draft-ietf-sigtran-m3ua-03.txt   draft-ietf-sigtran-m3ua-04.txt 
Network Working Group G. Sidebottom, L. Ong, Guy Mousseau Network Working Group G. Sidebottom, L. Ong, Guy Mousseau
INTERNET-DRAFT Nortel Networks INTERNET-DRAFT Nortel Networks
Ian Rytina Ian Rytina
Ericsson Ericsson
Hanns-Juergen Schwarzbauer Hanns-Juergen Schwarzbauer, Klaus Gradischnig
Siemens Siemens
Ken Morneault Ken Morneault
Cisco Cisco
Mallesh Kalla Mallesh Kalla
Telcordia Telcordia
Normand Glaude Normand Glaude
Performance Technologies Performance Technologies
Expires in six months June 2000 Expires in six months Sept 2000
SS7 MTP3-User Adaptation Layer (M3UA) SS7 MTP3-User Adaptation Layer (M3UA)
<draft-ietf-sigtran-m3ua-03.txt> <draft-ietf-sigtran-m3ua-04.txt>
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with all This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with all
provisions of Section 10 of RFC 2026. Internet-Drafts are working provisions of Section 10 of RFC 2026. Internet-Drafts are working
documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and
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Abstract Abstract
This Internet Draft defines a protocol for supporting the transport of This Internet Draft defines a protocol for supporting the transport of
any SS7 MTP3-User signalling (e.g., ISUP and SCCP messages) over IP any SS7 MTP3-User signalling (e.g., ISUP and SCCP messages) over IP
using the services of the Stream Control Transmission Protocol. Also, using the services of the Stream Control Transmission Protocol. Also,
provision is made for protocol elements that enable a seamless operation provision is made for protocol elements that enable a seamless
of the MTP3-User peers in the SS7 and IP domains. This protocol would be operation of the MTP3-User peers in the SS7 and IP domains. This
used between a Signalling Gateway (SG) and a Media Gateway Controller protocol would be used between a Signalling Gateway (SG) and a Media
(MGC) or IP-resident Database. It is assumed that the SG receives SS7 Gateway Controller (MGC) or IP-resident Database. It is assumed that
signalling over a standard SS7 interface using the SS7 Message Transfer the SG receives SS7 signalling over a standard SS7 interface using the
Part (MTP) to provide transport. SS7 Message Transfer Part (MTP) to provide transport.
TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Introduction.......................................................3 1. Introduction.......................................................3
1.1 Scope.........................................................3 1.1 Scope.........................................................3
1.2 Terminology...................................................3 1.2 Terminology...................................................3
1.3 M3UA Overview.................................................5 1.3 M3UA Overview.................................................5
1.4 Functional Areas.............................................10 1.4 Functional Areas.............................................10
1.5 Sample Configurations........................................18 1.5 Sample Configurations........................................18
1.6 Definition of M3UA Boundaries................................21 1.6 Definition of M3UA Boundaries................................21
2. Conventions.......................................................22 2. Conventions.......................................................22
3. M3UA Protocol Elements............................................22 3. M3UA Protocol Elements............................................22
3.1 Common Message Header........................................22 3.1 Common Message Header........................................22
3.2 Transfer Messages............................................24 3.2 Variable-Length Parameter Format
3.3 SS7 Signalling Network management (SSNM) Messages............26 3.3 Transfer Messages............................................24
3.4 Application Server Process Maintenance Messages..............32 3.4 SS7 Signalling Network management (SSNM) Messages............26
3.5 Management Messages..........................................40 3.5 Application Server Process Maintenance Messages..............32
3.6 Management Messages..........................................40
4. Procedures........................................................44 4. Procedures........................................................44
4.1 Procedures to Support the Services of the M3UA Layer.........44 4.1 Procedures to Support the Services of the M3UA Layer.........44
4.2 Procedures to Support the M3UA Services in Section 1.4.2.....44 4.2 Procedures to Support the M3UA Services in Section 1.4.2.....44
4.3 Procedures to Support the M3UA Services in Section 1.4.4.....45 4.3 Procedures to Support the M3UA Services in Section 1.4.4.....45
4.4 Procedures to Support the M3UA Services in Section 1.4.3.....52 4.4 Procedures to Support the M3UA Services in Section 1.4.3.....52
5. Examples of M3UA Procedures.......................................54 5. Examples of M3UA Procedures.......................................54
5.1 Establishment of Association and Traffic 5.1 Establishment of Association and Traffic
Between SGs and ASPs.........................................54 Between SGs and ASPs.........................................54
5.2 ASP traffic Fail-over Examples...............................56 5.2 ASP traffic Fail-over Examples...............................56
5.3 M3UA/MTP3-User Boundary Examples.............................57 5.3 M3UA/MTP3-User Boundary Examples.............................57
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There is a need for SCN signalling protocol delivery from an SS7 There is a need for SCN signalling protocol delivery from an SS7
Signalling Gateway (SG) to a Media Gateway Controller (MGC) or IP- Signalling Gateway (SG) to a Media Gateway Controller (MGC) or IP-
resident Database as described in the Framework Architecture for resident Database as described in the Framework Architecture for
Signalling Transport [1]. The delivery mechanism should meet the Signalling Transport [1]. The delivery mechanism should meet the
following criteria: following criteria:
* Support for the transfer of all SS7 MTP3-User Part messages (e.g., * Support for the transfer of all SS7 MTP3-User Part messages (e.g.,
ISUP, SCCP, TUP, etc.) ISUP, SCCP, TUP, etc.)
