draft-ietf-sigtran-m3ua-02.txt   draft-ietf-sigtran-m3ua-03.txt 
Network Working Group G. Sidebottom, L. Ong, Guy Mousseau Network Working Group G. Sidebottom, L. Ong, Guy Mousseau
INTERNET-DRAFT Nortel Networks INTERNET-DRAFT Nortel Networks
Ian Rytina Ian Rytina
Ericsson Ericsson
Hanns-Juergen Schwarzbauer Hanns-Juergen Schwarzbauer
Siemens Siemens
Ken Morneault Ken Morneault
Cisco Cisco
Mallesh Kalla Mallesh Kalla
Telcordia Telcordia
Normand Glaude
Performance Technologies
Expires in six months 10 March 2000 Expires in six months June 2000
SS7 MTP3-User Adaptation Layer (M3UA) SS7 MTP3-User Adaptation Layer (M3UA)
<draft-ietf-sigtran-m3ua-02.txt> <draft-ietf-sigtran-m3ua-03.txt>
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
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Abstract Abstract
This Internet Draft defines a protocol for the transport of any SS7 This Internet Draft defines a protocol for supporting the transport of
MTP3-User signaling (e.g., ISUP and SCCP messages) over IP using the any SS7 MTP3-User signalling (e.g., ISUP and SCCP messages) over IP
Simple Control Transport Protocol. Also, provision is made for using the services of the Stream Control Transmission Protocol. Also,
protocol elements that enable a seamless operation of the MTP3-User provision is made for protocol elements that enable a seamless operation
peers in the SS7 and IP domains. This protocol would be used between a of the MTP3-User peers in the SS7 and IP domains. This protocol would be
Signaling Gateway (SG) and a Media Gateway Controller (MGC) or IP- used between a Signalling Gateway (SG) and a Media Gateway Controller
resident Database. It is assumed that the SG receives SS7 signaling (MGC) or IP-resident Database. It is assumed that the SG receives SS7
over a standard SS7 interface using the SS7 Message Transfer Part (MTP) signalling over a standard SS7 interface using the SS7 Message Transfer
to provide transport. Part (MTP) to provide transport.
TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Introduction.......................................................3 1. Introduction.......................................................3
1.1 Scope.........................................................3 1.1 Scope.........................................................3
1.2 Terminology...................................................5 1.2 Terminology...................................................3
1.3 Signalling Transport Architecture.............................5 1.3 M3UA Overview.................................................5
1.4 Services Provided by the M3UA Layer..........................13 1.4 Functional Areas.............................................10
1.5 Internal Functions in the M3UA...............................15 1.5 Sample Configurations........................................18
1.6 Definition of M3UA Boundaries................................18 1.6 Definition of M3UA Boundaries................................21
2. M3UA Protocol Elements............................................18 2. Conventions.......................................................22
2.1 Common Message Header........................................19 3. M3UA Protocol Elements............................................22
2.2 Transfer Messages............................................20 3.1 Common Message Header........................................22
2.3 SS7 Signaling Network management (SSNM) Messages.............21 3.2 Transfer Messages............................................24
2.4 Application Server Process Maintenance Messages..............27 3.3 SS7 Signalling Network management (SSNM) Messages............26
2.5 Management Messages..........................................31 3.4 Application Server Process Maintenance Messages..............32
3. Procedures........................................................34 3.5 Management Messages..........................................40
3.1 Procedures to Support the Services of the M3UA Layer.........34 4. Procedures........................................................44
3.2 Procedures to Support the M3UA Services in Section 1.4.2.....34 4.1 Procedures to Support the Services of the M3UA Layer.........44
3.3 Procedures to Support the M3UA Services in Section 1.4.4.....35 4.2 Procedures to Support the M3UA Services in Section 1.4.2.....44
3.4 Procedures to Support the M3UA Services in Section 1.4.3.....43 4.3 Procedures to Support the M3UA Services in Section 1.4.4.....45
4. Examples of M3UA Procedures.......................................45 4.4 Procedures to Support the M3UA Services in Section 1.4.3.....52
4.1 Establishment of Association and Traffic 5. Examples of M3UA Procedures.......................................54
Between SGs and ASPs.........................................45 5.1 Establishment of Association and Traffic
4.2 ASP traffic Failover Examples................................47 Between SGs and ASPs.........................................54
4.3 M3UA/MTP3-User Boundary Examples.............................48 5.2 ASP traffic Fail-over Examples...............................56
5. Security..........................................................52 5.3 M3UA/MTP3-User Boundary Examples.............................57
5.1 Introduction.................................................52 6. Security..........................................................61
5.2 Threats......................................................52 6.1 Introduction.................................................61
5.3 Protecting Confidentiality...................................53 6.2 Threats......................................................61
6. IANA Considerations...............................................53 6.3 Protecting Confidentiality...................................62
7. Acknowledgements..................................................53 7. IANA Considerations...............................................62
8. References........................................................53 8. Acknowledgements..................................................62
9. Author's Addresses................................................55 9. References........................................................62
10. Author's Addresses...............................................65
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
1.1 Scope 1.1 Scope
There is a need for SCN signaling protocol delivery from an SS7 There is a need for SCN signalling protocol delivery from an SS7
Signaling Gateway (SG) to a Media Gateway Controller (MGC) or IP- Signalling Gateway (SG) to a Media Gateway Controller (MGC) or IP-
resident Database as described in the Framework Architecture for resident Database as described in the Framework Architecture for
Signalling Transport [1]. The delivery mechanism should meet the Signalling Transport [1]. The delivery mechanism should meet the
following criteria: following criteria:
* Support for transfer of all SS7 MTP3-User Part messages (e.g., ISUP, * Support for the transfer of all SS7 MTP3-User Part messages (e.g.,
SCCP, TUP, etc.) ISUP, SCCP, TUP, etc.)
* Support for the seamless operation of MTP3-User protocol peers * Support for the seamless operation of MTP3-User protocol peers
* Support for the management of SCTP transport associations and * Support for the management of SCTP transport associations and traffic
traffic between an SG and one or more MGCs or IP-resident Databases between an SG and one or more MGCs or IP-resident Databases
* Support for MGC or IP-resident Database failover and loadsharing * Support for MGC or IP-resident Database process fail-over and load-
sharing
* Support for the asynchronous reporting of status changes to * Support for the asynchronous reporting of status changes to
management management
In simplistic terms, the SG will terminate SS7 MTP2 and MTP3 protocols In simplistic transport terms, the SG will terminate SS7 MTP2 and MTP3
and deliver ISUP, SCCP and/or any other MTP3-User protocol messages protocols and deliver ISUP, SCCP and/or any other MTP3-User protocol
over SCTP transport associations to MTP3-User peers in MGCs or IP- messages over SCTP transport associations to MTP3-User peers in MGCs or
resident Databases. IP-resident Databases.
1.2 Terminology 1.2 Terminology
Application Server (AS) - A logical entity serving a specific Routing Application Server (AS) - A logical entity serving a specific Routing
Key. An example of an Application Server is a virtual switch element Key. An example of an Application Server is a virtual switch element
handling all call processing for a unique range of PSTN trunks, handling all call processing for a unique range of PSTN trunks,
identified by an SS7 DPC/OPC/CIC_range. Another example is a virtual identified by an SS7 DPC/OPC/CIC_range. Another example is a virtual
database element, handling all HLR transactions for a particular SS7 database element, handling all HLR transactions for a particular SS7
DPC/OPC/SCCP_SSN combination. The AS contains a set of one or more DPC/OPC/SCCP_SSN combination. The AS contains a set of one or more
unique Application Server Processes, of which one or more is normally unique Application Server Processes, of which one or more is normally
actively processing traffic. actively processing traffic.
Application Server Process (ASP) - A process instance of an Application Application Server Process (ASP) - A process instance of an Application
Server. An Application Server Process serves as an active or standby Server. An Application Server Process serves as an active or standby
process of an Application Server (e.g., part of a distributed virtual process of an Application Server (e.g., part of a distributed virtual
switch or database element). Examples of ASPs are processes (or process switch or database). Examples of ASPs are processes (or process
instances of) MGCs, IP SCPs or IP HLRs. An ASP contains an SCTP end- instances of) MGCs, IP SCPs or IP HLRs. An ASP contains an SCTP end-
point and may be configured to process signalling traffic within more point and may be configured to process signalling traffic within more
than one Application Server. than one Application Server.
Association - An association refers to an SCTP association. The Association - An association refers to an SCTP association. The
association provides the transport for the delivery of MTP3-User association provides the transport for MTP3-User protocol data units and
protocol data units and M3UA adaptation layer peer messages. M3UA adaptation layer peer messages.
Routing Key: At the SG, the Routing Key describes a set of SS7 IP Server Process (IPSP) A process instance of an IP-based
parameter/parameter-ranges that uniquely defines the range of application. An IPSP is essentially the same as an ASP, except that it
signalling traffic configured to be handled by a particular Application uses MU3A in a peer-to-peer fashion. Conceptually, an IPSP does not use
Server. For example, where all traffic directed to a particular SS7 the services of a signalling gateway.Signalling Gateway Process (SGP)
DPC, OPC and ISUP CIC_range(s) or SCCP SSN is to be sent to a A process instance of a Signalling Gateway. It serves as an active,
particular Application Server, that SS7 data defines the associated standby or load-sharing process of a Signalling Gateway.
Routing Key. Routing Keys are mutually exclusive in the sense that a
Signalling Process A process instance that uses M3UA to communicate
with other signalling process. An ASP, a signalling gateway process and
an IPSP are all signalling processes.
Routing Key: A Routing Key describes a set of SS7 parameter and
parameter values that uniquely define the range of signalling traffic to
be handled by a particular Application Server. For example, where all
traffic directed to an SS7 DPC, OPC and ISUP CIC_range(s) or SCCP SSN is
to be sent to a particular Application Server, that SS7 data defines the
associated Routing Key. Routing Keys are unique in the sense that a
received SS7 signalling message cannot be directed to more than one received SS7 signalling message cannot be directed to more than one
Routing Key. Also, a Routing Key cannot extend across more than a Routing Key. Also, a Routing Key cannot extend across more than a
single SS7 DPC, in order to more easily support SS7 Management single SS7 DPC, in order to more easily support SS7 Management
procedures. It is not necessary for the parameter ranges within a procedures. It is not necessary for the parameter range values within a
particular Routing Key to be contiguous. For example, an ASP could be particular Routing Key to be contiguous. For example, an ASP could be
configured to support call processing for multiple ranges of PSTN configured to support call processing for multiple ranges of PSTN trunks
trunks that are not represented by contiguous CIC values. that are not represented by contiguous CIC values.
Routing Context An Application Server Process may be configured to Routing Context An Application Server Process may be configured to
process traffic within more than one Application Server. In this case, process traffic related to more than one Application Server, over a
the Routing Context parameter is exchanged beween the SG and the ASP, single SCTP Association. At an ASP, the Routing Context parameter
identifying the relevant Application Server. From the perspective of uniquely identifies the traffic associated with each Application Server
an ASP, the Routing Context uniquely identifies the range of traffic that the ASP is configured to support. There is a 1:1 relationship
associated with a particular Application Server, which the ASP is between a received Routing Context value and a Routing Key entry at the
configured to receive from the SG. There is a 1:1 relationship between sending node. Therefore the Routing Context can be viewed as an index
a Routing Context value and a Routing Key at an SG. Therefore the into a sending node's Message Distribution Table containing the Routing
Routing Context can be viewed as an index into an SG Table containing Key entries.
the SG Routing Keys.
Fail-over - The capability to re-route signaling traffic as required to Fail-over - The capability to re-route signalling traffic as required to
an alternate Application Server Process, or group of ASPs, within an an alternate Application Server Process, or group of ASPs, within an
Application Server in the event of failure or unavailability of a Application Server in the event of failure or unavailability of a
currently used Application Server Process. Fail-back may apply upon currently used Application Server Process. Fail-back may apply upon the
the return to service of a previously unavailable Application Server return to service of a previously unavailable Application Server
Process. Process.
Signalling Point Management Cluster (SPMC) A complete set of Signalling Point Management Cluster (SPMC) - A complete set of
Application Servers represented to the SS7 network under the same SS7 Application Servers represented to the SS7 network under the same SS7
Point Code. SPMCs are used to sum the Point Code. SPMCs are used to sum the availability / congestion /
availability/congestion/User_Part status of an SS7 destination point User_Part status of an SS7 destination point code that is distributed in
code that is distributed in the IP domain, for the purpose of the IP domain, for the purpose of supporting MTP3 management procedures
supporting MTP3 management procedures at an SG. In some cases, the SG at an SG. In some cases, the SG itself may also be a member of the
itself may also be a member of the SPMC. In this case, the SG SPMC. In this case, the SG availability / congestion / User_Part status
availability/congestion/User_Part status must also be taken into must also be taken into account when considering any supporting MTP3
account when considering any supporting MTP3 management actions. management actions.
MTP The Message Transfer Part of the SS7 protocol
MTP3 MTP Level 3, the signalling network layer of SS7
MTP3-User - Any protocol normally using the services of the SS7 MTP3 MTP3-User - Any protocol normally using the services of the SS7 MTP3
(e.g., ISUP, SCCP, TUP, etc.). (e.g., ISUP, SCCP, TUP, etc.).
Network Appearance The Network Appearance identifies an SS7 network Network Appearance The Network Appearance identifies an SS7 network
context for the purposes of logically separating the signaling traffic context for the purposes of logically separating the signalling traffic
between the SG and the Application Server Processes over a common SCTP between the SG and the Application Server Processes over a common SCTP
Association. An example is where an SG is logically partitioned to Association. An example is where an SG is logically partitioned to
appear as an element in four separate national SS7 networks. A Network appear as an element in four separate national SS7 networks. A Network
Appearance implicitly defines the SS7 Point Code(s), Network Indicator Appearance implicitly defines the SS7 Point Code(s), Network Indicator
and MTP3 protocol type/variant/version used within a specific SS7 and MTP3 protocol type/variant/version used within a specific SS7
network partition. A physical SS7 route-set or link-set at an SG can
network partition. An physical SS7 route-set or link-set at an SG can
appear in only one network appearance. The Network Appearance is not appear in only one network appearance. The Network Appearance is not
globally significant and requires coordination only between the SG and globally significant and requires coordination only between the SG and
the ASP. the ASP.
Network Byte Order: Most significant byte first, a.k.a Big Endian. Network Byte Order: Most significant byte first, a.k.a Big Endian.
Layer Management Layer Management is a nodal function in an SG or ASP Layer Management Layer Management is a nodal function that handles the
that handles the inputs and outputs between the M3UA layer and a local inputs and outputs between the M3UA layer and a local management entity.
management entity.
Host - The computing platform that the ASP process is running on. Host - The computing platform that the ASP process is running on.
Stream - A stream refers to an SCTP stream. Stream - A stream refers to an SCTP stream.
1.3 Signaling Transport Architecture 1.3 M3UA Overview
1.3.1 Protocol Architecture. 1.3.1 Protocol Architecture.
The framework architecture that has been defined for SCN signaling The framework architecture that has been defined for SCN signalling
transport over IP [1] uses multiple components, including a signaling transport over IP [1] uses multiple components, including a common
common transport protocol and an adaptation module to support the signalling transport protocol and an adaptation module to support the
services expected by a particular SCN signaling protocol from its services expected by a particular SCN signalling protocol from its
underlying protocol layer. underlying protocol layer.
Within the framework architecture, this document defines an MTP3-User Within the framework architecture, this document defines an MTP3-User
adaptation module that is suitable for the transport of SS7 ISDN User adaptation module suitable for supporting the transfer of messages of
Part (ISUP) [2,3,4] and Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP) any protocol layer that is identified to the MTP Level 3 layer, in SS7
[5,6,7] messages but could be equally used to transport other SS7 MTP3- terms, as a user part. The list of these protocol layers include, but
User Part messages such as, for example, the Telephone User Part (TUP) is not limited to, ISDN User Part (ISUP) [2,3,4], Signalling Connection
[8]. TCAP [9,10,11] or RANAP [12] messages are transported Control Part (SCCP) [5,6,7] and Telephone User Part (TUP) [8]. TCAP
transparently by the M3UA as SCCP payload, as they are SCCP-User [9,10,11] or RANAP [12] messages are transferred transparently by the
protocols. The M3UA uses the services of the Simple Common Transport M3UA as SCCP payload, as they are SCCP-User protocols.
protocol [13] as the underlying reliable signaling common transport
protocol.
In a Signaling Gateway, it is expected that the SS7 MTP3-User signaling It is recommended that the M3UA use the services of the Stream Control
is transmitted and received from the PSTN over a standard SS7 network Transmission Protocol (SCTP) [13] as the underlying reliable common
interface, using the SS7 Message Transfer Part (MTP) [14,15,16] to signalling transport protocol. This is to take advantage of various SCTP
provide reliable transport of the MTP3-User signaling messages to and features such as:
from an SS7 Signaling End Point (SEP) or Signaling Transfer Point
(STP). The SG then provides a functional inter-working of transport
functions with the IP transport, in order to transfer the MTP3-User
signaling messages to and from an Application Server Process where the
peer MTP3-User protocol layer exists.
The use of standard MTP Level 2 signaling links in the SS7 network - Explicit packet-oriented delivery (not stream-oriented);
interface is not the only possibility. ATM-based High Speed Links - Sequenced delivery of user messages within multiple streams,
could also be used, using the services of the Signaling ATM Adaptation with an option for order-of-arrival delivery of individual
user messages,
- Optional multiplexing of user messages into SCTP datagrams;
- Network-level fault tolerance through support of multi-homing
at either or both ends of an association;
- Resistance to flooding and masquerade attacks; and - Data
segmentation to conform to discovered path MTU size.
Layer (SAAL) [17,18]. For that matter, it is possible that IP-based Under certain scenarios, such as back-to-back connections without
links could be present, using the services of the MTP2-User Adaptation redundancy requirements, the SCTP functions above may not be necessary.
Layer (M2UA) [19]. Also note that STPs may be present in the SS7 path In these cases, it is acceptable to use TCP as the underlying common
between the SS7 SEP and the SG. transport protocol.
Where ATM-base High Speed Links are used in the SS7 network, it is 1.3.2 Services Provided by the M3UA Layer
possible for the SG to use the services of the MTP-3b [20] for reliable
transport to and from an SS7 SEP or STP. The maximum Service Data Unit
(SDU) supported by the MTP-3b is 4096 octets compared to the 272 octet
maximum of the MTP. However, for MTP3-Users to take advantage of the
larger SDU between MTP3-User peers, network architects should ensure
that MTP3-b is used end-to-end between the SG and the SS7-resident
peer.
Three example cases are shown below: The M3UA Layer at an ASP provides the equivalent set of primitives at
its upper layer to the MTP3-Users as provided by the MTP Level 3 to its
local users at an SS7 SEP. In this way, the ISUP and/or SCCP layer at
an ASP is unaware that the expected MTP3 services are offered remotely
from an MTP3 Layer at an SG, and not by a local MTP3 layer. The MTP3
layer at an SG may also be unaware that its local users are actually
remote user parts over M3UA. In effect, the M3UA extends access to the
MTP3 layer services to a remote IP-based application. The M3UA does not
itself provide the MTP3 services.
1.3.1.1 Example 1: ISUP transport The M3UA Layer may also be used for point-to-point signalling between
two IP Server Processes (IPSPs). In this case, the M3UA provides the
same set of primitives and services at its upper layer as the MTP3.
However, in this case the expected MTP3 services are not offered
remotely from an SG. The MTP3 services are provided but the procedures
to support these services are a subset of the MTP3 procedures due to
the simplified point-to-point nature of the IPSP to IPSP relationship.
******** SS7 ***************** IP ******** 1.3.2.1 Support for the transport of MTP3-User Messages
* SEP *---------* SG *--------* ASP *
******** ***************** ********
+------+ +------+ The M3UA provides the transport of MTP-TRANSFER primitives across an
| ISUP | (NIF) | ISUP | established SCTP association between an SG and an ASP and between IPSPs.
+------+ +------+-+------+ +------+ The MTP-TRANSFER primitives are encoded as MTP3-User messages with
| MTP3 | | MTP3 | | M3UA | | M3UA | attached MTP3 Routing Labels as described in the message format sections
+------| +------+ +------+ +------+ of the SCCP and ISUP recommendations. In this way, the SCCP and ISUP
| MTP2 | | MTP2 | | SCTP | | SCTP | messages received from the SS7 network are not re-encoded into a
+------+ +------+ +------+ +------+ different format for transport to/from the server processes. As well,
| L1 | | L1 | | IP | | IP | all the required MTP3 Routing Label information (OPC, DPC, SIO) is
+------+ +------+ +------+ +------+ available at the ASP and the IPSP as is expected by the MTP3-User
|_______________| |______________| protocol layer.
SEP - SS7 Signaling End Point The M3UA does not impose a 272-octet user information block limit as
SCTP - Simple Common Transport Protocol specified by the SS7 MTP Level 3 protocol. Larger information blocks
NIF Nodal Interworking Function
Within the SG, MTP-TRANSFER indication primitives received from the MTP can be accommodated directly by M3UA/SCTP, without the need for an upper
Level 3 upper layer interface are sent to the local M3UA-resident layer segmentation/re-assembly procedure as specified in recent SCCP or
network address translation and mapping function for ongoing routing to ISUP versions. However, in the context of an SG, the maximum 272-octet
the final IP destination. MTP-TRANSFER primitives received from the block size must be followed when inter-working to a SS7 network that
local M3UA network address translation and mapping function are sent to does
the MTP Level 3 upper layer interface as MTP-TRANSFER request not support the transfer of larger information blocks to the final
primitives for on-going MTP Level 3 routing to an SS7 SEP. destination. This avoids potential ISUP or SCCP fragmentation
requirements at the SG. However, if the SS7 network is provisioned to
support the Broadband MTP [20] to the final SS7 destination, the
information block size limit may be increased past 272 octets.
For internal SG modelling purposes, this may be accomplished with the 1.3.2.2 Native Management Functions
use of an implementation-dependent nodal inter-working function within
the SG that serves to transport messages within the SG between the MTP3
and M3UA. This nodal inter-working function has no visible peer
protocol with either the ASP or SEP.
1.3.1.2 Example 2: SCCP transport where an SCCP function at the SG is The M3UA provides management of the underlying SCTP transport protocol
invoked: to ensure that SG-ASP and IPSP-IPSP transport is available to the degree
called for by the MTP3-User signalling applications.
******** SS7 ***************** IP ******** The M3UA provides the capability to indicate errors associated with
* SEP *---------* *--------* * received M3UA messages and to notify, as appropriate, local management
* or * * SG * * ASP * and/or the peer M3UA.
