication Communication
between the two layers MTP3/M2PA is defined by the same primitives as
in SS7 MTP3/MTP2. M2PA performs functions similar to MTP2.

A comparable architecture for M2UA is shown in Figure 4. In M2UA, the
MGC's MTP3 uses the SG's MTP2 as its lower SS7 layer. In Likewise, the
SG's MTP2 uses the MGC's MTP3 as its upper SS7 layer. In SS7,
commmunication
communication between the MTP3 and MTP2 layers is defined by
primitives. In M2UA, the MTP3/MTP2 communication is defined as M2UA
messages and sent over the IP connection.

    ********  SS7   ***************   IP   ********
    * SEP  *--------*     SG      *--------* IPSP *
    ********        ***************        ********

    +------+        +-------------+        +------+
    | SCCP |        |    SCCP     |        | SCCP |
    +------+        +-------------+        +------+
    | MTP3 |        |    MTP3     |        | MTP3 |
    +------+        +------+------+        +------+
    | MTP2 |        | MTP2 | M2PA |        | M2PA |
    +------+        +------+------+        +------+
    | MTP1 |        | MTP1 | SCTP |        | SCTP |
    |      |        |      +------+        +------+
    |      |        |      | IP   |        | IP   |
    +------+        +------+------+        +------+

         Figure 3:  M2PA in IP Signaling Gateway

    ********  SS7   ***************   IP   ********
    * SEP  *--------*     SG      *--------* MGC  *
    ********        ***************        ********

    +------+                               +------+
    | SCCP |                               | SCCP |
    +------+                               +------+
    | MTP3 |             (NIF)             | MTP3 |
    +------+        +------+------+        +------+
    | MTP2 |        | MTP2 | M2UA |        | M2UA |
    +------+        +------+------+        +------+
    | MTP1 |        | MTP1 | SCTP |        | SCTP |
    |      |        |      +------+        +------+
    |      |        |      | IP   |        | IP   |
    +------+        +------+------+        +------+

       NIF   - Nodal Interworking Function

         Figure 4:  M2UA in IP Signaling Gateway

M2PA and M2UA are similar in that:

   a. Both transport MTP3 data messages.

   b. Both present an MTP2 upper interface to MTP3.

Differences between M2PA and M2UA include:

   a. M2PA: IPSP processes MTP3-to-MTP2 MTP3/MTP2 primitives.
      M2UA: MGC transports MTP3-to-MTP2 MTP3/MTP2 primitives to between the SG's MTP2
            and the MGC's MTP3 (via the NIF) for processing.

   b. M2PA: SG-IPSP connection is an SS7 link.
      M2UA: SG-MGC connection is not an SS7 link. It is an
            extension of MTP to a remote entity.

   c. M2PA: SG is an SS7 node with a point code.
      M2UA: SG is not an SS7 node and has no point code.

   d. M2PA: SG can have upper SS7 layers, e.g., SCCP.
      M2UA: SG does not have upper SS7 layers since it has no MTP3.

   e. M2PA: relies on MTP3 for management procedures.
      M2UA: uses M2UA management procedures.

Potential users of M2PA and M2UA should be aware of these differences
when deciding how to use them for SS7 signaling transport over IP
networks.

2.  Protocol Elements

This section describes the format of various messages used in this
protocol.

All fields in an M2PA message must be transmitted in the network byte
order, i.e., most significant byte first, unless otherwise stated.

2.1 Common Message Header

The protocol messages for M2PA require a message header structure
which contains a version, message type and message length.  This
message header is common among all SCN adaptation layers. The header
structure is shown in Figure 5.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    Version    |     Spare     | Message Class | Message Type  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                        Message Length                         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |

                 Figure 5:  Common Message Header

2.1.1  Version

The version field contains the version of the M2PA adapation layer. M2PA. The supported versions
are:

      01

       Value    Version
       -----    -------
         1      Release 1.0 of M2PA protocol

2.1.2  Message Type  Spare

The valid message types are defined below Spare field SHOULD be set to all zeroes (0's) by the sender and
ignored by the message contents receiver. The Spare field SHOULD NOT be used for
proprietary information.

2.1.3  Message Class

The following List contains the valid Message Classes:

         Value
       (decimal)  Message Class
       ---------  -------------
          11      M2PA Messages

Other values are
described in Section 2.2.  Each message can contain parameters. invalid for M2PA.

2.1.4  Message Type

The following list contains the message types for the defined
messages.

     MTP2 User Adaptatation Messages

        Type

       Value (Hex)      Message Type
       -----      ------------
         1        User Data                0601
         2        Link Status              0602

2.1.3
         3        Proving Data

Other values are invalid.

2.1.4  Message Length

The Message length Length defines the length of the message in octets, not
including the header. Common Header.

2.2 M2PA Messages

The following section defines the messages and parameter contents.  An
M2PA message consists of a Common Message Header followed by the data
appropriate to the message.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                 ...
   |                     Common Message Header                     |
                                 ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                 ...
   |                         Message Data                          |
                                 ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

2.2.1 User Data

The User Data is the data sent from the MTP3 in the form of the
contiguous LI, SIO, and SIF octets of the MSU ([2] Q.703, section 2.2
Signal Unit Format). The LI octet includes the two undefined bits
between the SIO and LI fields. MTP3. The format for the User Data
message is as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                 ...
   |                            Data                               |
                                 ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

No

The Data field contains the following fields of the MTP Message Signal
Unit (MSU):

   - Length Indicator (LI), including the two undefined bits between
     the SIO and LI fields.
   - Service Information Octet (SIO)
   - Signaling Information Field (SIF)

The MTP MSU described in [2] Q.703, section 2.2 Signal Unit Format,
and [3] T1.111.3 section 2.2 Signal Unit Format.

M2PA does not add padding is added to the MTP3 message.

Note that the Data field contains only the LI, SIF, and SIO
octets. The SHALL NOT contain other components of the MTP2 MTP
MSU format (the Flag, BSN,
BIB, FSN, FIB, CK) are not included in M2PA.

It is not necessary to put the message length in the format:

   - Flag
   - Backward Sequence Number (BSN)
   - Backward Indicator Bit (BIB)
   - Forward Sequence Number (FSN)
   - Forward Indicator Bit (FIB)
   - Check bits (CK)

The Data field SHALL be transmitted in the byte order as defined by
MTP3.

It is not necessary to put the message length in the LI octet as in
MTP2. The LI octet is included because the two spare bits in the LI
octet are used by MTP3 in a at least one national version of SS7 to
carry MTP3 information. For example, the Japan TTC standard uses these
spare bits as a an MTP3 Message Priority field. See [9], section 14
"Common Characteristics of message signal unit formats", section 14.2
(A) Priority Indicator (PRI). For versions of MTP that do not use
these two bits, the entire octet is spare.

Therefore in M2PA the format of the LI octet is:

    0
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   spare   |PRI| (followed by SIO, SIF)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   PRI - Priority used only in national MTP defined in [9].
         Spare for other MTP versions.

Since the LI octet is not used for a message length, there is no need
to support the expanded LI field in [2], Q.703 Annex A. Therefore the
LI field in M2PA is always one octet.

