Network Working Group                G. Sidebottom, L. Ong, Guy Mousseau
INTERNET-DRAFT                                           Nortel Networks
                                                              Ian Rytina
                                                                Ericsson
                                              Hanns-Juergen Schwarzbauer
                                                                 Siemens
                                                           Ken Morneault
                                                                   Cisco
                                                           Mallesh Kalla
                                                               Telcordia
                                                          Normand Glaude
                                                Performance Technologies

Expires in six months                                     10 March                                          June 2000

                SS7 MTP3-User Adaptation Layer (M3UA)
                  <draft-ietf-sigtran-m3ua-02.txt>
                  <draft-ietf-sigtran-m3ua-03.txt>

Status of This Memo

This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with all
provisions of Section 10 of RFC 2026. Internet-Drafts are working
documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and
its working groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute working
documents as Internet-Drafts.

Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material
or to cite them other than as 'work in progress.'

     The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
     http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

     The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
     http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

To learn the current status of any Internet-Draft, please check the
'1id-abstracts.txt' listing contained in the Internet- Drafts Shadow
Directories on ftp.is.co.za (Africa), nic.nordu.net (Europe),
munnari.oz.au (Pacific Rim), ftp.ietf.org (US East Coast), or
ftp.isi.edu (US West Coast).

Abstract

This Internet Draft defines a protocol for supporting the transport of
any SS7 MTP3-User signaling signalling (e.g., ISUP and SCCP messages) over IP
using the
Simple services of the Stream Control Transport Transmission Protocol.  Also,
provision is made for protocol elements that enable a seamless operation
of the MTP3-User peers in the SS7 and IP domains. This protocol would be
used between a
Signaling Signalling Gateway (SG) and a Media Gateway Controller
(MGC) or IP-
resident IP-resident Database.  It is assumed that the SG receives SS7 signaling
signalling over a standard SS7 interface using the SS7 Message Transfer
Part (MTP) to provide transport.

                        TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Introduction.......................................................3
    1.1 Scope.........................................................3
    1.2 Terminology...................................................5 Terminology...................................................3
    1.3 Signalling Transport Architecture.............................5
    1.4 Services Provided by the M3UA Layer..........................13 Overview.................................................5
    1.4 Functional Areas.............................................10
    1.5 Internal Functions in the M3UA...............................15 Sample Configurations........................................18
    1.6 Definition of M3UA Boundaries................................18 Boundaries................................21
2. Conventions.......................................................22
3. M3UA Protocol Elements............................................18
    2.1 Elements............................................22
    3.1 Common Message Header........................................19
    2.2 Header........................................22
    3.2 Transfer Messages............................................20
    2.3 Messages............................................24
    3.3 SS7 Signaling Signalling Network management (SSNM) Messages.............21
    2.4 Messages............26
    3.4 Application Server Process Maintenance Messages..............27
    2.5 Messages..............32
    3.5 Management Messages..........................................31
3. Procedures........................................................34
    3.1 Messages..........................................40
4. Procedures........................................................44
    4.1 Procedures to Support the Services of the M3UA Layer.........34
    3.2 Layer.........44
    4.2 Procedures to Support the M3UA Services in Section 1.4.2.....34
    3.3 1.4.2.....44
    4.3 Procedures to Support the M3UA Services in Section 1.4.4.....35
    3.4 1.4.4.....45
    4.4 Procedures to Support the M3UA Services in Section 1.4.3.....43
4. 1.4.3.....52
5. Examples of M3UA Procedures.......................................45
    4.1 Procedures.......................................54
    5.1 Establishment of Association and Traffic
        Between SGs and ASPs.........................................45
    4.2 ASPs.........................................54
    5.2 ASP traffic Failover Examples................................47
    4.3 Fail-over Examples...............................56
    5.3 M3UA/MTP3-User Boundary Examples.............................48
5. Security..........................................................52
    5.1 Introduction.................................................52
    5.2 Threats......................................................52
    5.3 Protecting Confidentiality...................................53 Examples.............................57
6. IANA Considerations...............................................53 Security..........................................................61
    6.1 Introduction.................................................61
    6.2 Threats......................................................61
    6.3 Protecting Confidentiality...................................62
7. Acknowledgements..................................................53 IANA Considerations...............................................62
8. References........................................................53 Acknowledgements..................................................62
9. References........................................................62
10. Author's Addresses................................................55 Addresses...............................................65

1.  Introduction

1.1 Scope

There is a need for SCN signaling signalling protocol delivery from an SS7
Signaling
Signalling Gateway (SG) to a Media Gateway Controller (MGC) or IP-
resident Database as described in the Framework Architecture for
Signalling Transport [1].  The delivery mechanism should meet the
following criteria:

*  Support for the transfer of all SS7 MTP3-User Part messages (e.g.,
   ISUP, SCCP, TUP, etc.)
*  Support for the seamless operation of MTP3-User protocol peers
*  Support for the management of SCTP transport associations and traffic
   between an SG and one or more MGCs or IP-resident Databases
*  Support for MGC or IP-resident Database failover process fail-over and loadsharing load-
   sharing
*  Support for the asynchronous reporting of status changes to
management

In simplistic transport terms, the SG will terminate SS7 MTP2 and MTP3
protocols and deliver ISUP, SCCP and/or any other MTP3-User protocol
messages over SCTP transport associations to MTP3-User peers in MGCs or IP-
resident
IP-resident Databases.

1.2 Terminology

Application Server (AS) - A logical entity serving a specific Routing
Key. An example of an Application Server is a virtual switch element
handling all call processing for a unique range of PSTN trunks,
identified by an SS7 DPC/OPC/CIC_range.  Another example is a virtual
database element, handling all HLR transactions for a particular SS7
DPC/OPC/SCCP_SSN combination.  The AS contains a set of one or more
unique Application Server Processes, of which one or more is normally
actively processing traffic.

Application Server Process (ASP) - A process instance of an Application
Server. An Application Server Process serves as an active or standby
process of an Application Server (e.g., part of a distributed virtual
switch or database element). database). Examples of ASPs are processes (or process
instances of) MGCs, IP SCPs or IP HLRs.  An ASP contains an SCTP end-
point and may be configured to process signalling traffic within more
than one Application Server.

Association - An association refers to an SCTP association.  The
association provides the transport for the delivery of MTP3-User protocol data units and
M3UA adaptation layer peer messages.

Routing Key: At

IP Server Process (IPSP)  A process instance of an IP-based
application.  An IPSP is essentially the SG, same as an ASP, except that it

uses MU3A in a peer-to-peer fashion.  Conceptually, an IPSP does not use
the services of a signalling gateway.Signalling Gateway Process (SGP) 
A process instance of a Signalling Gateway.  It serves as an active,
standby or load-sharing process of a Signalling Gateway.

Signalling Process  A process instance that uses M3UA to communicate
with other signalling process.  An ASP, a signalling gateway process and
an IPSP are all signalling processes.

Routing Key: A Routing Key describes a set of SS7
parameter/parameter-ranges parameter and
parameter values that uniquely defines define the range of signalling traffic configured to
be handled by a particular Application Server. For example, where all
traffic directed to a particular an SS7 DPC, OPC and ISUP CIC_range(s) or SCCP SSN is
to be sent to a particular Application Server, that SS7 data defines the
associated Routing Key.  Routing Keys are mutually exclusive unique in the sense that a
received SS7 signalling message cannot be directed to more than one
Routing Key.   Also, a Routing Key cannot extend across more than a
single SS7 DPC, in order to more easily support SS7 Management
procedures.  It is not necessary for the parameter ranges range values within a
particular Routing Key to be contiguous.  For example, an ASP could be
configured to support call processing for multiple ranges of PSTN trunks
that are not represented by contiguous CIC values.

Routing Context  An Application Server Process may be configured to
process traffic within related to more than one Application Server.  In this case,
the Routing Context parameter is exchanged beween the SG and the ASP,
identifying the relevant Application Server.  From the perspective of Server, over a
single SCTP Association.  At an ASP, the Routing Context parameter
uniquely identifies the range of traffic associated with a particular each Application Server, which Server
that the ASP is configured to receive from the SG. support.  There is a 1:1 relationship
between a received Routing Context value and a Routing Key entry at an SG. the
sending node.  Therefore the Routing Context can be viewed as an index
into an SG a sending node's Message Distribution Table containing the SG Routing Keys.
Key entries.

Fail-over - The capability to re-route signaling signalling traffic as required to
an alternate Application Server Process, or group of ASPs, within an
Application Server in the event of failure or unavailability of a
currently used Application Server Process.  Fail-back may apply upon the
return to service of a previously unavailable Application Server
Process.

Signalling Point Management Cluster (SPMC) - A complete set of
Application Servers represented to the SS7 network under the same SS7
Point Code.  SPMCs are used to sum the
availability/congestion/User_Part availability / congestion /
User_Part status of an SS7 destination point code that is distributed in
the IP domain, for the purpose of supporting MTP3 management procedures
at an SG.  In some cases, the SG itself may also be a member of the
SPMC.  In this case, the SG
availability/congestion/User_Part availability / congestion / User_Part status
must also be taken into account when considering any supporting MTP3
management actions.

MTP3-User - Any protocol normally using the services of

MTP  The Message Transfer Part of the SS7 protocol

MTP3  MTP Level 3, the signalling network layer of SS7
MTP3-User - Any protocol normally using the services of the SS7 MTP3
(e.g., ISUP, SCCP, TUP, etc.).

Network Appearance  The Network Appearance identifies an SS7 network
context for the purposes of logically separating the signaling signalling traffic
between the SG and the Application Server Processes over a common SCTP
Association.  An example is where an SG is logically partitioned to
appear as an element in four separate national SS7 networks.  A Network
Appearance implicitly defines the SS7 Point Code(s), Network Indicator
and MTP3 protocol type/variant/version used within a specific SS7
network partition.  An  A physical SS7 route-set or link-set at an SG can
appear in only one network appearance. The Network Appearance is not
globally significant and requires coordination only between the SG and
the ASP.

Network Byte Order: Most significant byte first, a.k.a Big Endian.

Layer Management  Layer Management is a nodal function in an SG or ASP that handles the
inputs and outputs between the M3UA layer and a local management entity.

Host - The computing platform that the ASP process is running on.

Stream - A stream refers to an SCTP stream.

1.3 Signaling Transport Architecture M3UA Overview

1.3.1 Protocol Architecture.

The framework architecture that has been defined for SCN signaling signalling
transport over IP [1] uses multiple components, including a signaling common
signalling transport protocol and an adaptation module to support the
services expected by a particular SCN signaling signalling protocol from its
underlying protocol layer.

Within the framework architecture, this document defines an MTP3-User
adaptation module that is suitable for supporting the transport transfer of messages of
any protocol layer that is identified to the MTP Level 3 layer, in SS7
terms, as a user part.  The list of these protocol layers include, but
is not limited to, ISDN User Part (ISUP) [2,3,4] and [2,3,4], Signalling Connection
Control Part (SCCP) [5,6,7] messages but could be equally used to transport other SS7 MTP3-
User Part messages such as, for example, the and Telephone User Part (TUP) [8].  TCAP
[9,10,11] or RANAP [12] messages are transported transferred transparently by the
M3UA as SCCP payload, as they are SCCP-User protocols.  The

It is recommended that the M3UA uses use the services of the Simple Common Transport
protocol Stream Control
Transmission Protocol (SCTP) [13] as the underlying reliable signaling common
signalling transport protocol.

In a Signaling Gateway, it is expected that the SS7 MTP3-User signaling This is transmitted and received from the PSTN over a standard SS7 network
interface, using the SS7 Message Transfer Part (MTP) [14,15,16] to
provide reliable transport take advantage of the MTP3-User signaling various SCTP
features such as:

   - Explicit packet-oriented delivery (not stream-oriented);
   - Sequenced delivery of user messages to and
from within multiple streams,
     with an SS7 Signaling End Point (SEP) option for order-of-arrival delivery of individual
     user messages,
   - Optional multiplexing of user messages into SCTP datagrams;
   - Network-level fault tolerance through support of multi-homing
     at either or Signaling Transfer Point
(STP).  The SG then provides a functional inter-working both ends of transport
functions with the IP transport, in order an association;
   - Resistance to transfer flooding and masquerade attacks; and   - Data
segmentation to conform to discovered path MTU size.

Under certain scenarios, such as back-to-back connections without
redundancy requirements, the MTP3-User
signaling messages SCTP functions above may not be necessary.
In these cases, it is acceptable to and from an Application Server Process where use TCP as the
peer MTP3-User protocol layer exists. underlying common
transport protocol.

1.3.2 Services Provided by the M3UA Layer

The use M3UA Layer at an ASP provides the equivalent set of standard primitives at
its upper layer to the MTP3-Users as provided by the MTP Level 2 signaling links in the 3 to its
local users at an SS7 network
interface is not SEP.  In this way, the only possibility.  ATM-based High Speed Links
could also be used, using ISUP and/or SCCP layer at
an ASP is unaware that the expected MTP3 services of the Signaling ATM Adaptation are offered remotely
from an MTP3 Layer (SAAL) [17,18].  For that matter, it is possible that IP-based
links could at an SG, and not by a local MTP3 layer.  The MTP3
layer at an SG may also be present, using unaware that its local users are actually
remote user parts over M3UA.  In effect, the M3UA extends access to the
MTP3 layer services of to a remote IP-based application.  The M3UA does not
itself provide the MTP2-User Adaptation MTP3 services.

The M3UA Layer (M2UA) [19].  Also note that STPs may also be present in the SS7 path used for point-to-point signalling between
two IP Server Processes (IPSPs).  In this case, the SS7 SEP M3UA provides the
same set of primitives and services at its upper layer as the MTP3.
However, in this case the expected MTP3 services are not offered
remotely from an SG.

Where ATM-base High Speed Links  The MTP3 services are used in provided but the SS7 network, it is
possible for procedures
to support these services are a subset of the SG MTP3 procedures due to use
the services simplified point-to-point nature of the MTP-3b [20] IPSP to IPSP relationship.

1.3.2.1 Support for reliable the transport to and from an SS7 SEP or STP. The maximum Service Data Unit
(SDU) supported by the MTP-3b is 4096 octets compared to the 272 octet
maximum of MTP3-User Messages

The M3UA provides the MTP.  However, for MTP3-Users to take advantage transport of the
larger SDU between MTP3-User peers, network architects should ensure
that MTP3-b is used end-to-end MTP-TRANSFER primitives across an
established SCTP association between the an SG and the SS7-resident
peer.

Three example cases are shown below:

1.3.1.1 Example 1: ISUP transport

  ********   SS7   *****************   IP   ********
  * SEP  *---------*      SG       *--------* an ASP  *
  ********         *****************        ********

  +------+                                  +------+
  | ISUP |               (NIF)              | ISUP |
  +------+         +------+-+------+        +------+
  | MTP3 |         | MTP3 | | M3UA |        | M3UA |
  +------|         +------+ +------+        +------+
  | MTP2 |         | MTP2 | | SCTP |        | SCTP |
  +------+         +------+ +------+        +------+
  |  L1  |         |  L1  | |  IP  |        |  IP  |
  +------+         +------+ +------+        +------+
      |_______________|         |______________|

    SEP - SS7 Signaling End Point
    SCTP - Simple Common Transport Protocol
    NIF  Nodal Interworking Function

Within the SG, and between IPSPs.
The MTP-TRANSFER indication primitives received from the MTP
Level 3 upper layer interface are sent to encoded as MTP3-User messages with
attached MTP3 Routing Labels as described in the local M3UA-resident
network address translation message format sections
of the SCCP and mapping function for ongoing routing to ISUP recommendations.  In this way, the final IP destination.  MTP-TRANSFER primitives SCCP and ISUP
messages received from the
local M3UA SS7 network address translation and mapping function are sent to
the MTP Level 3 upper layer interface as MTP-TRANSFER request
primitives not re-encoded into a
different format for on-going MTP Level 3 routing to an transport to/from the server processes.  As well,
all the required MTP3 Routing Label information (OPC, DPC, SIO) is
available at the ASP and the IPSP as is expected by the MTP3-User
protocol layer.

The M3UA does not impose a 272-octet user information block limit as
specified by the SS7 SEP.

For internal SG modelling purposes, this may MTP Level 3 protocol.  Larger information blocks

can be accomplished with accommodated directly by M3UA/SCTP, without the
use need for an upper
layer segmentation/re-assembly procedure as specified in recent SCCP or
ISUP versions.  However, in the context of an implementation-dependent nodal inter-working function within SG, the SG that serves maximum 272-octet
block size must be followed when inter-working to transport messages within a SS7 network that
does
not support the SG between transfer of larger information blocks to the MTP3
and M3UA. final
destination.  This nodal inter-working function has no visible peer
protocol with either the ASP avoids potential ISUP or SEP.

1.3.1.2  Example 2: SCCP transport where an SCCP function fragmentation
requirements at the SG SG.  However, if the SS7 network is
invoked:

  ******** provisioned to
support the Broadband MTP [20] to the final SS7   *****************   IP   ********
  * SEP  *---------*               *--------*      *
  *  or  *         *      SG       *        * ASP  *
  * STP  *         *               *        *      *
  ********         *****************        ********

  +------+         +---------------+        +------+
  | SCCP |         |     SCCP      |        | SCCP |
  +------+         +------+-+------+        +------+
  | MTP3 |         | MTP3 | | M3UA |        | destination, the
information block size limit may be increased past 272 octets.

1.3.2.2 Native Management Functions

The M3UA |
  +------|         +------+ +------+        +------+
  | MTP2 |         | MTP2 | | provides management of the underlying SCTP |        | SCTP |
  +------+         +------+ +------+        +------+
  |  L1  |         |  L1  | |  IP  |        |  IP  |
  +------+         +------+ +------+        +------+
      |_______________|         |______________|

    STP - SS7 Signaling Transfer Point

In this example, the SG contains an instance of the SS7 SCCP transport protocol
layer
to ensure that may, for example, perform the SCCP Global Title Translation
(GTT) function for messages logically addressed SG-ASP and IPSP-IPSP transport is available to the SG SCCP.  If the
result of a GTT degree
called for an SCCP message yields an SS7 DPC or DPC/SSN
address result of an SCCP peer located in by the IP domain, MTP3-User signalling applications.

The M3UA provides the resulting
MTP-TRANSFER request primitive is sent capability to the local M3UA-resident
network address translation indicate errors associated with
received M3UA messages and mapping function for ongoing routing to notify, as appropriate, local management
and/or the final IP destination.