* STP * * * * *
******** ***************** ********
+------+ +---------------+ +------+ 1.3.2.3 Inter-working with MTP3 Network Management Functions
| SCCP | | SCCP | | SCCP |
+------+ +------+-+------+ +------+
| MTP3 | | MTP3 | | M3UA | | M3UA |
+------| +------+ +------+ +------+
| MTP2 | | MTP2 | | SCTP | | SCTP |
+------+ +------+ +------+ +------+
| L1 | | L1 | | IP | | IP |
+------+ +------+ +------+ +------+
|_______________| |______________|
STP - SS7 Signaling Transfer Point At the SG, the M3UA must also provide inter-working with MTP3 management
functions to support seamless operation of the user SCN signalling
applications in the SS7 and IP domains. This includes:
In this example, the SG contains an instance of the SS7 SCCP protocol - Providing an indication to MTP3-Users at an ASP that a remote
layer that may, for example, perform the SCCP Global Title Translation destination in the SS7 network is not reachable.
(GTT) function for messages logically addressed to the SG SCCP. If the
result of a GTT for an SCCP message yields an SS7 DPC or DPC/SSN
address result of an SCCP peer located in the IP domain, the resulting
MTP-TRANSFER request primitive is sent to the local M3UA-resident
network address translation and mapping function for ongoing routing to
the final IP destination.
Similarly, the SCCP instance in an SG can perform the SCCP GTT service - Providing an indication to MTP3-Users at an ASP that a remote
for messages logically addressed to it from SCCP peers in the IP destination in the SS7 network is now reachable.
domain. In this case, MTP-TRANSFER messages are sent from the local
M3UA-resident network address translation and mapping function to the
SCCP for GTT. If the result of the GTT yields the address of an SCCP
peer in the SS7 network then the resulting MTP-TRANSFER request is
given to the MTP3 for delivery to an SS7-resident node.
It is possible that the above SCCP GTT at the SG could yield the - Providing an indication to MTP3-Users at an ASP that messages to a
address of an SCCP peer in the IP domain and the resulting MTP-TRANSFER remote MTP3-User peer in the SS7 network are experiencing SS7
primitive would be sent back to the M3UA for delivery to an IP congestion
destination.
For internal SG modelling purposes, this may be accomplished with the - Providing an indication to MTP3-Users at an ASP that a remote MTP3-
use of an implementation-dependent nodal inter-working function within User peer is unavailable.
the SG that effectively sits below the SCCP and routes MTP-TRANSFER
messages to/from both the MTP3 and the M3UA, based on the SS7 DPC or
DPC/SSN address information. This nodal inter-working function has no
visible peer protocol with either the ASP or SEP.
Note that the services and interface provided by M3UA are the same as The M3UA layer at an ASP may initiate an audit of the availability or
in Example 1 and the functions taking place in the SCCP entity are the congested state of remote SS7 destinations. This information is
transparent to M3UA. The SCCP protocol functions are not reproduced in requested from the M3UA at the SG.
the M3UA protocol.
1.3.1.3 Example 3 Seamless Handling of MTP3 Management 1.3.2.4 Support for the management of SCTP associations between the SG
and ASPs.
******** SS7 ***************** IP ******** The M3UA layer at the SG maintains the availability state of all
* SEP *---------* *--------* * configured remote ASPs, in order to manage the SCTP Associations and the
* or * * SG * * ASP * traffic between the SG and ASPs. As well, the active/inactive state of
* STP * * * * *
******** ***************** ********
(NIF) remote ASPs is also maintained - Active ASPs are those currently
+------+ +------+-+------+ +------+ receiving traffic from the SG.
| MTP3 | | MTP3 | | M3UA | | M3UA |
+------| +------+ +------+ +------+
| MTP2 | | MTP2 | | SCTP | | SCTP |
+------+ +------+ +------+ +------+
| L1 | | L1 | | IP | | IP |
+------+ +------+ +------+ +------+
|_______________| |______________|
In the case of SS7 MTP3 network management, it is required that the The M3UA layer may be instructed by local management to establish an
MTP3-User protocols at ASPs receive indications of SS7 signaling point SCTP association to a peer M3UA node. This can be achieved using the M-
availability, SS7 network congestion and User Part availability as SCTP ESTABLISH primitive to request, indicate and confirm the
would be expected an SS7 SEP node. To accomplish this, the MTP-PAUSE, establishment of an SCTP association with a peer M3UA node.
MTP-RESUME and MTP-STATUS indication primitives received at the MTP3
upper layer interface at the SG need to be made available to the remote
MTP3-User lower layer interface at the ASP. Note: These indication
primitives are also made available to any existing local MTP3-Users at
the SG, such as the SCCP in the previous example.
For internal SG modelling purposes, this may be accomplished with the The M3UA layer may also need to inform local management of the status of
use of an implementation-dependent nodal inter-working function within the underlying SCTP associations using the M-SCTP STATUS request and
the SG that effectively sits above the MTP3 and delivers MTP-PAUSE, indication primitive. For example, the M3UA may inform local management
MTP-RESUME and MTP-STATUS indication primitives received from the MTP of the reason for the release of an SCTP association, determined either
Level 3 upper layer interface to the local M3UA-resident management locally within the M3UA layer or by a primitive from the SCTP.
function. This nodal inter-working function has no visible peer
protocol with either the ASP or SEP.
It is important to clarify that MTP3 management messages such as TFPs Also the M3UA layer may need to inform the local management of the
or TFAs received from the SS7 network are not "encapsulated" and sent change in status of an ASP or AS. This can be achieved using the M-ASP
blindly to the ASPs. Rather, the existing MTP3 management procedures STATUS or M-AS STATUS primitives.
are followed within the MTP3 function of the SG to re-calculate the
MTP3 route set status and initiate any signaling-route-set-test
procedures into the SS7 network. Only when a route set status changes
are MTP-PAUSE or MTP-RESUME primitives invoked. These primitives can
also be invoked due to local SS7 link set conditions as per existing
MTP3 procedures.
1.3.2 Signaling Network Architecture 1.3.3 Signalling Network Architecture
A Signaling Gateway is used to support the transport of MTP3-User A Signalling Gateway is used to support the transport of MTP3-User
signaling traffic received from the SS7 network to multiple distributed signalling traffic received from the SS7 network to multiple distributed
ASPs (e.g., MGCs and IP Databases). Clearly, the M3UA protocol ASPs (e.g., MGCs and IP Databases). Clearly, the M3UA protocol
description cannot in itself meet any performance and reliability description is not designed to meet any performance and reliability
requirements for such transport. A physical network architecture is requirements for such transport. However, the conjunction of
required, with data on the availability and transfer performance of the distributed architecture and redundant networks does allow for reliable
physical nodes involved in any particular exchange of information. transport of signalling traffic over IP. The M3UA protocol is flexible
However, the M3UA protocol must be flexible enough allow its operation enough to allow its operation and management in a variety of physical
and management in a variety of physical configurations that will enable configurations, enabling Network Operators to meet their performance and
Network Operators to meet their performance and reliability reliability requirements.
requirements.
To meet the stringent SS7 signaling reliability and performance To meet the stringent SS7 signalling reliability and performance
requirements for carrier grade networks, these Network Operators should requirements for carrier grade networks, these Network Operators should
ensure that there is no single point of failure provisioned in the end- ensure that no single point of failure is present in the end-to-end
to-end network architecture between an SS7 node and an IP ASP. network architecture between an SS7 node and an IP-based application.
Depending of course on the reliability of the SG and ASP functional This can typically be achieved through the use of redundant SGs,
elements, this can typically be met by the use of redundant SGs, the redundant hosts, and the provision of redundant QOS-bounded IP network
provision of redundant QOS-bounded IP network paths for SCTP paths for SCTP Associations between SCTP End Points. Obviously, the
Associations between SCTP End Points, and redundant Hosts. The reliability of the SG, the MGC and other IP-based functional elements
distribution of ASPs within the available Hosts is also important. For also needs to be taken into account. The distribution of ASPs within
a particular Application Server, the related ASPs should be distributed the available Hosts must also be considered. As an example, for a
particular Application Server, the related ASPs should be distributed
over at least two Hosts. over at least two Hosts.
An example physical network architecture relevant to carrier-grade Here is one example of a physical network architecture relevant to SS7
operation in the IP network domain is shown in Figure 1 below: carrier-grade operation, in the IP network domain, shown in Figure 1
below:
******** ************** SG MGC
* *_________________________________________* ******** * Host1
* * _________* * ASP1 * * Host#1 ************** ************** Host#1
* SG1 * SCTP Associations | * ******** * = * ********__*__________________________*__******** * =
* *_______________________ | * ******** * SG1 * * SGP1 *__*_____ _______________*__* ASP1 * * MGC1
* * | | * * ASP2 * * * ******** * \ / * ******** *
* * | | * ******** * * ********__*______\__/________________*__******** *
* * | | * ******** * * * SGP2 *__*_______\/______ _____*__* ASP2 * *
* * | | * * ASP3 * * * ******** * /\ | | * ******** *
******** | | * ******** * * : * / \ | | * : *
| | * . * * ******** * / \ | | * ******** *
******** | | * . * * * SGPn * * | | | | * * ASPn * *
* *_______________________________| * * * ******** * | | | | * ******** *
* * | * ******** * ************** | | | | **************
* SG2 * SCTP Associations | * * ASPn * * | | \ /
* *____________ | * ******** * Host#2 ************** | | \ / ************** Host#2
* * | | ************** = * ********__*_____| |______\/_______*__******** * =
* * | | ************** SG2 * * SGP1 *__*_________________/\_______*__* ASP1 * * MGC2
* * | |_________________* ******** * Host2 * ******** * / \ * ******** *
* * |____________________________* * ASP1 * * * ********__*_______________/ \_____*__******** *
******** * ******** * * * SGP2 *__*__________________________*__* ASP2 * *
* ******** * * ******** * * ******** *
* * ASP2 * * * : * SCTP Associations * : *
* ******** * * ******** * * ******** *
* ******** * * * SGPn * * * * ASPn * *
* * ASP3 * * * ******** * * ******** *
* ******** * ************** **************
* . *
* . *
* *
* ******** *
* * ASPn * *
* ******** *
**************
.
.
.
Figure 1 Physical Model Figure 1 Physical Model
In this model, each host has many application processes. In the case of
the MGC, an ASP may provide service to one or more application server,
and is identified as an SCTP end point. In the case of the SG, a pair
of signalling gateway processes may represent, as an example, a single
network appearance, serving a signalling point management cluster.
This example model can also be applied to IPSP-IPSP signalling. In this
case, each IPSP would have its services distributed across 2 hosts or
more, and may have multiple server processes on each host.
In the example above, each signalling process (SGP, ASP or IPSP) is the
end point to more than one SCTP association, leading to many other
signalling processes. To support this, a signalling process must be
able to support distribution of M3UA messages to many simultaneous
active associations. This message distribution function is based on the
status of provisioned routing keys, the availability of signalling
points in the SS7 network, and the redundancy model (active-standby,
load-sharing, n+k) of the remote signalling processes.
For carrier grade networks, Operators should ensure that under failure For carrier grade networks, Operators should ensure that under failure
or isolation of a particular ASP, stable calls or transactions are not or isolation of a particular signalling process, stable calls or
lost. This implies that ASPs need, in some cases, to share the
call/transaction state or be able to pass the call/transaction state transactions are not lost. This implies that signalling processes need,
between each other. Also, in the case of ASPs performing call in some cases, to share the call or transaction state information with
processing, coordination may be required with the related Media Gateway other signalling processes. In the case of ASPs performing call
to transfer the MGC control for a particular trunk termination. processing, coordination may also be required with the related Media
Gateway to transfer the MGC control for a particular trunk termination.
However, this sharing or communication is outside the scope of this However, this sharing or communication is outside the scope of this
document. document.
1.3.3 SS7 Point Code Representation This model serves as an example. M3UA imposes no restrictions as to the
exact layout of the network elements, the message distribution
algorithms and the distribution of the signalling processes. Instead,
it provides a framework and a set of messages that allow for a flexible
and scalable signalling network architecture, aiming to provide
reliability and performance.
Within an SS7 network, a Signaling Gateway is charged with representing 1.4 Functional Areas
1.4.1 Signalling Point Code Representation
Within an SS7 network, a Signalling Gateway is charged with representing
a set of nodes in the IP domain into the SS7 network for routing a set of nodes in the IP domain into the SS7 network for routing
purposes. The SG itself, as a physical node in the SS7 network, must purposes. The SG itself, as a physical node in the SS7 network, must be
be addressable with an SS7 Point Code for MTP3 Management purposes. addressable with an SS7 Point Code for MTP3 Management purposes. The SG
The SG Point Code will also be used for addressing any local MTP3-Users Point Code will also be used for addressing any local MTP3-Users at the
at the SG such as an SG-resident SCCP function. SG such as an SG-resident SCCP function.
Where an SG is logically partitioned to operate in multiple SS7 network An SG may be logically partitioned to operate in multiple SS7 network
appearances, the SG must be addressable with a Point Code in each Appearances. In such a case, the SG must be addressable with a Point
network appearance and represents a set of nodes in the IP domain into Code in each network appearance, and must represent a set of nodes in
each SS7 network. Alias PCs may also be used within an SG network the IP domain into each SS7 network. Alias PCs may also be used within
appearance, but SG MTP3 management messages to/from the SS7 network an SG network appearance, but SG MTP3 management messages to/from the
will not use the alias PCs. SS7 network will not use the alias PCs.
The M3UA places no restrictions on the SS7 Point Code representation of The M3UA places no restrictions on the SS7 Point Code representation of
any of the ASPs. ASPs can be represented under the same PC of the SG, an AS. Application servers can be represented under the same PC of the
their own individual Point Codes or grouped with other ASPs for Point SG, their own individual Point Codes or grouped with other applications
Code preservation purposes. A single Point Code may be used to for Point Code preservation purposes. A single Point Code may be used
represent the SG and all the ASPs together, if desired. to represent the SG and all the ASPs together, if desired.
If an ASP or group of ASPs is available to the SS7 network via more If an ASP or group of ASPs is available to the SS7 network via more than
than one SG, each with its own Point Code, the ASP(s) can be one SG, each with its own Point Code, the ASP(s) can be represented by a
represented by a Point Code that is separate from any SG Point Code. Point Code that is separate from any SG Point Code. This allows these
This allows these SGs to be viewed from the SS7 network as "STPs", each SGs to be viewed from the SS7 network as "STPs", each having an ongoing
having an ongoing "route" to the same ASP(s). Under failure "route" to the same ASP(s). Under failure conditions where an ASP
conditions where an ASP becomes unavailable from one of the SGs, this becomes unavailable from one of the SGs, this approach enables MTP3
approach enables MTP3 route management messaging between the SG and SS7 route management messaging between the SG and SS7 network, allowing
network, allowing simple SS7 re-routing through an alternate SG without simple SS7 re-routing through an alternate SG without changing the
changing the Destination Point Code Address of SS7 traffic to the ASPs. Destination Point Code Address of SS7 traffic to the ASPs.
+--------+ +--------+
| | | |
+------------+ SG 1 +--------------+ +------------+ SG 1 +--------------+
+-------+ | | "STP" | | ---- +-------+ | SS7 links | "STP" | IP network | ----
| SEP +---+ +--------+ +---/ \ | SEP +---+ +--------+ +---/ \
| or | | ASPs | | or | | ASPs |
| STP +---+ +--------+ +---\ / | STP +---+ +--------+ +---\ /
+-------+ | | | | ---- +-------+ | | | | ----
+------------+ SG 2 +--------------+ +------------+ SG 2 +--------------+
| "STP" | | "STP" |
+--------+ +--------+
Note: there is no SG to SG communication shown, so each SG can be Note: there is no SG to SG communication shown, so each SG can be
reached only via the direct Linkset from the SS7 network. reached only via the direct Linkset from the SS7 network.
1.3.4 ASP Fail-over Model and Terminology The following example shows a signalling gateway partitioned into two
network appearances.
The network address translation and mapping function of the M3UA SG
supports ASP fail-over functions in order to support a high +-------+ +---------------+
availability of call and transaction processing capability. All MTP3- | SEP +--------------| SS7 Ntwk |M3UA| ----
User messages (e.g., ISUP, SCCP) incoming to an SG from the SS7 network +-------+ SS7 links | "A" | | / \
are assigned to a unique Application Server, based on the information |__________| +-----------+ ASPs |
in the message. The information examined may be one or more of the MTP | | | \ /
DPC, OPC, SLS, or any MTP3-User specific fields such as, for example, +-------+ | SS7 Ntwk | | ----
the ISUP CIC, SCCP SSN, or TCAP TRID. Some example possibilities are | SEP +--------------+ "B" | |
the DPC alone, the DPC/OPC combination, the DPC/OPC/CIC combination, or +-------+ +---------------+
the DPC/SSN combination. The information used to point to an AS is not
limited by the M3UA and none of the examples are mandated.
The Application Server is in practical terms a list of all ASPs 1.4.2 Message Distribution
currently configured/registered to process MTP3-User messages within a
certain range of routing information, known as a Routing Key. One or 1.4.2.1 Address Translation and Mapping at the SG
more ASPs in the list are normally active (i.e., handling traffic)
while any others may be unavailable or inactive, to be possibly used in In order to direct messages received from the SS7 MTP3 network to the
the event of failure or unavailability of the active ASP(s). appropriate IP destination, the SG must perform address translation and
mapping functions using information from the received MTP3-User message.
To support this message distribution, the SG must maintain the
equivalent of a network address translation table, mapping incoming SS7
message information to an Application Server for a particular
application and range of traffic. This is accomplished by comparing
elements of the incoming SS7 message to provisioned Routing Keys in the
SG. These Routing Keys in turn make reference to an Application Server
that is enabled by one or more ASP. These ASPs provide dynamic status
information to the SG using various management messages defined in the
M3UA protocol. Possible SS7 address/routing information that comprise a
Routing Key entry includes, for example, the OPC, DPC, SIO found in the
MTP3 routing label, or other MTP3-User specific fields such as the ISUP
CIC, SCCP subsystem number, or TCAP transaction ID. Some example routing
keys are: the DPC alone, the DPC/OPC combination, the DPC/OPC/CIC
combination, or the DPC/SSN combination. The particular information
used to define an M3UA Routing Key is application and network dependent,
and none of the above examples are mandated.
An Application Server contains a list of one or more ASPs that are
capable of processing the traffic. This list is assumed to be dynamic,
taking into account the availability status of the individual ASPs in
the list, configuration changes, and possible fail-over mechanisms. The
M3UA protocol includes messages to convey the availability status of the
individual ASPs as input to a fail-over mechanism.
Normally, one or more ASPs is active in the ASP (i.e., currently
processing traffic) but in certain failure and transition cases it is
possible that there may not be an active ASP available. Both load-
sharing and backup scenarios are supported.
When there is no Routing Key match for an incoming SS7 message, a
default treatment must be specified. Possible solutions are to provide
a default Application Server at the SG that directs all unallocated
traffic to a (set of) default ASP(s), or to drop the messages and
provide a notification to management. The treatment of unallocated
traffic is implementation dependent.
1.4.2.2 Address Translation and Mapping at the ASP
In order to direct messages to the SS7 network, the ASP must also
perform an address translation and mapping function in order to choose
the proper SGP for a given message. This is accomplished by observing
elements of the outgoing message, SS7 network status, SGP availability
and network appearance configuration tables.
A Signalling Gateway contains a list of one or more SGPs that are
capable of routing SS7 traffic. As is the case with ASPs, this list can
be dynamic, taking into account the availability status of the
individual SGPs, configuration changes and fail-over mechanisms.
1.4.3 SS7 and M3UA Interworking
In the case of SS7 and M3UA inter-working, the M3UA adaptation layer is
designed to provide an extension of the MTP3 defined user primitives.
1.4.3.1 Signalling Gateway SS7 Layers
The SG is responsible for terminating MTP Level 3 of the SS7 protocol,
and offering an IP-based extension to its users.
>From an SS7 perspective, it is expected that the Signalling Gateway (SG)
transmits and receives SS7 Message Signalling Units (MSUs) to and from
the PSTN over a standard SS7 network interface, using the SS7 Message
Transfer Part (MTP) [14,15,16] to provide reliable transport of the
messages.
As a standard SS7 network interface, the use of MTP Level 2 signalling
links is not the only possibility. ATM-based High Speed Links can also
be used with the services of the Signalling ATM Adaptation Layer (SAAL)
[17,18]. It is possible for IP-based links to be present, using the
services of the MTP2-User Adaptation Layer (M2UA) [19]. These SS7
datalinks may be terminated at a Signalling Transfer Point (STP) or at a
Signalling End Point (SEP). Using the services of MTP3, the SG may be
capable of communicating with remote SS7 SEPs in a quasi-associated
fashion, where STPs may be present in the SS7 path between the SEP and
the SG.
Where ATM-based High Speed Links are used in the SS7 network, it is
possible for the SG to use the services of the MTP-3b [20] for reliable
transport to and from an SS7 SEP or STP. The maximum Service Data Unit
(SDU) supported by the MTP-3b is 4096 octets compared to the 272-octet
maximum of the MTP3. However, for MTP3-Users to take advantage of the
larger SDU between MTP3-User peers, network architects should ensure
that MTP3-b is used end-to-end between the SG and the SS7-resident peer.
1.4.3.2 SS7 and M3UA Inter-Working at the SG
The SG provides a functional inter-working of transport functions
between the SS7 network and the IP network by also supporting the M3UA
adaptation layer. It allows the transfer of MTP3-User signalling
messages to and from an IP-based Application Server Process where the
peer MTP3-User protocol layer exists.
The Signalling Gateway must maintain knowledge of SS7 node and
Signalling Point Management Cluster (SPMC) status in their respective
domains in order to perform a seamless inter-working of the IP-based
signalling and the SS7 domains. For example, SG knowledge of the
availability and/or congestion status of the SPMC and SS7 nodes must be
maintained and disseminated in the respective networks, in order to
ensure that end-to-end operation is transparent to the communicating SCN
protocol peers at the SS7 node and ASP.
When the SG determines that the transport of SS7 messages to an SPMC is
encountering congestion, the SG may optionally inform the MTP3 route
management function (by an implementation-dependent mechanism). This
information is used by the MTP3 to mark the route to the affected
destination as congested and to trigger MTP Transfer Controlled (TFC)
messages to any SS7 SEPs generating traffic to the congested DPC, as per
current MTP3 procedures.
When the SG determines that the transport of SS7 messages to all ASPs in
a particular SPMC is interrupted, then it may similarly optionally
inform the MTP3 route management function. This information is used by
the MTP3 to mark the route to the affected destination as unavailable,
and in the case of a signalling transfer point, to send MTP Transfer
Prohibited (TFP) messages to the relevant adjacent SS7 nodes, according
to the local SS7 network procedures.