Note: In the SS7 Recommendations, the format of the messages and
fields within the messages are based on bit transmission order.  In
these recommendations the Least Significant Bit (LSB) of each field is
positioned to the right.  The received SS7 fields are populated octet
by octet as received into the 4-octet word as shown below.

As an example, in the ANSI MTP protocol, the Data field format is
shown below:

   |MSB---------------------------------------------------------LSB|
    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   spare   |PRI|      SIO      |   SIF octet   |      ...      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   \                               :                               \
   /                               :                               /
   \                               :                               \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      ...      |      ...      |      ...      |   SIF octet   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

Within each octet the Least Significant Bit (LSB) per the SS7
Recommendations is to the right (e.g., bit 15 of SIO is the LSB).

2.2.2  Link Status

The MTP2 Link Status message can be sent between M2PA peers to
indicate link status. This message performs a function similar to the
the Link Status Signal Unit in MTP2. Except as modified later in this
section, the format for the Link Status message is as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                            State                              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

The valid values for State are shown in the following table.

         Value
       (decimal)  Description
       ---------  -----------
           1     In Service      Alignment
           2      Proving Normal
           3      Proving Emergency
           4      Ready
           5      Processor Outage
     3
           6      Processor Outage Ended
     4
           7      Busy
     5
           8      Busy Ended

3.  M2PA Link States

2.2.3 Proving Data

The M2PA link moves from one state to another in response to various
events. Proving Data message is used during the proving period. The format
for the message is as follows.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                 ...
   |                            Data                               |
                                 ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

It is recommended that the length of the Data field be similar to the
size of the User Data messages that will be carried on the link.

It is recommended that the Data field contain a number pattern which
varies among the Proving Data messages, and that will allow the SCTP
checksum to be used to verify the accuracy of transmission.

3.  M2PA Link State Control

The M2PA link moves from one state to another in response to various
events.  The events that may result in a change of state include:

   - MTP3 primitive requests

   - SCTP notifications

   - Receipt of Status messages from the peer M2PA

   - Expiration of certain timers

Figure 6 illustrates state changes together with the causing events.
Note that some of the error conditions are not shown in the state
diagram.

Following is a list of the M2PA Link States and a description of each.

IDLE - State of the link during power-up initialization.

OOS - Out Of Service. Power-up initialization is complete.

AIP - Alignment In Progress. M2PA is attempting to establish SCTP
association.

INS-LOCAL exchange Alignment
messages with its peer.

PROVING - In Service Local. Association M2PA is established. sending Proving Data messages to its peer.

ALIGNED READY - Proving is complete. M2PA is waiting for until peer to verify that it is In Service.
completes proving.

INS - In Service. Link is ready for traffic.

RETRIEVAL - Link no longer carries traffic. M2PA is waiting for
request for message retrieval from MTP3.

                              +-----------+
                              |   IDLE    |
                              +-----------+
                                    |
                                    | Power On
                                    |
                                    |   +--------------------------+
                                    |   |       (Associate)        |
                                    V   V                          |
                              +-----------+
                  +------->|                        |
                      +------>|    OOS    |<---------------------+
                  ^    |<--+                    |
                      |       +-----------+   | Link Configured    |
                      |             |   |     |  Server AND (Associate)        |
                      |             |   +-----+                    |
                      | Client AND             |                              |  MTP3 Start
                      |             | MTP3 Start                   |
                      | MTP3 Stop   |                              |
                      |
                  |             V             V                              |
                      |       +-----------+                        |
                  |        |
                      +<------|    AIP    |--------------------->+    |----------------------->+
                      |       +-----------+     SCTP Comm Error    |
                      |             |        OR SCTP Comm Lost     |
                      |             |        OR T1 Expiry          |
                      |             |                              |
                      |             | Receive LS Alignment         |
                      |             |      OR LS Proving           |
                      | MTP3 Stop   |                              |
                      |	  OR             V                              |
                      |       +-----------+                        |
                      +<------|  PROVING  |----------------------->+
                      |       +-----------+     SCTP Comm Error    |
                      |             |        OR SCTP Comm Lost     |
                      |             |                              |
                      |             | SCTP Comm Up T2 Expiry                    |
                      | MTP3 Stop   |                              |
                      |             V                              |
                      |       +-----------+                        |
                      +<------|  ALIGNED  |                        | INS-LOCAL |--------------------->+
                              |   READY   |----------------------->+
                              +-----------+  MTP3 Stop                        |
                                    |        OR           SCTP Comm Error    |
                                    |        OR SCTP Comm Lost     |
                                    |        OR T1 T3 Expiry          |
                                    |                              |
                                    | Link Status Receive LS Proving Complete  |
                                    | In Service received OR Receive User Data         |
                                    |                              |
                                    V                              |
                              +-----------+                        |
                              |    INS    |                        |
                              +-----------+                        |
                                    |
       Retrieval                              |
                                    |                              |
                                    |                              |
                                    |                              |
                                    |                              |
                                    |    MTP3 Stop
       Complete                 |
                                    | OR SCTP Comm Error
       OR           |
                                    | OR SCTP Comm Lost
       MTP3 Start            |
                                    | OR T6 Expiry                 |
                                    |                              |
                                    V                              |
                              +-----------+
                  +<-------| RETRIEVAL                        |
                              | RETRIEVAL |----------------------->+
                              +-----------+    Retrieval Complete
                                            OR MTP3 Start

                Figure 6: M2PA Link State Transition Diagram. Diagram

Figure 7 illustrates state changes in the M2PA management of the SCTP
association together with the causing events.  Note that some of the
error conditions are not shown in the state diagram.

Following is a list of the M2PA Association States and a description
of each.

IDLE - State of the association during power-up initialization.

ASSOCIATE - M2PA is attempting to establish an SCTP association.

ESTABLISHED - SCTP association is established.

                             +-----------+
        +------------------->|   IDLE    |
        |                    +-----------+
        |                          |
        | (Issue SCTP              | Associate
        |    Abort)                | (Issue SCTP associate)
        |                          |
        |                          |   +----------------------+
        |                          |   |         (Issue SCTP  |
        |                          V   V          associate)  |
        |      Abort         +-----------+                    |
        +<-------------------| ASSOCIATE |------------------->+
        |                    +-----------+    SCTP Comm Error |
        |                          |                          |
        |                          |                          |
        |                          | SCTP Comm Up             |
        |                          |                          |
        |                          V                          |
        |      Abort         +-------------+                  |
        +<-------------------| ESTABLISHED |----------------->+
                             +-------------+   SCTP Comm Error
                                            OR SCTP Comm Lost

                Figure 7: M2PA Association State Transition Diagram

4.  Procedures

4.1 Procedures to Support MTP2 Features

4.1.1 Signal Unit Format, Delimitation, Acceptance

Messages for transmission across the network must follow the format
described in section 2.

SCTP provides reliable, in-sequence delivery. Therefore the related
functionality of MTP2 is not needed. SCTP does not provide functions
related to Link State Control in MTP2. These functions must be
provided by M2PA.

4.1.2 Link Alignment

Link alignment includes the establishment of an SCTP association MTP and a
handshaking procedure between the SCTP Entities

This section describes how M2PA peers to verify that the
association is ready to be used as a link. relates MTP and SCTP entities.