* Support for the seamless operation of MTP3-User protocol peers * Support for the seamless operation of MTP3-User protocol peers
* Support for the management of SCTP transport associations and traffic * Support for the management of SCTP transport associations and
between an SG and one or more MGCs or IP-resident Databases traffic between an SG and one or more MGCs or IP-resident Databases
* Support for MGC or IP-resident Database process fail-over and load- * Support for MGC or IP-resident Database process fail-over and load-
sharing sharing
* Support for the asynchronous reporting of status changes to * Support for the asynchronous reporting of status changes to
management management
In simplistic transport terms, the SG will terminate SS7 MTP2 and MTP3 In simplistic transport terms, the SG will terminate SS7 MTP2 and MTP3
protocols and deliver ISUP, SCCP and/or any other MTP3-User protocol protocol layers and deliver ISUP, SCCP and/or any other MTP3-User
messages over SCTP transport associations to MTP3-User peers in MGCs or protocol messages over SCTP transport associations to MTP3-User peers
IP-resident Databases. in MGCs or IP-resident Databases.
1.2 Terminology 1.2 Terminology
Application Server (AS) - A logical entity serving a specific Routing Application Server (AS) - A logical entity serving a specific Routing
Key. An example of an Application Server is a virtual switch element Key. An example of an Application Server is a virtual switch element
handling all call processing for a unique range of PSTN trunks, handling all call processing for a unique range of PSTN trunks,
identified by an SS7 DPC/OPC/CIC_range. Another example is a virtual identified by an SS7 DPC/OPC/CIC_range. Another example is a virtual
database element, handling all HLR transactions for a particular SS7 database element, handling all HLR transactions for a particular SS7
DPC/OPC/SCCP_SSN combination. The AS contains a set of one or more DPC/OPC/SCCP_SSN combination. The AS contains a set of one or more
unique Application Server Processes, of which one or more is normally unique Application Server Processes, of which one or more is normally
actively processing traffic. actively processing traffic.
Application Server Process (ASP) - A process instance of an Application Application Server Process (ASP) - A process instance of an Application
Server. An Application Server Process serves as an active or standby Server. An Application Server Process serves as an active or standby
process of an Application Server (e.g., part of a distributed virtual process of an Application Server (e.g., part of a distributed virtual
switch or database). Examples of ASPs are processes (or process switch or database). Examples of ASPs are processes (or process
instances of) MGCs, IP SCPs or IP HLRs. An ASP contains an SCTP end- instances) of MGCs, IP SCPs or IP HLRs. An ASP contains an SCTP end-
point and may be configured to process signalling traffic within more point and may be configured to process signalling traffic within more
than one Application Server. than one Application Server.
Association - An association refers to an SCTP association. The Association - An association refers to an SCTP association. The
association provides the transport for MTP3-User protocol data units and association provides the transport for MTP3-User protocol data units
M3UA adaptation layer peer messages. and M3UA adaptation layer peer messages.