When the SG determines that the transport of SS7 messages to an ASP in a
particular SPMC can be resumed, the SG may similarly optionally inform
the MTP3 route management function. This information is used by the
MTP3 to mark the route to the affected destination as available, and in
the case of a signalling transfer point, to send MTP Transfer Allowed
(TFA) messages to the relevant adjacent SS7 nodes, according to the
local SS7 network procedures. In some SS7 network architectures,
sending TFP and TFA messages from the SG into the SS7 network should be
suppressed. As an example, in the case where the SG is seen by the
adjacent SS7 nodes as an SEP (i.e., in ANSI MTP terms the SG is
connected via A-links or F-links), TFP or TFA messages would not
normally be expected by the adjacent SS7 node.
In the case of SS7 user part management, it is required that the MTP3-
User protocols at ASPs receive indications of SS7 signalling point
availability, SS7 network congestion and User Part availability as would
be expected an SS7 SEP node. To accomplish this, the MTP-PAUSE, MTP-
RESUME and MTP-STATUS indication primitives received at the MTP3 upper
layer interface at the SG need to be made propagated to the remote MTP3-
User lower layer interface at the ASP. These indication primitives are
also made available to any existing local MTP3-Users at the SG, if
present.
It is important to clarify that MTP3 management messages such as TFPs or
TFAs received from the SS7 network are not "encapsulated" and sent
blindly to the ASPs. Rather, the existing MTP3 management procedures
are followed within the MTP3 function of the SG to re-calculate the MTP3
route set status and initiate any required signalling-route-set-test
procedures into the SS7 network. Only when an SS7 destination status
changes are MTP-PAUSE or MTP-RESUME primitives invoked. These
primitives can also be invoked due to local SS7 link set conditions as
per existing MTP3 procedures.
1.4.3.2 Application Server
A cluster of application servers is responsible for providing the
overall support for one or many SS7 upper layers. From an SS7
standpoint, a signalling point management cluster (SPMC) must provide
complete support for the upper layer service for a given point code. As
an example, such a SPMC providing MGC capabilities must provide complete
support for ISUP for a given point code, according to the local SS7
network specifications.
This measure is necessary to allow the SG to accurately represent the
signalling point on the local SS7 network.
1.4.3.3 IPSP
Since IPSPs use M3UA in a point-to-point fashion, there is no concept of
routing of messages beyond the remote end. Therefore, SS7 and M3UA
inter-working is not necessary for this model.
1.4.4 Redundancy Models
The network address translation and mapping function of the M3UA layer
supports signalling process fail-over functions in order to support a
high availability of call and transaction processing capability.
1.4.4.1 Application Server Redundancy
All MTP3-User messages (e.g., ISUP, SCCP) incoming to an SG from the SS7
network are assigned to a unique Application Server, based on the
information in the message and the provisioned Routing Keys.
The Application Server is, in practical terms a list of all ASPs
actively configured to process a range of MTP3-User traffic defined by
Routing Keys. One or more ASPs in the list are normally active (i.e.,
handling traffic) while any others may be unavailable or inactive, to be
possibly used in the event of failure or unavailability of the active
ASP(s).
The fail-over model supports an "n+k" redundancy model, where "n" ASPs The fail-over model supports an "n+k" redundancy model, where "n" ASPs
is the minimum number of redundant ASPs required to handle traffic and is the minimum number of redundant ASPs required to handle traffic and
"k" ASPs are available to take over for a failed or unavailable ASP. "k" ASPs are available to take over for a failed or unavailable ASP. A
Note that "1+1" active/standby redundancy is a subset of this model. A "1+1" active/standby redundancy is a subset of this model. A simplex
simplex "1+0" model is also supported as a subset, with no ASP "1+0" model is also supported as a subset, with no ASP redundancy.
redundancy.
At the SG, an Application Server list contains active and inactive ASPs
to support ASP load-sharing and fail-over procedures. The list of ASPs
within a logical Application Server is kept updated in the SG to reflect
the active Application Server Process(es).
To avoid a single point of failure, it is recommended that a minimum of To avoid a single point of failure, it is recommended that a minimum of
two ASPs be in the list, resident in separate hosts and therefore two ASPs be in the list, resident in separate hosts, and therefore
available over different SCTP Associations. For example, in the available over different SCTP Associations. For example, in the network
network shown in Figure 1, all messages to DPC x could be sent to ASP1 shown in Figure 1, all messages to DPC x could be sent to ASP1 in Host1
in Host1 or ASP1 in Host2. The AS list at SG1 might look like this: or ASP1 in Host2. The AS list at SG1 might look like this:
Routing Key {DPC=x) "Application Server #1" Routing Key {DPC=x) - "Application Server #1"
ASP1/Host1 State=Up, Active ASP1/Host1 State=Up, Active
ASP1/Host2 State=Up, Inactive ASP1/Host2 State=Up, Inactive
In this "1+1" redundancy case, ASP1 in Host1 would be sent any incoming In this "1+1" redundancy case, ASP1 in Host1 would be sent any incoming
message with DPC=x. ASP1 in Host2 would normally be brought to the message with DPC=x. ASP1 in Host2 would normally be brought to the
active state upon failure of, or loss of connectivity to, ASP1/Host1. active state upon failure of, or loss of connectivity to, ASP1/Host1. In
In this example, both ASPs are Up, meaning that the related SCTP this example, both ASPs are Up, meaning that the related SCTP
association and far-end M3UA peer is ready. association and far-end M3UA peer is ready.
The AS List at SG1 might also be set up in loadshare mode: The AS List at SG1 might also be set up in load-share mode:
Routing Key {DPC=x) - Application Server #1 Routing Key {DPC=x) - "Application Server #1"
ASP1/Host1 State = Up, Active ASP1/Host1 State = Up, Active
ASP1/Host2 State = Up, Active ASP1/Host2 State = Up, Active
In this case, both the ASPs would be sent a portion of the traffic. In this case, both the ASPs would be sent a portion of the traffic. For
For example the two ASPs could together form a database, where incoming example the two ASPs could together form a database, where incoming
queries may be sent to any active ASP. queries may be sent to any active ASP.
Care must be exercised by a Network Operator in the selection of the Care must be exercised by a Network Operator in the selection of the
routing information to be used as the Routing Key for a particular AS. routing information to be used as the Routing Key for a particular AS.
For example, where Application Servers are defined using ranges of ISUP For example, where Application Servers are defined using ranges of ISUP
CIC values, the Operator is implicitly splitting up control of the CIC values, the Operator is implicitly splitting up control of the
related circuit groups. Some CIC value range assignments may interfere related circuit groups. Some CIC value range assignments may interfere
with ISUP circuit group management procedures. Similarly, within an with ISUP circuit group management procedures. Similarly, within an AS,
AS, if a loadbalancing algorithm were to use CIC values to balance the if a load-balancing algorithm were to use CIC values to balance the load
load across the ASPs, the span of circuit contol assigned to particular across the ASPs, the span of circuit contol assigned to particular ASPs
ASPs must also be weighed against the ISUP circuit group management must also be weighed against the ISUP circuit group management
procedures. procedures.
In the process of fail-over or fail-back, it is recommended that in the In the process of fail-over or fail-back, it is recommended that in the
case of ASPs supporting call processing, stable calls do not fail. It case of ASPs supporting call processing, stable calls do not fail. It
is possible that calls in "transition" may fail, although measures of is possible that calls in "transition" may fail, although measures of
communication between the ASPs involved can be used to mitigate this. communication between the ASPs involved can be used to mitigate this.
For example, the two ASPs may share call state via shared memory, or For example, the two ASPs may share call state via shared memory, or may
may use an ASP to ASP protocol to pass call state information. use an ASP to ASP protocol to pass call state information.
1.3.5 Client/Server Model
The SG takes on the role of server while the ASP is the client. ASPs
must initiate the SCTP association to the SG.
The SCTP (and UDP/TCP) Registered User Port Number Assignment for M3UA
is 2905.
1.4 Services Provided by the M3UA Layer
The M3UA Layer at the ASP provides the equivalent set of primitives at
its upper layer to the MTP3-Users as provided by the MTP Level 3 to its
local users at an SS7 SEP. In this way, the ISUP and/or SCCP layer at
an ASP is unaware that the expected MTP3 services are offered remotely
from an MTP3 Layer at an SG and not by a local MTP3 layer. In effect,
the M3UA extends access to the MTP3 layer services to a remote ASP
the M3UA does not itself provide the MTP3 services so does not
duplicate MTP3 procedures.
1.4.1 Support for the transport of MTP3-User Messages
The M3UA provides the transport of MTP-TRANSFER primitives across SCTP
associations between an SG and an ASP. The MTP-TRANSFER primitives are
encoded as MTP3-User messages with attached MTP3 Routing Labels as
described in the message format sections of the SCCP and ISUP
recommendations. In this way, the SCCP and ISUP messages received from
the SS7 network are not re-encoded into a different format for
transport to/from the ASP. As well, all the required MTP3 Routing Label
information (OPC, DPC, SIO) is available at the ASP as is expected by
the MTP3-User protocol layer.
Note that M3UA does not itself impose a 272-octet user information
block limit as specified by the MTP Level 3. Larger information blocks
can be accommodated directly by M3UA/SCTP without the need for an upper
layer segmentation/re-assembly procedure such as specified in recent
SCCP or ISUP versions. However, in the context of an SG, the maximum
272-octet block size must be followed when inter-working to a SS7
network that does not support the transfer of larger information blocks
to the final destination, as is possible in the Broadband MTP [20].
This will avoid ISUP or SCCP fragmentation requirements at the SG.
However, if the SS7 network is provisioned to support the Broadband MTP
to the final SS7 destination, the information block size limit may be
increased past 272 octets.
1.4.2 Native Management Functions
The M3UA may provide management of the underlying SCTP transport
protocol to ensure that SG-ASP transport is available to the degree
called for by the MTP3-User signaling applications.
The M3UA provides the capability to indicate errors associated with 1.4.4.2 Signalling Gateway Redundancy
received M3UA messages and to notify, as appropriate, local management
and/or the remote peer M3UA.
1.4.3 Inter-working with MTP3 Network Management Functions Signalling Gateways may also be distributed over multiple hosts. Much
like the AS model, SGs are comprised of one or more SG processes (SGP),
distributed over one or more hosts, using an active/standby or a load-
sharing model. An SGP is viewed as a remote SCTP end-point from an ASP
perspective.
At the SG, the M3UA must also provide inter-working with MTP3 It is therefore possible for an ASP to route signalling messages
management functions to support seamless operation of the user SCN destined to the SS7 network using more than one SGP. In this model, a
signaling applications in the SS7 and IP domains. This includes: signalling gateway is deployed as a cluster of hosts acting as a single
SG. A primary/back-up redundancy model is possible, where the
unavailability of the SCTP association to a primary SGP, or the
unavailability of the SS7 destination node from the primary SGP, could
be used to reroute affected traffic to an alternate SGP. A load-sharing
model is possible, where the signalling messages are load-shared between
multiple SGPs.
- Providing an indication to MTP3-Users at an ASP that a remote It may also be possible for an AS to use more than one SG to access a
destination in the SS7 network is not reachable. specific SS7 end point, in a model that resembles an SS7 STP mated pair.
Typically, SS7 STPs are deployed in mated pairs, with traffic load-
shared between them. Other models are also possible, subject to the
limitations of the local SS7 network provisioning guidelines.
- Providing an indication to MTP3-Users at an ASP that a remote >From the perspective of an ASP, a particular SG is capable of
destination in the SS7 network is now reachable. transferring traffic to an SS7 destination if an SCTP association with
the SGP is established, the SGP has received an indication from the ASP
that it is actively handling traffic for that destination, and the SG
has not indicated that the destination is inaccessible. When an ASP is
configured to use multiple SGPs or SGs for transferring traffic to the
SS7 network, the ASP must maintain knowledge of the current capability
of the SG to handle traffic to destinations of interest. This
information is crucial to the overall reliability of the service, for
both active/standby and load-sharing model, in the event of failures,
recovery and maintenance activities. The ASP may also use this
information for congestion avoidance purposes.
- Providing an indication to MTP3-Users at an ASP that messages to a 1.4.5 Management Inhibit/Uninhibit
remote MTP3-User peer in the SS7 network are experiencing SS7
congestion
- Providing an indication to MTP3-Users at an ASP that a remote MTP3- Local Management at an ASP or SG may wish to stop traffic across an SCTP
User peer is unavailable. association in order to temporarily remove the association from service
or to perform testing and maintenance activity. The function could
optionally be used to control the start of traffic on to a newly
available SCTP association.
The M3UA layer at an ASP may initiate an audit of the availability or 1.4.6 Congestion Management
the congested state of remote SS7 destinations. This information is
requested from the M3UA at the SG.
1.4.4 Support for the management of SCTP associations between the SG The M3UA Layer is informed of local and IP network congestion by means
and ASPs. of an implementation-dependent function (e.g., an implementation-
dependent indication from the SCTP of IP network congestion). When an SG
determines that the transport of SS7 messages to a Signalling Point
Management Cluster (SPMC) is encountering congestion, the SG may
optionally trigger SS7 MTP3 Transfer Controlled management messages to
originating SS7 nodes. The triggering of SS7 MTP3 Management messages
from an SG is an implementation-dependent function.
The M3UA layer at the SG maintains the availability state of all At an ASP, congestion is indicated to local MTP3-Users by means of an
configured remote ASPs, in order to manage the SCTP Associations and MTP-Status primitive indicating congestion, to invoke appropriate upper
the traffic between the SG and ASPs. As well, the active/inactive layer responses, as per current MTP3 procedures.
state of remote ASPs is also maintained - Active ASPs are those
currently receiving traffic from the SG.
The M3UA layer at either the SG or ASP can be instructed by local 1.4.7 SCTP Stream Mapping.
management to establish an SCTP association to a peer M3UA node. This
can be achieved using the M-SCTP ESTABLISH primitive to request,
indicate and confirm the establishment of an SCTP association with a
peer M3UA node.
The M3UA layer may also need to inform local management of the status The M3UA at both the SG and ASP also supports the assignment of
of the underlying SCTP associations using the M-SCTP STATUS request and signalling traffic into streams within an SCTP association. Traffic
indication primitive. For example, the M3UA may inform local management that requires sequencing must be assigned to the same stream. To
of the reason for the release of an SCTP association, determined either accomplish this, MTP3-User traffic may be assigned to individual streams
locally within the M3UA layer or by a primitive from the SCTP. based on the SLS value in the MTP3 Routing Label or the ISUP CIC
assignment, subject of course to the maximum number of streams supported
by the underlying SCTP association.
Also the M3UA layer may need to inform the local management of the The use of SCTP streams within M3UA is recommended in order to minimize
change in availability status of an ASP. This can be achieved using transmission and buffering delays, therefore improving the overall
the M-ASP STATUS primitive to change and indicate the status of an ASP. performance and reliability of the signalling elements. The
distribution of the MTP3 user messages over the various streams should
be done in such
1.5 Internal Functions in the M3UA a way to minimize message mis-sequencing, as required by the SS7 User
Parts.
1.5.1 Address Translation and Mapping at the SG M3UA 1.4.8 Client/Server Model
In order to direct messages received from the SS7 MTP3 network to the The SG takes on the role of server while the ASP is the client. ASPs
desired IP destination, the SG M3UA must perform address translation must initiate the SCTP association to the SG.
and mapping functions using information from the received MTP3-User
message.
To support this mapping, the SG must maintain a network address The SCTP (and UDP/TCP) Registered User Port Number Assignment for M3UA
translation table, mapping incoming SS7 message information to an is 2905.
Application Server serving a particular application and range of
traffic. This is accomplished by comparing a set of the information in
an incoming SS7 message to provisioned SG Routing Keys to determine an
Application Server that serves a particular range of traffic.
Possible SS7 address/routing information that may comprise a Routing 1.5 Sample Configurations
Key entry includes, for example, the OPC, DPC, SIO, ISUP CIC range or
SCCP Subsystem Number. The particular information used in an SG M3UA
Routing Key is application and network dependent.
An Application Server contains a list of one or more ASPs which are 1.5.1 Example 1: ISUP message transport
capable of processing the traffic. This list is assumed to be dynamic,
taking into account the availability status of the individual ASPs in
the list, configuration changes, and possible fail-over mechanisms. ******** SS7 ***************** IP ********
The M3UA protocol includes messages to convey the availability status * SEP *---------* SG *--------* ASP *
of the individual ASPs as input to a fail-over mechanism. ******** ***************** ********
Normally, one or more ASPs is active in the ASP (i.e., currently +------+ +------+
processing traffic) but in certain failure and transition cases it is | ISUP | (NIF) | ISUP |
possible that there may not be an active ASP available. Both +------+ +------+-+------+ +------+
loadsharing and backup scenarios are supported. | MTP3 | | MTP3 | | M3UA | | M3UA |
+------| +------+ +------+ +------+
| MTP2 | | MTP2 | | SCTP | | SCTP |
+------+ +------+ +------+ +------+
| L1 | | L1 | | IP | | IP |
+------+ +------+ +------+ +------+
|_______________| |______________|
Where there is no Routing Key match for an incoming SS7 message, a SEP - SS7 Signalling End Point
default treatment must be specified. Possible solutions are to provide SCTP - Stream Control Transmission Protocol
a "Default" Application Server at the SG that will direct all NIF Nodal Inter-working Function
unallocated traffic to a (set of) "Default" ASP(s), or to drop the
messages and provide a notification to management.
1.5.2 SG Redundancy In this example, the SG provides an implementation-dependent nodal
inter-working function (NIF) that allows the MGC to exchange SS7
signalling messages with the SS7-based SEP. The NIF within the SG
serves to transport messages within the SG between the MTP3 and M3UA.
This nodal inter-working function has no visible peer protocol with
either the MGC or SEP. It also provides network status information to
one or both sides of the network.
It is possible that the ASP could route signaling messages destined to For internal SG modeling purposes, at the NIF level, SS7 signalling
the SS7 network through more than one SG. A primary/back-up case is messages that are destined to the MGC are received as MTP-TRANSFER
possible where the unavailability of the SCTP assocation to a primary indication primitives from the MTP Level 3 upper layer interface and are
SG, or the unavailability of the SS7 destination node from the primary sent to the local M3UA-resident message distribution function for
SG, could be used to reroute affected traffic to a next-preferred SG. ongoing routing to the final IP destination. MTP-TRANSFER primitives
Also, a load-sharing case is possible where the signaling messages are received from the local M3UA network address translation and mapping
load-shared across two (or more) SGs. function are sent to the MTP Level 3 upper layer interface as MTP-
>From the perspective of an ASP, it is assumed that a particular SG is TRANSFER request primitives for on-going MTP Level 3 routing to an SS7
capable of handling traffic to an SS7 destination if an SCTP SEP. For the purposes of providing SS7 network status information the
association to the SG is available, the SG has received an indication NIF also delivers MTP-PAUSE, MTP-RESUME and MTP-STATUS indication
from the ASP that it is currently actively handling traffic, and the SG primitives received from the MTP Level 3 upper layer interface to the
has not indicated that the SS7 destination is unavailable. Where an local M3UA-resident management function.
ASP is configured to use two or more SGs for directing traffic to the
SS7 network, the ASP must maintain knowledge of the current capability
of the SG to handle traffic to destinations of interest, for the
purpose of efficiently supporting the redirection/loadsharing of
traffic. The ASP may also use information received from the SGs of
congestion to concerned destinations.
1.5.3 SCTP Stream Mapping. 1.5.2 Example 2: SCCP Transport between IPSPs
The M3UA at both the SG and ASP also supports the assignment of ******** IP ********
signaling traffic into streams within an SCTP association. Traffic * IPSP * * IPSP *
that requires sequencing must be assigned to the same stream. To ******** ********
accomplish this, MTP3-User traffic may be assigned to individual
streams based on the SLS value in the MTP3 Routing Label or the ISUP
CIC assignment, subject of course to the maximum number of streams
supported by the underlying SCTP association.
1.5.4 Congestion Control. +------+ +------+
|SCCP- | |SCCP- |
| User | | User |
+------+ +------+
| SCCP | | SCCP |
+------+ +------+
| M3UA | | M3UA |
+------+ +------+
| SCTP | | SCTP |
+------+ +------+
| IP | | IP |
+------+ +------+
|________________|
The M3UA Layer is informed of local and IP network congestion by means This example shows an architecture where no Signalling Gateway is used.
of an implementation-dependent function (e.g., an implementation- In this example, SCCP messages are exchanged directly between two IP-
dependent indication from the SCTP of IP network congestion). When an resident IPSPs with resident SCCP-User protocol instances, such as RANAP
SG determines that the transport of SS7 messages to an Signalling Point or TCAP. SS7 network inter-working is not required, therefore there is
Management Cluster (SPMC) is encountering congestion, the SG may no MTP3 network management status information for the SCCP and SCCP-User
optionally trigger SS7 MTP3 Transfer Controlled management messages to protocols to consider. Any MTP-PAUSE, -RESUME or -STATUS indications
originating SS7 nodes. The triggering of SS7 MTP3 Management messages from the M3UA to the SCCP should consider only the status of the SCTP
from an SG is an implementation-dependent function. At an ASP, Association and underlying IP network.
congestion is indicated to local MTP3-Users by means of an MTP-Status
primitive indicating congestion, to invoke appropriate upper layer
responses, as per current MTP3 procedures.
1.5.5 Seamless Network Management Inter-working. 1.5.3 Example 3: SG resident SCCP layer, with remote ASP
The M3UA at an SG must maintain knowledge of SS7 node and Signalling ******** SS7 ***************** IP ********
Point Management Cluster (SPMC) status in their respective domains in * SEP *---------* *--------* *
order to perform as seamless as possible inter-working of the two * or * * SG * * ASP *
domains. For example, SG M3UA knowledge of the availability and/or * STP * * * * *
congestion status of SPMC and SS7 nodes must be maintained and ******** ***************** ********
disseminated in the respective networks so that end-to-end operation is
transparent to the communicating SCN protocol peers at the SS7 node and
ASP.