Similarly, peer M3UA.

1.3.2.3 Inter-working with MTP3 Network Management Functions

At the SCCP instance in an SG can perform SG, the SCCP GTT service
for messages logically addressed M3UA must also provide inter-working with MTP3 management
functions to it from SCCP peers in support seamless operation of the IP
domain.  In this case, MTP-TRANSFER messages are sent from user SCN signalling
applications in the local
M3UA-resident network address translation SS7 and mapping function IP domains.  This includes:

  - Providing an indication to the
SCCP for GTT.  If the result of the GTT yields the address of MTP3-Users at an SCCP
peer ASP that a remote
destination in the SS7 network then the resulting MTP-TRANSFER request is
given to the MTP3 for delivery not reachable.

  - Providing an indication to MTP3-Users at an SS7-resident node.

It is possible ASP that a remote
destination in the above SCCP GTT SS7 network is now reachable.

  - Providing an indication to MTP3-Users at the SG could yield the
address of an SCCP ASP that messages to a
remote MTP3-User peer in the IP domain and the resulting MTP-TRANSFER
primitive would be sent back SS7 network are experiencing SS7
congestion

  - Providing an indication to the MTP3-Users at an ASP that a remote MTP3-
User peer is unavailable.

The M3UA for delivery to layer at an IP
destination.

For internal SG modelling purposes, this ASP may be accomplished with the
use of initiate an implementation-dependent nodal inter-working function within
the SG that effectively sits below the SCCP and routes MTP-TRANSFER
messages to/from both the MTP3 and audit of the M3UA, based on availability or
the congested state of remote SS7 DPC or
DPC/SSN address information. destinations.  This nodal inter-working function has no
visible peer protocol with either information is
requested from the ASP or SEP.

Note that M3UA at the services SG.

1.3.2.4 Support for the management of SCTP associations between the SG
and interface provided by ASPs.

The M3UA are layer at the same as SG maintains the availability state of all
configured remote ASPs, in Example 1 order to manage the SCTP Associations and the functions taking place in
traffic between the SCCP entity are
transparent to M3UA.  The SCCP protocol functions SG and ASPs.  As well, the active/inactive state of

remote ASPs is also maintained - Active ASPs are not reproduced in those currently
receiving traffic from the SG.

The M3UA protocol.

1.3.1.3 Example 3  Seamless Handling of MTP3 Management

  ********   SS7   *****************   IP   ********
  * SEP  *---------*               *--------*      *
  *  or  *         *      SG       *        * ASP  *
  * STP  *         *               *        *      *
  ********         *****************        ********

                         (NIF)
  +------+         +------+-+------+        +------+
  | MTP3 |         | MTP3 | | M3UA |        | M3UA |
  +------|         +------+ +------+        +------+
  | MTP2 |         | MTP2 | | SCTP |        | SCTP |
  +------+         +------+ +------+        +------+
  |  L1  |         |  L1  | |  IP  |        |  IP  |
  +------+         +------+ +------+        +------+
      |_______________|         |______________|

In the case of SS7 MTP3 network management, it is required that the
MTP3-User protocols at ASPs receive indications of SS7 signaling point
availability, SS7 network congestion and User Part availability as
would layer may be expected instructed by local management to establish an SS7 SEP node.  To accomplish this, the MTP-PAUSE,
MTP-RESUME and MTP-STATUS indication primitives received at the MTP3
upper layer interface at the SG need
SCTP association to a peer M3UA node.  This can be made available achieved using the M-
SCTP ESTABLISH primitive to request, indicate and confirm the remote
MTP3-User lower
establishment of an SCTP association with a peer M3UA node.

The M3UA layer interface at the ASP.  Note: These indication
primitives are may also made available need to any existing inform local MTP3-Users at management of the SG, such as status of
the SCCP in underlying SCTP associations using the previous example. M-SCTP STATUS request and
indication primitive. For internal SG modelling purposes, this example, the M3UA may be accomplished with inform local management
of the
use reason for the release of an implementation-dependent nodal inter-working function SCTP association, determined either
locally within the SG that effectively sits above M3UA layer or by a primitive from the MTP3 and delivers MTP-PAUSE,
MTP-RESUME and MTP-STATUS indication primitives received from SCTP.

Also the MTP
Level 3 upper M3UA layer interface may need to inform the local M3UA-resident management
function.  This nodal inter-working function has no visible peer
protocol with either the ASP or SEP.

It is important to clarify that MTP3 management messages such as TFPs
or TFAs received from the SS7 network are not "encapsulated" and sent
blindly to the ASPs.  Rather, the existing MTP3 management procedures
are followed within the MTP3 function of the SG to re-calculate the
MTP3 route set status and initiate any signaling-route-set-test
procedures into the SS7 network.  Only when a route set
change in status changes
are MTP-PAUSE of an ASP or MTP-RESUME primitives invoked.  These primitives AS.  This can
also be invoked due to local SS7 link set conditions as per existing
MTP3 procedures.

1.3.2 Signaling achieved using the M-ASP
STATUS or M-AS STATUS primitives.

1.3.3 Signalling Network Architecture

A Signaling Signalling Gateway is used to support the transport of MTP3-User
signaling
signalling traffic received from the SS7 network to multiple distributed
ASPs (e.g., MGCs and IP Databases).  Clearly, the M3UA protocol
description cannot in itself is not designed to meet any performance and reliability
requirements for such transport.  A physical network architecture is
required, with data on  However, the availability and transfer performance conjunction of the
physical nodes involved in any particular exchange
distributed architecture and redundant networks does allow for reliable
transport of information.
However, the signalling traffic over IP.  The M3UA protocol must be is flexible
enough to allow its operation and management in a variety of physical configurations that will enable
configurations, enabling Network Operators to meet their performance and
reliability requirements.

To meet the stringent SS7 signaling signalling reliability and performance
requirements for carrier grade networks, these Network Operators should
ensure that there is no single point of failure provisioned is present in the end-
to-end end-to-end
network architecture between an SS7 node and an IP ASP.
Depending of course on the reliability of the SG and ASP functional
elements, this IP-based application.
This can typically be met by achieved through the use of redundant SGs,
redundant hosts, and the provision of redundant QOS-bounded IP network
paths for SCTP Associations between SCTP End Points, Points. Obviously, the
reliability of the SG, the MGC and redundant Hosts. other IP-based functional elements
also needs to be taken into account.  The distribution of ASPs within
the available Hosts is must also important.  For be considered.  As an example, for a
particular Application Server, the related ASPs should be distributed
over at least two Hosts.

An

Here is one example of a physical network architecture relevant to SS7
carrier-grade
operation operation, in the IP network domain is domain, shown in Figure 1
below:

  ********

               SG                                     MGC

  Host#1 **************                          ************** Host#1
     =   *      *_________________________________________*  ********  * Host1  ********__*__________________________*__********  *   =
    SG1  *                                _________*  * SGP1 *__*_____      _______________*__* ASP1 *  *
  *  SG1 *   SCTP Associations           |  MGC1
         *  ********  *
  *      *_______________________        |     \    /               *  ********  *
         *  ********__*______\__/________________*__********  *                       |       |
         *  * SGP2 *__*_______\/______      _____*__* ASP2 *  *
         *  ********  *       /\      |    |     *  ********  *
         *      :     *      /  \     |    |     *  ********      :     *
         *  ********  *     /    \    |    |     *  ********  * ASP3
         *  *
  ********                       |       | SGPn *  ********  *     |    |         *      .     *
  ********    |    |     *      .     *
  *      *_______________________________|         *  * ASPn *  *                       |
         *  ********  *
  *  SG2 *    SCTP Associations     |                 *  * ASPn *  *
  *      *____________    |    |    |     *  ********  *
  *      *
         **************     |    |    |    |     **************
  *      *
                            |    |    \    /
  Host#2 **************
  *      *     |          |_________________*  ********    |     \  /      ************** Host#2
     =   * Host2  ********__*_____|    |______\/_______*__********  *   =
    SG2  *            |____________________________*  * SGP1 *__*_________________/\_______*__* ASP1 *  *
  ********  MGC2
         *  ********  *                /  \      *  ********  *
         *  ********__*_______________/    \_____*__********  *
         *  * SGP2 *__*__________________________*__* ASP2 *  *
         *  ********  *                          *  ********  *
         *      :     * ASP3     SCTP Associations    *      :     *
         *  ********  *                          *      .  ********  *
         *      .  * SGPn *  *                          *  ********  * ASPn *  * ASPn
         *  ********  *                          *  ********  *
         **************
                                                           .
                                                           .
                                                           .                          **************

                    Figure 1  Physical Model

In this model, each host has many application processes.  In the case of
the MGC, an ASP may provide service to one or more application server,
and is identified as an SCTP end point.  In the case of the SG, a pair
of signalling gateway processes may represent, as an example, a single
network appearance, serving a signalling point management cluster.

This example model can also be applied to IPSP-IPSP signalling.  In this
case, each IPSP would have its services distributed across 2 hosts or
more, and may have multiple server processes on each host.

In the example above, each signalling process (SGP, ASP or IPSP) is the
end point to more than one SCTP association, leading to many other
signalling processes.  To support this, a signalling process must be
able to support distribution of M3UA messages to many simultaneous
active associations.  This message distribution function is based on the
status of provisioned routing keys, the availability of signalling
points in the SS7 network, and the redundancy model (active-standby,
load-sharing, n+k) of the remote signalling processes.

For carrier grade networks, Operators should ensure that under failure
or isolation of a particular ASP, signalling process, stable calls or

transactions are not lost.  This implies that ASPs signalling processes need,
in some cases, to share the
call/transaction state call or be able to pass the call/transaction transaction state
between each other.  Also, in information with
other signalling processes.  In the case of ASPs performing call
processing, coordination may also be required with the related Media
Gateway to transfer the MGC control for a particular trunk termination.
However, this sharing or communication is outside the scope of this
document.

1.3.3 SS7

This model serves as an example.  M3UA imposes no restrictions as to the
exact layout of the network elements, the message distribution
algorithms and the distribution of the signalling processes.  Instead,
it provides a framework and a set of messages that allow for a flexible
and scalable signalling network architecture, aiming to provide
reliability and performance.

1.4 Functional Areas

1.4.1 Signalling Point Code Representation

Within an SS7 network, a Signaling Signalling Gateway is charged with representing
a set of nodes in the IP domain into the SS7 network for routing
purposes.  The SG itself, as a physical node in the SS7 network, must be
addressable with an SS7 Point Code for MTP3 Management purposes. The SG
Point Code will also be used for addressing any local MTP3-Users at the
SG such as an SG-resident SCCP function.

Where an

An SG is may be logically partitioned to operate in multiple SS7 network
appearances,
Appearances.  In such a case, the SG must be addressable with a Point
Code in each network appearance appearance, and represents must represent a set of nodes in
the IP domain into each SS7 network.  Alias PCs may also be used within
an SG network appearance, but SG MTP3 management messages to/from the
SS7 network will not use the alias PCs.

The M3UA places no restrictions on the SS7 Point Code representation of
any of the ASPs.  ASPs
an AS.  Application servers can be represented under the same PC of the
SG, their own individual Point Codes or grouped with other ASPs applications
for Point Code preservation purposes.  A single Point Code may be used
to represent the SG and all the ASPs together, if desired.

If an ASP or group of ASPs is available to the SS7 network via more than
one SG, each with its own Point Code, the ASP(s) can be represented by a
Point Code that is separate from any SG Point Code.  This allows these
SGs to be viewed from the SS7 network as "STPs", each having an ongoing
"route" to the same ASP(s).  Under failure conditions where an ASP
becomes unavailable from one of the SGs, this approach enables MTP3
route management messaging between the SG and SS7 network, allowing
simple SS7 re-routing through an alternate SG without changing the
Destination Point Code Address of SS7 traffic to the ASPs.

                           +--------+
                           |        |
              +------------+  SG 1  +--------------+
  +-------+   |  SS7 links | "STP"  |  IP network  |     ----
  |  SEP  +---+            +--------+              +---/      \
  |   or  |                                           |  ASPs  |
  |  STP  +---+            +--------+              +---\      /
  +-------+   |            |        |              |     ----
              +------------+  SG 2  +--------------+
                           | "STP"  |
                           +--------+

Note: there is no SG to SG communication shown, so each SG can be
reached only via the direct Linkset from the SS7 network.

1.3.4 ASP Fail-over Model and Terminology

The following example shows a signalling gateway partitioned into two
network address translation appearances.

                               SG
  +-------+              +---------------+
  |  SEP  +--------------| SS7 Ntwk |M3UA|              ----
  +-------+   SS7 links  |   "A"    |    |            /      \
                         |__________|    +-----------+  ASPs  |
                         |          |    |            \      /
  +-------+              | SS7 Ntwk |    |              ----
  |  SEP  +--------------+   "B"    |    |
  +-------+              +---------------+

1.4.2 Message Distribution

1.4.2.1 Address Translation and mapping function of Mapping at the M3UA
supports ASP fail-over functions in SG

In order to support a high
availability of call and transaction processing capability.  All MTP3-
User direct messages (e.g., ISUP, SCCP) incoming to an SG received from the SS7 MTP3 network
are assigned to a unique Application Server, based on the information
in
appropriate IP destination, the message.  The SG must perform address translation and
mapping functions using information examined may be one or more of from the MTP
DPC, OPC, SLS, or any received MTP3-User specific fields such as, for example,
the ISUP CIC, SCCP SSN, or TCAP TRID.  Some example possibilities are
the DPC alone, the DPC/OPC combination, message.

To support this message distribution, the DPC/OPC/CIC combination, or SG must maintain the DPC/SSN combination.  The
equivalent of a network address translation table, mapping incoming SS7
message information used to point an Application Server for a particular
application and range of traffic.  This is accomplished by comparing
elements of the incoming SS7 message to provisioned Routing Keys in the
SG.  These Routing Keys in turn make reference to an AS Application Server
that is not
limited enabled by one or more ASP.  These ASPs provide dynamic status
information to the SG using various management messages defined in the
M3UA protocol.  Possible SS7 address/routing information that comprise a
Routing Key entry includes, for example, the OPC, DPC, SIO found in the
MTP3 routing label, or other MTP3-User specific fields such as the ISUP
CIC, SCCP subsystem number, or TCAP transaction ID. Some example routing
keys are: the DPC alone, the DPC/OPC combination, the DPC/OPC/CIC

combination, or the DPC/SSN combination.  The particular information
used to define an M3UA Routing Key is application and network dependent,
and none of the above examples are mandated.

The

An Application Server is in practical terms contains a list of all ASPs
currently configured/registered to process MTP3-User messages within a
certain range of routing information, known as a Routing Key.  One one or more ASPs in that are
capable of processing the traffic.  This list are normally active (i.e., handling traffic)
while any others may be unavailable or inactive, is assumed to be possibly used in dynamic,
taking into account the event of failure or unavailability availability status of the active ASP(s).

The fail-over model supports an "n+k" redundancy model, where "n" individual ASPs
is in
the minimum number of redundant ASPs required to handle traffic list, configuration changes, and
"k" possible fail-over mechanisms. The
M3UA protocol includes messages to convey the availability status of the
individual ASPs are available as input to take over for a failed fail-over mechanism.

Normally, one or unavailable ASP.
Note that "1+1" active/standby redundancy is a subset of this model. A
simplex "1+0" model more ASPs is also supported as a subset, with no active in the ASP
redundancy.

To avoid a single point of failure, (i.e., currently
processing traffic) but in certain failure and transition cases it is recommended
possible that a minimum of
two ASPs there may not be in the list, resident in separate hosts an active ASP available.  Both load-
sharing and therefore
available over different SCTP Associations.  For example, in the
network shown in Figure 1, all messages to DPC x could be sent to ASP1
in Host1 or ASP1 in Host2.  The AS list at SG1 might look like this: backup scenarios are supported.

When there is no Routing Key {DPC=x) "Application Server #1"
        ASP1/Host1   State=Up, Active
        ASP1/Host2   State=Up, Inactive

In this "1+1" redundancy case, ASP1 in Host1 would be sent any match for an incoming
message with DPC=x.  ASP1 in Host2 would normally SS7 message, a
default treatment must be brought specified.  Possible solutions are to provide
a default Application Server at the
active state upon failure of, or loss of connectivity to, ASP1/Host1.
In this example, both ASPs are Up, meaning SG that directs all unallocated
traffic to a (set of) default ASP(s), or to drop the related SCTP
association messages and far-end M3UA peer is ready.
provide a notification to management.  The AS List treatment of unallocated
traffic is implementation dependent.

1.4.2.2 Address Translation and Mapping at SG1 might the ASP

In order to direct messages to the SS7 network, the ASP must also be set up in loadshare mode:

    Routing Key {DPC=x) - Application Server #1
        ASP1/Host1  State = Up, Active
        ASP1/Host2  State = Up, Active

In this case, both the ASPs would be sent a portion of the traffic.
For example
perform an address translation and mapping function in order to choose
the two ASPs could together form proper SGP for a database, where incoming
queries may be sent to any active ASP.

Care must be exercised given message.  This is accomplished by a Network Operator in the selection observing
elements of the
routing information to be used as the Routing Key for outgoing message, SS7 network status, SGP availability
and network appearance configuration tables.

A Signalling Gateway contains a particular AS.
For example, where Application Servers list of one or more SGPs that are defined using ranges
capable of ISUP
CIC values, the Operator routing SS7 traffic.  As is implicitly splitting up control of the
related circuit groups.  Some CIC value range assignments may interfere case with ISUP circuit group management procedures.  Similarly, within an
AS, if a loadbalancing algorithm were to use CIC values to balance the
load across the ASPs, the span of circuit contol assigned to particular
ASPs must also this list can
be weighed against the ISUP circuit group management
procedures.

In dynamic, taking into account the process availability status of the
individual SGPs, configuration changes and fail-over or fail-back, it is recommended that in mechanisms.

1.4.3 SS7 and M3UA Interworking

In the case of ASPs supporting call processing, stable calls do not fail.  It
is possible that calls in "transition" may fail, although measures of
communication between SS7 and M3UA inter-working, the ASPs involved can be used M3UA adaptation layer is
designed to mitigate this.
For example, provide an extension of the two ASPs may share call state via shared memory, or
may use an ASP to ASP protocol to pass call state information.