To prevent duplicate associations from being established, it must be
decided in advance which endpoint initiates the establishment of the
association. In a pair of endpoints, the endpoint that initiates the
establishment of the association is called the client. The other
endpoint is the server. An endpoint may be a client in its
relationship with one endpoint, and a server in its relationship with
another endpoint. The designations of client and server are needed
only to decide which endpoint initiates the establishment of the
association. After that, the endpoints function as peers.

The client initiates the association using the server's IP address and
the M2PA well-known port number as the destination endpoint. In order If only
one association is to allow for be established between these two IP addresses,
then the client should use its own IP address and the M2PA well-known
port number as the source endpoint.

If it is desirable to create multiple links associations (for multiple
links) between the two endpoints, IP addresses, the client uses a different local
port number for each link. It must be decided in
advance which local ports are used by the client. Each of these association.

The client
ports must be known M2PA should establish the association for a link when the
link is configured for operation by MTP signaling management.

Whenever the association is terminated, the client M2PA should
establish the association as soon as the termination procedure is
complete.

The client M2PA establishes an association by sending the SCTP
ASSOCIATE primitive to SCTP. The client should attempt to establish
the server. association periodically until it is successful.

Once the association is established and MTP3 has issued its Start
Request, M2PA begins the alignment procedure. The M2PA at either end
may initiate the alignment procedure first. There is no client/server
distinction once the SCTP association is established.

Each combination of client IP address/port and server IP address/port
(i.e., each association) must be mapped to the same Signaling Link
Code (SLC) in the client and server, so that each endpoint knows which
link is being created at the time the SCTP association is
established. However, M2PA does not do any processing based on the
SLC.

Following are examples of the relationships between associations and
links. Note that a link is an SCTP association identified by two
endpoints, in this case a client and server. Each endpoint is
identified by an IP address and port number. Each association is
mapped to an SLC.

Figure 7 8 shows a case with two IPSPs, each with two IP addresses. Two
associations are the links that connect the two IPSPs. Since these
links are in the same link set, they must have different SLCs.

Table 1 shows the relationships in tabular form. Table 1 is only
conceptual. The actual method for mapping the SCTP associations to the
SLCs is implementation dependent.

                IPSP X                        IPSP Y

            +-------------+               +-------------+
            |             |     SCTP      |             |
            |         IPA | association 1 | IPB         |
            |   port = PW +---------------+ port = PW   |
            |     SLC = a |               | SLC = a     |
            |      Client |               | Server      |
            |             |               |             |
            |             |     SCTP      |             |
            |         IPC | association 2 | IPD         |
            |   port = PW +---------------+ port = PW   |
            |     SLC = b |               | SLC = b     |
            |      Client |               | Server      |
            |             |               |             |
            +-------------+               +-------------+

      IPx    = IP address
      PW     = Well-known port number for M2PA

                Figure 7: 8: Associations and Links -
                 Two IPSPs with Two Endpoints IP Addresses Each
     +-------------+---------------------------------------+-----+
     | Association |      Client       |      Server       | SLC |
     |             +------------+------+------------+------+     |
     |             | IP address | Port | IP address | Port |     |
     +=============+============+======+============+======+=====+
     |      1      |    IPA     |  PW  |    IPB     |  PW  |  a  |
     +-------------+------------+------+------------+------+-----+
     |      2      |    IPC     |  PW  |    IPD     |  PW  |  b  |
     +-------------+------------+------+------------+------+-----+

                Table 1: Associations and SLCs -
                 Two IPSPs with Two Endpoints IP Addresses Each

Figure 8 9 and Table 2 show an example with three IPSPs. Note that in
this example, the two links are in different link sets. Therefore, it
is possible that the values a and b may be equal.

                IPSP X                        IPSP Y

            +-------------+               +-------------+
            |             |     SCTP      |             |
            |         IPA | association 1 | IPB         |
            |   port = PW +---------------+ port = PW   |
            |     SLC = a |               | SLC = a     |
            |      Client |               | Server      |
            |             |               |             |
            |             |     SCTP      |             |
            |         IPC | association 2 |             |
            |   port = PW +-------+       |             |
            |     SLC = b |       |       |             |
            |      Client |       |       |             |
            |             |       |       |             |
            +-------------+       |       +-------------+
                                  |
                                  |
                                  |           IPSP Z
                                  |
                                  |       +-------------+
                                  |       |             |
                                  |       | IPD         |
                                  +-------+ port = PW   |
                                          | SLC = b     |
                                          | Server      |
                                          |             |
                                          |             |
                                          |             |
                                          |             |
                                          |             |
                                          |             |
                                          |             |
                                          +-------------+

      IPx    = IP address
      PW     = Well-known port number for M2PA

                Figure 8: 9: Associations and Links -
                 One IPSP Connected to Two IPSPs

     +-------------+---------------------------------------+-----+
     | Association |      Client       |      Server       | SLC |
     |             +------------+------+------------+------+     |
     |             | IP address | Port | IP address | Port |     |
     +=============+============+======+============+======+=====+
     |      1      |    IPA     |  PW  |    IPB     |  PW  |  a  |
     +-------------+------------+------+------------+------+-----+
     |      2      |    IPC     |  PW  |    IPD     |  PW  |  b  |
     +-------------+------------+------+------------+------+-----+

                Table 2: Associations and SLCs -
                 One IPSP Connected to Two IPSPs

Figure 9 10 and Table 3 show two associations between the same
endpoints. This is accomplished by using different port numbers for
each association at the client.

                IPSP X                        IPSP Y

            +-------------+               +-------------+
            |             |     SCTP      |             |
            |         IPA | association 1 | IPB         |
            |   port = P1 +---------------+ port = PW   |
            |     SLC = a |               | SLC = a     |
            |      Client |               | Server      |
            |             |               |             |
            |             |     SCTP      |             |
            |         IPA | association 2 | IPB         |
            |   port = PW +---------------+ port = PW   |
            |     SLC = b |               | SLC = b     |
            |      Client |               | Server      |
            |             |               |             |
            +-------------+               +-------------+

      IPx    = IP address
      P1, P2
      P1     = Pre-selected port numbers number for Client
      PW     = Well-known port number for M2PA

                Figure 9: 10: Associations and SLCs -
             Multiple Associations Between Endpoints Two IP Addresses

     +-------------+---------------------------------------+-----+
     | Association |      Client       |      Server       | SLC |
     |             +------------+------+------------+------+     |
     |             | IP address | Port | IP address | Port |     |
     +=============+============+======+============+======+=====+
     |      1      |    IPA     |  P1  |    IPB     |  PW  |  a  |
     +-------------+------------+------+------------+------+-----+
     |      2      |    IPA     |  P2  PW  |    IPB     |  PW  |  b  |
     +-------------+------------+------+------------+------+-----+

                Table 3: Associations and SLCs -
             Multiple Associations Between Endpoints Two IP Addresses

The association shall contain two streams in each direction. Stream 0
is designated for Link Status messages. Stream 1 is designated for
User Data and Proving Data messages.

If

4.1.3  Link Alignment

The purposes of the alignment procedure are:

1. To provide a handshaking procedure so that both endpoints are
   prepared to send SS7 traffic, and to prevent traffic from being
   sent before the other end is ready.