When an SG M3UA determines that the transport of SS7 messages to an +------+ +---------------+ +------+
SPMC is encountering congestion, the SG may optionally inform the MTP3 | SCCP-| | SCCP | | SCCP-|
route management function (by an implementation-dependent mechanism). | User | +---------------+ | User |
This information is used by the MTP3 to mark the route to the affected +------+ | _____ | +------+
destination as congested and to trigger MTP Transfer Controlled (TFC) | SCCP | | | | | | SCCP |
messages to any SS7 SEPs generating traffic to the congested DPC, as +------+ +------+-+------+ +------+
per current MTP3 procedures. | MTP3 | | MTP3 | | M3UA | | M3UA |
+------| +------+ +------+ +------+
| MTP2 | | MTP2 | | SCTP | | SCTP |
+------+ +------+ +------+ +------+
| L1 | | L1 | | IP | | IP |
+------+ +------+ +------+ +------+
|_______________| |______________|
When an SG M3UA determines that the transport of SS7 messages to all STP - SS7 Signalling Transfer Point
ASPs in a particular SPMC is interrupted, the SG M3UA may similarly
optionally inform the MTP3 route management function. This information
is used by the MTP3 to mark the route to the affected destination as
unavailable and to trigger MTP Transfer Prohibited (TFP) messages to
the adjacent SS7 nodes which are generating traffic to the unavailable
DPC as per current MTP procedures. If the SG is considered part of the
SPMC, MTP TFP messages must not be triggered into the SS7 network, as
SS7 procedures do not support the sending of TFPs by an SS7 node to
indicate its own unavailability.
When an SG M3UA determines that the transport of SS7 messages to an ASP In this example, the SG contains an instance of the SS7 SCCP protocol
in a particular SPMC can be resumed, the SG M3UA may similarly layer that may, for example, perform the SCCP Global Title Translation
optionally inform the MTP3 route management function. This information (GTT) function for messages logically addressed to the SG SCCP. If the
is used by the MTP3 to mark the route to the affected destination as result of a GTT for an SCCP message yields an SS7 DPC or DPC/SSN address
now available and to trigger MTP Transfer Allowed (TFA) messages to the result of an SCCP peer located in the IP domain, the resulting MTP-
adjacent SS7 nodes as per current MTP3 procedures. TRANSFER request primitive is sent to the local M3UA-resident network
address translation and mapping function for ongoing routing to the
final IP destination.
Note: In some SS7 network architectures, the sending of TFP and TFA Similarly, the SCCP instance in an SG can perform the SCCP GTT service
messages from the SG into the SS7 network should be suppressed. For for messages logically addressed to it from SCCP peers in the IP domain.
example, in the case where an SG seen by the adjacent SS7 nodes as an In this case, MTP-TRANSFER messages are sent from the local M3UA-
SEP (i.e., in ANSI MTP terms the SG is connected via A-links or F- resident network address translation and mapping function to the SCCP
links), TFP or TFA messages would not normally be expected by the for GTT. If the result of the GTT yields the address of an SCCP peer in
adjacent SS7 node. the SS7 network then the resulting MTP-TRANSFER request is given to the
MTP3 for delivery to an SS7-resident node.
1.5.6 Management Inhibit/Uninhibit It is possible that the above SCCP GTT at the SG could yield the address
of an SCCP peer in the IP domain and the resulting MTP-TRANSFER
primitive would be sent back to the M3UA for delivery to an IP
destination.
Local Management at an ASP or SG may wish to stop traffic across an For internal SG modeling purposes, this may be accomplished with the use
SCTP association in order to temporarily remove the association from of an implementation-dependent nodal inter-working function within the
service or to perform testing and maintenance activity. The function SG that effectively sits below the SCCP and routes MTP-TRANSFER messages
could optionally be used to control the start of traffic on to a newly- to/from both the MTP3 and the M3UA, based on the SS7 DPC or DPC/SSN
available SCTP association.
1.5.7 Active Association Control address information. This nodal inter-working function has no visible
peer protocol with either the ASP or SEP.
At an SG, an Application Server list may contain active and inactive Note that the services and interface provided by the M3UA are the same
ASPs to support ASP loads-haring and fail-over procedures. When, for as in Example 1 and the functions taking place in the SCCP entity are
example, both a primary and a back-up ASP are available, M3UA peer transparent to M3UA. The SCCP protocol functions are not reproduced in
protocol is required to control which ASP is currently active. The the M3UA protocol.
ordered list of ASPs within a logical Application Server is kept
updated in the SG to reflect the active Application Server Process(es).
1.6 Definition of M3UA Boundaries 1.6 Definition of M3UA Boundaries
1.6.1 Definition of the boundary between M3UA and an MTP3-User. 1.6.1 Definition of the boundary between M3UA and an MTP3-User.
>From ITU Q.701 [2]: >From ITU Q.701 [2]:
MTP-TRANSFER request MTP-TRANSFER request
MTP-TRANSFER indication MTP-TRANSFER indication
MTP-PAUSE indication MTP-PAUSE indication
MTP-RESUME indication MTP-RESUME indication
MTP-STATUS indication MTP-STATUS indication
1.6.2 Definition of the boundary between M3UA and SCTP 1.6.2 Definition of the boundary between M3UA and SCTP
The upper layer primitives provided by the SCTP are provided in [13] The upper layer primitives provided by the SCTP are provided in [13]
2.0 M3UA Protocol Elements 1.6.3 Definition of the Boundary between M3UA and Layer Management
M-SCTP ESTABLISH request
M-SCTP ESTABLISH indication
M-STCP ESTABLISH confirm
M-SCTP RELEASE request
M-SCTP RELEASE indication
M-SCTP RELEASE confirm
M-SCTP STATUS request
M-SCTP STATUS indication
M-ASP STATUS request
M-ASP STATUS indication
M-AS-STATUS request
M-AS-STATUS indication
M-NOTIFY indication
M-ERROR indication
M-ASP-INHIBIT request
M-ASP-UNINHIBIT request
2.0 Conventions
The keywords MUST, MUST NOT, REQUIRED, SHALL, SHALL NOT, SHOULD, SHOULD
NOT, RECOMMENDED, NOT RECOMMENDED, MAY, and OPTIONAL, when they appear
in this document, are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
3.0 M3UA Protocol Elements
The general M3UA message format includes a Common Message Header The general M3UA message format includes a Common Message Header
followed by zero or more parameters as defined by the Message Type. followed by zero or more parameters as defined by the Message Type. For
For forward compatibility, all Message Types may have attached forward compatibility, all Message Types may have attached parameters
parameters even if none are specified in this version. even if none are specified in this version.
2.1 Common Message Header 3.1 Common Message Header
The protocol messages for MTP3-User Adaptation require a message The protocol messages for MTP3-User Adaptation require a message
structure which contains a version, message type, message length, and structure that contains a version, message type, message length, and
message contents. This message header is common among all signaling message contents. This message header is common among all signalling
protocol adaptation layers: protocol adaptation layers:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Version | Spare | Message Type | | Version | Reserved | Message Class | Message Type |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Message Length | | Message Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| | | |
All fields in an M3UA message MUST be transmitted in the network byte order, All fields in an M3UA message MUST be transmitted in the network byte
unless otherwise stated. order, unless otherwise stated.
2.1.1 M3UA Protocol Version M3UA Protocol Version: 8 bits (unsigned integer)
The version field (Vers.) contains the version of the M3UA adaptation The version field contains the version of the M3UA adaptation layer.
layer. The supported versions are: The supported versions are:
0000 0001 Release 1.0 protocol Value Version
----- -------
1 Release 1.0
2.1.2 Message Types Message Class: 8 bits (unsigned integer)
The following list contains the message types for the defined messages. The following list contains the Message Type Classes for the defined
messages.
0 Management (MGMT) Message
1 Transfer Messages
2 SS7 Signalling Network Management (SSNM) Messages
3 ASP State Maintenance (ASPSM) Messages
4 ASP Traffic Maintenance (ASPTM) Messages
5 to 255 Reserved
Message Type: 8 bits (unsigned integer)
The following list contains the message types for the defined
messages.
Management (MGMT) Message
0 Error (ERR)
1 Notify (NTFY)
2 to 255 Reserved for Management Messages
Transfer Messages Transfer Messages
Data 0101 0 Reserved
1 Payload Data (DATA)
2 to 255 Reserved for Transfer Messages
SS7 Signaling Network Management (SSNM) Messages SS7 Signalling Network Management (SSNM) Messages
Destination Unavailable (DUNA) 0201 0 SS7 Network Isolation (S7ISO)
Destination Available (DAVA) 0202 1 Destination Unavailable (DUNA)
Destination State Audit (DAUD) 0203 2 Destination Available (DAVA)
SS7 Network Congestion State (SCON) 0204 3 Destination State Audit (DAUD)
Destination User Part Unavailable (DUPU) 0205 4 SS7 Network Congestion State (SCON)
5 Destination User Part Unavailable (DUPU)
6 to 255 Reserved for SSNM Messages
Application Server Process Maintenance (ASPM) messages ASP State Maintenance (ASPSM) Messages
ASP Up 0301 0 Reserved
ASP Down 0302 1 ASP Up (UP)
Heartbeat 0303 2 ASP Down (DOWN) 3 Heartbeat (HEARTBEAT)
ASP Active 0401 4 ASP Up Ack (UP ACK)
ASP Inactive 0402 5 ASP Down Ack (DOWN ACK)
Management (MGMT) Messages 6 to 255 Reserved for ASPSM Messages
ASP Traffic Maintenance (ASPTM) Messages
Error 0000 0 Reserved
Notify 0001 1 ASP Active (ACTIVE)
2 ASP Inactive (INACTIVE)
3 ASP Active Ack (ACTIVE ACK)
4 ASP Inactive Ack (INACTIVE ACK)
5 to 255 Reserved for ASPTM Messages
2.1.3 Message Length Reserved: 5 bits
Should be set to all '0's and ignored by the receiver.
Message Length: 32-bits (unsigned integer)
The Message Length defines the length of the message in octets, not The Message Length defines the length of the message in octets, not
including the header. including the header.
2.2 Transfer Messages 3.2 Variable-Length Parameter Format
M3UA messages consist of a Common Header followed by zero or more
variable-length parameters, as defined by the message type. The
variable-length parameters contained in a message are defined in a Tag-
Length-Value format as shown below.
0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Parameter Tag | Parameter Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \
/ Parameter Value /
\ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Parameter Tag: 16 bits (unsigned integer)
Tag field is a 16-bit identifier of the type of parameter. It takes a
value of 0 to 65534.
The value of 65535 is reserved for IETF-defined extensions. Values
other than those defined in specific parameter description are
reserved for use by the IETF.
Parameter Length: 16 bits (unsigned integer)
The Parameter Length field contains the size of the parameter in
bytes, including the Parameter Tag, Parameter Length, and Parameter
Value fields. The Parameter Length does not include any padding
bytes.
Parameter Value: variable-length.
The Parameter Value field contains the actual information to be
transferred in the parameter.
The total length of a parameter (including Tag, Parameter Length and
Value fields) MUST be a multiple of 4 bytes. If the length of the
parameter is not a multiple of 4 bytes, the sender pads the Parameter
at the end (i.e., after the Parameter Value field) with all zero
bytes. The length of the padding is NOT included in the parameter
length field. A sender should NEVER pad with more than 3 bytes. The
receiver MUST ignore the padding bytes.
3.2 Transfer Messages
The following section describes the Transfer messages and parameter The following section describes the Transfer messages and parameter
contents. The general message format includes a Common Message Header contents.
together with a list of zero or more parameters as defined by the
Message Type. All Message Types can have attached parameters.
2.2.1 Data Message 3.2.1 Payload Data Message (DATA)
The Data message contains the SS7 MTP3-User protocol data, which is an The Data message contains the SS7 MTP3-User protocol data, which is an
MTP-TRANSFER primitive, including the complete MTP3 Routing Label. The MTP-TRANSFER primitive, including the complete MTP3 Routing Label. The
Data message contains the following parameters: Data message contains the following variable length parameters:
NETWORK APPEARANCE (Optional) Network Appearance Optional
PROTOCOL DATA Protocol Data Mandatory
The format for the Data Message parameters is as follows: The following format MUST be used for the Data Message:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag (0x1) | Length | | Tag = 1 | Length = 8 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Network Appearance* | | Network Appearance* |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag (0x3) | Length | | Tag = 3 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \
| Protocol Data | / Protocol Data /
\ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Network Appearance: 32-bits (unsigned integer)
The optional Network Appearance parameter identifies the SS7 network The optional Network Appearance parameter identifies the SS7 network
context for the message, for the purposes of logically separating the context for the message, for the purposes of logically separating the
signaling traffic between the SG and the Application Server Process signalling traffic between the SG and the Application Server Process
over a common SCTP Association. An example is where an SG is logically over a common SCTP Association. An example is where an SG is
partitioned to appear as an element in four different national SS7 logically partitioned to appear as an element in four different
networks. national SS7 networks.
In a Data message, the Network Appearance defines the SS7 Point Codes In a Data message, the Network Appearance defines the SS7 Point Codes
used, the SS7 Network Indicator value and MTP3/MTP3-User protocol used, the SS7 Network Indicator value and MTP3/MTP3-User protocol
type/variant/version used within the SS7 network partition. Where an type/variant/version used within the SS7 network partition. Where an
SG operates in the context of a single SS7 network, or individual SCTP SG operates in the context of a single SS7 network, or individual
associations are dedicated to each SS7 network context, or the Network SCTP associations are dedicated to each SS7 network context, or the
Indicator in the SIO of the MTP-Transfer primitive is sufficient, the Network Indicator in the SIO of the MTP-Transfer primitive is
Network Appearance parameter is not required. sufficient, the Network Appearance parameter is not required.
The format is an integer, the values of which are assigned according to The Network Appearance parameter value assigned according to network
network operator policy. The values used are of local significance operator policy. The values used are of local significance only,
only, coordinated between the SG and ASP. coordinated between the SG and ASP.
Where the optional Network Appearance parameter is present, it must be Where the optional Network Appearance parameter is present, it must
the first parameter in the message as it defines the format of the be the first parameter in the message as it defines the format of the
Protocol Data field. Protocol Data field.
Protocol Data: variable length
The Protocol Data field contains the MTP3-User application message, The Protocol Data field contains the MTP3-User application message,
which is in effect an MTP-TRANSFER primitive. As defined for a which is in effect an MTP-TRANSFER primitive. As defined for a
specific value of the Protocol Identifier, this will include the MTP- specific value of the Protocol Identifier, this will include the MTP-
User Data and includes the MTP Routing Label (SS7 OPC, DPC, SLS), and User Data and includes the MTP Routing Label (SS7 OPC, DPC, SLS), and
the SIO (Service Indicator, Network Indicator & optional Message the SIO (Service Indicator, Network Indicator & optional Message
Priority codes). Note: in the case of ISUP messages, the Circuit Priority codes). Note: in the case of ISUP messages, the Circuit
Identification Code is also included. Identification Code is also included.
2.3 SS7 Signaling Network Management (SSNM) Messages 3.3 SS7 Signalling Network Management (SSNM) Messages
2.3.1 Destination Unavailable (DUNA) 3.3.1 Destination Unavailable (DUNA)
The DUNA message is sent from the SG to all concerned ASPs to indicate The DUNA message is sent from the SG to all concerned ASPs to indicate
that the SG has determined that one or more SS7 destinations are that the SG has determined that one or more SS7 destinations are
unreachable. The MTP3-User at the ASP is expected to stop traffic to unreachable. The MTP3-User at the ASP is expected to stop traffic to
the affected destination through the SG initiating the DUNA as per the the affected destination through the SG initiating the DUNA as per the
defined MTP3-User procedures. defined MTP3-User procedures.
The DUNA message contains the following parameters: The DUNA message contains the following parameters:
Network Appearance (Optional) Network Appearance Optional
Affected Destination Affected Destination Mandatory
Info String (Optional) Info String Optional
The format for DUNA Message parameters is as follows: The format for DUNA Message parameters is as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag (0x1) | Length | | Tag = 1 | Length =8 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Network Appearance* | | Network Appearance* |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag (0x5) | Length | | Tag = 5 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Spare | Affected DPC 1 | | Mask | Affected DPC 1 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \
| ... | | ... |
\ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Spare | Affected DPC n | | Mask | Affected DPC n |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag (0x4) | Length | | Tag = 4 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \
| INFO String* | | INFO String* |
\ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Network Appearance: 32-bit unsigned integer
The optional Network Appearance parameter identifies the SS7 network The optional Network Appearance parameter identifies the SS7 network
context for the message, for the purposes of logically separating the context for the message, for the purposes of logically separating the
signaling traffic between the SG and the Application Server Process signalling traffic between the SG and the Application Server Process
over a common SCTP Association. An example is where an SG is logically over a common SCTP Association. An example is where an SG is logically
partitioned to appear as an element in four different national SS7 partitioned to appear as an element in four different national SS7
networks. networks.
In an SSNM message, the Network Appearance parameter defines the format In an SSNM message, the Network Appearance parameter defines the format
of the Affected DPC(s) in the Affected Destination parameter. The DPC of the Affected DPC(s) in the Affected Destination parameter. The DPC
point code length (e.g., 14-, 16-, or 24-bit) and sub-field definitions point code length (e.g., 14-, 16-, or 24-bit) and sub-field definitions
(e.g., ANSI network/cluster/member, ITU-international (e.g., ANSI 24-bit network/cluster/member, ITU-international 14-bit
zone/region/signal_point, many national field variants, ...) are fixed zone/region/signal_point, many national field variants, ...) are fixed
within a particular Network Appearance. Where an SG operates in the within a particular Network Appearance. Where an SG operates in the
context of a single SS7 network, or individual SCTP associations are context of a single SS7 network, or individual SCTP associations are
dedicated to each SS7 network context, the Network Appearance parameter dedicated to each SS7 network context, the Network Appearance parameter
is not required and the format of the Affected DPC(s) is understood is not required and the format of the Affected DPC(s) is understood
implicitly. implicitly.
The format of the Network Appearance parameter is an integer, the The format of the Network Appearance parameter is an integer, the values
values of which are assigned according to network operator policy. The of which are assigned according to network operator policy. The values
values used are of local significance only, coordinated between the SG used are of local significance only, coordinated between the SG and ASP.
and ASP.
Where the optional Network Appearance parameter is present, it must be Where the optional Network Appearance parameter is present, it must be
the first parameter in the message as it defines the format of the the first parameter in the message as it defines the format of the
Affected DPCs in the Affected Destination parameter. Affected DPCs in the Affected Destination parameter.
The Affected Destination parameter contains one or optionally more Affected Destination: 24-bits
Affected Destination Point Codes, each a three-octet parameter to allow
14-, 16- and 24-bit binary formatted SS7 Point Codes. Where the The Affected Destination parameter contains one or more Affected
Affected Point Code is less than 24-bits, it is padded on the left to Destination Point Codes, each a three-octet parameter to allow for 14-,
the 24-bit boundary. 16- and 24-bit binary formatted SS7 Point Codes. Affected Point Codes
that are less than 24-bits, are padded on the left to the 24-bit
boundary. The encoding is shown below for ANSI and ITU Point Code
examples.
ANSI 24-bit Point Code:
0 1 2 3----->
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Mask | Network | Cluster | Member |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|MSB-----------------------------------------LSB|
ITU 14-bit Point Code:
0 1 2 3----->
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Mask |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|Zone | Region | SP |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|MSB--------------------LSB|
It is optional to send an Affected Destination parameter with more than It is optional to send an Affected Destination parameter with more than
one Affected DPC but it is mandatory to receive it. Also all the one Affected DPC but it is mandatory to receive it. All the Affected
Affected DPCs included must be part of the same Network Appearance. DPCs included must be within the same Network Appearance. Including
Including multiple Affected DPCs may be useful when, for example, ANSI multiple Affected DPCs may be useful when reception of an MTP3
Cluster Route Sets are used at the SG, or a linkset event at the SG is management message or a linkset event simultaneously affects the
simultaneously affecting the status of many destinations. availability status of a list of destinations at an SG.
Mask: 8-bits
The Mask parameter is used to identify a contiguous range of Affected
Destination Point Codes, independent of the point code format.
Identifying a contiguous range of Affected DPCs may be useful when
reception of an MTP3 management message or a linkset event
simultaneously affects the availability status of a series of
destinations at an SG. For example, if all DPCs in an ANSI cluster are
determined to be unavailable due to local linkset unavailability, the
DUNA could identify potentially 256 Affected DPCs in a single Affected
DPC field.
The Mask parameter is an integer representing a bit mask that can be
applied to the related Affected DPC field. The bit mask identifies how
many bits of the Affected DPC field is significant and which are
effectively "wildcarded". For example, a mask of "8" indicates that the
last eight bits of the DPC is "wildcarded". For an ANSI 24-bit Affected
DPC, this is equivalent to signalling that all DPCs in an ANSI Cluster
are unavailable. A mask of "3" indicates that the last three bits of
the DPC is "wildcarded". For a 14-bit ITU Affected DPC, this is
equivalent to signaling that an ITU Region is unavailable.
Info String: variable length
The optional INFO String parameter can carry any meaningful 8-BIT ASCII The optional INFO String parameter can carry any meaningful 8-BIT ASCII
character string along with the message. Length of the INFO String character string along with the message. Length of the INFO String
parameter is from 0 to 255 characters. No procedures are presently parameter is from 0 to 255 characters. No procedures are presently
identified for its use but the INFO String may be used by Operators to identified for its use but the INFO String may be used by Operators to
identify in text form the location reflected by the Affected DPC for identify in text form the location reflected by the Affected DPC for
debugging purposes. debugging purposes.
2.3.2 Destination Available (DAVA) 3.3.2 Destination Available (DAVA)
The DAVA message is sent from the SG to all concerned ASPs to indicate The DAVA message is sent from the SG to all concerned ASPs to indicate
that the SG has determined that one or more SS7 destinations are now that the SG has determined that one or more SS7 destinations are now
reachable. The ASP MTP3-User protocol is expected to resume traffic to reachable. The ASP MTP3-User protocol is expected to resume traffic to
the affected destination through the SG initiating the DUNA. the affected destination through the SG initiating the DUNA.
The DAVA message contains the following parameters: The DAVA message contains the following parameters:
Network Appearance (Optional) Network Appearance Optional
Affected Destination Affected Destination Mandatory
Info String (Optional) Info String Optional
The format and description of DAVA Message parameters is the same as The format and description of DAVA Message parameters is the same as for
for the DUNA message (See Section 2.3.2.1.) the DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.)
2.3.3 Destination State Audit (DAUD) 3.3.3 Destination State Audit (DAUD)
The DAUD message can be sent from the ASP to the SG to audit the The DAUD message can be sent from the ASP to the SG to audit the
availability/congestion state of SS7 routes to one or more affected availability/congestion state of SS7 routes to one or more affected
destinations. See Section 3.4.3 for the audit procedures. destinations. See Section 3.4.3 for the audit procedures.
The DAUD message contains the following parameters: The DAUD message contains the following parameters:
Network Appearance (Optional) Network Appearance Optional
Affected Destination Affected Destination Mandatory
Info String (Optional) Info String Optional
The format and description of DAUD Message parameters is the same as The format and description of DAUD Message parameters is the same as for
for the DUNA message (See Section 2.3.2.1.) the DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.)