1.3.5 Client/Server Model MTP3 defined user primitives.

1.4.3.1 Signalling Gateway SS7 Layers

The SG takes on the role of server while the ASP is the client. ASPs
must initiate the SCTP association to the SG.

The SCTP (and UDP/TCP) Registered User Port Number Assignment responsible for M3UA
is 2905.

1.4 Services Provided by the M3UA Layer

The M3UA Layer at the ASP provides the equivalent set of primitives at
its upper layer to the MTP3-Users as provided by the terminating MTP Level 3 of the SS7 protocol,
and offering an IP-based extension to its
local users at users.

>From an SS7 SEP.  In this way, the ISUP and/or SCCP layer at
an ASP perspective, it is unaware expected that the expected MTP3 services are offered remotely
from an MTP3 Layer at an SG Signalling Gateway (SG)
transmits and not by a local MTP3 layer.  In effect,
the M3UA extends access receives SS7 Message Signalling Units (MSUs) to and from
the MTP3 layer services to PSTN over a remote ASP  standard SS7 network interface, using the M3UA does not itself SS7 Message

Transfer Part (MTP) [14,15,16] to provide the MTP3 services so does not
duplicate MTP3 procedures.

1.4.1 Support for the reliable transport of MTP3-User Messages

The M3UA provides the transport
messages.

As a standard SS7 network interface, the use of MTP-TRANSFER primitives across SCTP
associations between an SG and an ASP. The MTP-TRANSFER primitives are
encoded as MTP3-User messages MTP Level 2 signalling
links is not the only possibility.  ATM-based High Speed Links can also
be used with attached MTP3 Routing Labels as
described in the message format sections services of the SCCP and ISUP
recommendations.  In this way, the SCCP and ISUP messages received from
the SS7 network are not re-encoded into a different format Signalling ATM Adaptation Layer (SAAL)
[17,18].  It is possible for

transport to/from IP-based links to be present, using the ASP. As well, all
services of the required MTP3 Routing Label
information (OPC, DPC, SIO) is available MTP2-User Adaptation Layer (M2UA) [19].  These SS7
datalinks may be terminated at the ASP as is expected by
the MTP3-User protocol layer.

Note that M3UA does not itself impose a 272-octet user information
block limit as specified by the MTP Level 3.  Larger information blocks
can be accommodated directly by M3UA/SCTP without the need for an upper
layer segmentation/re-assembly procedure such as specified in recent
SCCP Signalling Transfer Point (STP) or ISUP versions. However, in at a
Signalling End Point (SEP).  Using the context services of an SG, MTP3, the maximum
272-octet block size must SG may be followed when inter-working to a SS7
network that does not support the transfer
capable of larger information blocks
to the final destination, as is possible communicating with remote SS7 SEPs in a quasi-associated
fashion, where STPs may be present in the Broadband MTP [20].
This will avoid ISUP or SCCP fragmentation requirements at SS7 path between the SEP and
the SG.
However, if

Where ATM-based High Speed Links are used in the SS7 network network, it is provisioned to support
possible for the Broadband MTP SG to use the final SS7 destination, the information block size limit may be
increased past 272 octets.

1.4.2 Native Management Functions

The M3UA may provide management services of the underlying SCTP transport
protocol to ensure that SG-ASP MTP-3b [20] for reliable
transport is available to the degree
called for and from an SS7 SEP or STP. The maximum Service Data Unit
(SDU) supported by the MTP-3b is 4096 octets compared to the 272-octet
maximum of the MTP3.  However, for MTP3-Users to take advantage of the
larger SDU between MTP3-User signaling applications.

The peers, network architects should ensure
that MTP3-b is used end-to-end between the SG and the SS7-resident peer.

1.4.3.2 SS7 and M3UA Inter-Working at the SG

The SG provides a functional inter-working of transport functions
between the SS7 network and the IP network by also supporting the capability to indicate errors associated with
received M3UA
adaptation layer.  It allows the transfer of MTP3-User signalling
messages and to notify, as appropriate, local management
and/or and from an IP-based Application Server Process where the remote
peer M3UA.

1.4.3 Inter-working with MTP3 Network Management Functions

At the SG, the M3UA MTP3-User protocol layer exists.

The Signalling Gateway must also provide inter-working with MTP3
management functions maintain knowledge of SS7 node and
Signalling Point Management Cluster (SPMC) status in their respective
domains in order to support perform a seamless operation inter-working of the user SCN
signaling applications in IP-based
signalling and the SS7 and IP domains.  This includes:

  - Providing an indication to MTP3-Users at an ASP that a remote
destination in  For example, SG knowledge of the
availability and/or congestion status of the SPMC and SS7 network nodes must be
maintained and disseminated in the respective networks, in order to
ensure that end-to-end operation is not reachable.

  - Providing an indication transparent to MTP3-Users the communicating SCN
protocol peers at an ASP the SS7 node and ASP.

When the SG determines that a remote
destination in the transport of SS7 network messages to an SPMC is now reachable.

  - Providing
encountering congestion, the SG may optionally inform the MTP3 route
management function (by an indication implementation-dependent mechanism).  This
information is used by the MTP3 to MTP3-Users at an ASP that messages mark the route to a
remote MTP3-User peer in the affected
destination as congested and to trigger MTP Transfer Controlled (TFC)
messages to any SS7 network are experiencing SS7
congestion

  - Providing an indication SEPs generating traffic to MTP3-Users at an ASP the congested DPC, as per
current MTP3 procedures.

When the SG determines that the transport of SS7 messages to all ASPs in
a remote MTP3-
User peer particular SPMC is unavailable.

The M3UA layer at an ASP interrupted, then it may initiate an audit of the availability or similarly optionally
inform the congested state of remote SS7 destinations. MTP3 route management function.  This information is
requested from the M3UA at used by
the SG.

1.4.4 Support for MTP3 to mark the management of SCTP associations between route to the SG affected destination as unavailable,

and ASPs.

The M3UA layer at the SG maintains in the availability state case of all
configured remote ASPs, in order a signalling transfer point, to send MTP Transfer
Prohibited (TFP) messages to manage the SCTP Associations and relevant adjacent SS7 nodes, according
to the traffic between local SS7 network procedures.

When the SG and ASPs.  As well, determines that the active/inactive
state transport of remote ASPs is also maintained - Active ASPs are those
currently receiving traffic from the SG.

The M3UA layer at either the SG or ASP can be instructed by local
management SS7 messages to establish an SCTP association to ASP in a peer M3UA node.  This
particular SPMC can be achieved using resumed, the M-SCTP ESTABLISH primitive SG may similarly optionally inform
the MTP3 route management function.  This information is used by the
MTP3 to request,
indicate mark the route to the affected destination as available, and confirm in
the establishment case of an SCTP association with a
peer M3UA node.

The M3UA layer may also need signalling transfer point, to send MTP Transfer Allowed
(TFA) messages to inform local management of the status
of the underlying SCTP associations using relevant adjacent SS7 nodes, according to the M-SCTP STATUS request
local SS7 network procedures.  In some SS7 network architectures,
sending TFP and
indication primitive. For TFA messages from the SG into the SS7 network should be
suppressed.  As an example, in the M3UA may inform local management
of case where the reason for SG is seen by the release of
adjacent SS7 nodes as an SCTP association, determined either
locally within SEP (i.e., in ANSI MTP terms the M3UA layer SG is
connected via A-links or F-links), TFP or TFA messages would not
normally be expected by a primitive from the SCTP.

Also the M3UA layer may need to inform adjacent SS7 node.

In the local management case of SS7 user part management, it is required that the
change in availability status MTP3-
User protocols at ASPs receive indications of an ASP.  This can be achieved using
the M-ASP STATUS primitive to change SS7 signalling point
availability, SS7 network congestion and indicate the status of User Part availability as would
be expected an ASP.

1.5 Internal Functions in SS7 SEP node.  To accomplish this, the M3UA

1.5.1 Address Translation MTP-PAUSE, MTP-
RESUME and Mapping MTP-STATUS indication primitives received at the MTP3 upper
layer interface at the SG M3UA

In order need to direct messages received from the SS7 be made propagated to the remote MTP3-
User lower layer interface at the ASP. These indication primitives are
also made available to any existing local MTP3-Users at the SG, if
present.

It is important to clarify that MTP3 management messages such as TFPs or
TFAs received from the SS7 network are not "encapsulated" and sent
blindly to the
desired IP destination, ASPs.  Rather, the SG M3UA must perform address translation
and mapping functions using information from existing MTP3 management procedures
are followed within the received MTP3-User
message.

To support this mapping, MTP3 function of the SG must maintain a network address
translation table, mapping incoming SS7 message information to re-calculate the MTP3
route set status and initiate any required signalling-route-set-test
procedures into the SS7 network.  Only when an SS7 destination status
changes are MTP-PAUSE or MTP-RESUME primitives invoked.  These
primitives can also be invoked due to local SS7 link set conditions as
per existing MTP3 procedures.

1.4.3.2 Application Server serving a particular application and range

A cluster of
traffic.  This application servers is accomplished by comparing responsible for providing the
overall support for one or many SS7 upper layers.  From an SS7
standpoint, a set of signalling point management cluster (SPMC) must provide
complete support for the information in upper layer service for a given point code.  As
an incoming example, such a SPMC providing MGC capabilities must provide complete
support for ISUP for a given point code, according to the local SS7 message
network specifications.

This measure is necessary to provisioned allow the SG Routing Keys to determine an
Application Server that serves accurately represent the
signalling point on the local SS7 network.

1.4.3.3 IPSP

Since IPSPs use M3UA in a particular range point-to-point fashion, there is no concept of traffic.

Possible
routing of messages beyond the remote end.  Therefore, SS7 address/routing information that may comprise a Routing
Key entry includes, for example, the OPC, DPC, SIO, ISUP CIC range or
SCCP Subsystem Number.  The particular information used in an SG and M3UA
Routing Key
inter-working is application and not necessary for this model.

1.4.4 Redundancy Models

The network dependent.

An Application Server contains a list of one or more ASPs which are
capable address translation and mapping function of processing the traffic.  This list is assumed M3UA layer
supports signalling process fail-over functions in order to be dynamic,
taking into account the support a
high availability status of call and transaction processing capability.

1.4.4.1 Application Server Redundancy

All MTP3-User messages (e.g., ISUP, SCCP) incoming to an SG from the individual ASPs SS7
network are assigned to a unique Application Server, based on the
information in the list, configuration changes, message and possible fail-over mechanisms.
The M3UA protocol includes messages to convey the availability status provisioned Routing Keys.

The Application Server is, in practical terms a list of the individual all ASPs as input
actively configured to process a fail-over mechanism.

Normally, one range of MTP3-User traffic defined by
Routing Keys.  One or more ASPs is active in the ASP list are normally active (i.e., currently
processing
handling traffic) but in certain failure and transition cases it is
possible that there while any others may not be an unavailable or inactive, to be
possibly used in the event of failure or unavailability of the active ASP available.  Both
loadsharing
ASP(s).

The fail-over model supports an "n+k" redundancy model, where "n" ASPs
is the minimum number of redundant ASPs required to handle traffic and backup scenarios
"k" ASPs are supported.

Where there is no Routing Key match available to take over for an incoming SS7 message, a
default treatment must be specified.  Possible solutions are to provide
a "Default" Application Server at the SG that will direct all
unallocated traffic to a (set of) "Default" ASP(s), failed or to drop the
messages and provide a notification to management.

1.5.2 SG Redundancy

It is possible that the ASP could route signaling messages destined to
the SS7 network through more than one SG. unavailable ASP.  A primary/back-up case
"1+1" active/standby redundancy is
possible where the unavailability of the SCTP assocation to a primary
SG, or the unavailability subset of this model. A simplex
"1+0" model is also supported as a subset, with no ASP redundancy.

At the SS7 destination node from the primary SG, could be used to reroute affected traffic an Application Server list contains active and inactive ASPs
to a next-preferred SG.
Also, a support ASP load-sharing case and fail-over procedures.  The list of ASPs
within a logical Application Server is possible where kept updated in the signaling messages are
load-shared across two (or more) SGs.

>From SG to reflect
the perspective active Application Server Process(es).

To avoid a single point of an ASP, failure, it is assumed recommended that a particular SG is
capable minimum of handling traffic to an SS7 destination if an SCTP
association to the SG is available, the SG has received an indication
from
two ASPs be in the ASP that it is currently actively handling traffic, list, resident in separate hosts, and therefore
available over different SCTP Associations.  For example, in the SG
has not indicated that the SS7 destination is unavailable.  Where an
ASP is configured network
shown in Figure 1, all messages to use two or more SGs for directing traffic DPC x could be sent to the
SS7 network, the ASP must maintain knowledge of the current capability
of the SG to handle traffic ASP1 in Host1
or ASP1 in Host2.  The AS list at SG1 might look like this:

    Routing Key {DPC=x) - "Application Server #1"
        ASP1/Host1   State=Up, Active
        ASP1/Host2   State=Up, Inactive

In this "1+1" redundancy case, ASP1 in Host1 would be sent any incoming
message with DPC=x.  ASP1 in Host2 would normally be brought to destinations of interest, for the
purpose of efficiently supporting the redirection/loadsharing
active state upon failure of, or loss of
traffic. The ASP may also use information received from connectivity to, ASP1/Host1. In
this example, both ASPs are Up, meaning that the SGs of
congestion to concerned destinations.

1.5.3 related SCTP Stream Mapping.

The
association and far-end M3UA peer is ready.

The AS List at both the SG and ASP SG1 might also supports be set up in load-share mode:

    Routing Key {DPC=x) - "Application Server #1"
        ASP1/Host1  State = Up, Active
        ASP1/Host2  State = Up, Active

In this case, both the assignment of
signaling traffic into streams within an SCTP association.  Traffic
that requires sequencing must ASPs would be assigned to sent a portion of the same stream.  To
accomplish this, MTP3-User traffic traffic.  For
example the two ASPs could together form a database, where incoming
queries may be assigned sent to individual
streams based on the SLS value any active ASP.

Care must be exercised by a Network Operator in the MTP3 Routing Label or the ISUP
CIC assignment, subject selection of course the
routing information to be used as the maximum number Routing Key for a particular AS.
For example, where Application Servers are defined using ranges of streams
supported by ISUP
CIC values, the underlying SCTP association.

1.5.4 Congestion Control.

The M3UA Layer Operator is informed of local and IP network congestion by means implicitly splitting up control of the
related circuit groups.  Some CIC value range assignments may interfere
with ISUP circuit group management procedures.  Similarly, within an implementation-dependent function (e.g., an implementation-
dependent indication from AS,
if a load-balancing algorithm were to use CIC values to balance the SCTP load
across the ASPs, the span of IP network congestion). When an
SG determines circuit contol assigned to particular ASPs
must also be weighed against the ISUP circuit group management
procedures.

In the process of fail-over or fail-back, it is recommended that in the transport
case of SS7 messages to an Signalling Point
Management Cluster (SPMC) ASPs supporting call processing, stable calls do not fail.  It
is encountering congestion, possible that calls in "transition" may fail, although measures of
communication between the SG ASPs involved can be used to mitigate this.
For example, the two ASPs may
optionally trigger SS7 MTP3 Transfer Controlled management messages share call state via shared memory, or may
use an ASP to
originating SS7 nodes. The triggering ASP protocol to pass call state information.

1.4.4.2 Signalling Gateway Redundancy

Signalling Gateways may also be distributed over multiple hosts.  Much
like the AS model, SGs are comprised of SS7 MTP3 Management messages
from an one or more SG is processes (SGP),
distributed over one or more hosts, using an implementation-dependent function.  At active/standby or a load-
sharing model.  An SGP is viewed as a remote SCTP end-point from an ASP,
congestion ASP
perspective.

It is indicated to local MTP3-Users by means of therefore possible for an MTP-Status
primitive indicating congestion, ASP to invoke appropriate upper layer
responses, as per current MTP3 procedures.

1.5.5 Seamless Network Management Inter-working.

The M3UA at an SG must maintain knowledge of SS7 node and Signalling
Point Management Cluster (SPMC) status in their respective domains in
order route signalling messages
destined to perform as seamless as possible inter-working of the two
domains.  For example, SG M3UA knowledge SS7 network using more than one SGP.  In this model, a
signalling gateway is deployed as a cluster of hosts acting as a single
SG.  A primary/back-up redundancy model is possible, where the availability and/or
congestion status
unavailability of SPMC and SS7 nodes must be maintained and
disseminated in the respective networks so that end-to-end operation is
transparent SCTP association to a primary SGP, or the communicating SCN protocol peers at
unavailability of the SS7 destination node and
ASP.

When an SG M3UA determines that from the transport of SS7 messages primary SGP, could
be used to reroute affected traffic to an
SPMC alternate SGP.  A load-sharing
model is encountering congestion, possible, where the SG signalling messages are load-shared between
multiple SGPs.

It may optionally inform the MTP3
route management function (by also be possible for an implementation-dependent mechanism).
This information is used by the MTP3 to mark the route to the affected
destination as congested and AS to trigger MTP Transfer Controlled (TFC)
messages use more than one SG to any access a
specific SS7 SEPs generating end point, in a model that resembles an SS7 STP mated pair.
Typically, SS7 STPs are deployed in mated pairs, with traffic load-
shared between them.  Other models are also possible, subject to the congested DPC, as
per current MTP3 procedures.

When an SG M3UA determines that the transport
limitations of the local SS7 messages to all
ASPs in network provisioning guidelines.

>From the perspective of an ASP, a particular SPMC is interrupted, the SG M3UA may similarly
optionally inform is capable of
transferring traffic to an SS7 destination if an SCTP association with
the MTP3 route management function. This information SGP is used by established, the MTP3 to mark SGP has received an indication from the route to ASP
that it is actively handling traffic for that destination, and the SG
has not indicated that the affected destination as
unavailable and is inaccessible.  When an ASP is
configured to trigger MTP Transfer Prohibited (TFP) messages use multiple SGPs or SGs for transferring traffic to the adjacent
SS7 nodes which are generating traffic to network, the ASP must maintain knowledge of the unavailable
DPC as per current MTP procedures.  If capability
of the SG to handle traffic to destinations of interest.  This
information is considered part crucial to the overall reliability of the
SPMC, MTP TFP messages must not be triggered into service, for
both active/standby and load-sharing model, in the SS7 network, as
SS7 procedures do not support event of failures,
recovery and maintenance activities.  The ASP may also use this
information for congestion avoidance purposes.