2. Verify that the SCTP association is not established, the client M2PA sends the
ASSOCIATE primitive to SCTP. The client should attempt suitable for use as an SS7
   link.

3. Optionally, to establish overcome the SCTP slow start period.

Link alignment takes place after the association periodically until it is successful. established. If
SCTP fails to establish the association, and M2PA had has received a Start
Request from its MTP3, then M2PA shall report to MTP3 that the link is
out of service. If M2PA has an SCTP association ID for that
association, it should ABORT the association. The association ID is a
number provided by the SCTP used to identify an association.

Once the association is established, established and M2PA has received a Start
Request from MTP3, M2PA invokes sends the GETSRTTREPORT
primitive Link Status Alignment message to determine the Smooth Round Trip Time (SRTT) from SCTP. its
peer. If M2PA has not already received the SRTT exceeds Link Status Alignment
message from its maximum allowed value (which is implementation
dependent), peer, then M2PA should use the ABORT primitive to end starts timer T1.

(Note that if the
association.  If remote M2PA had has not received a Start Request from its
MTP3, it will not send the Link Status Alignment message to the
local M2PA. Eventually timer T1 in the local M2PA will expire.)

M2PA stops timer T1 when it has received the Link Status Alignment
message from its peer.

If timer T1 expires, then M2PA shall report reports to MTP3 that the link is out of
service.

Once M2PA has received a Start Request from MTP3, should leave the association is
established, the SRTT is determined to be satisfactory, and if established. M2PA waits for
MTP3
has not deactivated to initiate the link, then:

   (a) If there is no local processor outage condition, alignment procedure again.

When M2PA sends a has both sent and received the Link Status of In Service Alignment
message, it has completed alignment and moves to its peer.

   (b) If there is a local processor outage condition, the proving state.

M2PA starts the proving period timer T2. During the proving period,
M2PA sends Link Status Processor Outage Proving messages to its peer. When MTP3 sends Local
       Processor Recovered, then peer at an interval
defined by the protocol parameter Status_Interval. M2PA sends Link Status Processor
       Outage Ended either
the Proving Normal or Proving Emergency message, according to its peer, followed by Link Status In Service.

If the
Emergency and Emergency Ceases commands from MTP3. M2PA has not received uses the value
of T2 corresponding to the Normal or Emergency state. However, if M2PA
receives a Link Status In Service Proving Emergency message from its peer peer, then
M2PA shall use the Emergency value for T2.

Also while T2 is running, M2PA shall send Proving Data messages on the
User Data stream. These messages are sent at a rate equal to the
time it sends
protocol parameter Proving_Data_Rate.

When the Link Status In Service, M2PA starts proving period timer T1. Timer
T1 T2 expires, M2PA shall determine the
association's performance as described in section 4.1.6 Error

Monitoring. If the association's performance is stopped when inadequate, M2PA receives shall
report to MTP3 that the link is out of service. M2PA should leave the
association established. M2PA waits for MTP3 to initiate the alignment
procedure again.

If the association's performance is satisfactory, M2PA shall start the
timer T3 and send Link Status In Service from Ready messages to its
peer. If peer at interval
Status_Interval. These messages are used to verify that both ends have
completed proving.

M2PA does not receive shall stop timer T3 when it receives a Link Status In Service Proving
Complete or User Data message from its peer
before T1 its peer. If timer T3 expires, then
M2PA reports to MTP3 that the link is out of service. Then M2PA uses should
leave the ABORT primitive association established. M2PA waits for MTP3 to end initiate the association.

Recommended value of T1 is 5-50 seconds.
alignment procedure again.

Note that if the server M2PA has not already received a Start Request Link Status Ready message
from its
MTP3, peer when it will not send finishes checking the association's performance,
there is no need to start timer T3. M2PA can just send Link Status In Service message to the
client. Eventually the client will ABORT the association. The client
will then attempt
Ready to establish the association. peer and continue along.

When all of the association is established, following are true:

   (a) M2PA has received a Start Request from MTP3.

   (b) M2PA's proving period T2 has expired.

   (c) M2PA has sent a Link Status In
Service Ready to its peer, and peer.

   (d) M2PA has received a Link Status Ready OR User Data
       message from its peer.

then M2PA shall send Link In Service from to its
peer, and MTP3.

If there is no a local processor outage condition, then M2PA sends Link In Service Status
Processor Outage to its MTP3. peer. When the local processor outage
condition ends, then M2PA shall send Link Status Processor Outage
Ended to its peer. M2PA shall attempt to complete the alignment
procedure during the local processor outage condition.

If M2PA receives a Link Status of Processor Outage during alignment, and
M2PA had received a Start Request from its MTP3, M2PA shall report
Remote Processor Outage to MTP3.

M2PA shall ignore the Emergency and

Recommended values:

T1 Alignment - Range: 1-60 seconds   Default: 10 seconds

T2 Proving -

   Normal - Range: 1-60 seconds   Default: 10 seconds

   Emergency Ceases commands from
MTP3.

4.1.3 - Range: 400-600 milliseconds   Default: 500 milliseconds

T3 Ready -  Range: 1-60 seconds   Default: 10 seconds

Status_Interval - implementation dependent.

Proving_Data_Rate - implementation dependent.

4.1.4 Processor Outage

A processor outage occurs when M2PA cannot transfer messages because
of a condition at a higher layer than M2PA.

When M2PA detects a local processor outage, it sends a Link Status
message to its peer with status Processor Outage. M2PA shall discard
any User Data messages received. M2PA shall also
cease sending User Data messages to SCTP for transmission.

M2PA should periodically send a Link Status Processor Outage message
as long as there is a local processor outage.

The peer M2PA, upon receiving the Link Status Processor Outage
message, shall report Remote Processor Outage to its MTP3. The peer
M2PA ceases sending User Data messages. M2PA stops the Remote
Congestion timer T6 if it is running.

MTP3 sends a Flush Buffers or Continue command to M2PA. When the
processor outage ceases, MTP3 sends a Local Processor Recovered
indication to M2PA. The local M2PA notifies its peer by sending a Link
Status message with status Processor Outage Ended. The peer notifies uses the
Remote Processor Recovered Indication to notify its MTP3 that the
remote processor outage condition has ceased.

4.1.4

4.1.5 Level 2 Flow Control

Notification of receive congestion from SCTP to M2PA is implementation
dependent. This section assumes that there is M2PA has some form means of
determining when SCTP is in receive congestion, such as a receive
congestion notification from SCTP to M2PA. Since SCTP has its own
congestion control, the purpose of the M2PA level 2 flow control is to
monitor the association and decide if it should be aborted.

If M2PA receives notification from its lower layer SCTP determines that SCTP is in receive congestion for an
association, M2PA shall send a Link Status Busy message to its peer on
that association.

M2PA should periodically send a Link Status Busy message as long as
its SCTP is in receive congestion.

When the peer M2PA receives the Link Status Busy message, it shall
start the Remote Congestion timer T6. If timer T6 expires, M2PA shall
use the ABORT primitive to end the association and take the link out
of service.

The peer M2PA shall continue transmitting messages to SCTP while its

T6 timer is running, i.e., while the other end is Busy.