Multiple Affected Destination Point Codes parameters may optionally be Multiple Affected Destination Point Codes parameters may optionally be
included in a DAUD message. However all the Affected Destination Point included in a DAUD message. However all the Affected Destination Point
Codes must be part of the same Network Appearance. Codes must be part of the same Network Appearance.
2.3.4 SS7 Network Congestion (SCON) 3.3.4 SS7 Network Congestion (SCON)
The SCON message can be sent from the SG to all concerned ASPs to The SCON message can be sent from the SG to all concerned ASPs to
indicate that the congestion level in the SS7 network to one or more indicate that the congestion level in the SS7 network to one or more
destinations has changed. destinations has changed.
The SCON message contains the following parameters: The SCON message contains the following parameters:
Network Appearance (Optional) Network Appearance Optional
Affected Destination Affected Destination Mandatory
Congestion Level Congestion Level Mandatory
Info String (Optional) Info String Optional
The format for SCON Message parameters is as follows: The format for SCON Message parameters is as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag (0x1) | Length | | Tag = 1 | Length =8 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Network Appearance* | | Network Appearance* |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag (0x5) | Length | | Tag = 5 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Cong. Level 1 | Affected DPC 1 | | Cong. Level 1 | Affected DPC 1 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \
| ... | | ... |
\ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Cong. Level n | Affected DPC n | | Cong. Level n | Affected DPC n |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag (0x4) | Length | | Tag = 4 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \
| INFO String* | | INFO String* |
\ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
The format and description of the Network Appearance, Affected The format and description of the Network Appearance, Affected
Destination and Info String parameters is the same as for the DUNA Destination and Info String parameters is the same as for the DUNA
message (See Section 2.3.2.1.) message (See Section 3.3.2.1.)
Congestion Level: 8-bits (unsigned integer)
The valid values for the optional Congestion Level parameter are shown The valid values for the optional Congestion Level parameter are shown
in the following table. in the following table.
Value Description 0 No Congestion or Undefined
00 No Congestion or Undefined 1 Congestion Level 1
01 Congestion Level 1 2 Congestion Level 2
02 Congestion Level 2 3 Congestion Level 3
03 Congestion Level 3
The congestion levels are as defined in the national congestion method The congestion levels are as defined in the national congestion method
in the ITU MTP recommendation [14] or in the ANSI MTP standard [15]. in the ITU MTP recommendation [14] or in the ANSI MTP standard [15].
For MTP congestion methods that do not employ congestion levels (e.g., For MTP congestion methods that do not employ congestion levels (e.g.,
the ITU international method, the parameter is always "Undefined". the ITU international method, the parameter is always "Undefined".
2.3.5 Destination User Part Unavailable (DUPU) 3.3.5 Destination User Part Unavailable (DUPU)
The DUPU message is used by an SG to inform an ASP that a remote peer The DUPU message is used by an SG to inform an ASP that a remote peer
MTP3-User User Part (e.g., ISUP or SCCP) at an SS7 node is unavailable. MTP3-User User Part (e.g., ISUP or SCCP) at an SS7 node is unavailable.
The DUPU message contains the following parameters: The DUPU message contains the following parameters:
Network Appearance (Optional) Network Appearance Optional
Affected Destination Affected Destination Mandatory
Unavailability Cause Unavailability Cause Mandatory
MTP3-User Identity MTP3-User Identity Mandatory
Info String (Optional) Info String Optional
The format for DUPU Message parameters is as follows: The format for DUPU Message parameters is as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag (0x1) | Length | | Tag = 1 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Network Appearance* | | Network Appearance* |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag (0x5) | Length | | Tag = 5 | Length = 8 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Cause | User | Affected Destination | | Cause | User | Affected Destination |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag (0x4) | Length | | Tag = 4 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \
| INFO String* | | INFO String* |
\ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
The format and description of the Network Appearance, Affected The format and description of the Network Appearance, Affected
Destination and Info String parameters is the same as for the DUNA Destination and Info String parameters is the same as for the DUNA
message (See Section 2.3.2.1.) One exception is that the Affected
message (See Section 3.3.2.1.) One exception is that the Affected
Desination parameter in the DUPU message can only contain one Affected Desination parameter in the DUPU message can only contain one Affected
DPC. DPC.
Unavailability Cause: 4-bits (unsigned integer)
The Unavailability Cause parameter provides the reason for the The Unavailability Cause parameter provides the reason for the
unavailability of the MTP3-User. The valid values for the unavailability of the MTP3-User. The valid values for the
Unavailability Cause parameter are shown in the following table. The Unavailability Cause parameter are shown in the following table. The
values agree with those provided in the SS7 MTP3 User Part Unavailable values agree with those provided in the SS7 MTP3 User Part Unavailable
message. Depending on the MTP3 protocol used in the network context, message. Depending on the MTP3 protocol used in the network context,
additional values may be used the specification of the relevant MTP3 additional values may be used the specification of the relevant MTP3
protocol variant/version is definitive. protocol variant/version is definitive.
Value Description 0 Unknown
00 Unknown 1 Unequipped Remote User
01 Unequipped Remote User 2 Inaccessible Remote User
02 Inaccessible Remote User
The MTP3-User Identity describes the specific MTP3-User that is MTP3-User Identity: 4-bits (unsigned integer)
unavailable (e.g., ISUP, SCCP, ...). The valid values for the MTP3-
User Identity are shown below. The values agree with those provided in
the SS7 MTP3 User Part Unavailable message and Service Indicator.
Depending on the MTP3 protocol used in the network context, additional
values may be used the specification of the relevant MTP3 protocol The MTP3-User Identity describes the specific MTP3-User that is
unavailable (e.g., ISUP, SCCP, ...). The valid values for the MTP3-User
Identity are shown below. The values agree with those provided in the
SS7 MTP3 User Part Unavailable message and Service Indicator. Depending
on the MTP3 protocol used in the network context, additional values may
be used the specification of the relevant MTP3 protocol
variant/version is definitive. variant/version is definitive.
Value Description Value Description
00 - 02 Reserved 00 - 02 Reserved
03 SCCP 03 SCCP
04 TUP 04 TUP
05 ISUP 05 ISUP
06 08 Reserved 06 08 Reserved
09 Broadband ISUP 09 Broadband ISUP
10 Satellite ISUP 10 Satellite ISUP
2.4 Application Server Process Maintenance (ASPM) Messages 3.4 Application Server Process Maintenance (ASPM) Messages
2.4.1 ASP Up (ASPUP) 3.4.1 ASP Up (ASPUP)
The ASP UP (ASPUP) message is used to indicate to a remote M3UA peer The ASP UP (ASPUP) message is used to indicate to a remote M3UA peer
that the Adaptation layer is ready to receive traffic or maintenance that the Adaptation layer is ready to receive traffic or maintenance
messages. messages.
The ASPUP message contains the following parameters: The ASPUP message contains the following parameters:
Adaptation Layer Identifer (optional) Adaptation Layer Identifer Optional
Protocol Identifier (optional) Protocol Identifier Optional
INFO String (optional) INFO String Optional
The format for ASPUP Message parameters is as follows: The format for ASPUP Message parameters is as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag (0x2) | Length | | Tag = 2 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Adaptation Layer Identifier* | | Adaptation Layer Identifier* |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag (0x4) | Length | | Tag = 4 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \
| INFO String* | | INFO String* |
\ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
The format and description of the optional Info String parameters is The format and description of the optional Info String parameter is the
the same as for the DUNA message (See Section 2.3.2.1.) same as for the DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.)
Adaptation Layer Identity: 32-bits ()
The optional Adaptation Layer Identifier (ALI) is a string that The optional Adaptation Layer Identifier (ALI) is a string that
identifies the adaptation layer. This string must be set to "M3UA" identifies the adaptation layer. This string must be set to "M3UA"
which results in a length of 4. The ALI would normally only be used in which results in a length of 8. The ALI would normally only be used in
the initial ASP Up message across a new SCTP association to ensure both the initial ASP Up message across a new SCTP association to ensure both
peers are assuming the same adaptation layer protocol. peers are assuming the same adaptation layer protocol.
Note: Strings are padded to 32-bit boundaries. The length field 3.4.2 ASP Up Ack
indicates the end of the string.
2.4.2 ASP Down (ASPDN) The ASP UP Ack message is used to acknowledge an ASP-Up message received
from a remote M3UA peer.
The ASPUP Ack message contains the following parameters:
Adaptation Layer Identifier (optional)
Protocol Identifier (optional)
INFO String (optional)
The format for ASPUP Ack Message parameters is as follows:
0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag =2 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \
| Adaptation Layer Identifier* |
\ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag =4 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \
| INFO String* |
\ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
The format and description of the optional Info String parameter is the
same as for the DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.)
The format and description of the optional Adaptation Layer Identifier
(ALI) parameter is the same as for the ASP-UP message. (See Section
3.4.1)
3.4.3 ASP Down (ASPDN)
The ASP Down (ASPDN) message is used to indicate to a remote M3UA peer The ASP Down (ASPDN) message is used to indicate to a remote M3UA peer
that the adaptation layer is not ready to receive traffic or that the adaptation layer is not ready to receive traffic or maintenance
maintenance messages. messages.
The ASPDN message contains the following parameters: The ASPDN message contains the following parameters:
Reason Reason Mandatory
INFO String (Optional) INFO String Optional
The format for the ASPDN message parameters is as follows: The format for the ASPDN message parameters is as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Reason | | Reason |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag (0x4) | Length | | Tag =4 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \
| INFO String* | | INFO String* |
\ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
The format and description of the optional Info String parameter is the The format and description of the optional Info String parameter is the
same as for the DUNA message (See Section 2.3.2.1.) same as for the DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.)
Reason: 32-bit (unsigned integer)
The Reason parameter indicates the reason that the remote M3UA The Reason parameter indicates the reason that the remote M3UA
adaptation layer is unavailable. The valid values for Reason are shown adaptation layer is unavailable. The valid values for Reason are shown
in the following table. in the following table.
Value Description 1 Processor Outage
0x1 Processor Outage 2 Management Inhibit
0x2 Management Inhibit
2.4.3 ASP Active (ASPAC) 3.4.4 ASP Down Ack
The ASPAC message is sent by an ASP to indicate to an SG that it is The ASP Down Ack message is used to acknowledge an ASP-Down message
Active and ready to be used. received from a remote M3UA peer.
The ASP Down Ack message contains the following parameters:
Reason Mandatory
INFO String Optional
The format for the ASPDN Ack message parameters is as follows:
0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Reason |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag = 4 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \
| INFO String* |
\ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
The format and description of the optional Info String parameter is the
same as for the DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.)
The format of the Reason parameter is the same as for the ASP-Down
message. (See Section 3.4.3)
3.4.5 ASP Active (ASPAC)
The ASPAC message is sent by an ASP to indicate to a remote M3UA peer
that it is Active and ready to process signalling traffic for a
particular Application Server
The ASPAC message contains the following parameters: The ASPAC message contains the following parameters:
Type Type Mandatory
Routing Context (Optional) Routing Context Optional
INFO String (Optional) INFO String Optional
The format for the ASPAC message is as follows: The format for the ASPAC message is as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | | Type |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag (0x6) | Length | | Tag =6 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \
| Routing Context* | | Routing Context* |
\ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag (0x4) | Length | | Tag = 4 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \
| INFO String* | | INFO String* |
\ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type: 32-bit (unsigned integer)
The Type parameter identifies the traffic mode of operation of the ASP The Type parameter identifies the traffic mode of operation of the ASP
within an AS. The valid values for Type are shown in the following within an AS. The valid values for Type are shown in the following
table. table.
Value Description 1 Over-ride
0x1 Over-ride 2 Load-share
0x2 Load-share
0x3 New traffic
Within a particular Routing Context, only one Type can be used. The Within a particular Routing Context, only one Type can be used. The
Over-ride value indicates that the ASP is operating in Over-ride mode, Over-ride value indicates that the ASP is operating in Over-ride mode,
where the ASP takes over all traffic in an Application Server (i.e., where the ASP takes over all traffic in an Application Server (i.e.,
primary/back-up operation), over-riding any currently active ASPs in primary/back-up operation), over-riding any currently active ASP in the
the AS. In loadshare mode, the ASP will share in the traffic AS. In Load-share mode, the ASP will share in the traffic distribution
distribution with any other currently active ASPs. In New Traffic mode with any other currently active ASPs.
the ASP wishes to take on traffic in the AS but does not expect to
receive messages related to calls/transactions that are pending
completion in another ASP.
An SG that receives an ASPAC with an incorrect type for a particular A node that receives an ASPAC with an incorrect Type for a particular
Routing Context will respond with an Error Message. Routing Context will respond with an Error Message (Cause: Invalid
Traffic Handling Mode.
Routing Context:
The optional Routing Context parameter contains (a list of) integers The optional Routing Context parameter contains (a list of) integers
indexing the Application Server traffic that the sending ASP is indexing the Application Server traffic that the sending ASP is
configured/registered to receive. There is one-to-one relationship configured/registered to receive. There is one-to-one relationship
between an index entry and an SG Routing Key or AS Name. Because an AS between an index entry and an SG Routing Key or AS Name. Because an AS
can only appear in one Network Appearance, the Network Appearance can only appear in one Network Appearance, the Network Appearance
parameter is not required in the ASPAC message parameter is not required in the ASPAC message.
An Application Server Process may be configured to process traffic for An Application Server Process may be configured to process traffic for
more than one logical Application Server. From the perspective of an more than one logical Application Server. From the perspective of an
ASP, a Routing Context defines a range of signaling traffic that the ASP, a Routing Context defines a range of signalling traffic that the
ASP is currently configured to receive from the SG. For example, an ASP is currently configured to receive from the SG. For example, an ASP
ASP could be configured to support call processing for multiple ranges could be configured to support call processing for multiple ranges of
of PSTN trunks and therefore receive related signaling traffic, PSTN trunks and therefore receive related signalling traffic, identified
identified by separate SS7 DPC/OPC/CIC_ranges. by separate SS7 DPC/OPC/CIC_ranges.
The format and description of the optional Info String parameter is the The format and description of the optional Info String parameter is the
same as for the DUNA message (See Section 2.3.2.1.) same as for the DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.)
2.4.4 ASP Inactive (ASPIA) 3.4.6 ASP Active Ack
The ASPIA message is sent by an ASP to indicate to an SG that it is no The ASPAC Ack message is used to acknowledge an ASP-Active message
longer an active ASP to be used from within a list of ASPs. The SG received from a remote M3UA peer.
will respond with an ASPIA message and either discard incoming messages
or buffer for a timed period and then discard. The ASPAC Ack message contains the following parameters:
Type Mandatory
Routing Context Optional
INFO String Optional
The format for the ASPAC Ack message is as follows:
0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag = 6 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \
| Routing Context* |
\ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag = 4 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \
| INFO String* |
\ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
The format and description of the optional Info String parameter is the
same as for the DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.)
The format of the Type and Routing Context parameters is the same as for
the ASP-Active message. (See Section 3.4.5).
3.4.7 ASP Inactive (ASPIA)
The ASPIA message is sent by an ASP to indicate to a remote M3UA peer
that it is no longer processing signalling traffic within a particular
Application Server.
The ASPIA message contains the following parameters: The ASPIA message contains the following parameters:
Type Type Mandatory
Routing Context (Optional) Routing Context Optional
INFO String (Optional) INFO String Optional
The format for the ASPIA message parameters is as follows: The format for the ASPIA message parameters is as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | | Type |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag (0x6) | Length | | Tag = 6 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \
| Routing Context* | | Routing Context* |
\ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag (0x4) | Length | | Tag = 4 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \
| INFO String* | | INFO String* |
\ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
The Type parameter identifies the traffic mode of operation of the ASP The Type parameter identifies the traffic mode of operation of the ASP
within an AS. The valid values for Type are shown in the following within an AS. The valid values for Type are shown in the following
table. table.
Value Description Value Description
0x1 Over-ride 0x1 Over-ride
0x2 Load-share 0x2 Load-share
0x3 Graceful Withdrawal Within a particular Routing Context, only one Type can be used. The
Over-ride value indicates that the ASP is operating in Over-ride mode,
and will no longer handle traffic within an Application Server (i.e., it
is now a backup in a primary/back-up arrangement). The Load-share value
indicates that the ASP is operating in Load-share mode and will no
longer share in the traffic distribution with any other currently active
ASPs.
A node that receives an ASPIA with an incorrect Type for a particular
Routing Context will respond with an Error Message (Cause: Invalid
Traffic Handling Mode.
The format and description of the optional Routing Context and Info The format and description of the optional Routing Context and Info
String parameters is the same as for the ASPAC message (See Section String parameters is the same as for the ASPAC message (See Section
2.3.3.3.) 2.3.3.3.)
2.4.5 Heartbeat (BEAT) 3.4.8 ASP Inactive Ack
The ASPIA Ack message is used to acknowledge an ASP-Inactive message
received from a remote M3UA peer.
The ASPIA Ack message contains the following parameters:
Type Mandatory
Routing Context Optional
INFO String Optional
The format for the ASPIA Ack message is as follows:
0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag = 6 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \
| Routing Context* |
\ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag = 4 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \
| INFO String* |
\ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
The format and description of the optional Info String parameter is the
same as for the DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.)
The format of the Type and Routing Context parameters is the same as for
the ASP-Inctive message. (See Section 3.4.7).
3.4.9 Heartbeat (BEAT)
The Heartbeat message is optionally used to ensure that the M3UA peers The Heartbeat message is optionally used to ensure that the M3UA peers
are still available to each other. It is recommended for use when the are still available to each other. It is recommended for use when the
M3UA runs over a transport layer other than the SCTP, which has its own M3UA runs over a transport layer other than the SCTP, which has its own
heartbeat. heartbeat.
The BEAT message contains no parameters. The BEAT message contains no parameters.
2.5 Management Messages 3.5 Management Messages
2.5.1 Error (ERR) 3.5.1 Error (ERR)
The ERR message is sent when an invalid value is found in an incoming The Error message is used to notify a peer of an error event associated
message. with an incoming message. For example, the message type might be
unexpected given the current state, or a parameter value might be
invalid.
The ERR message contains the following parameters: The ERR message contains the following parameters:
Error Code Error Code Mandatory
Diagnostic Information (optional) Diagnostic Information Optional
The format for the ERR message is as follows: The format for the ERR message is as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Error Code | | Error Code |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag (0x7) | Length | | Tag = 7 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \
| Diagnostic Information* | | Diagnostic Information* |
\ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Error Code: 32-bits (unsigned integer)
The Error Code parameter indicates the reason for the Error Message. The Error Code parameter indicates the reason for the Error Message.
The Error parameter value can be one of the following values: The Error parameter value can be one of the following values:
Invalid Version 0x1 Invalid Version 0x1
Invalid Network Appearance 0x2 Invalid Network Appearance 0x2
Invalid Adaptation Layer Identifier 0x3 Invalid Adaptation Layer Identifier 0x3
Invalid Message Type 0x4 Invalid Message Type 0x4
Invalid Traffic Handling Mode 0x5 Invalid Traffic Handling Mode 0x5
Unexpected Message Type 0x6
Protocol Error 0x7
The optional Diagnostic information can be any information germain to Diagnostic Information: variable length
the error condition, to assist in identification of the error
condition. In the case of an Invalid Version Error Code the Diagnostic When included, the optional Diagnostic information can be any
information includes the supported Version parameter. In the other information germane to the error condition, to assist in identification
cases, the Diagnostic information may be the first 40 bytes of the of the error condition. In the case of an Invalid Network Appearance,
offending message. Adaptation Layer Identifier or Traffic Handling Mode, the Diagnostic
information includes the received parameter. In the other cases, the
Diagnostic information may be the first 40 bytes of the offending
message.
In the case of an Invalid Version Error Code, the Common Header contains
the supported Version.
Error messages are not generated in response to other Error messages. Error messages are not generated in response to other Error messages.
2.5.2 Notify (NTFY) 3.5.2 Notify (NTFY)
The Notify message used to provide an autonomous indication of M3UA The Notify message used to provide an autonomous indication of M3UA
events to an M3UA peer. events to an M3UA peer.
The NTFY message contains the following parameters: The NTFY message contains the following parameters:
Status Type Status Type Mandatory
Status Identification Status Identification Mandatory
Routing Context (Optional) Routing Context Optional
INFO String (Optional) INFO String Optional
The format for the NTFY message is as follows: The format for the NTFY message is as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Status Type | Status Identification | | Status Type | Status Identification |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag (0x6) | Length | | Tag = 6 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \
| Routing Context* | | Routing Context* |
\ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag (0x4) | Length | | Tag = 4 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \
| INFO String* | | INFO String* |
\ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Status Type: 16-bits (unsigned integer)
The Status Type parameter identifies the type of the Notify message. The Status Type parameter identifies the type of the Notify message.
Following are the valid Status Type values: Following are the valid Status Type values:
Value Description 1 Application Server state change (AS_State_Change)
0x1 Application Server state change (AS_State_Change) 2 Other
0x2 Application Server Process state change (ASP_State_Change)
0x3 Other Status Information: 16-bits (unsigned integer)
The Status Information parameter contains more detailed information for The Status Information parameter contains more detailed information for
the notification, based on the value of the Status Type. If the Status the notification, based on the value of the Status Type.
Type is AS_State_Change the following Status Information values are
used:
Value Description If the Status Type is AS_State_Change the following Status Information
0x1 Application Server Down (AS_Down) values are used:
0x2 Application Server Up (AS_Up)
0x3 Application Server Active (AS_Active) 1 Application Server Down (AS_Down)
0x4 Application Server Pending (AS_Pending) 2 Application Server Up (AS_Up)
3 Application Server Active (AS_Active)
4 Application Server Pending (AS_Pending)
5 Alternate ASP Active
6 Insufficient ASPs
These notifications are sent from an SG to an ASP upon a change in These notifications are sent from an SG to an ASP upon a change in
status of a particular Application Server. The value reflects the new status of a particular Application Server. The value reflects the new
state of the Application Server. state of the Application Server.
If the Status type is ASP_State_Change, the Status Information values
are:
Value Description
0x1 Application Server Process (ASP) Down
0x2 Application Server Process (ASP) Up
0x3 Application Server Process (ASP) Active
0x4 Application Server Process (ASP) Active_Old
0x5 Application Server Process (ASP) Active_New
These notifications are sent from an SG to an ASP upon a change in
status of a particular Application Server process within the ASP list
of a particular Application Server. The value reflects the new state
of the Application Server Process.
If the Status Type is Other, then the following Status Information If the Status Type is Other, then the following Status Information
values are defined: values are defined:
Value Description 1 Insufficient ASP resources active in AS
0x1 Insufficient ASP resources active in AS
This notification is not based on the SG reporting the state change of This notification is not based on the SG reporting the state change of
an ASP or AS. For the value defined the SG is indicating to an ASP(s) an ASP or AS. For the value defined the SG is indicating to an ASP(s)
in the AS that another ASP is required in order to handle the load of in the AS that another ASP is required in order to handle the load of
the AS. the AS.