1.4.5 Management Inhibit/Uninhibit

Local Management at an ASP or SG may wish to stop traffic across an SCTP
association in order to temporarily remove the sending association from service
or to perform testing and maintenance activity.  The function could
optionally be used to control the start of TFPs traffic on to a newly
available SCTP association.

1.4.6 Congestion Management

The M3UA Layer is informed of local and IP network congestion by means
of an SS7 node to
indicate its own unavailability. implementation-dependent function (e.g., an implementation-
dependent indication from the SCTP of IP network congestion). When an SG M3UA
determines that the transport of SS7 messages to an ASP
in a particular SPMC can be resumed, Signalling Point
Management Cluster (SPMC) is encountering congestion, the SG M3UA may similarly
optionally inform the MTP3 route management function. This information
is used by the MTP3 to mark the route to the affected destination as
now available and to trigger MTP SS7 MTP3 Transfer Allowed (TFA) Controlled management messages to the
adjacent
originating SS7 nodes nodes. The triggering of SS7 MTP3 Management messages
from an SG is an implementation-dependent function.

At an ASP, congestion is indicated to local MTP3-Users by means of an
MTP-Status primitive indicating congestion, to invoke appropriate upper
layer responses, as per current MTP3 procedures.

Note: In some SS7 network architectures,

1.4.7 SCTP Stream Mapping.

The M3UA at both the sending of TFP SG and TFA
messages from ASP also supports the SG assignment of
signalling traffic into the SS7 network should streams within an SCTP association.  Traffic
that requires sequencing must be suppressed.  For
example, in assigned to the case where an SG seen by same stream.  To
accomplish this, MTP3-User traffic may be assigned to individual streams
based on the adjacent SS7 nodes as an
SEP (i.e., SLS value in ANSI MTP terms the SG is connected via A-links or F-
links), TFP MTP3 Routing Label or TFA messages would not normally be expected by the
adjacent SS7 node.

1.5.6 Management Inhibit/Uninhibit

Local Management at an ASP or SG may wish ISUP CIC
assignment, subject of course to stop traffic across an the maximum number of streams supported
by the underlying SCTP association association.

The use of SCTP streams within M3UA is recommended in order to temporarily remove minimize
transmission and buffering delays, therefore improving the association from
service or to perform testing overall
performance and maintenance activity. reliability of the signalling elements.  The function
could optionally
distribution of the MTP3 user messages over the various streams should
be used done in such

a way to control the start of traffic minimize message mis-sequencing, as required by the SS7 User
Parts.

1.4.8 Client/Server Model

The SG takes on to a newly-
available SCTP association.

1.5.7 Active Association Control

At an SG, an Application Server list may contain active and inactive the role of server while the ASP is the client. ASPs
must initiate the SCTP association to support ASP loads-haring and fail-over procedures. When, the SG.

The SCTP (and UDP/TCP) Registered User Port Number Assignment for
example, both a primary and a back-up ASP are available, M3UA peer
protocol
is required to control which 2905.

1.5 Sample Configurations

1.5.1 Example 1: ISUP message transport

  ********   SS7   *****************   IP   ********
  * SEP  *---------*      SG       *--------* ASP is currently active.  *
  ********         *****************        ********

  +------+                                  +------+
  | ISUP |               (NIF)              | ISUP |
  +------+         +------+-+------+        +------+
  | MTP3 |         | MTP3 | | M3UA |        | M3UA |
  +------|         +------+ +------+        +------+
  | MTP2 |         | MTP2 | | SCTP |        | SCTP |
  +------+         +------+ +------+        +------+
  |  L1  |         |  L1  | |  IP  |        |  IP  |
  +------+         +------+ +------+        +------+
      |_______________|         |______________|

    SEP - SS7 Signalling End Point
    SCTP - Stream Control Transmission Protocol
    NIF  Nodal Inter-working Function

In this example, the SG provides an implementation-dependent nodal
inter-working function (NIF) that allows the MGC to exchange SS7
signalling messages with the SS7-based SEP.  The
ordered list of ASPs NIF within a logical Application Server is kept
updated in the SG
serves to reflect the active Application Server Process(es).

1.6 Definition of M3UA Boundaries

1.6.1 Definition of transport messages within the boundary SG between M3UA the MTP3 and an MTP3-User.

>From ITU Q.701 [2]:

MTP-TRANSFER request
MTP-TRANSFER indication
MTP-PAUSE indication
MTP-RESUME M3UA.
This nodal inter-working function has no visible peer protocol with
either the MGC or SEP.  It also provides network status information to
one or both sides of the network.

For internal SG modeling purposes, at the NIF level, SS7 signalling
messages that are destined to the MGC are received as MTP-TRANSFER
indication primitives from the MTP Level 3 upper layer interface and are
sent to the local M3UA-resident message distribution function for
ongoing routing to the final IP destination.  MTP-TRANSFER primitives
received from the local M3UA network address translation and mapping
function are sent to the MTP Level 3 upper layer interface as MTP-

TRANSFER request primitives for on-going MTP Level 3 routing to an SS7
SEP.  For the purposes of providing SS7 network status information the
NIF also delivers MTP-PAUSE, MTP-RESUME and MTP-STATUS indication

1.6.2 Definition of
primitives received from the boundary MTP Level 3 upper layer interface to the
local M3UA-resident management function.

1.5.2  Example 2: SCCP Transport between IPSPs

   ********    IP    ********
   * IPSP *          * IPSP *
   ********          ********

   +------+          +------+
   |SCCP- |          |SCCP- |
   | User |          | User |
   +------+          +------+
   | SCCP |          | SCCP |
   +------+          +------+
   | M3UA and |          | M3UA |
   +------+          +------+
   | SCTP |          | SCTP |
   +------+          +------+
   |  IP  |          |  IP  |
   +------+          +------+
       |________________|

This example shows an architecture where no Signalling Gateway is used.
In this example, SCCP messages are exchanged directly between two IP-
resident IPSPs with resident SCCP-User protocol instances, such as RANAP
or TCAP.  SS7 network inter-working is not required, therefore there is
no MTP3 network management status information for the SCCP and SCCP-User
protocols to consider.  Any MTP-PAUSE, -RESUME or -STATUS indications
from the M3UA to the SCCP should consider only the status of the SCTP
Association and underlying IP network.

1.5.3 Example 3: SG resident SCCP layer, with remote ASP

  ********   SS7   *****************   IP   ********
  * SEP  *---------*               *--------*      *
  *  or  *         *      SG       *        * ASP  *
  * STP  *         *               *        *      *
  ********         *****************        ********

  +------+         +---------------+        +------+
  | SCCP-|         |     SCCP      |        | SCCP-|
  | User |         +---------------+        | User |
  +------+           |   _____   |          +------+
  | SCCP |           |  |     |  |          | SCCP |
  +------+         +------+-+------+        +------+
  | MTP3 |         | MTP3 | | M3UA |        | M3UA |
  +------|         +------+ +------+        +------+
  | MTP2 |         | MTP2 | | SCTP |        | SCTP |
  +------+         +------+ +------+        +------+
  |  L1  |         |  L1  | |  IP  |        |  IP  |
  +------+         +------+ +------+        +------+
      |_______________|         |______________|

    STP - SS7 Signalling Transfer Point

In this example, the SG contains an instance of the SS7 SCCP protocol
layer that may, for example, perform the SCCP Global Title Translation
(GTT) function for messages logically addressed to the SG SCCP.  If the
result of a GTT for an SCCP message yields an SS7 DPC or DPC/SSN address
result of an SCCP peer located in the IP domain, the resulting MTP-
TRANSFER request primitive is sent to the local M3UA-resident network
address translation and mapping function for ongoing routing to the
final IP destination.

Similarly, the SCCP instance in an SG can perform the SCCP GTT service
for messages logically addressed to it from SCCP peers in the IP domain.
In this case, MTP-TRANSFER messages are sent from the local M3UA-
resident network address translation and mapping function to the SCCP
for GTT.  If the result of the GTT yields the address of an SCCP peer in
the SS7 network then the resulting MTP-TRANSFER request is given to the
MTP3 for delivery to an SS7-resident node.

It is possible that the above SCCP GTT at the SG could yield the address
of an SCCP peer in the IP domain and the resulting MTP-TRANSFER
primitive would be sent back to the M3UA for delivery to an IP
destination.

For internal SG modeling purposes, this may be accomplished with the use
of an implementation-dependent nodal inter-working function within the
SG that effectively sits below the SCCP and routes MTP-TRANSFER messages
to/from both the MTP3 and the M3UA, based on the SS7 DPC or DPC/SSN

address information.  This nodal inter-working function has no visible
peer protocol with either the ASP or SEP.

Note that the services and interface provided by the M3UA are the same
as in Example 1 and the functions taking place in the SCCP entity are
transparent to M3UA.  The SCCP protocol functions are not reproduced in
the M3UA protocol.

1.6 Definition of M3UA Boundaries

1.6.1 Definition of the boundary between M3UA and an MTP3-User.

>From ITU Q.701 [2]:

   MTP-TRANSFER request
   MTP-TRANSFER indication
   MTP-PAUSE indication
   MTP-RESUME indication
   MTP-STATUS indication

1.6.2 Definition of the boundary between M3UA and SCTP

The upper layer primitives provided by the SCTP are provided in [13]

1.6.3 Definition of the Boundary between M3UA and Layer Management

   M-SCTP ESTABLISH request
   M-SCTP ESTABLISH indication
   M-STCP ESTABLISH confirm

   M-SCTP RELEASE request
   M-SCTP RELEASE indication
   M-SCTP RELEASE confirm

   M-SCTP STATUS request
   M-SCTP STATUS indication

   M-ASP STATUS request
   M-ASP STATUS indication

   M-AS-STATUS request
   M-AS-STATUS indication

   M-NOTIFY indication
   M-ERROR indication

   M-ASP-INHIBIT request
   M-ASP-UNINHIBIT request

2.0 Conventions

The keywords MUST, MUST NOT, REQUIRED, SHALL, SHALL NOT, SHOULD, SHOULD
NOT, RECOMMENDED, NOT RECOMMENDED, MAY, and OPTIONAL, when they appear
in this document, are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

3.0 M3UA Protocol Elements

The general M3UA message format includes a Common Message Header
followed by zero or more parameters as defined by the Message Type.  For
forward compatibility, all Message Types may have attached parameters
even if none are specified in this version.

3.1 Common Message Header

The protocol messages for MTP3-User Adaptation require a message
structure that contains a version, message type, message length, and
message contents.  This message header is common among all signalling
protocol adaptation layers:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    Version    |   Reserved    | Message Class | Message Type  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                        Message Length                         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |

All fields in an M3UA message MUST be transmitted in the network byte
order, unless otherwise stated.

M3UA Protocol Version: 8 bits (unsigned integer)

   The version field contains the version of the M3UA adaptation layer.
   The supported versions are:

       Value    Version
       -----    -------
         1      Release 1.0

Message Class: 8 bits (unsigned integer)

   The following list contains the Message Type Classes for the defined
   messages.

         0        Management (MGMT) Message
         1        Transfer Messages
         2        SS7 Signalling Network Management (SSNM) Messages
         3        ASP State Maintenance (ASPSM) Messages
         4        ASP Traffic Maintenance (ASPTM) Messages
      5 to 255    Reserved

Message Type: 8 bits (unsigned integer)

   The following list contains the message types for the defined
   messages.

     Management (MGMT) Message

         0        Error (ERR)
         1        Notify (NTFY)
       2 to 255   Reserved for Management Messages

     Transfer Messages

         0        Reserved
         1        Payload Data (DATA)
       2 to 255   Reserved for Transfer Messages

     SS7 Signalling Network Management (SSNM) Messages

         0        SS7 Network Isolation (S7ISO)
         1        Destination Unavailable (DUNA)
         2        Destination Available (DAVA)
         3        Destination State Audit (DAUD)
         4        SS7 Network Congestion State (SCON)
         5        Destination User Part Unavailable (DUPU)
       6 to 255   Reserved for SSNM Messages

     ASP State Maintenance (ASPSM) Messages

         0        Reserved
         1        ASP Up (UP)
         2        ASP Down (DOWN)         3        Heartbeat (HEARTBEAT)
         4        ASP Up Ack (UP ACK)
         5        ASP Down Ack (DOWN ACK)
       6 to 255   Reserved for ASPSM Messages
     ASP Traffic Maintenance (ASPTM) Messages

         0        Reserved
         1        ASP Active (ACTIVE)
         2        ASP Inactive (INACTIVE)
         3        ASP Active Ack (ACTIVE ACK)
         4        ASP Inactive Ack (INACTIVE ACK)
       5 to 255   Reserved for ASPTM Messages

Reserved: 5 bits

   Should be set to all '0's and ignored by the receiver.

Message Length: 32-bits (unsigned integer)

   The Message Length defines the length of the message in octets, not
   including the header.

3.2 Variable-Length Parameter Format

M3UA messages consist of a Common Header followed by zero or more
variable-length parameters, as defined by the message type.  The
variable-length parameters contained in a message are defined in a Tag-
Length-Value format as shown below.

   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
  |          Parameter Tag        |       Parameter Length        |
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
  \                                                               \
  /                       Parameter Value                         /
  \                                                               \
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

Parameter Tag: 16 bits (unsigned integer)

   Tag field is a 16-bit identifier of the type of parameter. It takes a
   value of 0 to 65534.

   The value of 65535 is reserved for IETF-defined extensions.  Values
   other than those defined in specific parameter description are
   reserved for use by the IETF.

Parameter Length: 16 bits (unsigned integer)

   The Parameter Length field contains the size of the parameter in
   bytes, including the Parameter Tag, Parameter Length, and Parameter
   Value fields. The Parameter Length does not include any padding
   bytes.

Parameter Value: variable-length.

   The Parameter Value field contains the actual information to be
   transferred in the parameter.

   The total length of a parameter (including Tag, Parameter Length and
   Value fields) MUST be a multiple of 4 bytes. If the length of the
   parameter is not a multiple of 4 bytes, the sender pads the Parameter
   at the end (i.e., after the Parameter Value field) with all zero
   bytes. The length of the padding is NOT included in the parameter
   length field. A sender should NEVER pad with more than 3 bytes. The
   receiver MUST ignore the padding bytes.

3.2 Transfer Messages

The following section describes the Transfer messages and parameter
contents.

3.2.1 Payload Data Message (DATA)

The Data message contains the SS7 MTP3-User protocol data, which is an
MTP-TRANSFER primitive, including the complete MTP3 Routing Label. The
Data message contains the following variable length parameters:

     Network Appearance    Optional
     Protocol Data         Mandatory

The following format MUST be used for the Data Message:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Tag = 1            |          Length = 8           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                       Network Appearance*                     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Tag = 3            |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   \                                                               \
   /                        Protocol Data                          /
   \                                                               \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

Network Appearance: 32-bits (unsigned integer)

   The optional Network Appearance parameter identifies the SS7 network
   context for the message, for the purposes of logically separating the
   signalling traffic between the SG and the Application Server Process
   over a common SCTP Association.  An example is where an SG is
   logically partitioned to appear as an element in four different
   national SS7 networks.

   In a Data message, the Network Appearance defines the SS7 Point Codes
   used, the SS7 Network Indicator value and MTP3/MTP3-User protocol
   type/variant/version used within the SS7 network partition.  Where an
   SG operates in the context of a single SS7 network, or individual
   SCTP associations are dedicated to each SS7 network context, or the
   Network Indicator in the SIO of the MTP-Transfer primitive is
   sufficient, the Network Appearance parameter is not required.

   The Network Appearance parameter value assigned according to network
   operator policy.  The values used are of local significance only,
   coordinated between the SG and ASP.

   Where the optional Network Appearance parameter is present, it must
   be the first parameter in the message as it defines the format of the
   Protocol Data field.

Protocol Data: variable length

   The Protocol Data field contains the MTP3-User application message,
   which is in effect an MTP-TRANSFER primitive.  As defined for a
   specific value of the Protocol Identifier, this will include the MTP-
   User Data and includes the MTP Routing Label (SS7 OPC, DPC, SLS), and
   the SIO (Service Indicator, Network Indicator & optional Message
   Priority codes).  Note: in the case of ISUP messages, the Circuit
   Identification Code is also included.

3.3 SS7 Signalling Network Management (SSNM) Messages

3.3.1 Destination Unavailable (DUNA)

The DUNA message is sent from the SG to all concerned ASPs to indicate
that the SG has determined that one or more SS7 destinations are
unreachable.  The MTP3-User at the ASP is expected to stop traffic to
the affected destination through the SG initiating the DUNA as per the
defined MTP3-User procedures.

The DUNA message contains the following parameters:

     Network Appearance      Optional
     Affected Destination    Mandatory
     Info String             Optional

The format for DUNA Message parameters is as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Tag = 1            |           Length =8           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      Network Appearance*                      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Tag = 5            |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    Mask      |                 Affected DPC 1                |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   \                                                               \
   |                              ...                              |
   \                                                               \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    Mask      |                 Affected DPC n                |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |             Tag = 4           |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   \                                                               \
   |                          INFO String*                         |
   \                                                               \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

Network Appearance: 32-bit unsigned integer

The optional Network Appearance parameter identifies the SS7 network
context for the message, for the purposes of logically separating the
signalling traffic between the SG and the Application Server Process
over a common SCTP Association.  An example is where an SG is logically
partitioned to appear as an element in four different national SS7
networks.

In an SSNM message, the Network Appearance parameter defines the format
of the Affected DPC(s) in the Affected Destination parameter.  The DPC
point code length (e.g., 14-, 16-, or 24-bit) and sub-field definitions
(e.g., ANSI 24-bit network/cluster/member, ITU-international 14-bit
zone/region/signal_point, many national field variants, ...) are fixed
within a particular Network Appearance.  Where an SG operates in the
context of a single SS7 network, or individual SCTP associations are
dedicated to each SS7 network context, the Network Appearance parameter
is not required and the format of the Affected DPC(s) is understood
implicitly.

The format of the Network Appearance parameter is an integer, the values
of which are assigned according to network operator policy. The values
used are of local significance only, coordinated between the SG and ASP.

Where the optional Network Appearance parameter is present, it must be
the first parameter in the message as it defines the format of the
Affected DPCs in the Affected Destination parameter.