IP Server Process (IPSP) A process instance of an IP-based IP Server Process (IPSP) - A process instance of an IP-based
application. An IPSP is essentially the same as an ASP, except that it application. An IPSP is essentially the same as an ASP, except that it
uses MU3A in a peer-to-peer fashion. Conceptually, an IPSP does not use uses MU3A in a peer-to-peer fashion. Conceptually, an IPSP does not
the services of a signalling gateway.Signalling Gateway Process (SGP) use the services of a signalling gateway.
A process instance of a Signalling Gateway. It serves as an active,
standby or load-sharing process of a Signalling Gateway.
Signalling Process A process instance that uses M3UA to communicate Signalling Gateway Process (SGP) - A process instance of a Signalling
with other signalling process. An ASP, a signalling gateway process and Gateway. It serves as an active, standby or load-sharing process of a
an IPSP are all signalling processes. Signalling Gateway.
Signalling Process - A process instance that uses M3UA to communicate
with other signalling process. An ASP, a signalling gateway process
and an IPSP are all signalling processes.
Routing Key: A Routing Key describes a set of SS7 parameter and Routing Key: A Routing Key describes a set of SS7 parameter and
parameter values that uniquely define the range of signalling traffic to parameter values that uniquely define the range of signalling traffic
be handled by a particular Application Server. For example, where all to be handled by a particular Application Server. For example, where
traffic directed to an SS7 DPC, OPC and ISUP CIC_range(s) or SCCP SSN is all traffic directed to an SS7 DPC, OPC and ISUP CIC_range(s) or SCCP
to be sent to a particular Application Server, that SS7 data defines the SSN is to be sent to a particular Application Server, that SS7 data
associated Routing Key. Routing Keys are unique in the sense that a defines the associated Routing Key. Routing Keys are unique in the
received SS7 signalling message cannot be directed to more than one sense that a received SS7 signalling message cannot be directed to more
Routing Key. Also, a Routing Key cannot extend across more than a than one Routing Key. Also, a Routing Key cannot extend across more
single SS7 DPC, in order to more easily support SS7 Management than a single SS7 DPC, in order to more easily support SS7 Management
procedures. It is not necessary for the parameter range values within a procedures. It is not necessary for the parameter range values within
particular Routing Key to be contiguous. For example, an ASP could be a particular Routing Key to be contiguous. For example, an ASP could
configured to support call processing for multiple ranges of PSTN trunks be configured to support call processing for multiple ranges of PSTN
that are not represented by contiguous CIC values. trunks that are not represented by contiguous CIC values.
Routing Context An Application Server Process may be configured to Routing Context - An Application Server Process may be configured to
process traffic related to more than one Application Server, over a process signalling traffic related to more than one Application Server,
single SCTP Association. At an ASP, the Routing Context parameter over a single SCTP Association. At an ASP, the Routing Context
uniquely identifies the traffic associated with each Application Server parameter uniquely identifies the range of signalling traffic
that the ASP is configured to support. There is a 1:1 relationship associated with each Application Server that the ASP is configured to
between a received Routing Context value and a Routing Key entry at the receive. There is a 1:1 relationship between a received Routing
sending node. Therefore the Routing Context can be viewed as an index Context value and a Routing Key entry at the sending node. Therefore
into a sending node's Message Distribution Table containing the Routing the Routing Context can be viewed as an index into a sending node's
Key entries. Message Distribution Table containing the Routing Key entries.
Fail-over - The capability to re-route signalling traffic as required to Fail-over - The capability to re-route signalling traffic as required
an alternate Application Server Process, or group of ASPs, within an to an alternate Application Server Process, or group of ASPs, within an
Application Server in the event of failure or unavailability of a Application Server in the event of failure or unavailability of a
currently used Application Server Process. Fail-back may apply upon the currently used Application Server Process. Fail-back may apply upon
return to service of a previously unavailable Application Server the return to service of a previously unavailable Application Server
Process. Process.
Signalling Point Management Cluster (SPMC) - A complete set of Signalling Point Management Cluster (SPMC) - The complete set of
Application Servers represented to the SS7 network under the same SS7 Application Servers represented to the SS7 network under one specific
Point Code. SPMCs are used to sum the availability / congestion / SS7 Point Code of one specific Network Appearance. SPMCs are used to
User_Part status of an SS7 destination point code that is distributed in sum the availability / congestion / User_Part status of an SS7
the IP domain, for the purpose of supporting MTP3 management procedures destination point code that is distributed in the IP domain, for the
at an SG. In some cases, the SG itself may also be a member of the purpose of supporting MTP3 management procedures at an SG. In some
SPMC. In this case, the SG availability / congestion / User_Part status cases, the SG itself may also be a member of the SPMC. In this case,
must also be taken into account when considering any supporting MTP3 the SG availability / congestion / User_Part status must also be taken
management actions. into account when considering any supporting MTP3 management actions.