The format and description of the optional Routing Context and Info The format and description of the optional Routing Context and Info
String parameters is the same as for the ASPAC message (See Section String parameters is the same as for the ASPAC message (See Section
2.3.3.3.) 3.4.6.)
3.0 Procedures 4.0 Procedures
The M3UA layer needs to respond to various local primitives it receives The M3UA layer needs to respond to various local primitives it receives
from other layers as well as the messages that it receives from the from the SCTP and M3UA-User layers and Layer Management as well as the
peer M3UA layers. This section describes the M3UA procedures in messages that it receives from the peer M3UA layers. This section
response to these events. describes the M3UA procedures in response to these events.
3.1 Procedures to support the services of the M3UA layer
The services of the M3UA layer are described in Section 1.4.1. These 4.1 Procedures to support the services of the M3UA layer
procedures support the M3UA transport of MTP3-User/MTP3 boundary
primitives.
3.1.1 Receipt of Local primitives 4.1.1 Receipt of primitives from the M3UA-User
On receiving an MTP-Transfer primitive from an upper layer, or the On receiving an MTP-Transfer primitive from an upper layer, or the nodal
nodal inter-working function at an SG, the M3UA layer will send a inter-working function at an SG, the M3UA layer will send a
corresponding Data message (see Section 2) to its M3UA peer. The M3UA corresponding Data message (see Section 2) to its M3UA peer. The M3UA
layer must fill in various fields of the common and specific headers layer must fill in various fields of the common and specific headers
correctly. correctly.
At an SG, the M3UA address translation and mapping function determines At an SG, the M3UA address translation and mapping function determines
the Application Server (AS) based on the information in the incoming the Application Server (AS) based on the information in the incoming
message. From an ordered list of ASPs within the AS table, an Active message. From an ordered list of ASPs within the AS table, an Active
ASP is selected and a Data message is constructed and issued on the ASP is selected and a Data message is constructed and issued on the
corresponding SCTP Association. If more than one ASP is active (i.e., corresponding SCTP Association. If more than one ASP is active (i.e.,
traffic is to be load-shared across all the active ASPs), one of the traffic is to be load-shared across all the active ASPs), one of the
active ASPs from the list is selected. The selection algorithm is active ASPs from the list is selected. The selection algorithm is
implementation dependent but could be roud-robin or based on, for implementation dependent but could be roud-robin or based on, for
example, the SLS or ISUP CIC. The appropriate selection algorithm must example, the SLS or ISUP CIC. The appropriate selection algorithm must
be chosen carefully as it is dependent on application assumptions and be chosen carefully as it is dependent on application assumptions and
understanding of the degree of state coordination between the active understanding of the degree of state coordination between the active
ASPs in the AS. ASPs in the AS.
In addition, the message needs to be sent on the appropriate SCTP In addition, the message needs to be sent on the appropriate SCTP
stream, again taking care to meet the message sequencing needs of the stream, again taking care to meet the message sequencing needs of the
signaling application. signalling application.
3.2 Procedures to support the M3UA services in Section 1.4.2
3.2.1 Local Layer Management primitives procedures 4.1.2 Receipt of primitives from the Layer Management
On receiving these primitives from the local layer management, the M3UA On receiving these primitives from the local Layer Management, the M3UA
layer will send the corresponding management message (Error) to its layer will send the corresponding management message (Error) to its
peer. The M3UA layer must fill in the various fields of the common and peer. The M3UA layer must fill in the various fields of the common and
specific headers correctly. specific headers correctly.
3.2.2 Receipt of Peer Management messages 4.2 Receipt of Peer Management messages
Upon receipt of Management messages, the M3UA layer must invoke the Upon receipt of Management messages, the M3UA layer must invoke the
corresponding Layer Management primitive indications (M-ERROR ind.) to corresponding Layer Management primitive indications (M-ERROR ind.) to
the local layer management. the local layer management.
3.3 Procedures to support the M3UA services in Section 1.4.4 4.3 Procedures to support the M3UA services in Section 1.4.4
These procedures support the M3UA management of SCTP Associations These procedures support the M3UA management of SCTP Associations
between SGs and ASPs between SGs and ASPs.
3.3.1 State Maintenance 4.3.1 State Maintenance
The M3UA layer on the SG maintains the state of each AS, in each The M3UA layer on the SG maintains the state of each AS, in each
Appliction Server that it is configured to receive traffic, as input to Application Server that it is configured to receive traffic, as input to
the SGs address translation and mapping function. the M3UA address translation and mapping function.
3.3.1.1 ASP States 4.3.1.1 ASP States
The state of each ASP, in each AS that it is configured, is maintained The state of each ASP, in each AS that it is configured, is maintained
in the M3UA layer in the SG. The state of a particular ASP in a in the M3UA layer in the SG. The state of a particular ASP in a
particular AS changes due to events. The events include: particular AS changes due to events. The events include:
* Reception of messages from the peer M3UA layer at the ASP * Reception of messages from the peer M3UA layer at the ASP
* Reception of some messages from the peer M3UA layer at other ASPs * Reception of some messages from the peer M3UA layer at other ASPs
in the AS in the AS
* Reception of indications from the SCTP layer * Reception of indications from the SCTP layer
* Switch-over Time triggers * Switch-over Time triggers
The ASP state transition diagram is shown in Figure 4. The possible The ASP state transition diagram is shown in Figure 4. The possible
states of an ASP are: states of an ASP are:
ASP-DOWN: The remote M3UA peer at the ASP is unavailable and/or the ASP-DOWN: The remote M3UA peer at the ASP is unavailable and/or the SCTP
SCTP association is down. Initially all ASPs will be in this state. association is down. Initially all ASPs will be in this state.
ASP-UP: The remote M3UA peer at the ASP is available (and the SCTP ASP-UP: The remote M3UA peer at the ASP is available (and the SCTP
association is up) but application traffic is stopped. association is up) but application traffic is stopped.
ASP-ACTIVE: The remote M3UA peer at the ASP is available and ASP-ACTIVE: The remote M3UA peer at the ASP is available and application
application traffic is active (for a particular Routing Context or set traffic is active (for a particular Routing Context or set of Routing
of Routing Contexts). Contexts).
ASP-ACT-OLD: The remote M3UA peer at the ASP is available and
application traffic is active (for a particular Routing Context or set
of Routing Contexts), but for draining of current call/transactions
only (i.e., no new calls/transactions)
ASP-ACT-NEW: The remote M3UA peer at the ASP is available and
application traffic is active (for a particular Routing Context or set
of Routing Contexts), but for new calls/transactions only (i.e., not
for traffic related to completing calls/transactions in another ASP).
Figure 4: ASP State Transition Diagram Figure 4: ASP State Transition Diagram
+-------------+ +-------------+
|----------------------| | +----------------------| |
| Some other /| ASP-ACTIVE |<--------\ | Alternate +-------| ASP-ACTIVE |<------------+
| ASP / +-------------+ | | ASP | +-------------+ |
| Takeover / ^ | | Ts | Takeover | ^ | |
| / ASP | | ASP | | | ASP | | ASP |
| / Active | | Inactive | | | Active | | Inactive | ASP
| v | v | | | | v |Takeover
| +-------------+ +-------------+ +-------------+ | | +-------------+ |
| | | | | | | | | | |-------------+
| | ASP-ACT-OLD |----->| ASP-UP |------>| ASP-ACT-NEW | | +------>| ASP-UP |-------------+
| +-------------+ Ts / +-------------+ ASP +-------------+ | +-------------+ |
| | ASP Inactive ^ | Takeover | | ^ | |
|<---| | | |
| | | |
ASP Down/ | ASP | | ASP Down / | ASP ASP Down/ | ASP | | ASP Down / | ASP
SCTP CDI | Up | | SCTP CDI | Down/ SCTP CDI | Up | | SCTP CDI | Down/
| | v | SCTP | | v | SCTP
| +-------------+ | CDI | +-------------+ | CDI
| | | | | | | |
|------------------>| |<-------------| +--------------------->| |<------------+
| ASP-DOWN | | ASP-DOWN |
+-------------+ +-------------+
SCTP CDI: The local SCTP layer's Communication Down Indication to the SCTP CDI: The local SCTP layer's Communication Down Indication to the
Upper Layer Protocol (M3UA) on an SG. The local SCTP will send this Upper Layer Protocol (M3UA) on an SG. The local SCTP will send this
indication when it detects the loss of connectivity to the ASP's peer indication when it detects the loss of connectivity to the ASP's peer
SCTP layer. SCTP layer.
Ts: Switch-over Time Triggers. This timer is configurable by the Ts: Switch-over Time Triggers. This timer is configurable by the
Operator on a per AS basis. 0perator on a per AS basis.
3.3.1.2 AS States 4.3.1.2 AS States
The state of the AS is maintained in the M3UA layer on the SG. The state of the AS is maintained in the M3UA layer on the SG.
The state of an AS changes due to events. These events include: The state of an AS changes due to events. These events include:
* ASP state transitions * ASP state transitions
* Recovery timer triggers * Recovery timer triggers
The possible states of an AS are: The possible states of an AS are:
AS-DOWN: The Application Server is unavailable. This state implies AS-DOWN: The Application Server is unavailable. This state implies that
that all related ASPs are in the ASP-DOWN state for this AS. Initially all related ASPs are in the ASP-DOWN state for this AS. Initially the AS
the AS will be in this state. will be in this state.
AS-UP: The Application Server is available but no application traffic AS-UP: The Application Server is available but no application traffic is
is active (i.e., one or more related ASPs are in the ASP-UP state, but active (i.e., one or more related ASPs are in the ASP-UP state, but none
none in the ASP-Active state). in the ASP-Active state).
AS-ACTIVE: The Application Server is available and application traffic AS-ACTIVE: The Application Server is available and application traffic
is active. This state implies that one ASP is in the ASP-ACTIVE state. is active. This state implies that one ASP is in the ASP-ACTIVE state.
AS-PENDING: An active ASP has transitioned from active to inactive or AS-PENDING: An active ASP has transitioned from active to inactive or
down and it was the last remaining active ASP in the AS. A recovery down and it was the last remaining active ASP in the AS. A recovery
timer T(r) will be started and all incoming SCN messages will be queued timer T(r) will be started and all incoming SCN messages will be queued
by the SG. If an ASP becomes active before T(r) expires, the AS will by the SG. If an ASP becomes active before T(r) expires, the AS will
move to AS-ACTIVE state and all the queued messages will be sent to the move to AS-ACTIVE state and all the queued messages will be sent to the
active ASP. active ASP.
If T(r) expires before an ASP becomes active, the SG stops queuing If T(r) expires before an ASP becomes active, the SG stops queuing
messages and discards all previously queued messages. The AS will move messages and discards all previously queued messages. The AS will move
to AS-UP if at least one ASP is in ASP-UP state, otherwise it will move to AS-UP if at least one ASP is in ASP-UP state, otherwise it will move
to AS-DOWN state. to AS-DOWN state.
Figure 5: AS State Transition Diagram Figure 5: AS State Transition Diagram
+----------+ one ASP trans ACTIVE +-------------+ +----------+ one ASP trans to ACTIVE +-------------+
| |------------------------>| | | |---------------------------->| |
| AS-UP | | AS-ACTIVE | | AS-UP | | AS-ACTIVE |
| | | | | |<--- --| |
| |< -| |
+----------+ \ / +-------------+ +----------+ \ / +-------------+
^ | \ Tr Trigger / ^ | ^ | \ Tr Expiry, / ^ |
| | \ at least one / | | | | \ at least one / | |
| | \ ASP in UP / | | | | \ ASP in UP / | |
| | \ / | | | | \ / | |
| | \ / | | | | \ / | |
| | \ /---/ | | | | \ /-------/ | |
one ASP | | \ / one ASP | | Last ACTIVE ASP one ASP | | all ASP / one ASP | | Last ACTIVE
trans | | all ASP \-/----\ trans to | | trans to UP or ASP
to UP | | trans to / \ ACTIVE | | DOWN trans | | trans to / \ trans to | | trans to UP or
| | DOWN / \ | | to UP | | DOWN / -------\ ACTIVE | | DOWN
| | / \ | |
| | / \ | | | | / \ | |
| | / \ | | | | / \ | |
| | /all ASP \ | | | | /all ASP \ | |
| v / trans to \ | v | v / trans to \ | v
+----------+ / DOWN \ +-------------+ +----------+ / DOWN \ +-------------+
| |<--/ -| | | |<-/ --| |
| AS-DOWN | | AS-PENDING | | AS-DOWN | | AS-PENDING |
| | | (queueing) | | | | (queueing) |
| |<------------------------| | | |<----------------------------| |
+----------+ Tr Trigger no ASP +-------------+ +----------+ Tr Expiry no ASP +-------------+
in UP state in UP state
Tr = Recovery Timer Tr = Recovery Timer
3.3.2 ASPM procedures for primitives 4.3.2 ASPM procedures for primitives
Before the establishment of an SCTP association the ASP state at both Before the establishment of an SCTP association the ASP state at both
the SG and ASP is assumed to be "Down". the SG and ASP is assumed to be "Down".
As the ASP is responsible for initiating the setup of an SCTP As the ASP is responsible for initiating the setup of an SCTP
association to an SG, the M3UA layer at an ASP receives an M-SCTP association to an SG, the M3UA layer at an ASP receives an M-SCTP
ESTABLISH request primitive from the Layer Management, the M3UA layer ESTABLISH request primitive from the Layer Management, the M3UA layer
will try to establish an SCTP association with the remote M3UA peer at will try to establish an SCTP association with the remote M3UA peer at
an SG. Upon reception of an eventual SCTP-Communication Up confirm an SG. Upon reception of an eventual SCTP-Communication Up confirm
primitive from the SCTP, the M3UA layer will invoke the primitive M- primitive from the SCTP, the M3UA layer will invoke the primitive M-SCTP
SCTP ESTABLISH confirm to the Layer Management. ESTABLISH confirm to the Layer Management.
At the SG, the M3UA layer will receive an SCTP Communication Up The M3UA layers at the SG will receive an SCTP-Communication_Up
indication primitive from the SCTP. The M3UA layer will then invoke the indication primitive from the SCTP when the association is successfully
primitive M-SCTP ESTABLISH indication to the Layer Management. set up. The M3UA layer will then invoke the primitive M-SCTP ESTABLISH
indication to the Layer Management.
Once the SCTP association is established, The M3UA layer at an ASP will Once the SCTP association is established and assuming that the local
then find out the state of its local M3UA-user from the Layer M3UA-User is ready, the local ASP M3UA Application Server Process
Management using the primitive M-ASP STATUS. Based on the status of Maintenance (ASPM) function will initiate the ASPM procedures, using the
the local M3UA-User, the local ASP M3UA Application Server Process ASP-Up/-Down/-Active/-Inactive messages to convey the ASP-state to the
Maintenance (ASPM) function will initiate the ASPM procedures, using SG - see Section 4.3.3.
the ASP-Up/-Down/-Active/-Inactive messages to convey the ASP-state to
the SG - see Section 3.3.3.
If the M3UA layer subsequently receives an SCTP-Communication Down If the M3UA layer subsequently receives an SCTP-Communication Down
indication from the underlying SCTP layer, it will inform the Layer indication from the underlying SCTP layer, it will inform the Layer
Management by invoking the M-SCTP STATUS indication primitive. The Management by invoking the M-SCTP STATUS indication primitive. The state
state of the ASP will be moved to "Down" at both the SG and ASP. of the remote ASP will be moved to "Down".
At an ASP, the Layer Management may try to reestablish the SCTP At an ASP, the Layer Management may try to re-establish the SCTP
association using M-SCTP ESTABLISH request primitive. association using M-SCTP ESTABLISH request primitive.
3.3.3 ASPM procedures for peer-to-peer messages 4.3.3 ASPM procedures for peer-to-peer messages
All ASPM messages are sent on a sequenced stream to ensure ordering. All ASPM messages are sent on a sequenced stream to ensure ordering.
SCTP stream '0' is used. SCTP stream '0' is used.
3.3.3.1 ASP-Up 4.3.3.1 ASP-Up
After an ASP has successfully established an SCTP association to an SG, After an ASP has successfully established an SCTP association to an SG,
the SG waits for the ASP to send an ASP-Up message, indicating that the the SG waits for the ASP to send an ASP-Up message, indicating that the
ASP M3UA peer is available. The ASP is always the initiator of the ASP M3UA peer is available. The ASP is always the initiator of the ASP-
ASP-Up exchange. Up exchange.
When an ASP-Up message is received at an SG and internally the ASP is When an ASP-Up message is received at an SG and internally the ASP is
not locked-out for local management reasons, the SG marks the remote not considered locked-out for local management reasons, the SG marks the
ASP as 'Up'. The SG responds with an Notify (ASP-Up) message to the remote ASP as 'Up'. The SG responds with an ASP-Up Ack message in
ASP in acknowledgement. The SG sends a Notify (ASP-Up) message in acknowledgement. The SG sends an-Up Ack message in response to a
response to a received ASP-Up message from the ASP even if the ASP is received ASP-Up message even if the ASP is already marked as "Up" at the
already marked as "Up" at the SG. SG.
If for any local reason the SG cannot respond with an ASP-Up, the SG If for any local reason the SG cannot respond with an ASP-Up Ack, the SG
responds to a ASP-Up with a ASP-Down message. responds to an ASP-Up with a ASP-Down message.
At the ASP, the Notify (ASP-Up) message received from the SG is not At the ASP, the ASP-Up Ack message received from the SG is not
acknowledged by the ASP. If the ASP does not receive a response from acknowledged by the ASP. If the ASP does not receive a response from
the SG, or an ASP-Down is received, the ASP may resend ASP-Up messages the SG, or an ASP-Down is received, the ASP may resend ASP-Up messages
every 2 seconds until it receives a Notify (ASP-Up) message from the every 2 seconds until it receives an ASP-Up Ack message from the SG.
SG. The ASP may decide to reduce the frequency (say to every 5 The ASP may decide to reduce the frequency (say to every 5 seconds) if
seconds) if a Notify (ASP-Up) is not received after a few tries. an ASP-Up Ack is not received after a few tries.
The ASP must wait for the Notify (ASP-Up) message from the SG before The ASP must wait for the ASP-Up Ack message from the SG before sending
sending any ASP traffic control messages (ASPAC or ASPIA) or Data any ASP traffic control messages (ASPAC or ASPIA) or Data messages or it
messages or it will risk message loss. If the SG receives Data will risk message loss. If the SG receives Data messages before an ASP
messages before an ASP Up is received, the SG should discard. Up is received, the SG should discard.
3.3.3.2 ASP-Down 4.3.3.2 ASP-Down
The ASP will send an ASP-Down to an SG when the ASP is to be removed The ASP will send an ASP-Down to an SG when the ASP is to be removed
from the list of ASPs in all Application Servers that it is a member. from the list of ASPs in all Application Servers that it is a member.
The SG marks the ASP as "Down" and returns an Notify (ASP-Down) message The SG marks the ASP as "Down" and returns an ASP-Down Ack message to
to the ASP if one of the following events occur: the ASP if one of the following events occur:
- an ASP-Down message is received from the ASP, - an ASP-Down message is received from the ASP,
- another ASPM message is received from the ASP and the SG has - another ASPM message is received from the ASP and the SG has
locked out the ASP for management reasons. locked out the ASP for management reasons.
The SG sends a Notify (ASP-Down) message in response to a received ASP- The SG sends an ASP-Down Ack message in response to a received ASP-Down
Down message from the ASP even if the ASP is already marked as "Down" message from the ASP even if the ASP is already marked as "Down" at the
at the SG. SG.
If the ASP does not receive a response from the SG, the ASP may send If the ASP does not receive a response from the SG, the ASP may send
ASP-Down messages every 2 seconds until it receives a ASP-Down message ASP-Down messages every 2 seconds until it receives an ASP-Down Ack
from the SG or the SCTP association goes down. The ASP may decide to message from the SG or the SCTP association goes down. The ASP may
reduce the frequency (say to every 5 seconds) if an ASP-Down is not decide to reduce the frequency (say to every 5 seconds) if an ASP-Down
received after a few tries. Ack is not received after a few tries.
3.3.3.3 M3UA Version Control 4.3.3.3 M3UA Version Control
If a ASP-Up message with an unsupported version is received, the If an ASP-Up message with an unsupported version is received, the
receiving end responds with an Error message, indicating the version receiving end responds with an Error message, indicating the version the
the receiving node supports. receiving node supports.
This is useful when protocol version upgrades are being performed in a This is useful when protocol version upgrades are being performed in a
network. A node upgraded to a newer version should support the older network. A node upgraded to a newer version should support the older
versions used on other nodes it is communicating with. Because ASPs versions used on other nodes it is communicating with. Because ASPs
initiate the ASP-Up procedure it is assumed that the Error message initiate the ASP-Up procedure it is assumed that the Error message would
would normally come from the SG. normally come from the SG.
3.3.3.4 ASP-Active 4.3.3.4 ASP-Active
Anytime after the ASP has received a Notify (ASP-Up) acknowledgement Anytime after the ASP has received an ASP-Up Ack from the SG, the ASP
from the SG, the ASP sends an ASP-Active (ASPAC) to the SG indicating sends an ASP-Active (ASPAC) to the SG indicating that the ASP is ready
that the ASP is ready to start processing traffic. In the case where to start processing traffic. In the case where an ASP is
an ASP is configured/registered to process the traffic for more than configured/registered to process the traffic for more than one
one Application Server across an SCTP association, the ASPAC contains Application Server across an SCTP association, the ASPAC contains one or
one or more Routing Contexts to indicate for which Application Servers more Routing Contexts to indicate for which Application Servers the
the ASPAC applies. ASPAC applies.
When an ASP Active (ASPAC) message is received, the SG responds to the When an ASP Active (ASPAC) message is received, the SG responds to the
ASP with a Notify message acknowledging that the ASPAC was received and ASP with a ASPAC Ack message acknowledging that the ASPAC was received
starts sending traffic for the associated Application Server(s) to that and starts sending traffic for the associated Application Server(s) to
ASP. that ASP.
There are three modes of Application Server traffic handling in the SG There are two modes of Application Server traffic handling in the SG
M3UA - Over-ride, Load-balancing and New Traffic. The Type parameter M3UA - Over-ride and Load-share. The Type parameter in the ASPAC
in the ASPAC messge indicates the traffic handling mode used in a message indicates the traffic handling mode used in a particular
particular Application Server. If the SG determines that the mode Application Server. If the SG determines that the mode indicated in an
indicated in an ASPAC is incompatible with the mode currently used in ASPAC is incompatible with the mode currently used in the AS, the SG
the AS, the SG responds with an Error message indicating "Invalid responds with an Error message indicating "Invalid Traffic Handling
Traffic Handling Mode". Mode".