Affected Destination: 24-bits

The Affected Destination parameter contains one or more Affected
Destination Point Codes, each a three-octet parameter to allow for 14-,
16- and 24-bit binary formatted SS7 Point Codes.  Affected Point Codes
that are less than 24-bits, are padded on the left to the 24-bit
boundary.  The encoding is shown below for ANSI and ITU Point Code
examples.

ANSI 24-bit Point Code:

    0                   1                   2                   3----->
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Mask      |    Network    |    Cluster    |     Member    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                   |MSB-----------------------------------------LSB|

ITU 14-bit Point Code:

    0                   1                   2                   3----->
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Mask      |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|Zone |     Region    | SP  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                                        |MSB--------------------LSB|

It is optional to send an Affected Destination parameter with more than
one Affected DPC but it is mandatory to receive it.  All the Affected
DPCs included must be within the same Network Appearance.  Including
multiple Affected DPCs may be useful when reception of an MTP3
management message or a linkset event simultaneously affects the
availability status of a list of destinations at an SG.

Mask: 8-bits

The Mask parameter is used to identify a contiguous range of Affected
Destination Point Codes, independent of the point code format.
Identifying a contiguous range of Affected DPCs may be useful when
reception of an MTP3 management message or a linkset event
simultaneously affects the availability status of a series of
destinations at an SG.  For example, if all DPCs in an ANSI cluster are
determined to be unavailable due to local linkset unavailability, the
DUNA could identify potentially 256 Affected DPCs in a single Affected
DPC field.

The Mask parameter is an integer representing a bit mask that can be
applied to the related Affected DPC field.  The bit mask identifies how
many bits of the Affected DPC field is significant and which are
effectively "wildcarded".  For example, a mask of "8" indicates that the
last eight bits of the DPC is "wildcarded".  For an ANSI 24-bit Affected
DPC, this is equivalent to signalling that all DPCs in an ANSI Cluster
are unavailable.  A mask of "3" indicates that the last three bits of
the DPC is "wildcarded".  For a 14-bit ITU Affected DPC, this is
equivalent to signaling that an ITU Region is unavailable.

Info String: variable length

The upper layer primitives provided by optional INFO String parameter can carry any meaningful 8-BIT ASCII
character string along with the SCTP message.  Length of the INFO String
parameter is from 0 to 255 characters.  No procedures are provided presently
identified for its use but the INFO String may be used by Operators to
identify in [13]

2.0 M3UA Protocol Elements text form the location reflected by the Affected DPC for
debugging purposes.

3.3.2 Destination Available (DAVA)

The general M3UA DAVA message format includes a Common Message Header
followed by zero or more parameters as defined by is sent from the Message Type.
For forward compatibility, SG to all Message Types may have attached
parameters even if none concerned ASPs to indicate
that the SG has determined that one or more SS7 destinations are specified in this version.

2.1 Common Message Header now
reachable. The protocol messages for ASP MTP3-User Adaptation require a message
structure which contains a version, message type, message length, and
message contents.   This message header is common among all signaling protocol adaptation layers:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    Version    |     Spare     |         Message Type          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                        Message Length                         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |

All fields in an M3UA message MUST be transmitted in is expected to resume traffic to
the network byte order,
unless otherwise stated.

2.1.1 M3UA Protocol Version affected destination through the SG initiating the DUNA.

The version field (Vers.) DAVA message contains the version of the M3UA adaptation
layer. following parameters:

     Network Appearance      Optional
     Affected Destination    Mandatory
     Info String             Optional

The supported versions are:

      0000 0001   Release 1.0 protocol

2.1.2 format and description of DAVA Message Types

The following list contains parameters is the message types same as for
the defined messages.

     Transfer Messages

        Data                                       0101

     SS7 Signaling Network Management (SSNM) Messages

        Destination Unavailable (DUNA)             0201
        Destination Available (DAVA)               0202 DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.)

3.3.3 Destination State Audit (DAUD)             0203
        SS7 Network Congestion State (SCON)        0204
        Destination User Part Unavailable (DUPU)   0205

     Application Server Process Maintenance (ASPM) messages

        ASP Up                                     0301
        ASP Down                                   0302
        Heartbeat                                  0303
        ASP Active                                 0401
        ASP Inactive                               0402
     Management (MGMT) Messages

         Error                                     0000
         Notify                                    0001

2.1.3 Message Length

The Message Length defines DAUD message can be sent from the length ASP to the SG to audit the
availability/congestion state of SS7 routes to one or more affected
destinations.  See Section 3.4.3 for the audit procedures.

The DAUD message in octets, not
including contains the header.

2.2 Transfer Messages

The following section describes the Transfer messages and parameter
contents. parameters:

     Network Appearance      Optional
     Affected Destination    Mandatory
     Info String             Optional

The general message format includes a Common Message Header
together with a list and description of zero or more DAUD Message parameters is the same as defined by for
the
Message Type.  All Message Types can have attached parameters.

2.2.1 Data Message

The Data DUNA message contains (See Section 3.3.2.1.)

Multiple Affected Destination Point Codes parameters may optionally be
included in a DAUD message.  However all the Affected Destination Point
Codes must be part of the same Network Appearance.

3.3.4 SS7 MTP3-User protocol data, which is an
MTP-TRANSFER primitive, including Network Congestion (SCON)

The SCON message can be sent from the complete MTP3 Routing Label. SG to all concerned ASPs to
indicate that the congestion level in the SS7 network to one or more
destinations has changed.

The
Data SCON message contains the following parameters:

     NETWORK APPEARANCE (Optional)
     PROTOCOL DATA

     Network Appearance       Optional
     Affected Destination     Mandatory
     Congestion Level         Mandatory
     Info String              Optional

The format for the Data SCON Message parameters is as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Tag (0x1) = 1            |           Length =8           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                       Network Appearance*                     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Tag (0x3) = 5            |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         Protocol Data Cong. Level 1 |                 Affected DPC 1                |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   \                                                               \
   |                              ...                              |
   \                                                               \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Cong. Level n |                 Affected DPC n                |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Tag = 4            |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   \                                                               \
   |                         INFO String*                          |
   \                                                               \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

The optional Network Appearance parameter identifies the SS7 network
context for the message, for the purposes of logically separating the
signaling traffic between the SG and the Application Server Process
over a common SCTP Association.  An example is where an SG is logically
partitioned to appear as an element in four different national SS7
networks.

In a Data message, the Network Appearance defines the SS7 Point Codes
used, the SS7 Network Indicator value format and MTP3/MTP3-User protocol
type/variant/version used within the SS7 network partition.  Where an
SG operates in the context of a single SS7 network, or individual SCTP
associations are dedicated to each SS7 network context, or the Network
Indicator in the SIO description of the MTP-Transfer primitive is sufficient, the Network Appearance parameter is not required.

The format is an integer, the values of which are assigned according to
network operator policy. The values used are of local significance
only, coordinated between the SG Appearance, Affected
Destination and ASP.

Where the optional Network Appearance parameter Info String parameters is present, it must be
the first parameter in the message same as it defines the format of for the
Protocol Data field. DUNA
message (See Section 3.3.2.1.)

Congestion Level: 8-bits (unsigned integer)

The Protocol Data field contains valid values for the MTP3-User application message,
which is optional Congestion Level parameter are shown
in effect an MTP-TRANSFER primitive.  As defined for a
specific value of the Protocol Identifier, this will include following table.

         0     No Congestion or Undefined
         1     Congestion Level 1
         2     Congestion Level 2
         3     Congestion Level 3

The congestion levels are as defined in the MTP-
User Data and includes national congestion method
in the ITU MTP Routing Label (SS7 OPC, DPC, SLS), and
the SIO (Service Indicator, Network Indicator & optional Message
Priority codes). Note: recommendation [14] or in the case of ISUP messages, ANSI MTP standard [15].
For MTP congestion methods that do not employ congestion levels (e.g.,
the Circuit
Identification Code ITU international method, the parameter is also included.

2.3  SS7 Signaling Network Management (SSNM) Messages

2.3.1 always "Undefined".

3.3.5 Destination User Part Unavailable (DUNA) (DUPU)

The DUNA DUPU message is sent from the used by an SG to all concerned ASPs to indicate
that the SG has determined inform an ASP that one or more SS7 destinations are
unreachable.  The a remote peer
MTP3-User User Part (e.g., ISUP or SCCP) at the ASP an SS7 node is expected to stop traffic to
the affected destination through the SG initiating the DUNA as per the
defined MTP3-User procedures. unavailable.

The DUNA DUPU message contains the following parameters:

     Network Appearance (Optional)       Optional
     Affected Destination     Mandatory
     Unavailability Cause     Mandatory
     MTP3-User Identity       Mandatory
     Info String (Optional)              Optional

The format for DUNA DUPU Message parameters is as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Tag (0x1) = 1            |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      Network Appearance*                      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Tag (0x5) = 5            |          Length = 8           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    Spare Cause | User  |              Affected DPC 1 Destination             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                              ...            Tag = 4            |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   \                                                               \
   |    Spare                          INFO String*                         |
   \                                                               \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

The format and description of the Network Appearance, Affected
Destination and Info String parameters is the same as for the DUNA

message (See Section 3.3.2.1.) One exception is that the Affected DPC n                |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           Tag (0x4)           |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   |                          INFO String*                         |

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

The optional Network Appearance
Desination parameter identifies in the SS7 network
context for DUPU message can only contain one Affected
DPC.

Unavailability Cause: 4-bits (unsigned integer)

The Unavailability Cause parameter provides the message, reason for the purposes
unavailability of logically separating the
signaling traffic between MTP3-User.  The valid values for the SG and
Unavailability Cause parameter are shown in the Application Server Process
over a common SCTP Association.  An example is where an SG is logically
partitioned to appear as an element following table.  The
values agree with those provided in four different national the SS7
networks.

In an SSNM message, MTP3 User Part Unavailable
message.  Depending on the Network Appearance parameter defines MTP3 protocol used in the format
of network context,
additional values may be used  the Affected DPC(s) in specification of the Affected Destination parameter. relevant MTP3
protocol variant/version is definitive.

         0         Unknown
         1         Unequipped Remote User
         2         Inaccessible Remote User

MTP3-User Identity: 4-bits (unsigned integer)

The DPC
point code length (e.g., 14-, 16-, or 24-bit) and sub-field definitions MTP3-User Identity describes the specific MTP3-User that is
unavailable (e.g., ANSI network/cluster/member, ITU-international
zone/region/signal_point, many national field variants, ...) ISUP, SCCP, ...).  The valid values for the MTP3-User
Identity are fixed
within a particular Network Appearance.  Where an SG operates shown below.  The values agree with those provided in the
context of a single SS7 network, or individual SCTP associations are
dedicated to each
SS7 MTP3 User Part Unavailable message and Service Indicator.  Depending
on the MTP3 protocol used in the network context, additional values may
be used  the Network Appearance parameter
is not required and the format specification of the Affected DPC(s) relevant MTP3 protocol
variant/version is understood
implicitly. definitive.

         Value       Description
        00 - 02       Reserved
           03         SCCP
           04         TUP
           05         ISUP
        06  08       Reserved
           09         Broadband ISUP
           10         Satellite ISUP

3.4 Application Server Process Maintenance (ASPM) Messages

3.4.1 ASP Up (ASPUP)

The format of the Network Appearance parameter ASP UP (ASPUP) message is an integer, the
values of which are assigned according to network operator policy. The
values used are of local significance only, coordinated between the SG
and ASP.

Where to indicate to a remote M3UA peer
that the optional Network Appearance parameter Adaptation layer is present, it must be
the first parameter in the ready to receive traffic or maintenance
messages.

The ASPUP message as it defines contains the following parameters:

     Adaptation Layer Identifer    Optional
     Protocol Identifier           Optional
     INFO String                   Optional

The format of the
Affected DPCs in the Affected Destination parameter. for ASPUP Message parameters is as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Tag = 2            |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                 Adaptation Layer Identifier*                  |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Tag = 4            |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   \                                                               \
   |                          INFO String*                         |
   \                                                               \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

The Affected Destination parameter contains one or optionally more
Affected Destination Point Codes, each a three-octet parameter to allow
14-, 16- format and 24-bit binary formatted SS7 Point Codes.  Where the
Affected Point Code is less than 24-bits, it is padded on the left to description of the 24-bit boundary.

It is optional to send an Affected Destination Info String parameter with more than
one Affected DPC but it is mandatory to receive it.  Also all the
Affected DPCs included must be part of the
same Network Appearance.
Including multiple Affected DPCs may be useful when, as for example, ANSI
Cluster Route Sets are used at the SG, or a linkset event at the SG is
simultaneously affecting the status of many destinations. DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.)

Adaptation Layer Identity: 32-bits ()

The optional INFO String parameter can carry any meaningful 8-BIT ASCII
character Adaptation Layer Identifier (ALI) is a string along with that
identifies the message.  Length adaptation layer.  This string must be set to "M3UA"
which results in a length of 8.  The ALI would normally only be used in
the INFO String
parameter is from 0 initial ASP Up message across a new SCTP association to 255 characters.  No procedures ensure both
peers are presently
identified for its use but assuming the INFO String may be same adaptation layer protocol.

3.4.2 ASP Up Ack

The ASP UP Ack message is used by Operators to
identify in text form the location reflected by acknowledge an ASP-Up message received
from a  remote M3UA peer.

The ASPUP Ack message contains the Affected DPC following parameters:

     Adaptation Layer Identifier (optional)
     Protocol Identifier (optional)
     INFO String (optional)

The format for
debugging purposes.

2.3.2 Destination Available (DAVA) ASPUP Ack Message parameters is as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Tag =2             |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   \                                                               \
   |                 Adaptation Layer Identifier*                  |
   \                                                               \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Tag =4            |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   \                                                               \
   |                          INFO String*                         |
   \                                                               \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

The DAVA message is sent from the SG to all concerned ASPs to indicate
that format and description of the SG has determined that one or more SS7 destinations are now
reachable. The ASP MTP3-User protocol optional Info String parameter is expected to resume traffic to
the affected destination through the SG initiating
same as for the DUNA.

The DAVA DUNA message contains the following parameters:

     Network Appearance (Optional)
     Affected Destination
     Info String (Optional) (See Section 3.3.2.1.)

The format and description of DAVA Message parameters the optional Adaptation Layer Identifier
(ALI) parameter is the same as for the DUNA message ASP-UP message. (See Section 2.3.2.1.)

2.3.3 Destination State Audit (DAUD)
3.4.1)

3.4.3 ASP Down (ASPDN)

The DAUD message can be sent from the ASP Down (ASPDN) message is used to the SG indicate to audit a remote M3UA peer
that the
availability/congestion state of SS7 routes adaptation layer is not ready to one receive traffic or more affected
destinations.  See Section 3.4.3 for the audit procedures. maintenance
messages.

The DAUD ASPDN message contains the following parameters:

     Network Appearance (Optional)
     Affected Destination
     Info

     Reason         Mandatory
     INFO String (Optional)    Optional

The format and description of DAUD Message parameters is the same as for the DUNA ASPDN message (See Section 2.3.2.1.)

Multiple Affected Destination Point Codes parameters may optionally be
included in a DAUD message.  However all the Affected Destination Point
Codes must be part is as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                              Reason                           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Tag =4             |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   \                                                               \
   |                         INFO String*                          |
   \                                                               \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

The format and description of the optional Info String parameter is the
same Network Appearance.

2.3.4 SS7 Network Congestion (SCON)

The SCON as for the DUNA message can be sent from (See Section 3.3.2.1.)

Reason: 32-bit (unsigned integer)

The Reason parameter indicates the SG to all concerned ASPs to
indicate reason that the congestion level remote M3UA
adaptation layer is unavailable.  The valid values for Reason are shown
in the SS7 network following table.

         1        Processor Outage
         2        Management Inhibit

3.4.4 ASP Down Ack

The ASP Down Ack message is used to one or more
destinations has changed. acknowledge an ASP-Down message
received from a remote M3UA peer.

The SCON ASP Down Ack message contains the following parameters:

     Network Appearance (Optional)
     Affected Destination
     Congestion Level
     Info

     Reason       Mandatory
     INFO String (Optional)  Optional

The format for SCON Message the ASPDN Ack message parameters is as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           Tag (0x1)           |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                       Network Appearance*                     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           Tag (0x5)           |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Cong. Level 1 |                 Affected DPC 1                |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   |                              ...                              |

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Cong. Level n |                 Affected DPC n                              Reason                           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Tag (0x4) = 4            |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   \                                                               \
   |                         INFO String*                          |
   \                                                               \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

The format and description of the Network Appearance, Affected
Destination and optional Info String parameters parameter is the
same as for the DUNA message (See Section 2.3.2.1.) 3.3.2.1.)

The valid values for format of the optional Congestion Level Reason parameter are shown
in is the following table.

                Value       Description
                 00     No Congestion or Undefined
                 01     Congestion Level 1
                 02     Congestion Level 2
                 03     Congestion Level 3

The congestion levels are same as defined in the national congestion method
in the ITU MTP recommendation [14] or in the ANSI MTP standard [15].
For MTP congestion methods that do not employ congestion levels (e.g.,
the ITU international method, for the parameter is always "Undefined".

2.3.5 Destination User Part Unavailable (DUPU) ASP-Down
message. (See Section 3.4.3)

3.4.5 ASP Active (ASPAC)

The DUPU ASPAC message is used sent by an SG to inform an ASP that to indicate to a remote M3UA peer
MTP3-User User Part (e.g., ISUP or SCCP) at an SS7 node
that it is unavailable. Active and ready to process signalling traffic for a
particular Application Server

The DUPU ASPAC message contains the following parameters:

     Network Appearance (Optional)
     Affected Destination
     Unavailability Cause
     MTP3-User Identity
     Info

     Type               Mandatory
     Routing Context    Optional
     INFO String (Optional)        Optional

The format for DUPU Message parameters the ASPAC message is as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           Tag (0x1)           |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      Network Appearance*                             Type                              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Tag (0x5) =6             |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   \                                                               \
   | Cause | User  |              Affected Destination                       Routing Context*                        |
   \                                                               \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |          Tag (0x4) = 4              |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   \                                                               \
   |                          INFO String*                         |
   \                                                               \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

Type: 32-bit (unsigned integer)

The format and description of the Network Appearance, Affected
Destination and Info String parameters is the same as for the DUNA
message (See Section 2.3.2.1.) One exception is that the Affected
Desination parameter in the DUPU message can only contain one Affected
DPC.