If M2PA receives notification from its lower layer SCTP determines that SCTP is no longer in receive congestion for
the association, M2PA shall send a Link Status Busy Ended message to
its peer on that association.

When the peer M2PA receives the Link Status Busy Ended message, it
shall stop timer T6.

Recommended value of T6 is 1-6 seconds.

4.1.5

4.1.6 Error Monitoring

If M2PA loses the SCTP association for a link, M2PA shall report to
MTP3 that the link is out of service.

As long as the SCTP association is up, M2PA shall regularly invoke monitor
the
SCTP GETSRTTREPORT primitive association performance. It is recommended that M2PA use the
following data to determine the performance of the association:

   - Smooth Round Trip Time
(SRTT) (SRTT). This can be obtained from SCTP. If the the SRTT exceeds SCTP by
     invoking the maximum acceptable
value, SCTP GETSRTTREPORT primitive.

   - Frequency of SCTP retransmissions.

   - Frequency of SCTP Gap Acknowledgements received.

If these values are not acceptable, the link is considered failed and
taken out of service.

The acceptable values of these data are implementation dependent.

The interval between successive SRTT requests and checks of the maximum acceptable
SRTT performance data should
be a configurable parameter. Its value are determined by the parameters:

   SRTT_measurement_interval
      Range: 1 - 1000 seconds.
      Default: 5 seconds.

   SRTT_max
      Range: 0-65,535 milliseconds.
      Default: 1000 milliseconds.

4.1.6 is implementation dependent.

4.1.7  Transmission and Reception Priorities

In MTP, Link Status messages have priority over User Data messages
([2] Q.703, section 11.2). To achieve this in M2PA, M2PA shall send
Link Status and User Data messages shall be sent via SCTP on separate streams. streams in its SCTP
association. All messages are sent using the ordered delivery option.

M2PA SHOULD give higher priority to reading the Link Status stream
over the User Data stream.

M2PA SHOULD give higher priority to receiving notifications SHOULD give higher priority to receiving notifications from SCTP
over reading either the Link Status stream or the User Data stream.

Implementation Note: If the SCTP implementation allows streams to have
different priorities for sending messages, then M2PA SHOULD set the
Link Status stream to a higher priority than the User Data stream. See
[13] for a possible extension to SCTP to allow for stream priorities.

4.1.8  M2PA Version Control

A node upgraded to a newer version of M2PA SHOULD support the older
versions used on other nodes with which it is communicating. If that
is the case, then alignment can proceed normally.

In particular, it is recommended that for future modifications to this
protocol:

- Any newer version should be able to process the messages from a
  lower version.

- A newer version of M2PA should refrain from SCTP
over reading either the Link Status stream or sending messages to an
  older version of M2PA messages that the User Data stream.

Implementation Note: older version cannot
  process.

- If an older version of M2PA receives a message that it cannot
  process, it should discard the SCTP implementation allows streams to have message.

- In cases where different priorities processing is done in two versions for sending messages, the
  same format of a message, then M2PA SHOULD set the
Link Status stream newer version should contain
  procedures to recognize this and handle it appropriately.

In case a higher priority than newer version of M2PA is incompatible with an older version,
the User Data stream. See
[13] for newer version should recognize this and prevent the alignment of
the link. If a possible extension to SCTP to allow for stream priorities. Link Status Alignment message with an unsupported
version is received by the newer version, the receiving end's M2PA
shall not complete the alignment procedure.

4.2 Procedures to Support the MTP3/MTP2 Interface

4.2.1  Sending/receiving messages

When MTP3 sends a message for transmission to M2PA, M2PA passes the
corresponding M2PA message to SCTP using the SEND primitive.

M2PA Link Status messages are passed to SCTP using the SEND primitive.

Link Status and User Data messages shall be sent via SCTP on separate
streams.

When M2PA receives a User Data message from SCTP, M2PA passes the
message to MTP3.

If M2PA receives a message from SCTP with an invalid Message Class or
unsupported Message Type in the Common Message Header, M2PA shall
discard the message.

4.2.2  Link activation and restoration

When MTP3 requests that M2PA activate or restore a link by a Start

Request, M2PA shall follow the alignment procedure in section 4.1.2. 4.1.3.

4.2.3  Link deactivation

When MTP3 requests that M2PA deactivate a link by a Stop command, M2PA
shall send an ABORT primitive to SCTP.

4.2.4  Flush Buffers, Continue

The Flush Buffers and Continue commands allow M2PA to resume normal
operations (i.e., transmission of messages to SCTP and receiving
messages from SCTP) after a processor outage (local and/or remote)
ceases.

If M2PA receives a Flush Buffers command from MTP3, M2PA:

   (a) shall not transmit any messages to SCTP that are currently
       waiting to be transmitted to SCTP. These messages shall be
       discarded.

   (b) shall discard all messages currently waiting to be passed
       to MTP3.

If M2PA receives either a Flush Buffers or Continue command from MTP3,
and the processor outage condition ceases, M2PA shall resume receiving
and transmitting messages.

4.2.5 MTP3 Signaling Link Congestion

Notification of transmit congestion from SCTP to its upper layer
(M2PA) is implementation dependent. Nevertheless, M2PA should receive
notification from SCTP adequate to allow MTP3 to meet its requirements
for signaling link transmit congestion in [2] Q.704, section 3.8.

M2PA shall use the Congestion Indication primitive to notify its upper
layer MTP3 when transmit buffer occupancy crosses of changes in the signaling link congestion
onset, discard, status and abatement thresholds. the
signaling link discard status. For national networks with multiple
congestion threshold levels, M2PA shall notify MTP3 when
transmit buffer occupancy crosses each level of the congestion onset,
discard,
and abatement thresholds. discard status levels.

Note: M2PA does not discard messages because of transmit
congestion. Discarding of messages due to transmit congestion is
performed by MTP3.

4.2.6 Changeover

The objective of the changeover is to ensure that signaling traffic
carried by the unavailable signaling link is diverted to the
alternative signaling link(s) as quickly as possible while avoiding
message loss, duplication, or mis-sequencing.  For this purpose, the
changeover procedure includes data retrieval, which is performed
before opening the alternative signaling links to the diverted

traffic.  Data retrieval consists of these steps:

   (1) buffer updating, i.e., identifying all those User Data
       messages in the retransmission buffer of the unavailable
       signaling link which have not been received by the far end
       SCTP, as well as untransmitted messages, and

   (2) transferring those messages to the transmission buffers of the
       alternate links.

Note that only User Data messages are retrieved and transmitted over
the alternate links. Link Status messages shall not be retrieved and
transmitted over the alternate links. References to stream sequence
numbers in this section refer only to the User Data stream's stream
sequence numbers.

In order to support changeover in M2PA, the SCTP Stream Sequence
Numbers must be used in place of the Forward and Backward Sequence
Numbers (FSN/BSN) of SS7.