In the case of an Over-ride mode AS, reception of an ASPAC message at In the case of an Over-ride mode AS, reception of an ASPAC message at an
an SG causes the redirection of all traffic for the AS to the ASP which SG causes the redirection of all traffic for the AS to the ASP that sent
sent the ASPAC. Any previously active ASP in the AS is now considered the ASPAC. The SG responds to the ASPAC with an ASP-Active Ack message
Inactive and will no longer receive traffic within the AS. The SG to the ASP. Any previously active ASP in the AS is now considered
responds to the ASPAC with a Notify (ASP-Active) message to the ASP. Inactive and will no longer receive traffic from the SG within the AS.
The SG sends a Notify (ASP-Up) to the previously active ASP in the AS, The SG sends a Notify (Alternate ASP-Active) to the previously active
after stopping all traffic to the ASP. ASP in the AS, after stopping all traffic to that ASP.
In the case of a Loadshare mode AS, reception of an ASPAC message at an In the case of a Load-share mode AS, reception of an ASPAC message at an
SG causes the direction of traffic to the ASP sending the ASPAC, in SG causes the direction of traffic to the ASP sending the ASPAC, in
addition to all the other ASPs that are currently active in the AS. addition to all the other ASPs that are currently active in the AS. The
The algorithm at the SG for loadsharing traffic within an AS to all the algorithm at the SG for load-sharing traffic within an AS to all the
active ASPs is application and network dependent. The algorithm could, active ASPs is application and network dependent. The algorithm could,
for example be round-robin or based on information in the Data message for example be round-robin or based on information in the Data message
(e.g, such as the SLS, SCCP SSN, ISUP CIC value), depending on the (e.g, such as the SLS, SCCP SSN, ISUP CIC value), depending on the
requirements of the application and the call/transaction state handling requirements of the application and the call/transaction state handling
assumptions of the collection of ASPs in the AS. The SG responds to the assumptions of the collection of ASPs in the AS. The SG responds to the
ASPAC with a Notify (ASP-Active) message to the ASP. ASPAC with an ASP-Active Ack message to the ASP.
In the case of a New Traffic mode AS, reception of an ASPAC message at
an SG causes the direction of traffic to the ASP sending the ASPAC.
However, traffic related to completing calls/transactions in another
ASP is not sent to the new ASP (i.e., new calls/transactions only). How
an SG accomplishes the differentiation of old and new transactions and
any loadsharing of traffic is application and implementation dependent.
The SG responds to the ASPAC with a Notify (ASP-Active_New) message to
the ASP. After a configurable time Ts, the ASP is moved to the ASP-
Active state and a Notify (ASP-Active) is sent to the ASP.
3.3.3.5 ASP Inactive 4.3.3.5 ASP Inactive
When an ASP wishes to withdraw from receiving traffic the ASP sends an When an ASP wishes to withdraw from receiving traffic within an AS, the
ASP Inactive (ASPIA) to the SG. In the case where an ASP is ASP sends an ASP Inactive (ASPIA) to the SG. In the case where an ASP
configured/registered to process the traffic for more than one is configured/registered to process the traffic for more than one
Application Server across an SCTP association, the ASPIA contains one Application Server across an SCTP association, the ASPIA contains one or
or more Routing Contexts to indicate for which Application Servers the more Routing Contexts to indicate for which Application Servers the
ASPIA applies. ASPIA applies.
There are three modes of Application Server traffic handling in the SG There are two modes of Application Server traffic handling in the SG
M3UA when withdrawing an ASP from service - Over-ride, Load-balancing M3UA when withdrawing an ASP from service - Over-ride and Load-share.
and Graceful Withdrawal. The Type parameter in the ASPIA messge The Type parameter in the ASPIA message indicates the mode used in a
indicates the mode used in a particular Application Server. If the SG particular Application Server. If the SG determines that the mode
indicates in an ASPAC is incompatible with the traffic handling mode
determines that the mode indicates in an ASPAC is incompatible with the currently used in the AS, the SG responds with an Error message
traffic handling mode currently used in the AS, the SG responds with an indicating "Invalid Traffic Handling Mode".
Error message indicating "Invalid Traffic Handling Mode".
In the case of an Over-ride mode AS, where normally another ASP has In the case of an Over-ride mode AS, where normally another ASP has
already taken over the traffic within the AS with an Over-ride ASPAC, already taken over the traffic within the AS with an Over-ride ASPAC,
the ASP which sent the ASPIA is already considered by the SG to be the ASP that sends the ASPIA is already considered by the SG to be
"Inactive". A Notify (ASP_Up) message is resent to the ASP, after "Inactive" (i.e., in the "Up" state). An ASPIA Ack message is sent to
ensuring that all traffic is stopped to the ASP. the ASP, after ensuring that all traffic is stopped to the ASP.
In the case of a Loadshare mode AS, the SG moves the ASP to the
"Inactive" state and the AS traffic is re-allocated across the
remaining "active" ASPs per the laoadsharing algorithm currently used
within the AS. A Notify (ASP-Up) message is sent to the ASP after al
traffic is halted to the ASP.
In the case of Graceful Withdrawal, the SG diverts all traffic related In the case of a Load-share mode AS, the SG moves the ASP to the "Up"
to new calls/transactions to other "active" ASPs and therafter sends state and the AS traffic is re-allocated across the remaining "active"
only traffic related to incomplete transactons to the ASP. A Notify ASPs per the load-sharing algorithm currently used within the AS. An
(ASP-Act_Old) is sent to the ASP and the ASP is moved to the ASPIA Ack message is sent to the ASP after all traffic is halted to the
"Active_Old" state. When the outstanding calls/transactions are ASP.
drained, or after a configurable time Ts, the SG moves the ASP to the
"Up" state and sends a Notify (ASP-Up) message to the ASP.
If no other ASPs are "Active" in the Application Server, the SG either If no other ASPs are "Active" in the Application Server, the SG either
discards all incoming messages (except messages related to an discards all incoming messages for the AS or starts buffering the
"Active_Old" ASP) for the AS or starts buffering the incoming messages incoming messages for T(r)seconds, after which messages will be
for T(r)seconds after which messages will be discarded. T(r) is discarded. T(r) is configurable by the network operator. If the SG
configurable by the network operator. If the SG receives an ASPAC from receives an ASPAC from
an ASP in the AS before expiry of T(r), the buffered traffic is an ASP in the AS before expiry of T(r), the buffered traffic is directed
directed to the ASP and the timer is cancelled. to the ASP and the timer is cancelled.
3.3.3.6 Notify
In the case where a Notify (AS-Up) message is sent by an SG that now 4.3.3.6 NotifyIn the case where a Notify (AS-Up) message is sent by an
has no ASPs active to service the traffic, the Notify does not force SG that now has no ASPs active to service the traffic, the Notify does
the ASP(s) receiving the message to become active. The ASPs remain in not force the ASP(s) receiving the message to become active. The ASPs
control of what (and when) action is taken. remain in control of what (and when) action is taken.
3.3.3.7 Heartbeat 4.3.3.7 Heartbeat
The optional Heartbeat procedures may be used when operating over The optional Heartbeat procedures may be used when operating over
transport layers that do not have their own heartbeat mechanism for transport layers that do not have their own heartbeat mechanism for
detecting loss of the transport association (i.e., other than the detecting loss of the transport association (i.e., other than the SCTP).
SCTP).
Once the ASP sends an ASP-Up message to the SG, the ASP sends Beat Once the ASP sends an ASP-Up message to the SG, the ASP sends Beat
messages periodically, subject to a provisionable timer T(beat). The messages periodically, subject to a provisionable timer T(beat). The SG
SG M3UA, upon receiving a BEAT message from the ASP, responds with a M3UA, upon receiving a BEAT message from the ASP, responds with a BEAT
message. If no BEAT message (or any other M3UA message), is received
BEAT message. If no BEAT message (or any other M3UA message), is from the ASP within the timer 2*T(beat), the ASP will consider the
received from the ASP within the timer 2*T(beat), the ASP will consider remote M3UA as 'Down".
the remote M3UA as 'Down".
At the ASP, if no BEAT message (or any other M3UA message) is received At the ASP, if no BEAT message (or any other M3UA message) is received
from the SG within 2*T(beat), the SG is considered unavailable. from the SG within 2*T(beat), the SG is considered unavailable.
Transmission of BEAT messages is stopped and ASP-Up procedures are used Transmission of BEAT messages is stopped and ASP-Up procedures are used
to re-establish communication with the SG M3UA peer. to re-establish communication with the SG M3UA peer.
Note: Heartbeat related events are not shown in Figure 4 "ASP state Note: Heartbeat related events are not shown in Figure 4 "ASP state
transition diagram". transition diagram".
3.4 Procedures to support the M3UA services in Section 1.4.3 4.4 Procedures to support the M3UA services in Section 1.4.3
3.4.1 At an SG 4.4.1 At an SG
On receiving an MTP-PAUSE, MTP-RESUME, or MTP-STATUS indication On receiving an MTP-PAUSE, MTP-RESUME, or MTP-STATUS indication
primitive from the nodal inter-working function at an SG, the SG M3UA primitive from the nodal inter-working function at an SG, the SG M3UA
layer will send a corresponding SSNM DUNA, DAVA, SCON, or DUPU message layer will send a corresponding SSNM DUNA, DAVA, SCON, or DUPU message
(see Section 2) to the M3UA peers at concerned ASPs. The M3UA layer (see Section 2) to the M3UA peers at concerned ASPs. The M3UA layer
must fill in various fields of the SSNM messages consistently with the must fill in various fields of the SSNM messages consistently with the
information received in the primitives. information received in the primitives.
The SG M3UA determines the set of concerned ASPs to be informed based The SG M3UA determines the set of concerned ASPs to be informed based on
on the SS7 network partition for which the primitive indication is the SS7 network partition for which the primitive indication is
relevant. In this way, all ASPs configured to send/receive traffic relevant. In this way, all ASPs configured to send/receive traffic
within a particular network appearance are informed. If the SG within a particular network appearance are informed. If the SG operates
operates within a single SS7 network appearance, then all ASPs are within a single SS7 network appearance, then all ASPs are informed.
informed.
Optionally, the SG M3UA may filter further based on the Affected Point Optionally, the SG M3UA may filter further based on the Affected Point
Code in the MTP-PAUSE, MTP-Resume, or MTP-Status indication primitives. Code in the MTP-PAUSE, MTP-Resume, or MTP-Status indication primitives.
In this way ASPs can be informed only of affected destinations to which In this way ASPs can be informed only of affected destinations to which
they actually communicate. The SG M3UA may also suppress DUPU messages they actually communicate. The SG M3UA may also suppress DUPU messages
to ASPs that do not implement an MTP3-User protocol peer for the to ASPs that do not implement an MTP3-User protocol peer for the
affected MTP3-User. affected MTP3-User.
DUNA, DAVA, SCON messages must be sent on a sequenced stream as these DUNA, DAVA, SCON messages must be sent on a sequenced stream as these
primitives should arrive in order. Stream 0 is used. Sequencing is primitives should arrive in order. Stream 0 is used. Sequencing is not
not required for the DUPU or DAUD message, which may optionally be sent required for the DUPU or DAUD message, which may optionally be sent un-
un-sequenced. sequenced.
3.4.2 At an ASP 4.4.2 At an ASP
At an ASP, upon receiving an SSNM message from the remote M3UA Peer, At an ASP, upon receiving an SSNM message from the remote M3UA Peer, the
the M3UA layer invokes the appropriate primitive indications to the M3UA layer invokes the appropriate primitive indications to the resident
resident M3UA-Users. Local management is informed. M3UA-Users. Local management is informed.
3.4.3 ASP Auditing 4.4.3 ASP Auditing
An ASP may optionally initiate an audit procedure in order to enquire An ASP may optionally initiate an audit procedure in order to enquire of
of an SG the availability or congestion status of an SS7 destination or an SG the availability or congestion status of an SS7 destination or set
set of destinations. A Destination Audit (DAUD) message is sent from of destinations. A Destination Audit (DAUD) message is sent from the
the ASP to the SG requesting the current availability or congestion ASP to the SG requesting the current availability or congestion status
status of one or more SS7 Destination Point Codes. of one or more SS7 Destination Point Codes.
The DAUD may be sent by the ASP in the following cases. The DAUD may The DAUD may be sent by the ASP in the following cases. The DAUD may be
be sent unsequenced. sent unsequenced.
- Periodic. A Timer originally set upon reception of DUVA or SCON - Periodic. A Timer originally set upon reception of DUVA or SCON
message has expired without a subsequent DAVA, DUVA or SCON message has expired without a subsequent DAVA, DUVA or SCON
updating the availability/congestion status of the affected updating the availability/congestion status of the affected
Destination Point Codes. The Timer is reset upon issuing a DAUD. Destination Point Codes. The Timer is reset upon issuing a DAUD.
In this case the DAUD is sent to the SG that originally sent the In this case the DAUD is sent to the SG that originally sent the
SSNM message. SSNM message.
- the ASP is newly "Up" or "Active" or has been isolated from an SG - the ASP is newly "Up" or "Active" or has been isolated from an SG
for an extended period. The SG can request the for an extended period. The SG can request the
availabilty/congestion status of one or more SS7 destinations to availabilty/congestion status of one or more SS7 destinations to
which it expects to communicate. which it expects to communicate.
In the first case, the DAUD procedure must not be invoked for the case In the first case, the DAUD procedure must not be invoked for the case
of a received SCON containing a congestion level value of "no of received SCON containing a congestion level value of "no congestion"
congestion" or "undefined" (i.e., congestion Level = "0"). This is or undefined" (i.e., congestion Level = "0"). This is because the value
because the value indicates either congestion abatement or that the ITU ndicates either congestion abatement or that the ITU MTP3 international
MTP3 international congestion method is being used. In the ongestion method is being used. In the international congestion method,
international congestion method, the MTP3 at the SG does not maintain the MTP3 at the SG does not maintain the congestion status of any
the congestion status of any destinations and therefore cannot provide destinations and therefore cannot provide any congestion information in
any congestion information in response to the DAUD. For the same response to the DAUD. For the same reason, in the second case a DAUD
reason, in the second case a DAUD cannot reveal any congested cannot reveal any congested destination(s).
destination(s).
The SG must respond to a DAUD with the MTP3 status of the routeset The SG must respond to a DAUD with the MTP3 status of the routeset
associated with each Destination Point Code(s) in the DAUD. The status associated with each Destination Point Code(s) in the DAUD. The status
of each SS7 destination requested is indicated in a DUNA (if of each SS7 destination requested is indicated in a DUNA (if
unavailable), DAVA (if available/uncongested) or an SCON (if unavailable), DAVA (if available/uncongested) or an SCON (if
available/congested). Optionally, any DUNA or DAVA in response to a available/congested). Optionally, any DUNA or DAVA in response to a
DAUD may contain more than one Affected Point Code. DAUD may contain more than one Affected Point Code.
Note that from the point of view of an ASP sending an DAUD, the Note that from the point of view of an ASP sending an DAUD, the
subsequent reception of an SCON implies that the Affected Destination subsequent reception of an SCON implies that the Affected Destination is
is available. The reception of a DAVA implies that the routeset to the available. The reception of a DAVA implies that the routeset to the
Affected Destination are not congested. Obviously with the reception Affected Destination are not congested. Obviously with the reception of
of an DUNA, the routeset to the Affected Destination can not also be an DUNA, the routeset to the Affected Destination can not also be
congested. congested.
4.0 Examples of M3UA Procedures 5.0 Examples of M3UA Procedures
4.1 Establishment of Association and Traffic between SGs and ASPs 5.1 Establishment of Association and Traffic between SGs and ASPs
4.1.1 Single ASP in an Application Server ("1+0" sparing) 5.1.1 Single ASP in an Application Server ("1+0" sparing)
This scenario shows the example M3UA message flows for the This scenario shows the example M3UA message flows for the establishment
establishment of traffic between an SG and an ASP, where only one ASP of traffic between an SG and an ASP, where only one ASP is configured
is configured within an AS (no backup). It is assumed that the SCTP within an AS (no backup). It is assumed that the SCTP association is
association is already set-up. already set-up.
SG ASP1 SG ASP1
| |
|<---------ASP Up----------| |<---------ASP Up----------|
|------NTFY (ASP-Up)------>| |-------ASP-Up Ack-------->|
| - | | - |
|<-------ASP Active--------| |<-------ASP Active--------|
|----NTFY (ASP_Active)---->| |-----ASP Active Ack------>|
| | | |
4.1.2 Two ASPs in Application Server ("1+1" sparing) 5.1.2 Two ASPs in Application Server ("1+1" sparing)
This scenario shows the example M3UA message flows for the This scenario shows the example M3UA message flows for the establishment
establishment of traffic between an SG and two ASPs in the same of traffic between an SG and two ASPs in the same Application Server,
Application Server, where ASP1 is configured to be "active" and ASP2 a where ASP1 is configured to be "active" and ASP2 a "standby" in the
"standby" in the event of communication failure or the withdrawal from event of communication failure or the withdrawal from service of ASP1.
service of ASP1. ASP2 may act as a hot, warm, or cold standby ASP2 may act as a hot, warm, or cold standby depending on the extent to
depending on the extent to which ASP1 and ASP2 share call/transaction which ASP1 and ASP2 share call/transaction state or can communicate call
state or can communicate call state under failure/withdrawal events. state under failure/withdrawal events. The example message flow is the
The example message flow is the same whether the ASP-Active messages same whether the ASP-Active messages are Over-ride or Load-share mode
are Over-ride or Load-share mode although typically this example would although typically this example would use an Over-ride mode.
use an Over-ride mode.
SG ASP1 ASP2 SG ASP1 ASP2
| | | | | |
|<--------ASP Up----------| | |<--------ASP Up----------| |
|-------TFY (ASP-Up)----->| | |-------ASP-Up Ack------->| |
| | | | | |
|<-----------------------------ASP Up----------------| |<-----------------------------ASP Up----------------|
|----------------------------NTFY (ASP-Up)---------->| |-----------------------------ASP-Up Ack------------>|
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
|<-------ASP Active-------| | |<-------ASP Active-------| |
|----NTFY(ASP-Active)---->| | |------ASP-Active Ack---->| |
| | | | | |
4.1.3 Two ASPs in an Application Server ("1+1" sparing, load-sharing 5.1.3 Two ASPs in an Application Server ("1+1" sparing, load-sharing
case) case)
This scenario shows a similar case to Section 4.1.2 but where the two This scenario shows a similar case to Section 4.1.2 but where the two
ASPs are brought to "active" and loadshare the traffic load. In this ASPs are brought to "active" and load-share the traffic load. In this
case, one ASP is sufficient to handle the total traffic load. case, one ASP is sufficient to handle the total traffic load.
SG ASP1 ASP2 SG ASP1 ASP2
| | | | | |
|<---------ASP Up---------| | |<---------ASP Up---------| |
|-------NTFY(ASP-Up)----->| | |--------ASP-Up Ack------>| |
| | | | | |
|<------------------------------ASP Up---------------| |<------------------------------ASP Up---------------|
|-----------------------------NTFY(ASP Up)---------->| |-----------------------------ASP Up Ack------------>|
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
|<--ASP Active (Ldshr)----| | |<--ASP Active (Ldshr)----| |
|----NTFY(ASP-Active)---->| | |-----ASP-Active Ack----->| |
| | | | | |
|<----------------------------ASP Active (Ldshr)-----| |<----------------------------ASP Active (Ldshr)-----|
|-----------------------------NTFY(ASP-Active)------>| |-------------------------------ASP-Active Ack------>|
| | | | | |
4.1.4 Three ASPs in an Application Server ("n+k" sparing, load-sharing 5.1.4 Three ASPs in an Application Server ("n+k" sparing, load-sharing
case) case)
This scenario shows the example M3UA message flows for the This scenario shows the example M3UA message flows for the establishment
establishment of traffic between an SG and three ASPs in the same of traffic between an SG and three ASPs in the same Application Server,
Application Server, where two of the ASPs are brought to "active" and where two of the ASPs are brought to "active" and share the load. In
share the load. In this case, a minimum of two ASPs are required to this case, a minimum of two ASPs are required to handle the total
handle the total traffic load (2+1 sparing). traffic load (2+1 sparing).
SG ASP1 ASP2 ASP3 SG ASP1 ASP2 ASP3
| | | | | | | |
|<------ASP Up-------| | | |<------ASP Up-------| | |
|----NTFY(ASP-Up)--->| | | |-----ASP-Up Ack---->| | |
| | | | | | | |
|<--------------------------ASP Up-------| | |<--------------------------ASP Up-------| |
|------------------------NTFY(ASP-Up)--->| | |-------------------------ASP-Up Ack)--->| |
| | | | | | | |
|<---------------------------------------------ASP Up--------| |<---------------------------------------------ASP Up--------|
|--------------------------------------------NTFY(ASP-Up)--->| |---------------------------------------------ASP-Up Ack---->|
| | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
|<-ASP Act. (Ldshr)--| | | |<--ASP Act (Ldshr)--| | |
|---NTFY(ASP-Act.)-->| | | |----ASP-Act Ack---->| | |
| | | | | | | |
|<--------------------ASP Act. (Ldshr)---| | |<--------------------ASP Act. (Ldshr)---| |
|----------------------NTFY(ASP-Act.)--->| | |-----------------------ASP-Act Ack----->| |
| | | | | | | |
4.2 ASP Traffic Fail-over Examples 5.2 ASP Traffic Fail-over Examples
4.2.1 (1+1 Sparing, withdrawal of ASP, Back-up Over-ride) 5.2.1 (1+1 Sparing, withdrawal of ASP, Back-up Over-ride)
Following on from the example in Section 4.1.2, and ASP withdraws from Following on from the example in Section 4.1.2, and ASP withdraws from
service: service:
SG ASP1 ASP2 SG ASP1 ASP2
| | | | | |
|<-----ASP Inactive-------| | |<-----ASP Inactive-------| |
|---NTFY(ASP Inactive)--->| | |----ASP Inactive Ack---->| |
|--------------------NTFY(ASP-Inactive) (Optional)-->| |-------------------------NTFY(AS-Down) (Optional)-->|
| | | | | |
|<------------------------------ ASP Active----------| |<------------------------------ ASP Active----------|
|-----------------------------NTFY(ASP-Active)------>| |------------------------------ASP-Active Ack)------>|
| | | |
Note: If the SG detects loss of the M3UA peer (M3UA heartbeat loss or Note: If the SG detects loss of the M3UA peer (M3UA heartbeat loss or
detection of SCTP failure), the initial SG-ASP1 ASP Inactive message detection of SCTP failure), the initial SG-ASP1 ASP Inactive message
exchange would not occur. exchange would not occur.