The Unavailability Cause Type parameter provides the reason for identifies the
unavailability traffic mode of the MTP3-User.  The valid values for the
Unavailability Cause parameter are shown in the following table.  The
values agree with those provided in the SS7 MTP3 User Part Unavailable
message.  Depending on the MTP3 protocol used in the network context,
additional values may be used  the specification operation of the relevant MTP3
protocol variant/version is definitive.

         Value       Description
           00         Unknown
           01         Unequipped Remote User
           02         Inaccessible Remote User

The MTP3-User Identity describes the specific MTP3-User that is
unavailable (e.g., ISUP, SCCP, ...). ASP
within an AS. The valid values for the MTP3-
User Identity are shown below.  The values agree with those provided in
the SS7 MTP3 User Part Unavailable message and Service Indicator.
Depending on the MTP3 protocol used values for Type are shown in the network context, additional

values may following
table.

         1         Over-ride
         2         Load-share

Within a particular Routing Context, only one Type can be used  the specification of used.  The
Over-ride value indicates that the relevant MTP3 protocol
variant/version ASP is definitive.

         Value       Description
        00 - 02       Reserved
           03         SCCP
           04         TUP
           05         ISUP
        06  08       Reserved
           09         Broadband ISUP
           10         Satellite ISUP

2.4 operating in Over-ride mode,
where the ASP takes over all traffic in an Application Server Process Maintenance (ASPM) Messages

2.4.1 (i.e.,
primary/back-up operation), over-riding any currently active ASP Up (ASPUP)

The in the
AS.  In Load-share mode, the ASP UP (ASPUP) message is used to indicate to will share in the traffic distribution
with any other currently active ASPs.

A node that receives an ASPAC with an incorrect Type for a remote M3UA peer particular
Routing Context will respond with an Error Message (Cause: Invalid
Traffic Handling Mode.

Routing Context:

The optional Routing Context parameter contains (a list of) integers
indexing the Application Server traffic that the Adaptation layer sending ASP is ready

configured/registered to receive traffic receive.  There is one-to-one relationship
between an index entry and an SG Routing Key or maintenance
messages.

The ASPUP message contains AS Name.  Because an AS
can only appear in one Network Appearance, the following parameters:

     Adaptation Layer Identifer (optional)
     Protocol Identifier (optional)
     INFO String (optional)

The format Network Appearance
parameter is not required in the ASPAC message.

An Application Server Process may be configured to process traffic for ASPUP Message parameters
more than one logical Application Server.  From the perspective of an
ASP, a Routing Context defines a range of signalling traffic that the
ASP is as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           Tag (0x2)           |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   |                 Adaptation Layer Identifier*                  |

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           Tag (0x4)           |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   |                          INFO String*                         |

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ currently configured to receive from the SG.  For example, an ASP
could be configured to support call processing for multiple ranges of
PSTN trunks and therefore receive related signalling traffic, identified
by separate SS7 DPC/OPC/CIC_ranges.

The format and description of the optional Info String parameters parameter is the
same as for the DUNA message (See Section 2.3.2.1.)

The optional Adaptation Layer Identifier (ALI) is a string that
identifies the adaptation layer.  This string must be set to "M3UA"
which results in a length of 4.  The ALI would normally only be used in

the initial ASP Up message across a new SCTP association to ensure both
peers are assuming the same adaptation layer protocol.

Note: Strings are padded to 32-bit boundaries.  The length field
indicates the end of the string.

2.4.2 3.3.2.1.)

3.4.6 ASP Down (ASPDN) Active Ack

The ASP Down (ASPDN) ASPAC Ack message is used to indicate to acknowledge an ASP-Active message
received from a remote M3UA peer
that the adaptation layer is not ready to receive traffic or
maintenance messages. peer.

The ASPDN ASPAC Ack message contains the following parameters:

     Reason

     Type               Mandatory
     Routing Context    Optional
     INFO String (Optional)        Optional

The format for the ASPDN ASPAC Ack message parameters is as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                              Reason                             Type                              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Tag = 6            |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   \                                                               \
   |                       Routing Context*                        |
   \                                                               \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Tag (0x4) = 4            |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   \                                                               \
   |                          INFO String*                         |
   \                                                               \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

The format and description of the optional Info String parameter is the
same as for the DUNA message DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.)

The format of the Type and Routing Context parameters is the same as for
the ASP-Active message. (See Section 2.3.2.1.)

The Reason parameter indicates the reason that the remote M3UA
adaptation layer is unavailable.  The valid values for Reason are shown
in the following table.

     Value         Description
     0x1        Processor Outage
     0x2        Management Inhibit

2.4.3 3.4.5).

3.4.7  ASP Active (ASPAC) Inactive (ASPIA)

The ASPAC ASPIA message is sent by an ASP to indicate to an SG a remote M3UA peer
that it is
Active and ready to be used. no longer processing signalling traffic within a particular
Application Server.

The ASPAC ASPIA message contains the following parameters:

     Type                 Mandatory
     Routing Context (Optional)      Optional
     INFO String (Optional)          Optional

The format for the ASPAC ASPIA message parameters is as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                             Type                              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Tag (0x6) = 6            |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   \                                                               \
   |                       Routing Context*                        |
   \                                                               \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Tag (0x4) = 4            |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   \                                                               \
   |                          INFO String*                         |
   \                                                               \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

The Type parameter identifies the traffic mode of operation of the ASP
within an AS. The valid values for Type are shown in the following
table.

    Value          Description
     0x1            Over-ride
     0x2            Load-share
     0x3            New traffic
Within a particular Routing Context, only one Type can be used.  The
Over-ride value indicates that the ASP is operating in Over-ride mode,
where the ASP takes over all

and will no longer handle traffic in within an Application Server (i.e.,
primary/back-up operation), over-riding any currently active ASPs it
is now a backup in
the AS.  In loadshare mode, a primary/back-up arrangement).  The Load-share value
indicates that the ASP is operating in Load-share mode and will no
longer share in the traffic distribution with any other currently active
ASPs.  In New Traffic mode
the ASP wishes to take on traffic in the AS but does not expect to
receive messages related to calls/transactions that are pending
completion in another ASP.

An SG

A node that receives an ASPAC with an incorrect type for a particular
Routing Context will respond ASPIA with an Error Message.

The optional Routing Context parameter contains (a list of) integers
indexing the Application Server traffic that the sending ASP is
configured/registered to receive.  There is one-to-one relationship
between an index entry and an SG Routing Key or AS Name.  Because an AS
can only appear in one Network Appearance, the Network Appearance
parameter is not required in the ASPAC message

An Application Server Process may be configured to process traffic for
more than one logical Application Server.  From the perspective of an
ASP, incorrect Type for a particular
Routing Context defines a range of signaling traffic that the
ASP is currently configured to receive from the SG.  For example, will respond with an
ASP could be configured to support call processing for multiple ranges
of PSTN trunks and therefore receive related signaling traffic,
identified by separate SS7 DPC/OPC/CIC_ranges. Error Message (Cause: Invalid
Traffic Handling Mode.

The format and description of the optional Routing Context and Info
String parameter parameters is the same as for the DUNA ASPAC message (See Section 2.3.2.1.)

2.4.4
2.3.3.3.)

3.4.8 ASP Inactive (ASPIA) Ack

The ASPIA Ack message is sent by an ASP to indicate to an SG that it is no
longer an active ASP to be used from within a list of ASPs.  The SG
will respond with to acknowledge an ASPIA ASP-Inactive message and either discard incoming messages
or buffer for
received from a timed period and then discard. remote M3UA peer.

The ASPIA Ack message contains the following parameters:

     Type               Mandatory
     Routing Context (Optional)    Optional
     INFO String (Optional)        Optional

The format for the ASPIA Ack message parameters is as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                             Type                              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Tag (0x6) = 6            |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   \                                                               \
   |                       Routing Context*                        |
   \                                                               \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Tag (0x4) = 4            |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   \                                                               \
   |                          INFO String*                         |
   \                                                               \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

The Type parameter identifies the traffic mode of operation format and description of the ASP
within an AS. The valid values optional Info String parameter is the
same as for Type are shown in the following
table.

    Value          Description
     0x1            Over-ride
     0x2            Load-share
     0x3            Graceful Withdrawal DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.)

The format and description of the optional Type and Routing Context and Info
String parameters is the same as for
the ASPAC message ASP-Inctive message. (See Section
2.3.3.3.)

2.4.5 3.4.7).

3.4.9 Heartbeat (BEAT)

The Heartbeat message is optionally used to ensure that the M3UA peers
are still available to each other.  It is recommended for use when the
M3UA runs over a transport layer other than the SCTP, which has its own
heartbeat.

The BEAT message contains no parameters.

2.5

3.5  Management Messages

2.5.1

3.5.1  Error (ERR)

The ERR Error message is sent when used to notify a peer of an invalid value is found in error event associated
with an incoming message.  For example, the message type might be
unexpected given the current state, or a parameter value might be
invalid.

The ERR message contains the following parameters:

     Error Code                 Mandatory
     Diagnostic Information (optional)     Optional

The format for the ERR message is as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                          Error Code                           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Tag (0x7) = 7            |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   \                                                               \
   |                     Diagnostic Information*                   |
   \                                                               \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

Error Code: 32-bits (unsigned integer)

The Error Code parameter indicates the reason for the Error Message.
The Error parameter value can be one of the following values:

     Invalid Version                        0x1
     Invalid Network Appearance             0x2
     Invalid Adaptation Layer Identifier    0x3
     Invalid Message Type                   0x4
     Invalid Traffic Handling Mode          0x5

The
     Unexpected Message Type                0x6
     Protocol Error                         0x7

Diagnostic Information: variable length

When included, the optional Diagnostic information can be any
information germain germane to the error condition, to assist in identification
of the error condition.  In the case of an Invalid Version Error Code Network Appearance,
Adaptation Layer Identifier or Traffic Handling Mode, the Diagnostic
information includes the supported Version received parameter.  In the other cases, the
Diagnostic information may be the first 40 bytes of the
offending message. offending
message.

In the case of an Invalid Version Error Code, the Common Header contains
the supported Version.

Error messages are not generated in response to other Error messages.

2.5.2

3.5.2 Notify (NTFY)

The Notify message used to provide an autonomous indication of M3UA
events to an M3UA peer.

The NTFY message contains the following parameters:

     Status Type                Mandatory
     Status Identification      Mandatory
     Routing Context (Optional)            Optional
     INFO String (Optional)                Optional

The format for the NTFY message is as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        Status Type            |    Status Identification      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |          Tag (0x6) = 6              |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   \                                                               \
   |                       Routing Context*                        |
   \                                                               \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |          Tag (0x4) = 4              |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   \                                                               \
   |                          INFO String*                         |
   \                                                               \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

Status Type: 16-bits (unsigned integer)

The Status Type parameter identifies the type of the Notify message.
Following are the valid Status Type values:

      Value          Description
       0x1

         1     Application Server state change (AS_State_Change)
       0x2   Application Server Process state change (ASP_State_Change)
       0x3
         2     Other

Status Information: 16-bits (unsigned integer)

The Status Information parameter contains more detailed information for
the notification, based on the value of the Status Type.

If the Status Type is AS_State_Change the following Status Information
values are used:

      Value          Description
       0x1

         1    Application Server Down (AS_Down)
       0x2
         2    Application Server Up (AS_Up)
       0x3
         3    Application Server Active (AS_Active)
       0x4
         4    Application Server Pending (AS_Pending)

These notifications are sent from an SG to an
         5    Alternate ASP upon a change in
status of a particular Application Server.  The value reflects the new
state of the Application Server.

If the Status type is ASP_State_Change, the Status Information values
are:

      Value          Description
       0x1	 Application Server Process (ASP) Down
       0x2	 Application Server Process (ASP) Up
       0x3	 Application Server Process (ASP) Active
       0x4	 Application Server Process (ASP) Active_Old
       0x5   Application Server Process (ASP) Active_New
         6    Insufficient ASPs

These notifications are sent from an SG to an ASP upon a change in
status of a particular Application Server process within the ASP list
of a particular Application Server.  The value reflects the new
state of the Application Server Process. Server.

If the Status Type is Other, then the following Status Information
values are defined:

      Value          Description
       0x1

         1    Insufficient ASP resources active in AS

This notification is not based on the SG reporting the state change of
an ASP or AS.  For the value defined the SG is indicating to an ASP(s)
in the AS that another ASP is required in order to handle the load of
the AS.

The format and description of the optional Routing Context and Info
String parameters is the same as for the ASPAC message (See Section
2.3.3.3.)

3.0
3.4.6.)

4.0 Procedures

The M3UA layer needs to respond to various local primitives it receives
from other the SCTP and M3UA-User layers and Layer Management as well as the
messages that it receives from the peer M3UA layers.  This section
describes the M3UA procedures in response to these events.

3.1

4.1 Procedures to support the services of the M3UA layer

The services of the M3UA layer are described in Section 1.4.1.  These
procedures support the M3UA transport of MTP3-User/MTP3 boundary
primitives.

3.1.1

4.1.1 Receipt of Local primitives from the M3UA-User

On receiving an MTP-Transfer primitive from an upper layer, or the nodal
inter-working function at an SG, the M3UA layer will send a
corresponding Data message (see Section 2) to its M3UA peer.  The M3UA
layer must fill in various fields of the common and specific headers
correctly.

At an SG, the M3UA address translation and mapping function determines
the Application Server (AS) based on the information in the incoming
message.  From an ordered list of ASPs within the AS table, an Active
ASP is selected and a Data message is constructed and issued on the
corresponding SCTP Association.  If more than one ASP is active (i.e.,
traffic is to be load-shared across all the active ASPs), one of the
active ASPs from the list is selected.  The selection algorithm is
implementation dependent but could be roud-robin or based on, for
example, the SLS or ISUP CIC.  The appropriate selection algorithm must
be chosen carefully as it is dependent on application assumptions and
understanding of the degree of state coordination between the active
ASPs in the AS.

In addition, the message needs to be sent on the appropriate SCTP
stream, again taking care to meet the message sequencing needs of the
signaling
signalling application.

3.2 Procedures to support

4.1.2 Receipt of primitives from the M3UA services in Section 1.4.2

3.2.1 Local Layer Management primitives procedures

On receiving these primitives from the local layer management, Layer Management, the M3UA
layer will send the corresponding management message (Error) to its
peer.  The M3UA layer must fill in the various fields of the common and
specific headers correctly.

3.2.2

4.2 Receipt of Peer Management messages

Upon receipt of Management messages, the M3UA layer must invoke the
corresponding Layer Management primitive indications (M-ERROR ind.) to
the local layer management.

3.3

4.3 Procedures to support the M3UA services in Section 1.4.4

These procedures support the M3UA management of SCTP Associations
between SGs and ASPs

3.3.1 ASPs.

4.3.1 State Maintenance

The M3UA layer on the SG maintains the state of each AS, in each
Appliction
Application Server that it is configured to receive traffic, as input to
the SGs M3UA address translation and mapping function.

3.3.1.1

4.3.1.1  ASP States

The state of each ASP, in each AS that it is configured, is maintained
in the M3UA layer in the SG. The state of a particular ASP in a
particular AS changes due to events. The events include:

   * Reception of messages from the peer M3UA layer at the ASP
   * Reception of some messages from the peer M3UA layer at other ASPs
     in the AS
   * Reception of indications from the SCTP layer
   * Switch-over Time triggers

The ASP state transition diagram is shown in Figure 4.  The possible
states of an ASP are:

ASP-DOWN: The remote M3UA peer at the ASP is unavailable and/or the SCTP
association is down.  Initially all ASPs will be in this state.

ASP-UP: The remote M3UA peer at the ASP is available (and the SCTP
association is up) but application traffic is stopped.

ASP-ACTIVE: The remote M3UA peer at the ASP is available and
application traffic is active (for a particular Routing Context or set
of Routing Contexts).

ASP-ACT-OLD: all ASPs will be in this state.

ASP-UP: The remote M3UA peer at the ASP is available and (and the SCTP
association is up) but application traffic is active (for a particular Routing Context or set
of Routing Contexts), but for draining of current call/transactions
only (i.e., no new calls/transactions)

ASP-ACT-NEW: stopped.

ASP-ACTIVE: The remote M3UA peer at the ASP is available and application
traffic is active (for a particular Routing Context or set of Routing Contexts), but for new calls/transactions only (i.e., not
for traffic related to completing calls/transactions in another ASP).
Contexts).

                 Figure 4: ASP State Transition Diagram

                                  +-------------+
           |----------------------|
           +----------------------|             |
           |       Some other    /|   Alternate  +-------| ASP-ACTIVE |<--------\  |<------------+
           |       ASP        /    |       +-------------+             |
           |    Takeover  /  |           ^     |                 | Ts
           |               /              |    ASP    |     | ASP             |
           |              /              |    Active |     | Inactive        | ASP
           |              |             v           |     v                 |Takeover
           |              |       +-------------+      +-------------+       +-------------+             |
           |              |       |             |-------------+
           |       |             |
           | | ASP-ACT-OLD |----->|              +------>|   ASP-UP     |------>| ASP-ACT-NEW    |-------------+
           |
           | +-------------+ Ts / +-------------+ ASP                      +-------------+             |
           |    ASP Inactive                          ^    |        Takeover   |
           |<---|                  |    |                   |
           |                       |    |                  |
 ASP Down/ |                     ASP  |    | ASP Down /       | ASP
 SCTP CDI  |                     Up   |    | SCTP CDI         | Down/
           |                          |    v                  | SCTP
           |                      +-------------+             | CDI
           |                      |             |             |
           |------------------>|             |<-------------|
           +--------------------->|             |<------------+
                                  |  ASP-DOWN   |
                                  +-------------+

SCTP CDI: The local SCTP layer's Communication Down Indication to the
Upper Layer Protocol (M3UA) on an SG. The local SCTP will send this
indication when it detects the loss of connectivity to the ASP's peer
SCTP layer.

Ts: Switch-over Time Triggers.  This timer is configurable by the
Operator
0perator on a per AS basis.

3.3.1.2

4.3.1.2  AS States

The state of the AS is maintained in the M3UA layer on the SG.

The state of an AS changes due to events. These events include:

   * ASP state transitions
   * Recovery timer triggers

The possible states of an AS are:

AS-DOWN: The Application Server is unavailable.  This state implies that
all related ASPs are in the ASP-DOWN state for this AS. Initially the AS
will be in this state.