Stream Sequence Numbers used by SCTP are 16 bits long.  MTP2's Forward
and Backward Sequence Numbers are only seven bits long.  Hence it is
necessary for MTP3 to accomodate accommodate the larger SSNs. This is done
through the use of the Extended Changeover Order (XCO) and Extended
Changeover Acknowledgement (XCA) messages instead of the Changeover
Order (COO) and Changeover Acknowledgement (COA) messages. The XCO and
XCA messages are specified in Reference [7] section 9.8.1. 9.8.1 and
Reference [3] T1.111.4, section 15.4. Only the XCO and XCA messages
from [7] or [3] are required. These messages have a 24-bit
field for the sequence number. The upper 8 bits of the 24 bit field
should be set to 0, and the SSN is placed in the lower 16 bits. XCO/XCA message
as explained in [7] and [3].

(Note that the Stream Sequence Numbers are used instead of the
Transmission Sequence Numbers. The Transmission Sequence Numbers are
32 bits long, and therefore would not fit in the XCO and XCA
messages.)
messages. Furthermore, TSNs do not number User Data messages
consecutively. TSNs also number Link Status and SCTP-originated
messages, which should not be retrieved during the changeover
procedure.)

Also, the following MTP3/MTP2 primitives must use the larger sequence
numbers:

   - BSNT Indication Confirmation

   - Retrieval Request and FSNC

For data retrieval, MTP3 requests the Backward Sequence Number to be
Transmitted (BSNT) from M2PA through the Retrieve BSNT
request. Normally, SCTP receives messages in order, in which case the
BSNT is the last message received by SCTP. However, because of
congestion or a failure condition, the sequence numbers of the
acknowledged messages may have gaps.  In particular, the SCTP SACK
(selective acknowledgement message) message can have several of these
gaps. In this case, it is necessary to scan through these gaps and

find the sequence number before the first gap. This is the number
considered as the BSNT and communicated to MTP3. M2PA sends the BSNT
value to MTP3 in the BSNT indication. confirmation. In the same way, the remote
end also detects its BSNT. The MTP3 layers exchange BSNT values
through the XCO/XCA XCO and XCA messages. The BSNT received from the other end
is called the FSNC. When MTP3 receives the FSNC from the other end,
MTP3 retrieves all the unsent and unacknowledged messages starting
with sequence number (FSNC + 1).  This is accomplished through a
Retrieval Request and FSNC request. After all the messages are sent
from M2PA to MTP3, M2PA sends a Retrieval Complete indication to MTP3.

As an example of how the BSNT is determined, suppose the following
SSNs had been received by SCTP on the Data Stream when it is time to
do the changeover procedure: 1-10, 13, 14, 16. Then M2PA tells its
upper layer that the last message it received (the BSNT) was 10. SCTP
has not delivered 13, 14, and 16 to M2PA because to do so would
violate ordered delivery within the stream. The value of 10 is
transmitted to the remote end by MTP3 in the XCO/XCA message. So the
remote end will retransmit 11-16 on an alternate link.

If there are any messages on the SCTP receive queue, M2PA SHOULD
receive these messages and deliver them to MTP3. Note that SCTP does
not deliver incoming messages after the first gap (if any) in the
SSNs, since this would violate ordered delivery within the stream. In
the example above, this would mean that messages 1-10 SHOULD be
received. Otherwise, these unreceived messages might be lost, since
SCTP might have acknowledged them.

Note that the sequence numbers and messages requested by MTP3 may be
obtained by M2PA from SCTP via the Communication Lost primitive [5].
Retrieval of messages is an optional feature in SCTP. SCTP that is required
by M2PA. To perform data retrieval, it is necessary that this option be implemented, and that SCTP identify
the SSNs of the messages are identified. that M2PA retrieves. SCTP must retain the
messages for retrieval by MTP3/M2PA whenever an association is
aborted. SCTP must be able to return messages to M2PA so that M2PA can
perform retrieval for MTP3. There are various ways that this can be
implemented, such as:

   (1) SCTP provides a way for M2PA to request retrieval of messages
       for a specified stream and SSN(s).

   (2) SCTP retrieves all messages and identifies the stream and SSN
       of each message. M2PA then must select the appropriate messages
       to pass up to MTP3.

M2PA must be able to respond to the BSNT request from MTP3. There are
various ways of implementing this, such as having SCTP provide the
BSNT.

It is helpful for M2PA to have access to the first and last SSN in
SCTP's transmission queue. This information could be used to determine
if the FSNC received from the remote end is a valid value.

If M2PA receives a Retrieve BSNT request from MTP3, M2PA shall respond
with the BSNT indication. confirmation. The BSNT value is the SCTP stream sequence
number of the last message received by SCTP User Data stream before
any gaps in the stream sequence numbers.

(Note that any messages received with a stream sequence number greater
than this BSNT value have been acknowledged by the receiving SCTP, but
have not been passed up to M2PA. These messages are discarded by the
receiving SCTP and are not delivered to the upper layer
M2PA. Therefore these messages should be retransmitted by the far end
on the alternate link.)

If M2PA receives a Retrieval Request and FSNC request from MTP3, M2PA
shall retrieve from SCTP in order and deliver to MTP3:

   (a) any transmitted User Data messages beginning with the first
       unacknowledged message with stream sequence number greater
       than FSNC.

   (b) any untransmitted User Data messages in SCTP.

   (c) any untransmitted User Data messages M2PA has not delivered
       to SCTP for transmission.

Then M2PA shall send the Retrieval Complete indication to MTP3.

For emergency changover, changeover, MTP3 retrieves only the unsent messages for
transmission on the alternate link(s). If M2PA receives a Retrieval
Request and FSNC request with no FSNC value, or with an invalid FSNC,
then M2PA shall retrieve from SCTP in order and deliver to MTP3:

   (a) any untransmitted User Data messages in SCTP.

   (b) any untransmitted User Data messages M2PA has not delivered
       to SCTP for transmission.

Then M2PA shall send the Retrieval Complete indication to MTP3.

Note:

4.2.6.1 Multiple User Data Streams and Changeover

The changeover procedure makes it impossible problematic for M2PA to have
multiple User Data streams in a one direction for one a link. Buffer
updating would have to be done for each User Data stream separately to
avoid duplication or loss of messages. But MTP3 provides for only one XCO
XCO/XCA message for sending the last-received SSN.

M2PA links with multiple User Data streams would be possible if a
multiple-BSNT XCO/XCA message is defined in MTP3, or MTP3 allows
multiple XCO/XCA messages (one for each User Data stream) to be sent
during a changeover. This is beyond the scope of this document.

Another attempt to solve this problem and allow for multiple User Data
streams, without changes to MTP3 messages and procedures, is to

introduce sequence numbering of User Data messages at the M2PA
layer. The M2PA sequence numbers would be used instead of SCTP SSNs in
the XCO/XCA messages. However, since the M2PA messages would be
delivered over multiple streams, there could be a gap in the M2PA
sequence numbers at the receiving end when the changeover procedure
begins. There would be a possibility of losing the messages in the
gap, or duplicating messages after the gap.

5.  Examples of M2PA Procedures

In general, messages passed between MTP3 and M2PA are the same as
those passed between MTP3 and MTP2.  M2PA interprets messages from
MTP3 and sends the appropriate message to SCTP. Likewise, messages
from SCTP are used to generate a meaningful message to MTP3.

Note that throughout this section, the primitives between MTP3 and
M2PA are named using the MTP terminology [1][2]. Communications
between M2PA and SCTP are named using SCTP terminology.