4.2.2 (1+1 Sparing, Back-up Over-ride) 5.2.2 (1+1 Sparing, Back-up Over-ride)
Following on from the example in Section 4.1.2, and ASP2 wishes to Following on from the example in Section 4.1.2, and ASP2 wishes to over-
over-ride ASP1 and take over the traffic: ride ASP1 and take over the traffic:
SG ASP1 ASP2 SG ASP1 ASP2
| | | | | |
|<------------------------------ ASP Active----------| |<------------------------------ ASP Active----------|
|-----------------------------NTFY(ASP-Active)------>| |-------------------------------ASP-Active Ack------>|
|----NTFY(ASP-Inactive)-->| |----NTFY(Alt ASP-Act)--->|
| | | | | |
4.2.3 (n+k Sparing, Load-sharing case, withdrawal of ASP) 5.2.3 (n+k Sparing, Load-sharing case, withdrawal of ASP)
Following on from the example in Section 4.1.4, and ASP1 withdraws from Following on from the example in Section 4.1.4, and ASP1 withdraws from
service: service:
SG ASP1 ASP2 ASP3 SG ASP1 ASP2 ASP3
| | | | | | | |
|<----ASP Inact.-----| | | |<----ASP Inact.-----| | |
|--NTFY(ASP-Inact.)->| | | |---ASP-Inact Ack--->| | |
| | | | | | | |
|---------------------------------NTFY(Ins. ASPs)(Optional)->| |---------------------------------NTFY(Ins. ASPs)(Optional)->|
| | | | | | | |
|<-----------------------------------------ASP Act. (Ldshr)--| |<-----------------------------------------ASP Act (Ldshr)---|
|-------------------------------------------ASP Act. (Ack)-->| |-------------------------------------------ASP Act (Ack)--->|
| | | | | | | |
The Notify message to ASP3 is optional, as well as the ASP-Active from The Notify message to ASP3 is optional, as well as the ASP-Active from
ASP3. The optional Notify can only occur if the SG maintains knowledge ASP3. The optional Notify can only occur if the SG maintains knowledge
of the minimum ASP resources required for example if the SG knows of the minimum ASP resources required for example if the SG knows that
that "n+k" = "2+1" for a loadshare AS and "n" currently equals "1". "n+k" = "2+1" for a load-share AS and "n" currently equals "1".
Note: If the SG detects loss of the ASP1 M3UA peer (M3UA heartbeat loss Note: If the SG detects loss of the ASP1 M3UA peer (M3UA heartbeat loss
or detection of SCTP failure), the first SG-ASP1 ASP Inactive message or detection of SCTP failure), the first SG-ASP1 ASP Inactive message
exchange would not occur. exchange would not occur.
4.3 M3UA/MTP3-User Boundary Examples 5.3 M3UA/MTP3-User Boundary Examples
4.3.1 At an ASP 5.3.1 At an ASP
This section describes the primitive mapping from the MTP3 User to M3UA This section describes the primitive mapping from the MTP3 User to M3UA
at an ASP. at an ASP.
4.3.1.1 Support for MTP-Transfer on the ASP 5.3.1.1 Support for MTP-Transfer on the ASP
4.3.1.1.1 Support for MTP-Transfer Request 5.3.1.1.1 Support for MTP-Transfer Request
When the MTP3-User on the ASP has data to send into the SS7 network, it When the MTP3-User on the ASP has data to send into the SS7 network, it
will use the MTP-Transfer Request primitive. The M3UA on the ASP will will use the MTP-Transfer Request primitive. The M3UA on the ASP will
do the following when it receives an MTP-Transfer Request primitive do the following when it receives an MTP-Transfer Request primitive from
from the M3UA user: the M3UA user:
- Determine the correct SG - Determine the correct SG
- Determine the correct association to the chosen SG - Determine the correct association to the chosen SG
- Determine the correct stream in the association (e.g., based on - Determine the correct stream in the association (e.g., based on
SLS) SLS)
- Determine whether to complete the optional fields of the Data - Determine whether to complete the optional fields of the Data
message message
skipping to change at page 49, line 5 skipping to change at page 58, line 5
field of an m3ua Data message field of an m3ua Data message
- Send the Data message to the remote M3UA peer in the SG, over the - Send the Data message to the remote M3UA peer in the SG, over the
SCTP association SCTP association
SG ASP SG ASP
| | | |
|<-----Data Message-------|<--MTP-Transfer req. |<-----Data Message-------|<--MTP-Transfer req.
| | | |
4.3.1.1.2 Support for MTP Transfer Indication 5.3.1.1.2 Support for MTP Transfer Indication
When the M3UA on the ASP has received Data messages from the remote When the M3UA on the ASP has received Data messages from the remote M3UA
M3UA peer in the SG it will do the following: peer in the SG it will do the following:
- Evaluate the optional fields of the Data message if present - Evaluate the optional fields of the Data message if present
- Map the Payload of a Data message into the MTP-Transfer Indication - Map the Payload of a Data message into the MTP-Transfer Indication
primitive primitive
- Pass the MTP-Transfer Indication primitive to the user part. In - Pass the MTP-Transfer Indication primitive to the user part. In
case of multiple user parts, the optional fields of the Data case of multiple user parts, the optional fields of the Data
message are used to determine the concerned user part. message are used to determine the concerned user part.
SG ASP SG ASP
| | | |
|------Data Message------>|---MTP-Transfer ind.? |------Data Message------>|---MTP-Transfer ind.
| | | |
4.3.1.1.3 Support for ASP Querying of SS7 Destination States 5.3.1.1.3 Support for ASP Querying of SS7 Destination States
There are situations such as temporary loss of connectivity to the SG There are situations such as temporary loss of connectivity to the SG
that may cause the M3UA on the ASP to audit SS7 destination that may cause the M3UA on the ASP to audit SS7 destination availability
availability states. Note: there is no primitive for the MTP3-User to states. Note: there is no primitive for the MTP3-User to request this
request this audit from the M3UA as this is initiated by an internal audit from the M3UA as this is initiated by an internal M3UA management
M3UA management function. function.
The M3UA on the ASP normally sends Destination State Audit (DAUD) The M3UA on the ASP normally sends Destination State Audit (DAUD)
messages for each of the destinations that the ASP supports. messages for each of the destinations that the ASP supports.
SG ASP SG ASP
| | | |
|<-----DAUD Message ------| |<-----DAUD Message ------|
|<-----DAUD Message ------| |<-----DAUD Message ------|
|<-----DAUD Message ------| |<-----DAUD Message ------|
| | | |
| | | |
4.3.2 At an SG 5.3.2 At an SG
This section describes the MTP3 upper layer primitive mapping to the This section describes the MTP3 upper layer primitive mapping to the
M3UA at the SG. M3UA at the SG.
4.3.2.1 Support for MTP-Transfer Request at the SG 5.3.2.1 Support for MTP-Transfer Request at the SG
When the M3UA on the SG has received Data messages from its peer When the M3UA on the SG has received Data messages from its peer
destined to the SS7 network it will do the following: destined to the SS7 network it will do the following:
- Evaluate the optional fields of the Data message if present to - Evaluate the optional fields of the Data message if present to
determine the network appearance determine the network appearance
- Map the Protocol data of the Data message into an MTP-Transfer - Map the Protocol data of the Data message into an MTP-Transfer
Request primitive Request primitive
- Pass the MTP-Transfer Request primitive to the MTP3 of the - Pass the MTP-Transfer Request primitive to the MTP3 of the
concerned network appearance. concerned network appearance.
SG ASP SG ASP
| | | |
<---MTP-Transfer req.|<------Data Message------| <---MTP-Transfer req.|<------Data Message------|
| | | |
4.3.2.2 Support for MTP-Transfer Indication at the SG 5.3.2.2 Support for MTP-Transfer Indication at the SG
When the MTP3 on the SG has data to pass its user parts, it will use When the MTP3 on the SG has data to pass its user parts, it will use the
the MTP-Transfer Indication primitive. The M3UA on the S>G will do the MTP-Transfer Indication primitive. The M3UA on the S>G will do the
following when it receives an MTP-Transfer Indication: following when it receives an MTP-Transfer Indication:
- Determine the correct ASP - Determine the correct ASP
- Determine the correct association to the chosen ASP - Determine the correct association to the chosen ASP
- Determine the correct stream in the association (e.g., based on - Determine the correct stream in the association (e.g., based on
SLS) SLS)
- Determine whether to complete the optional fields of the Data - Determine whether to complete the optional fields of the Data
skipping to change at page 50, line 46 skipping to change at page 59, line 46
field of an M3UA Data message field of an M3UA Data message
- Send the Data message to the remote M3UA peer in the ASP, over the - Send the Data message to the remote M3UA peer in the ASP, over the
SCTP association SCTP association
SG ASP SG ASP
| | | |
--MTP-Transfer ind.->|------Data Message------>| --MTP-Transfer ind.->|------Data Message------>|
| | | |
4.3.2.3 Support for MTP-PAUSE, MTP-RESUME, MTP-STATUS 5.3.2.3 Support for MTP-PAUSE, MTP-RESUME, MTP-STATUS
The MTP-PAUSE, MTP-RESUME and MTP-STATUS indication primitives from the The MTP-PAUSE, MTP-RESUME and MTP-STATUS indication primitives from the
MTP3 upper layer interface at the SG need to be made available to the MTP3 upper layer interface at the SG need to be made available to the
remote MTP3 User Part lower layer interface at the concerned ASP(s). remote MTP3 User Part lower layer interface at the concerned ASP(s).
4.3.2.3.1 Destination Unavailable 5.3.2.3.1 Destination Unavailable
The MTP3 on the SG will generate an MTP-PAUSE primitive when it The MTP3 on the SG will generate an MTP-PAUSE primitive when it
determines locally that an SS7 destination is unreachable. The M3UA determines locally that an SS7 destination is unreachable. The M3UA
will map this primitive to a Destination Unavailable (DUNA) message. will map this primitive to a Destination Unavailable (DUNA) message. It
It will determine which ASP(s) to send the DUNA based on the Network will determine which ASP(s) to send the DUNA based on the Network
Appearance information. Appearance information.
SG ASP SG ASP
| | | |
--MTP-PAUSE ind.-->|------DUNA Message ----->|--MTP-PAUSE ind.--> --MTP-PAUSE ind.-->|------DUNA Message ----->|--MTP-PAUSE ind.-->
| | | |
4.3.2.3.2 Destination Available 5.3.2.3.2 Destination Available
The MTP3 on the SG will generate an MTP-RESUME primitive when it The MTP3 on the SG will generate an MTP-RESUME primitive when it
determines locally that an SS7 destination that was previously determines locally that an SS7 destination that was previously
unreachable is now reachable. The M3UA will map this primitive to a unreachable is now reachable. The M3UA will map this primitive to a
Destination Unavailable (DAVA) message. It will determine which ASP(s) Destination Unavailable (DAVA) message. It will determine which ASP(s)
to send the DUNA based on the Network Appearance information. to send the DUNA based on the Network Appearance information.
SG ASP SG ASP
| | | |
--MTP-RESUME ind.-->|------DAVA Message ----->|--MTP-RESUME ind.--> --MTP-RESUME ind.-->|------DAVA Message ----->|--MTP-RESUME ind.-->
| | | |
4.3.2.3.3 SS7 Network Congestion 5.3.2.3.3 SS7 Network Congestion
The MTP3 on the SG will generate an MTP-STATUS primitive when it The MTP3 on the SG will generate an MTP-STATUS primitive when it
determines locally that the route to an SS7 destination is congested. determines locally that the route to an SS7 destination is congested.
The M3UA will map this primitive to a SS7 Network Congestion State The M3UA will map this primitive to a SS7 Network Congestion State
(SCON) message. It will determine which ASP(s) to send the DUPU to (SCON) message. It will determine which ASP(s) to send the DUPU to
based on the intended Application Server. based on the intended Application Server.
SG ASP SG ASP
| | | |
--MTP-STATUS ind.-->|------SCON Message ----->|--MTP-STATUS ind.--> --MTP-STATUS ind.-->|------SCON Message ----->|--MTP-STATUS ind.-->
| | | |
4.3.2.3.4 Destination User Part Unavailable 5.3.2.3.4 Destination User Part Unavailable
The MTP3 on the SG will generate an MTP-STATUS primitive when it The MTP3 on the SG will generate an MTP-STATUS primitive when it
determines locally that an SS7 destination User Part is unavailable. determines locally that an SS7 destination User Part is unavailable.
The M3UA will map this primitive to a Destination User Part Unavailable The M3UA will map this primitive to a Destination User Part Unavailable
(DUPU) message. It will determine which ASP(s) to send the DUPU to (DUPU) message. It will determine which ASP(s) to send the DUPU based
based on the intended Application Server. on the intended Application Server.
SG ASP SG ASP
| | | |
--MTP-STATUS ind.-->|------DUPU Message ----->|--MTP-STATUS ind.--> --MTP-STATUS ind.-->|------DUPU Message ----->|--MTP-STATUS ind.-->
| | | |
5.0 Security 6.0 Security
5.1 Introduction 6.1 Introduction
M3UA is designed to carry signaling messages for telephony services. As such, M3UA is designed to carry signalling messages for telephony services. As
M3UA must involve the security needs of several parties: the end users such, M3UA must involve the security needs of several parties: the end
of the services; the network providers and the applications involved. users of the services; the network providers and the applications
Additional requirements may come from local regulation. While having some involved. Additional requirements may come from local regulation.
overlapping security needs, any security solution should fulfill all of the While having some overlapping security needs, any security solution
different parties' needs. should fulfill all of the different parties' needs.
5.2 Threats 6.2 Threats
There is no quick fix, one-size-fits-all solution for security. As a There is no quick fix, one-size-fits-all solution for security. As a
transport protocol, M3UA has the following security objectives: transport protocol, M3UA has the following security objectives:
* Availability of reliable and timely user data transport. * Availability of reliable and timely user data transport.
* Integrity of user data transport. * Integrity of user data transport.
* Confidentiality of user data. * Confidentiality of user data.
M3UA runs on top of SCTP. SCTP [6] provides certain transport related M3UA runs on top of SCTP. SCTP [6] provides certain transport related
security features, such as: security features, such as some protection against:
* Blind Denial of Service Attacks * Blind Denial of Service Attacks
* Flooding * Flooding
* Masquerade * Masquerade
* Improper Monopolization of Services * Improper Monopolization of Services
When M3UA is running in professionally managed corporate or service provider When M3UA is running in professionally managed corporate or service
network, it is reasonable to expect that this network includes an provider network, it is reasonable to expect that this network includes
appropriate security policy framework. The "Site Security Handbook" [21] an appropriate security policy framework. The "Site Security Handbook"
should be consulted for guidance. [21] should be consulted for guidance.
When the network in which M3UA runs in involves more than one party, it may When the network in which M3UA runs in involves more than one party, it
not be reasonable to expect that all parties have implemented security in a may not be reasonable to expect that all parties have implemented
sufficient manner. In such a case, it is recommended that IPSEC is used to security in a sufficient manner. In such a case, it is recommended that
ensure confidentiality of user payload. Consult [22] for more information on
configuring IPSEC services.
5.3 Protecting Confidentiality IPSEC is used to ensure confidentiality of user payload. Consult [22]
for more information on configuring IPSEC services.
6.3 Protecting Confidentiality
Particularly for mobile users, the requirement for confidentiality may Particularly for mobile users, the requirement for confidentiality may
include the masking of IP addresses and ports. In this case application include the masking of IP addresses and ports. In this case application
level encryption is not sufficient; IPSEC ESP should be used instead. level encryption is not sufficient; IPSEC ESP should be used instead.
Regardless of which level performs the encryption, the IPSEC ISAKMP service Regardless of which level performs the encryption, the IPSEC ISAKMP
should be used for key management. service should be used for key management.
6.0 IANA Considerations 7.0 IANA Considerations
A request will be made to IANA to assign an M3UA value for the Payload Protocol A request will be made to IANA to assign an M3UA value for the Payload
Identifier in SCTP Payload Data chunk. The following SCTP Payload Protocol Protocol Identifier in SCTP Payload Data chunk. The following SCTP
Identifier will be registered: Payload Protocol Identifier will be registered:
M3UA tbd M3UA tbd
The SCTP Payload Protocol Identifier is included in each SCTP Data chunk, to The SCTP Payload Protocol Identifier is included in each SCTP Data
indicate which protocol the SCTP is carrying. This Payload Protocol Identifier chunk, to indicate which protocol the SCTP is carrying. This Payload
is not directly used by SCTP but may be used by certain network entities to Protocol Identifier is not directly used by SCTP but may be used by
identify the type of information being carried in a Data chunk. certain network entities to identify the type of information being
carried in a Data chunk.
The User Adaptation peer may use the Payload Protocol Identifier as a way of The User Adaptation peer may use the Payload Protocol Identifier as a
determining additional information about the data being presented to it by SCTP. way of determining additional information about the data being presented
to it by SCTP.
7.0 Acknowledgements 8.0 Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank John Loughney, Neil Olson, Norm Glaude, The authors would like to thank John Loughney, Neil Olson, Michael
Michael Tuexen, Nikhil Jain, Steve Lorusso, Dan Brendes, Heinz Prantner Tuexen, Nikhil Jain, Steve Lorusso, Dan Brendes, Heinz Prantner, Barry
for their valuable comments and suggestions. Nagelberg for their valuable comments and suggestions.
8.0 References 9.0 References
[1] RFC 2719, "Framework Architecture for Signaling Transport" [1] RFC 2719, "Framework Architecture for Signaling Transport"
[2] ITU-T Recommendations Q.761 to Q.767, 'Signalling System No.7 (SS7) [2] ITU-T Recommendations Q.761 to Q.767, 'Signalling System No.7 (SS7)
ISDN User Part (ISUP)' ISDN User Part (ISUP)'
[3] ANSI T1.113 - 'Signaling System Number 7 ISDN User Part [3] ANSI T1.113 - 'Signaling System Number 7 ISDN User Part
[4] ETSI ETS 300 356-1 "Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN); [4] ETSI ETS 300 356-1 "Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN);
Signalling System No.7; ISDN User Part (ISUP) version 2 for the Signalling System No.7; ISDN User Part (ISUP) version 2 for the
skipping to change at page 54, line 33 skipping to change at page 63, line 33
[11] ETSI ETS 300 287-1, "Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN); [11] ETSI ETS 300 287-1, "Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN);
Signalling System No.7; Transaction Capabilities (TC) version 2; Signalling System No.7; Transaction Capabilities (TC) version 2;
Part 1: Protocol specification" Part 1: Protocol specification"
[12] 3G TS 25.410 V3.1.0 (2000-01) Technical Specification 3rd [12] 3G TS 25.410 V3.1.0 (2000-01) Technical Specification 3rd
Generation partnership Project; Technical Specification Group Generation partnership Project; Technical Specification Group
Radio Access Network; UTRAN Iu Interface: General Aspects and Radio Access Network; UTRAN Iu Interface: General Aspects and
Principles (3G TS 25.410 Version 3.1.0 Release 1999) Principles (3G TS 25.410 Version 3.1.0 Release 1999)
[13] Simple Control Transport Protocol <draft-ietf-sigtran-sctp- [13] Stream Control Transport Protocol <draft-ietf-sigtran-sctp-
05.txt>, Dec. 1999, Work in Progress 13.txt>, July 2000, Work in Progress
[14] ITU-T Recommendations Q.701-Q.705, 'Signalling System No. 7 (SS7) [14] ITU-T Recommendations Q.701-Q.705, 'Signalling System No. 7 (SS7)
- Message Transfer Part (MTP)' - Message Transfer Part (MTP)'
[15] ANSI T1.111 'Signalling System Number 7 - Message Transfer Part' [15] ANSI T1.111 'Signaling System Number 7 - Message Transfer Part'
[16] ETSI ETS 300 008-1, "Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN); [16] ETSI ETS 300 008-1, "Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN);
Signalling System No.7; Message Transfer Part (MTP) to support Signalling System No.7; Message Transfer Part (MTP) to support
international interconnection; Part 1: Protocol specification" international interconnection; Part 1: Protocol specification"
[17] ITU-T Recommendation Q.2140 'B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer - Service [17] ITU-T Recommendation Q.2140 'B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer - Service
Specific Coordination Function for signaling at the Network Node Specific Coordination Function for signalling at the Network Node
Interface (SSCF at NNI) Interface (SSCF at NNI)
[18] ITU-T Recommendation Q.2110 'B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer - Service [18] ITU-T Recommendation Q.2110 'B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer - Service
Specific Connection Oriented Protocol (SSCOP) Specific Connection Oriented Protocol (SSCOP)
[19] MTP2-User Adaptation Layer <draft-ietf-sigtran-m2ua-01.txt>, Nov. [19] MTP2-User Adaptation Layer <draft-ietf-sigtran-m2ua-01.txt>, Nov.
1999, Work in Progress 1999, Work in Progress
[20] ITU-T Recommendation Q.2210 'B-ISDN MTP' [20] ITU-T Recommendation Q.2210 'B-ISDN MTP'
[21] RFC 2196, "Site Security Handbook", B. Fraser Ed., September 1997 [21] RFC 2196, "Site Security Handbook", B. Fraser Ed., September 1997
[22] RFC 2401, "Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol", S. [22] RFC 2401, "Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol", S.
Kent, R. Atkinson, November 1998. Kent, R. Atkinson, November 1998.
9.0 Author's Addresses 10.0 Author's Addresses
Lyndon Ong Lyndon Ong
Nortel Networks Nortel Networks
4401 Great America Pkwy 4401 Great America Pkwy
Santa Clara, CA, USA 95054 Santa Clara, CA, USA 95054
long@nortelnetworks.com long@nortelnetworks.com
Greg Sidebottom Greg Sidebottom
Nortel Networks Nortel Networks
3685 Richmond Rd, 3685 Richmond Rd,
skipping to change at line 2606 skipping to change at line 3034
Herndon, VA, USA 20171 Herndon, VA, USA 20171
EMail: kmorneau@cisco.com EMail: kmorneau@cisco.com
Malleswar Kalla Malleswar Kalla
Telcordia Technologies Telcordia Technologies
MCC 1J211R MCC 1J211R
445 South Street 445 South Street
Morristown, NJ, USA 07960 Morristown, NJ, USA 07960
EMail: kalla@research.telcordia.com EMail: kalla@research.telcordia.com
This draft expires September 2000. Normand Glaude
Performance Technologies
150 Metcalf Sreet, Suite 1300
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K2P 1P1
EMail: nglaude@microlegend.com
This draft expires December 2000.
 End of changes. 

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