AS-UP: The Application Server is available but no application traffic is
active (i.e., one or more related ASPs are in the ASP-UP state, but none
in the ASP-Active state).

AS-ACTIVE: The Application Server is available and application traffic
is active.  This state implies that one ASP is in the ASP-ACTIVE state.

AS-PENDING: An active ASP has transitioned from active to inactive or
down and it was the last remaining active ASP in the AS. A recovery
timer T(r) will be started and all incoming SCN messages will be queued
by the SG. If an ASP becomes active before T(r) expires, the AS will
move to AS-ACTIVE state and all the queued messages will be sent to the
active ASP.

If T(r) expires before an ASP becomes active, the SG stops queuing
messages and discards all previously queued messages. The AS will move
to AS-UP if at least one ASP is in ASP-UP state, otherwise it will move
to AS-DOWN state.

                 Figure 5: AS State Transition Diagram

      +----------+   one ASP trans to ACTIVE   +-------------+
      |          |------------------------>|          |---------------------------->|             |
      |  AS-UP   |                             |  AS-ACTIVE  |
      |          |                         |             |
      |          |<                       -|          |<---                       --|             |
      +----------+    \                     /  +-------------+
         ^   |         \ Tr Trigger Expiry,        /       ^    |
         |   |          \ at least one    /        |    |
         |   |           \ ASP in UP     /         |    |
         |   |            \             /          |    |
         |   |             \           /           |    |
         |   |              \     /---/ /-------/            |    |
 one ASP |   |            \ all ASP       /            one ASP  |    | Last ACTIVE
ASP
 trans   |   | all ASP     \-/----\ trans to     / \           trans to |    | trans to UP or
 to UP   |   | trans to DOWN        /      \   -------\   ACTIVE   |    | DOWN
         |   | DOWN            /            \           |    |
         |   |           /              \          |    |
         |   |          /                \         |    |
         |   |         /all ASP           \        |    |
         |   v        / trans to           \       |    v
      +----------+   /  DOWN                \  +-------------+
      |          |<--/                    -|          |<-/                        --|             |
      | AS-DOWN  |                             | AS-PENDING  |
      |          |                             |  (queueing) |
      |          |<------------------------|          |<----------------------------|             |
      +----------+       Tr Trigger Expiry no ASP      +-------------+
                         in UP state

    Tr = Recovery Timer

3.3.2

4.3.2 ASPM procedures for primitives

Before the establishment of an SCTP association the ASP state at both
the SG and ASP is assumed to be "Down".

As the ASP is responsible for initiating the setup of an SCTP
association to an SG, the M3UA layer at an ASP receives an M-SCTP
ESTABLISH request primitive from the Layer Management, the M3UA layer
will try to establish an SCTP association with the remote M3UA peer at
an SG.  Upon reception of an eventual SCTP-Communication Up confirm
primitive from the SCTP, the M3UA layer will invoke the primitive M-
SCTP M-SCTP
ESTABLISH confirm to the Layer Management.

At the SG, the

The M3UA layer layers at the SG will receive an SCTP Communication Up SCTP-Communication_Up
indication primitive from the SCTP. SCTP when the association is successfully
set up.  The M3UA layer will then invoke the primitive M-SCTP ESTABLISH
indication to the Layer Management.

Once the SCTP association is established, The M3UA layer at an ASP will
then find out the state of its local M3UA-user from the Layer
Management using the primitive M-ASP STATUS.  Based on the status of established and assuming that the local M3UA-User,
M3UA-User is ready, the local ASP M3UA Application Server Process
Maintenance (ASPM) function will initiate the ASPM procedures, using the
ASP-Up/-Down/-Active/-Inactive messages to convey the ASP-state to the
SG - see Section 3.3.3. 4.3.3.

If the M3UA layer subsequently receives an SCTP-Communication Down
indication from the underlying SCTP layer, it will inform the Layer
Management by invoking the M-SCTP STATUS indication primitive. The state
of the remote ASP will be moved to "Down" at both the SG and ASP. "Down".

At an ASP, the Layer Management may try to reestablish re-establish the SCTP
association using M-SCTP ESTABLISH request primitive.

3.3.3

4.3.3 ASPM procedures for peer-to-peer messages

All ASPM messages are sent on a sequenced stream to ensure ordering.
SCTP stream '0' is used.

3.3.3.1

4.3.3.1 ASP-Up

After an ASP has successfully established an SCTP association to an SG,
the SG waits for the ASP to send an ASP-Up message, indicating that the
ASP M3UA peer is available.  The ASP is always the initiator of the
ASP-Up ASP-
Up exchange.

When an ASP-Up message is received at an SG and internally the ASP is
not considered locked-out for local management reasons, the SG marks the
remote ASP as 'Up'.  The SG responds with an Notify (ASP-Up) ASP-Up Ack message to the
ASP in
acknowledgement.  The SG sends a Notify (ASP-Up) an-Up Ack message in response to a
received ASP-Up message from the ASP even if the ASP is already marked as "Up" at the
SG.

If for any local reason the SG cannot respond with an ASP-Up, ASP-Up Ack, the SG
responds to a an ASP-Up with a ASP-Down message.

At the ASP, the Notify (ASP-Up) ASP-Up Ack message received from the SG is not
acknowledged by the ASP.  If the ASP does not receive a response from
the SG, or an ASP-Down is received, the ASP may resend ASP-Up messages
every 2 seconds until it receives a Notify (ASP-Up) an ASP-Up Ack message from the SG.
The ASP may decide to reduce the frequency (say to every 5 seconds) if a Notify (ASP-Up)
an ASP-Up Ack is not received after a few tries.

The ASP must wait for the Notify (ASP-Up) ASP-Up Ack message from the SG before sending
any ASP traffic control messages (ASPAC or ASPIA) or Data messages or it
will risk message loss.  If the SG receives Data messages before an ASP
Up is received, the SG should discard.

3.3.3.2

4.3.3.2 ASP-Down

The ASP will send an ASP-Down to an SG when the ASP is to be removed
from the list of ASPs in all Application Servers that it is a member.

The SG marks the ASP as "Down" and returns an Notify (ASP-Down) ASP-Down Ack message to
the ASP if one of the following events occur:

    - an ASP-Down message is received from the ASP,
    - another ASPM message is received from the ASP and the SG has
      locked out the ASP for management reasons.

The SG sends a Notify (ASP-Down) an ASP-Down Ack message in response to a received ASP-
Down ASP-Down
message from the ASP even if the ASP is already marked as "Down" at the
SG.

If the ASP does not receive a response from the SG, the ASP may send
ASP-Down messages every 2 seconds until it receives a an ASP-Down Ack
message from the SG or the SCTP association goes down.  The ASP may
decide to reduce the frequency (say to every 5 seconds) if an ASP-Down
Ack is not received after a few tries.

3.3.3.3

4.3.3.3 M3UA Version Control

If a an ASP-Up message with an unsupported version is received, the
receiving end responds with an Error message, indicating the version the
receiving node supports.

This is useful when protocol version upgrades are being performed in a
network.  A node upgraded to a newer version should support the older
versions used on other nodes it is communicating with.  Because ASPs
initiate the ASP-Up procedure it is assumed that the Error message would
normally come from the SG.

3.3.3.4

4.3.3.4 ASP-Active

Anytime after the ASP has received a Notify (ASP-Up) acknowledgement an ASP-Up Ack from the SG, the ASP
sends an ASP-Active (ASPAC) to the SG indicating that the ASP is ready
to start processing traffic.  In the case where an ASP is
configured/registered to process the traffic for more than one
Application Server across an SCTP association, the ASPAC contains one or
more Routing Contexts to indicate for which Application Servers the
ASPAC applies.

When an ASP Active (ASPAC) message is received, the SG responds to the
ASP with a Notify ASPAC Ack message acknowledging that the ASPAC was received
and starts sending traffic for the associated Application Server(s) to
that ASP.

There are three two modes of Application Server traffic handling in the SG
M3UA - Over-ride, Load-balancing Over-ride and New Traffic. Load-share.  The Type parameter in the ASPAC messge
message indicates the traffic handling mode used in a particular
Application Server. If the SG determines that the mode indicated in an
ASPAC is incompatible with the mode currently used in the AS, the SG
responds with an Error message indicating "Invalid Traffic Handling
Mode".

In the case of an Over-ride mode AS, reception of an ASPAC message at an
SG causes the redirection of all traffic for the AS to the ASP which that sent
the ASPAC.  The SG responds to the ASPAC with an ASP-Active Ack message
to the ASP.  Any previously active ASP in the AS is now considered
Inactive and will no longer receive traffic within from the AS.  The SG
responds to the ASPAC with a Notify (ASP-Active) message to within the ASP. AS.
The SG sends a Notify (ASP-Up) (Alternate ASP-Active) to the previously active
ASP in the AS, after stopping all traffic to the that ASP.

In the case of a Loadshare Load-share mode AS, reception of an ASPAC message at an
SG causes the direction of traffic to the ASP sending the ASPAC, in
addition to all the other ASPs that are currently active in the AS.  The
algorithm at the SG for loadsharing load-sharing traffic within an AS to all the
active ASPs is application and network dependent.  The algorithm could,
for example be round-robin or based on information in the Data message
(e.g, such as the SLS, SCCP SSN, ISUP CIC value), depending on the
requirements of the application and the call/transaction state handling
assumptions of the collection of ASPs in the AS. The SG responds to the
ASPAC with a Notify (ASP-Active) message to the ASP.

In the case of a New Traffic mode AS, reception of an ASPAC message at
an SG causes the direction of traffic to the ASP sending the ASPAC.
However, traffic related to completing calls/transactions in another
ASP is not sent to the new ASP (i.e., new calls/transactions only). How an SG accomplishes the differentiation of old and new transactions and
any loadsharing of traffic is application and implementation dependent.
The SG responds to the ASPAC with a Notify (ASP-Active_New) ASP-Active Ack message to the ASP. After a configurable time Ts, the ASP is moved to the ASP-
Active state and a Notify (ASP-Active) is sent to the ASP.

3.3.3.5

4.3.3.5 ASP Inactive

When an ASP wishes to withdraw from receiving traffic within an AS, the
ASP sends an ASP Inactive (ASPIA) to the SG.  In the case where an ASP
is configured/registered to process the traffic for more than one
Application Server across an SCTP association, the ASPIA contains one or
more Routing Contexts to indicate for which Application Servers the
ASPIA applies.

There are three two modes of Application Server traffic handling in the SG
M3UA when withdrawing an ASP from service - Over-ride, Load-balancing Over-ride and Graceful Withdrawal. Load-share.
The Type parameter in the ASPIA messge message indicates the mode used in a
particular Application Server.  If the SG determines that the mode
indicates in an ASPAC is incompatible with the traffic handling mode
currently used in the AS, the SG responds with an Error message
indicating "Invalid Traffic Handling Mode".

In the case of an Over-ride mode AS, where normally another ASP has
already taken over the traffic within the AS with an Over-ride ASPAC,
the ASP which sent that sends the ASPIA is already considered by the SG to be
"Inactive".  A Notify (ASP_Up)
"Inactive" (i.e., in the "Up" state).  An ASPIA Ack message is resent sent to
the ASP, after ensuring that all traffic is stopped to the ASP.

In the case of a Loadshare Load-share mode AS, the SG moves the ASP to the
"Inactive" "Up"
state and the AS traffic is re-allocated across the remaining "active"
ASPs per the laoadsharing load-sharing algorithm currently used within the AS.  A Notify (ASP-Up)  An
ASPIA Ack message is sent to the ASP after al
traffic is halted to the ASP.

In the case of Graceful Withdrawal, the SG diverts all traffic related
to new calls/transactions to other "active" ASPs and therafter sends
only traffic related to incomplete transactons to the ASP. A Notify
(ASP-Act_Old) is sent to the ASP and the ASP is moved to the
"Active_Old" state.  When the outstanding calls/transactions are
drained, or after a configurable time Ts, the SG moves the ASP to the
"Up" state and sends a Notify (ASP-Up) message halted to the
ASP.

If no other ASPs are "Active" in the Application Server, the SG either
discards all incoming messages (except messages related to an
"Active_Old" ASP) for the AS or starts buffering the
incoming messages for T(r)seconds T(r)seconds, after which messages will be
discarded.  T(r) is configurable by the network operator.  If the SG
receives an ASPAC from
an ASP in the AS before expiry of T(r), the buffered traffic is directed
to the ASP and the timer is cancelled.

3.3.3.6 Notify

In

4.3.3.6 NotifyIn the case where a Notify (AS-Up) message is sent by an
SG that now has no ASPs active to service the traffic, the Notify does
not force the ASP(s) receiving the message to become active. The ASPs
remain in control of what (and when) action is taken.

3.3.3.7

4.3.3.7 Heartbeat

The optional Heartbeat procedures may be used when operating over
transport layers that do not have their own heartbeat mechanism for
detecting loss of the transport association (i.e., other than the SCTP).

Once the ASP sends an ASP-Up message to the SG, the ASP sends Beat
messages periodically, subject to a provisionable timer T(beat).  The SG
M3UA, upon receiving a BEAT message from the ASP, responds with a BEAT
message.  If no BEAT message (or any other M3UA message), is received
from the ASP within the timer 2*T(beat), the ASP will consider the
remote M3UA as 'Down".

At the ASP, if no BEAT message (or any other M3UA message) is received
from the SG within 2*T(beat), the SG is considered unavailable.

Transmission of BEAT messages is stopped and ASP-Up procedures are used
to re-establish communication with the SG M3UA peer.

Note: Heartbeat related events are not shown in Figure 4 "ASP state
transition diagram".

3.4

4.4 Procedures to support the M3UA services in Section 1.4.3

3.4.1

4.4.1 At an SG

On receiving an MTP-PAUSE, MTP-RESUME, or MTP-STATUS indication
primitive from the nodal inter-working function at an SG, the SG M3UA
layer will send a corresponding SSNM DUNA, DAVA, SCON, or DUPU message
(see Section 2) to the M3UA peers at concerned ASPs.  The M3UA layer
must fill in various fields of the SSNM messages consistently with the
information received in the primitives.

The SG M3UA determines the set of concerned ASPs to be informed based on
the SS7 network partition for which the primitive indication is
relevant. In this way, all ASPs configured to send/receive traffic
within a particular network appearance are informed.  If the SG operates
within a single SS7 network appearance, then all ASPs are informed.

Optionally, the SG M3UA may filter further based on the Affected Point
Code in the MTP-PAUSE, MTP-Resume, or MTP-Status indication primitives.
In this way ASPs can be informed only of affected destinations to which
they actually communicate.  The SG M3UA may also suppress DUPU messages
to ASPs that do not implement an MTP3-User protocol peer for the
affected MTP3-User.

DUNA, DAVA, SCON messages must be sent on a sequenced stream as these
primitives should arrive in order.  Stream 0 is used.  Sequencing is not
required for the DUPU or DAUD message, which may optionally be sent
un-sequenced.

3.4.2 un-
sequenced.

4.4.2 At an ASP

At an ASP, upon receiving an SSNM message from the remote M3UA Peer, the
M3UA layer invokes the appropriate primitive indications to the resident
M3UA-Users.  Local management is informed.

3.4.3

4.4.3 ASP Auditing

An ASP may optionally initiate an audit procedure in order to enquire of
an SG the availability or congestion status of an SS7 destination or set
of destinations.  A Destination Audit (DAUD) message is sent from the
ASP to the SG requesting the current availability or congestion status
of one or more SS7 Destination Point Codes.

The DAUD may be sent by the ASP in the following cases.  The DAUD may be
sent unsequenced.

   - Periodic.  A Timer originally set upon reception of DUVA or SCON
     message has expired without a subsequent DAVA, DUVA or SCON
     updating the availability/congestion status of the affected
     Destination Point Codes.  The Timer is reset upon issuing a DAUD.
     In this case the DAUD is sent to the SG that originally sent the
     SSNM message.

   - the ASP is newly "Up" or "Active" or has been isolated from an SG
     for an extended period.  The SG can request the
     availabilty/congestion status of one or more SS7 destinations to
     which it expects to communicate.

In the first case, the DAUD procedure must not be invoked for the case
of a  received SCON containing a congestion level value of "no congestion"
or "undefined" undefined" (i.e., congestion Level = "0").  This is because the value indicates
ndicates either congestion abatement or that the ITU MTP3 international congestion
ongestion method is being used.  In the international congestion method,
the MTP3 at the SG does not maintain the congestion status of any
destinations and therefore cannot provide any congestion information in
response to the DAUD.  For the same reason, in the second case a DAUD
cannot reveal any congested destination(s).

The SG must respond to a DAUD with the MTP3 status of the routeset
associated with each Destination Point Code(s) in the DAUD.  The status
of each SS7 destination requested is indicated in a DUNA (if
unavailable), DAVA (if available/uncongested) or an SCON (if
available/congested).  Optionally, any DUNA or DAVA in response to a
DAUD may contain more than one Affected Point Code.

Note that from the point of view of an ASP sending an DAUD, the
subsequent reception of an SCON implies that the Affected Destination is
available.  The reception of a DAVA implies that the routeset to the
Affected Destination are not congested.  Obviously with the reception of
an DUNA, the routeset to the Affected Destination can not also be
congested.

4.0

5.0 Examples of M3UA Procedures

4.1

5.1 Establishment of Association and Traffic between SGs and ASPs

4.1.1

5.1.1 Single ASP in an Application Server ("1+0" sparing)

This scenario shows the example M3UA message flows for the establishment
of traffic between an SG and an ASP, where only one ASP is configured
within an AS (no backup).  It is assumed that the SCTP association is
already set-up.

             SG                       ASP1
              |
              |<---------ASP Up----------|
              |------NTFY (ASP-Up)------>|
              |-------ASP-Up Ack-------->|
              |                      -   |
              |<-------ASP Active--------|
              |----NTFY (ASP_Active)---->|
              |-----ASP Active Ack------>|
              |                          |

4.1.2

5.1.2 Two ASPs in Application Server ("1+1" sparing)

This scenario shows the example M3UA message flows for the establishment
of traffic between an SG and two ASPs in the same Application Server,
where ASP1 is configured to be "active" and ASP2 a "standby" in the
event of communication failure or the withdrawal from service of ASP1.
ASP2 may act as a hot, warm, or cold standby depending on the extent to
which ASP1 and ASP2 share call/transaction state or can communicate call
state under failure/withdrawal events.  The example message flow is the
same whether the ASP-Active messages are Over-ride or Load-share mode
although typically this example would use an Over-ride mode.