5.1  Link Initialization (Alignment)

An example of the message flow to bring an SS7 link in service is
shown below. Alignment is done by both ends of the link. To simplify the
diagram, alignment is shown on one end only. It is assumed in this
example that SCTP has been initialized.

    MTP3        M2PA        SCTP        SCTP        M2PA        MTP3
    ----        ----        ----        ----        ----        ----

     Out of Service
     <------------

     Emergency OR
     Emergency Ceases
     ------------>

     Start
     ------------>

                 Associate
                 ------------>

                             (SCTP Association
                              procedure)

                 Communication Up        Communication Up
                 <------------           ------------>

Even though the SCTP association is established, it is important that
M2PA not send MTP3 data at this point. It must be confirmed that both
ends of the link are ready for traffic. Otherwise, messages could be
lost. The endpoints must exchange In Service messages.

    MTP3        M2PA        SCTP        SCTP        M2PA        MTP3
    ----        ----        ----        ----        ----        ----

                 Link Status Alignment
                 ------------------------------------>

                 Start timer T1

                                 Link Status Alignment
                 <------------------------------------

                 Stop timer T1
                 Start timer T2

Proving period begins. (Messages from remote end not shown.)
                 Link Status Proving
                 Proving Data
                 ------------------------------------>
                 ------------------------------------>
                 ------------------------------------>
                 ------------------------------------>
                 ------------------------------------>
                 ------------------------------------>

                 Timer T2 expires

Proving period ends. Check association performance.

                 Get SRTT Report
                 ------------>

Send Link Status In Service Ready until the remote end completes its proving
period.

                 Start timer T3

                 Link Status Ready
                 ------------------------------------>
                 ------------------------------------>
                 ------------------------------------>
                 ------------------------------------>

                                     Link Status In Service Ready
                 <------------------------------------

                 Stop timer T3

     In Service                                      In Service
     <------------                                   ------------>

At this point, MTP3 may begin sending data messages.

5.2  Message Transmission and Reception

Messages are transmitted using the Data Request primitive from MTP3 to
M2PA. The diagram shows the case where the Link is In Service. The
message is passed from MTP3 of the source to MTP3 of the destination.

    MTP3        M2PA        SCTP        SCTP        M2PA        MTP3
    ----        ----        ----        ----        ----        ----

     Message for
     transmission
     ------------>

                 Send
                 (Data Message)
                 ------------>

                             (SCTP sends message)

                                         Receive
                                         ------------>

                                                  Received message
                                                     ------------>

5.3  Link Status Indication

If SCTP sends a Communication Lost primitive to M2PA, M2PA notifies
MTP3 that the link is out of service. MTP3 responds in its usual way.

    MTP3        M2PA        SCTP        SCTP        M2PA        MTP3
    ----        ----        ----        ----        ----        ----

                 Communication Lost
                 <------------

     Out of Service
     <------------

5.4  Link Status Message (Processor Outage)

This example shows how M2PA responds to a local processor outage. M2PA
sends a Link Status message to its peer. The peer M2PA notifies MTP3
of the outage. MTP3 can then follow the processor outage procedures in
[2].

    MTP3        M2PA        SCTP        SCTP        M2PA        MTP3
    ----        ----        ----        ----        ----        ----

             M2PA detects
             Local Processor
             Outage

                 Link Status
                 Processor Outage
                 ------------>

                             (SCTP sends message)

                                         Receive
                                         ------------>

                                                  Remote Processor
                                                  Outage
                                                     ------------>

                 Link Status
                 Processor Outage
                 Ended
                 ------------>

                             (SCTP sends message)

                                         Receive
                                         ------------>

                                                  Remote Processor
                                                  Outage Ceases
                                                     ------------>

5.5  Level 2 Flow Control

This illustrates the Level 2 Flow Control procedure. In the first
diagram, congestion ceases before timer T6 expires. The second diagram
shows the case where T6 expires.

    MTP3        M2PA        SCTP        SCTP        M2PA        MTP3
    ----        ----        ----        ----        ----        ----

                 Implementation dependent
                 indication of receive
                 congestion onset
                 <------------

                 Link Status Busy
                 ------------------------------------>

                                                    Start
                                                    Timer T6

                 Implementation dependent
                 indication of receive
                 congestion abatement
                 <------------

                 Link Status Busy Ended
                 ------------------------------------>

                                                    Stop
                                                    Timer T6
    MTP3        M2PA        SCTP        SCTP        M2PA        MTP3
    ----        ----        ----        ----        ----        ----

                 Implementation dependent
                 indication of receive
                 congestion onset
                 <------------

                 Link Status Busy
                 ------------------------------------>

                                                    Start
                                                    Timer T6
                                                      :
                                                      :
                                                    Timer T6
                                                    Expires

                                                 Abort
                                         <------------

                                         Comm Lost
                                         ------------>

                                                    Out of Service
                                                     ------------>

5.6  MTP3 Signaling Link Congestion

In this example, it is assumed that SCTP notifies M2PA of congestion
onset and abatement. The notification includes the congestion level,
if there are levels of congestion defined.

    MTP3        M2PA        SCTP        SCTP        M2PA        MTP3
    ----        ----        ----        ----        ----        ----

                 Implementation dependent
                 indication of transmit
                 congestion onset (level)
                 <------------

     Congestion Indication
     (level)
     <------------

                 Implementation dependent
                 indication of transmit
                 congestion abatement (level)
                 <------------

     Congestion Indication
     (level)
     <------------

5.7  Link Deactivation

The MTP3 can request that a SS7-IP link be taken out-of-service. M2PA
uses the Abort message as shown below.

    MTP3        M2PA        SCTP        SCTP        M2PA        MTP3
    ----        ----        ----        ----        ----        ----

     Stop
     ------------>

                 Abort
                 ------------>

                           (SCTP performs its
                           termination procedure)

                 Communication Lost
                 <------------

     Out of Service
     <------------

5.8  Link Changeover

In this example, MTP3 performs a changeover because the link went out
of service. MTP3 selects a different link for retransmitting to retransmit the
unacknowledged and unsent messages.

Note that in this example, the sequence numbers and messages requested
by MTP3 are sent from SCTP to M2PA in the Communication Lost
primitive. In general, the retrieval of sequence numbers and messages
is implementation dependent.

    MTP3        M2PA        SCTP        SCTP        M2PA        MTP3
    ----        ----        ----        ----        ----        ----

                 Communication Lost
                 <------------

     Out of Service
     <------------

     Retrieve BSNT
     ------------>

                 (M2PA locates
                  first gap in
                  received messages)

     BSNT Indication Confirmation
     <------------

     XCO (BSNT) on another link
     ------------------------------------------------------------>

                                                     Retrieve BSNT
                                                     <------------

                                                 BSNT Indication Confirmation
                                                     ------------>

                                                        XCA (BSNT)
     <------------------------------------------------------------

     Retrieval Request
     and FSNC
     ------------>

                 (M2PA locates
                  first gap in
                  acknowledgements)

     Retrieved Message
     <------------

     Retrieved Message
     <------------

     Retrieval Complete
     <------------

     Send messages on another link.

6. Security

M2PA is designed to carry signaling messages for telephony
services. As such, M2PA MUST involve the security needs of several
parties: the end users of the services, the network providers, and the
applications involved.  Additional requirements MAY come from local
regulation.  While having some overlapping security needs, any
security solution SHOULD fulfill all of the different parties' needs.

6.1 Threats

There is no quick-fix, one-size-fits-all solution for security. As a
transport protocol, M2PA has the following security objectives:

   - Availability of reliable and timely user data transport.

   - Integrity of user data transport.

   - Confidentiality of user data.

M2PA runs on top of SCTP.  SCTP [5] provides certain transport related
security features, such as:

   - Blind Denial of Service Attacks

   - Flooding

   - Masquerade

   - Improper Monopolization of Services

When M2PA is running in professionally managed corporate or service
provider network, it is reasonable to expect that this network
includes an appropriate security policy framework. The "Site Security
Handbook" [11] SHOULD be consulted for guidance.

When the network in which M2PA runs involves more than one party, party
(e.g., a non-private network), it MAY NOT be reasonable to expect that
all parties have implemented security in a sufficient manner.  In such
a case, it is recommended that IPSEC be used to ensure confidentiality
of user payload. Consult [12] for more information on configuring
IPSEC services.

6.2 Protecting Confidentiality

Particularly for mobile users, the requirement for confidentiality MAY
include the masking of IP addresses and ports. In this case
application-level encryption is not sufficient. IPSEC ESP SHOULD be
used instead.  Regardless of which level performs the encryption, the
IPSEC ISAKMP service SHOULD be used for key management.

7.  IANA Considerations

7.1 SCTP Payload Protocol Identifier

The SCTP (and UDP/TCP) Registered User Port Number Assignment for M2PA
is TBD.

The value assigned by IANA for the Payload Protocol Identifier in the
SCTP Payload Data chunk is

        M2PA     TBD

The SCTP Payload Protocol Identifier is included in each SCTP Data
chunk, to indicate which protocol the SCTP is carrying. This Payload
Protocol Identifier is not directly used by SCTP but may be used by
certain network entities to identify the type of information being
carried in a Data chunk.

The User Adaptation peer may use the Payload Protocol Identifier as a
way of determining additional information about the data being
presented to it by SCTP.

7.2  M2PA Protocol Extensions

This protocol may be extended through IANA in three ways:

   - through definition of additional message classes,
   - through definition of additional message types, and
   - through definition of additional message parameters.

The definition and use of new message classes, types, and parameters
is an integral part of SIGTRAN adaptation layers.  Thus, these
extensions are assigned by IANA through an IETF Consensus action as
defined in [14].

The proposed extension must in no way adversely affect the general
working of the protocol.

7.2.1 IETF Defined Message Classes

The documentation for a new message class MUST include the following
information:

   (a) A long and short name for the message class.
   (b) A detailed description of the purpose of the message class.

7.2.2 IETF Defined Message Types

Documentation of the message type MUST contain the following
information:

   (a) A long and short name for the new message type.
   (b) A detailed description of the structure of the message.
   (c) A detailed definition and description of the intended use
       of each field within the message.
   (d) A detailed procedural description of the use of the new
       message type within the operation of the protocol.
   (e) A detailed description of error conditions when receiving this
       message type.

When an implementation receives a message type which it does not
support, it MUST discard the message.

7.2.3 IETF-defined Parameter Extension

Documentation of the message parameter MUST contain the following
information:

   (a) Name of the parameter type.
   (b) Detailed description of the structure of the parameter field.
   (c) Detailed definition of each component of the parameter value.
   (d) Detailed description of the intended use of this parameter type,
       and an indication of whether and under what circumstances
       multiple instances of this parameter type may be found within
       the same message type.

8.  Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the following for their valuable
comments and suggestions: Brian Tatum, Jeff Copley, Monique Bernard,
Wayne Davis, Cliff Thomas, Brian Bidulock, Ian Rytina, Al Varney.

9.  References

[1] ITU-T Recommendation Q.700, 'Introduction To ITU-T Signalling
    System No. 7 (SS7)' (SS7)'.

[2] ITU-T Recommendation Q.701-Q.705, 'Signalling System No. 7
    (SS7) - Message Transfer Part (MTP)' (MTP)'.

[3] ANSI T1.111-2000, American National Standard for
    Telecommunications - Signaling System Number 7 (SS7) -
    Message Transfer Part (MTP), 2000 2000.

[4] RFC 2719, Framework Architecture for Signaling Transport,
    October 1999 1999.

[5] RFC 2960, Stream Control Transmission Protocol,
    October 2000 2000.

[6] SS7 MTP2-User Adaptation Layer, draft-ietf-sigtran-m2ua-07.txt,
    February 2001 draft-ietf-sigtran-m2ua-09.txt,
    July 2001.

[7] ITU-T Recommendation Q.2210, 'Message transfer part level 3
    functions and messages using the services of ITU-T
    Recommendation Q.2140' Q.2140'.

[8] Bradner, S. "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
    Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

[9] Telecommunication Technology Committee (TTC) Standard JT-Q704,
    'Message Transfer Part Signaling Network Functions',
    April 28, 1992.

[10] ITU-T Recommendation Q.2140, 'B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer',
     February 1995 1995.

[11] RFC 2196, Site Security Handbook, September 1997 1997.

[12] RFC 2401, Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol,
     November 1998 1998.

[13] SCTP Stream Based Extensions for Dynamic Reconfiguration of IP Addresses
     and Enforcement of Flow Limiting Methods,
     draft-ietf-sigtran-srwnd-sctp-00.txt, January 31, 2001 and Message Limits,
     draft-ietf-tsvwg-addip-sctp-02.txt, June 29, 2001.

[14] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an IANA
     Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 2434, October
     1998.

[15] RFC 791, Internet Protocol, September 1981.

10.  Author's  Authors' Addresses

Tom George                                        Tel: +1-972-519-3168
Alcatel USA USA, Inc.                    EMail: tom.george@usa.alcatel.com Tom.George@usa.alcatel.com
1000 Coit Road
Plano, TX 75075
USA

Ram Dantu, Ph.D.                                  Tel: +1-469-255-0716
Cisco Systems Inc.                             EMail: rdantu@cisco.com
17919 Waterview Parkway
Dallas, TX 75252
USA

Malleswar Kalla                                   Tel: +1-973-829-5212
Telcordia Technologies             EMail: kalla@research.telcordia.com
MCC 1J211R
445 South Street
Morristown, NJ 07960
USA

Hanns Juergen Schwarzbauer                       Tel: +49-89-722-24236
SIEMENS AG                    HannsJuergen.Schwarzbauer@icn.siemens.de
Hofmannstr. 51
81359 Munich
Germany

Greg Sidebottom                                   Tel: +1-613-763-7305
Nortel Networks                     EMail: gregside@nortelnetworks.com
3685 Richmond Rd,
Nepean,
Kanata, Ontario                               EMail: gregside@home.com
Canada  K2H5B7

Ken Morneault                                     Tel: +1-703-484-3323
Cisco Systems Inc.                           EMail: kmorneau@cisco.com
13615 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon, VA. VA 20171
USA

This Internet Draft expires September 2001. January 2002.