       SG                        ASP1                        ASP2
        |                         |                          |
        |<--------ASP Up----------|                          |
        |-------TFY (ASP-Up)----->|
        |-------ASP-Up Ack------->|                          |
        |                         |                          |
        |<-----------------------------ASP Up----------------|
        |----------------------------NTFY (ASP-Up)---------->|
        |-----------------------------ASP-Up Ack------------>|
        |                         |                          |
        |                         |                          |
        |<-------ASP Active-------|                          |
        |----NTFY(ASP-Active)---->|
        |------ASP-Active Ack---->|                          |
        |                         |                          |

4.1.3

5.1.3 Two ASPs in an Application Server ("1+1" sparing, load-sharing
case)

This scenario shows a similar case to Section 4.1.2 but where the two
ASPs are brought to "active" and loadshare load-share the traffic load.  In this
case, one ASP is sufficient to handle the total traffic load.

       SG                       ASP1                       ASP2
        |                         |                          |
        |<---------ASP Up---------|                          |
        |-------NTFY(ASP-Up)----->|
        |--------ASP-Up Ack------>|                          |
        |                         |                          |
        |<------------------------------ASP Up---------------|
        |-----------------------------NTFY(ASP Up)---------->|
        |-----------------------------ASP Up Ack------------>|
        |                         |                          |
        |                         |                          |
        |<--ASP Active (Ldshr)----|                          |
        |----NTFY(ASP-Active)---->|
        |-----ASP-Active Ack----->|                          |
        |                         |                          |
        |<----------------------------ASP Active (Ldshr)-----|
        |-----------------------------NTFY(ASP-Active)------>|
        |-------------------------------ASP-Active Ack------>|
        |                         |                          |

4.1.4

5.1.4 Three ASPs in an Application Server ("n+k" sparing, load-sharing
case)

This scenario shows the example M3UA message flows for the establishment
of traffic between an SG and three ASPs in the same Application Server,
where two of the ASPs are brought to "active" and share the load. In
this case, a minimum of two ASPs are required to handle the total
traffic load (2+1 sparing).

   SG                  ASP1                 ASP2                 ASP3
    |                    |                   |                   |
    |<------ASP Up-------|                   |                   |
    |----NTFY(ASP-Up)--->|
    |-----ASP-Up Ack---->|                   |                   |
    |                    |                   |                   |
    |<--------------------------ASP Up-------|                   |
    |------------------------NTFY(ASP-Up)--->|
    |-------------------------ASP-Up Ack)--->|                   |
    |                    |                   |                   |
    |<---------------------------------------------ASP Up--------|
    |--------------------------------------------NTFY(ASP-Up)--->|
    |---------------------------------------------ASP-Up Ack---->|
    |                    |                   |                   |
    |                    |                   |                   |
    |<-ASP Act.
    |<--ASP Act (Ldshr)--|                   |                   |
    |---NTFY(ASP-Act.)-->|
    |----ASP-Act Ack---->|                   |                   |
    |                    |                   |                   |
    |<--------------------ASP Act. (Ldshr)---|                   |
    |----------------------NTFY(ASP-Act.)--->|
    |-----------------------ASP-Act Ack----->|                   |
    |                    |                   |                   |

4.2

5.2 ASP Traffic Fail-over Examples

4.2.1

5.2.1 (1+1 Sparing, withdrawal of ASP, Back-up Over-ride)

Following on from the example in Section 4.1.2, and ASP withdraws from
service:

       SG                       ASP1                       ASP2
        |                         |                          |
        |<-----ASP Inactive-------|                          |
        |---NTFY(ASP Inactive)--->|
        |----ASP Inactive Ack---->|                          |
        |--------------------NTFY(ASP-Inactive)
        |-------------------------NTFY(AS-Down) (Optional)-->|
        |                         |                          |
        |<------------------------------ ASP Active----------|
        |-----------------------------NTFY(ASP-Active)------>|
        |------------------------------ASP-Active Ack)------>|
        |                                                    |

Note: If the SG detects loss of the M3UA peer (M3UA heartbeat loss or
detection of SCTP failure), the initial SG-ASP1 ASP Inactive message
exchange would not occur.

4.2.2

5.2.2 (1+1 Sparing, Back-up Over-ride)

Following on from the example in Section 4.1.2, and ASP2 wishes to
over-ride over-
ride ASP1 and take over the traffic:

       SG                       ASP1                       ASP2
        |                         |                          |
        |<------------------------------ ASP Active----------|
        |-----------------------------NTFY(ASP-Active)------>|
        |----NTFY(ASP-Inactive)-->|
        |-------------------------------ASP-Active Ack------>|
        |----NTFY(Alt ASP-Act)--->|
        |                         |                          |

4.2.3

5.2.3 (n+k Sparing, Load-sharing case, withdrawal of ASP)

Following on from the example in Section 4.1.4, and ASP1 withdraws from
service:

   SG                  ASP1                 ASP2                 ASP3
    |                    |                   |                   |
    |<----ASP Inact.-----|                   |                   |
    |--NTFY(ASP-Inact.)->|
    |---ASP-Inact Ack--->|                   |                   |
    |                    |                   |                   |
    |---------------------------------NTFY(Ins. ASPs)(Optional)->|
    |                    |                   |                   |
    |<-----------------------------------------ASP Act. (Ldshr)--| Act (Ldshr)---|
    |-------------------------------------------ASP Act. (Ack)-->| Act (Ack)--->|
    |                    |                   |                   |

The Notify message to ASP3 is optional, as well as the ASP-Active from
ASP3.  The optional Notify can only occur if the SG maintains knowledge
of the minimum ASP resources required  for example if the SG knows that
"n+k" = "2+1" for a loadshare load-share AS and "n" currently equals "1".

Note: If the SG detects loss of the ASP1 M3UA peer (M3UA heartbeat loss
or detection of SCTP failure), the first SG-ASP1 ASP Inactive message
exchange would not occur.

4.3

5.3  M3UA/MTP3-User Boundary Examples

4.3.1

5.3.1 At an ASP

This section describes the primitive mapping from the MTP3 User to M3UA
at an ASP.

4.3.1.1

5.3.1.1 Support for MTP-Transfer on the ASP

4.3.1.1.1

5.3.1.1.1 Support for MTP-Transfer Request
When the MTP3-User on the ASP has data to send into the SS7 network, it
will use the MTP-Transfer Request primitive.  The M3UA on the ASP will
do the following when it receives an MTP-Transfer Request primitive from
the M3UA user:

  - Determine the correct SG

  - Determine the correct association to the chosen SG

  - Determine the correct stream in the association (e.g., based on
    SLS)

  - Determine whether to complete the optional fields of the Data
    message

  - Map the MTP-Transfer Request primitive into the Protocol Data
    field of an m3ua Data message

  - Send the Data message to the remote M3UA peer in the SG, over the
    SCTP association

        SG                       ASP
        |                         |
        |<-----Data Message-------|<--MTP-Transfer req.
        |                         |

4.3.1.1.2

5.3.1.1.2 Support for MTP Transfer Indication

When the M3UA on the ASP has received Data messages from the remote M3UA
peer in the SG it will do the following:

  - Evaluate the optional fields of the Data message if present

  - Map the Payload of a Data message into the MTP-Transfer Indication
    primitive

  - Pass the MTP-Transfer Indication primitive to the user part. In
    case of multiple user parts, the optional fields of the Data
    message are used to determine the concerned user part.

        SG                       ASP
        |                         |
        |------Data Message------>|---MTP-Transfer ind.? ind.
        |                         |

4.3.1.1.3

5.3.1.1.3 Support for ASP Querying of SS7 Destination States

There are situations such as temporary loss of connectivity to the SG
that may cause the M3UA on the ASP to audit SS7 destination availability
states.  Note: there is no primitive for the MTP3-User to request this
audit from the M3UA as this is initiated by an internal M3UA management
function.

The M3UA on the ASP normally sends Destination State Audit (DAUD)
messages for each of the destinations that the ASP supports.

       SG                        ASP
        |                         |
        |<-----DAUD Message ------|
        |<-----DAUD Message ------|
        |<-----DAUD Message ------|
        |                         |
        |                         |

4.3.2

5.3.2 At an SG

This section describes the MTP3 upper layer primitive mapping to the
M3UA at the SG.

4.3.2.1

5.3.2.1 Support for MTP-Transfer Request at the SG

When the M3UA on the SG has received Data messages from its peer
destined to the SS7 network it will do the following:

  - Evaluate the optional fields of the Data message if present to
    determine the network appearance

  - Map the Protocol data of the Data message into an MTP-Transfer
    Request primitive

  - Pass the MTP-Transfer Request primitive to the MTP3 of the
    concerned network appearance.

                            SG                        ASP
                             |                         |
        <---MTP-Transfer req.|<------Data Message------|
                             |                         |

4.3.2.2

5.3.2.2 Support for MTP-Transfer Indication at the SG

When the MTP3 on the SG has data to pass its user parts, it will use the
MTP-Transfer Indication primitive.  The M3UA on the S>G will do the
following when it receives an MTP-Transfer Indication:

  - Determine the correct ASP

  - Determine the correct association to the chosen ASP

  - Determine the correct stream in the association (e.g., based on
    SLS)

  - Determine whether to complete the optional fields of the Data
    message

  - Map the MTP-Transfer Indication primitive into the Protocol Data
    field of an M3UA Data message

  - Send the Data message to the remote M3UA peer in the ASP, over the
    SCTP association

                           SG                        ASP
                            |                         |
       --MTP-Transfer ind.->|------Data Message------>|
                            |                         |

4.3.2.3

5.3.2.3 Support for MTP-PAUSE, MTP-RESUME, MTP-STATUS

The MTP-PAUSE, MTP-RESUME and MTP-STATUS indication primitives from the
MTP3 upper layer interface at the SG need to be made available to the
remote MTP3 User Part lower layer interface at the concerned ASP(s).

4.3.2.3.1

5.3.2.3.1 Destination Unavailable

The MTP3 on the SG will generate an MTP-PAUSE primitive when it
determines locally that an SS7 destination is unreachable.  The M3UA
will map this primitive to a Destination Unavailable (DUNA) message.  It
will determine which ASP(s) to send the DUNA based on the Network
Appearance information.

                   SG                       ASP
                    |                         |
 --MTP-PAUSE ind.-->|------DUNA Message ----->|--MTP-PAUSE ind.-->
                    |                         |

4.3.2.3.2

5.3.2.3.2 Destination Available

The MTP3 on the SG will generate an MTP-RESUME primitive when it
determines locally that an SS7 destination that was previously
unreachable is now reachable.  The M3UA will map this primitive to a
Destination Unavailable (DAVA) message.  It will determine which ASP(s)
to send the DUNA based on the Network Appearance information.

                   SG                       ASP
                    |                         |
--MTP-RESUME ind.-->|------DAVA Message ----->|--MTP-RESUME ind.-->
                    |                         |

4.3.2.3.3

5.3.2.3.3  SS7 Network Congestion

The MTP3 on the SG will generate an MTP-STATUS primitive when it
determines locally that the route to an SS7 destination is congested.
The M3UA will map this primitive to a SS7 Network Congestion State
(SCON) message.  It will determine which ASP(s) to send the DUPU to
based on the intended Application Server.

                     SG                       ASP
                       |                         |
   --MTP-STATUS ind.-->|------SCON Message ----->|--MTP-STATUS ind.-->
                       |                         |

4.3.2.3.4

5.3.2.3.4 Destination User Part Unavailable

The MTP3 on the SG will generate an MTP-STATUS primitive when it
determines locally that an SS7 destination User Part is unavailable.
The M3UA will map this primitive to a Destination User Part Unavailable
(DUPU) message.  It will determine which ASP(s) to send the DUPU to based
on the intended Application Server.

                      SG                       ASP
                       |                         |
   --MTP-STATUS ind.-->|------DUPU Message ----->|--MTP-STATUS ind.-->
                       |                         |

5.0

6.0 Security

5.1

6.1 Introduction

M3UA is designed to carry signaling signalling messages for telephony services. As
such, M3UA must involve the security needs of several parties: the end
users of the services; the network providers and the applications
involved.  Additional requirements may come from local regulation.
While having some overlapping security needs, any security solution
should fulfill all of the different parties' needs.

5.2

6.2 Threats

There is no quick fix, one-size-fits-all solution for security.  As a
transport protocol, M3UA has the following security objectives:

 * Availability of reliable and timely user data transport.
 * Integrity of user data transport.
 * Confidentiality of user data.

M3UA runs on top of SCTP.  SCTP [6] provides certain transport related
security features, such as: as some protection against:

 * Blind Denial of Service Attacks
 * Flooding
 * Masquerade
 * Improper Monopolization of Services

When M3UA is running in professionally managed corporate or service
provider network, it is reasonable to expect that this network includes
an appropriate security policy framework. The "Site Security Handbook"
[21] should be consulted for guidance.

When the network in which M3UA runs in involves more than one party, it
may not be reasonable to expect that all parties have implemented
security in a sufficient manner.  In such a case, it is recommended that

IPSEC is used to ensure confidentiality of user payload.  Consult [22]
for more information on configuring IPSEC services.

5.3

6.3 Protecting Confidentiality

Particularly for mobile users, the requirement for confidentiality may
include the masking of IP addresses and ports.  In this case application
level encryption is not sufficient; IPSEC ESP should be used instead.
Regardless of which level performs the encryption, the IPSEC ISAKMP
service should be used for key management.

6.0

7.0 IANA Considerations

A request will be made to IANA to assign an M3UA value for the Payload
Protocol Identifier in SCTP Payload Data chunk.  The following SCTP
Payload Protocol Identifier will be registered:

        M3UA    tbd

The SCTP Payload Protocol Identifier is included in each SCTP Data
chunk, to indicate which protocol the SCTP is carrying. This Payload
Protocol Identifier is not directly used by SCTP but may be used by
certain network entities to identify the type of information being
carried in a Data chunk.

The User Adaptation peer may use the Payload Protocol Identifier as a
way of determining additional information about the data being presented
to it by SCTP.

7.0

8.0 Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank John Loughney, Neil Olson, Norm Glaude, Michael
Tuexen, Nikhil Jain, Steve Lorusso, Dan Brendes, Heinz Prantner Prantner, Barry
Nagelberg for their valuable comments and suggestions.

8.0

9.0  References

[1] RFC 2719, "Framework Architecture for Signaling Transport"

[2] ITU-T Recommendations Q.761 to Q.767, 'Signalling System No.7 (SS7)
     ISDN User Part (ISUP)'

[3] ANSI T1.113 - 'Signaling System Number 7  ISDN User Part

[4] ETSI ETS 300 356-1 "Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN);
    Signalling System No.7; ISDN User Part (ISUP) version 2 for the
    international interface; Part 1: Basic services"

[5] ITU-T Recommendations Q.711-715, 'Signalling System No. 7 (SS7) -
    Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP)'

[6] ANSI T1.112 'Signaling System Number 7  Signaling Connection
    Control Part'

[7] ETSI ETS 300 009-1, "Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN);
    Signalling System No.7; Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP)
    (connectionless and connection-oriented class 2) to support
    international interconnection; Part 1: Protocol specification"

[8] ITU-T Recommendations Q.720, 'Telephone User Part'

[9] ITU-T Recommendation Q.771-775 'Signalling System No. 7 SS7) -
    Transaction Capabilities (TCAP)

[10] ANSI T1.114 'Signaling System Number 7  Transaction Capabilities
     Application Part'

[11] ETSI ETS 300 287-1, "Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN);
     Signalling System No.7; Transaction Capabilities (TC) version 2;
     Part 1: Protocol specification"

[12] 3G TS 25.410 V3.1.0 (2000-01) Technical Specification  3rd
     Generation partnership Project; Technical Specification Group
     Radio Access Network; UTRAN Iu Interface: General Aspects and
     Principles (3G TS 25.410 Version 3.1.0 Release 1999)

[13] Simple Stream Control Transport Protocol <draft-ietf-sigtran-sctp-
     05.txt>, Dec. 1999,
     13.txt>, July 2000, Work in Progress

[14] ITU-T Recommendations Q.701-Q.705, 'Signalling System No. 7 (SS7)
     - Message Transfer Part (MTP)'

[15] ANSI T1.111 'Signalling 'Signaling System Number 7 - Message Transfer Part'

[16] ETSI ETS 300 008-1, "Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN);
     Signalling System No.7; Message Transfer Part (MTP) to support
     international interconnection; Part 1: Protocol specification"

[17] ITU-T Recommendation Q.2140 'B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer - Service
     Specific Coordination Function for signaling signalling at the Network Node
     Interface (SSCF at NNI)

[18] ITU-T Recommendation Q.2110 'B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer - Service
     Specific Connection Oriented Protocol (SSCOP)

[19] MTP2-User Adaptation Layer <draft-ietf-sigtran-m2ua-01.txt>, Nov.
     1999, Work in Progress

[20] ITU-T Recommendation Q.2210 'B-ISDN MTP'

[21] RFC 2196, "Site Security Handbook", B. Fraser Ed., September 1997

[22] RFC 2401, "Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol", S.
Kent, R. Atkinson, November 1998.

9.0

10.0  Author's Addresses

Lyndon Ong
Nortel Networks
4401 Great America Pkwy
Santa Clara, CA, USA  95054
long@nortelnetworks.com

Greg Sidebottom
Nortel Networks
3685 Richmond Rd,
Nepean, Ontario, Canada  K2H 5B7
gregside@nortelnetworks.com

Guy Mousseau
Nortel Networks
3685 Richmond Rd
Nepean, Ontario, Canada  K2H 5B7

Ian Rytina
Ericsson Australia
37/360 Elizabeth Street
Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia
ian.rytina@ericsson.com

Hanns Juergen Schwarzbauer
SIEMENS AG
Hofmannstr. 51
81359 Munich, Germany
HannsJuergen.Schwarzbauer@icn.siemens.de

Ken Morneault
Cisco Systems Inc.
13615 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon, VA, USA  20171
EMail: kmorneau@cisco.com

Malleswar Kalla
Telcordia Technologies
MCC 1J211R
445 South Street
Morristown, NJ, USA  07960
EMail: kalla@research.telcordia.com

Normand Glaude
Performance Technologies
150 Metcalf Sreet, Suite 1300
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada  K2P 1P1
EMail: nglaude@microlegend.com

This draft expires September December 2000.