MTP The Message Transfer Part of the SS7 protocol MTP - The Message Transfer Part of the SS7 protocol.
MTP3 MTP Level 3, the signalling network layer of SS7 MTP3 - MTP Level 3, the signalling network layer of SS7
MTP3-User - Any protocol normally using the services of the SS7 MTP3 MTP3-User - Any protocol normally using the services of the SS7 MTP3
(e.g., ISUP, SCCP, TUP, etc.). (e.g., ISUP, SCCP, TUP, etc.).
Network Appearance The Network Appearance identifies an SS7 network Network Appearance - The Network Appearance identifies an SS7 network
context for the purposes of logically separating the signalling traffic context for the purposes of logically separating the signalling traffic
between the SG and the Application Server Processes over a common SCTP between the SG and the Application Server Processes over a common SCTP
Association. An example is where an SG is logically partitioned to Association. An example is where an SG is logically partitioned to
appear as an element in four separate national SS7 networks. A Network appear as an element in four separate national SS7 networks. A Network
Appearance implicitly defines the SS7 Point Code(s), Network Indicator Appearance implicitly defines the SS7 Point Code(s), Network Indicator
and MTP3 protocol type/variant/version used within a specific SS7 and MTP3 protocol type/variant/version used within a specific SS7
network partition. A physical SS7 route-set or link-set at an SG can network partition. A physical SS7 route-set or link-set at an SG can
appear in only one network appearance. The Network Appearance is not appear in only one network appearance. The Network Appearance is not
globally significant and requires coordination only between the SG and globally significant and requires coordination only between the SG and
the ASP. the ASP. Therefore, in the case where an ASP is connected to more than
one SG, the same SS7 network context may be identified by different
Network Appearances depending over which SG a message is being
transmitted/received.
Network Byte Order: Most significant byte first, a.k.a Big Endian. Network Byte Order: Most significant byte first, a.k.a Big Endian.
Layer Management Layer Management is a nodal function that handles the Layer Management - Layer Management is a nodal function that handles
inputs and outputs between the M3UA layer and a local management entity. the inputs and outputs between the M3UA layer and a local management
entity.
Host - The computing platform that the ASP process is running on. Host - The computing platform that the ASP process is running on.
Stream - A stream refers to an SCTP stream. Stream - A stream refers to an SCTP stream; a uni-directional logical
channel established from one SCTP endpoint to another associated SCTP
endpoint, within which all user messages are delivered in-sequence
except for those submitted to the un-ordered delivery service.
1.3 M3UA Overview 1.3 M3UA Overview
1.3.1 Protocol Architecture. 1.3.1 Protocol Architecture.
The framework architecture that has been defined for SCN signalling The framework architecture that has been defined for SCN signalling
transport over IP [1] uses multiple components, including a common transport over IP [1] uses multiple components, including a common
signalling transport protocol and an adaptation module to support the signalling transport protocol and an adaptation module to support the
services expected by a particular SCN signalling protocol from its services expected by a particular SCN signalling protocol from its
underlying protocol layer. underlying protocol layer.
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signalling transport protocol and an adaptation module to support the signalling transport protocol and an adaptation module to support the
services expected by a particular SCN signalling protocol from its services expected by a particular SCN signalling protocol from its
underlying protocol layer. underlying protocol layer.
Within the framework architecture, this document defines an MTP3-User Within the framework architecture, this document defines an MTP3-User
adaptation module suitable for supporting the transfer of messages of adaptation module suitable for supporting the transfer of messages of
any protocol layer that is identified to the MTP Level 3 layer, in SS7 any protocol layer that is identified to the MTP Level 3 layer, in SS7
terms, as a user part. The list of these protocol layers include, but terms, as a user part. The list of these protocol layers include, but
is not limited to, ISDN User Part (ISUP) [2,3,4], Signalling Connection is not limited to, ISDN User Part (ISUP) [2,3,4], Signalling Connection
Control Part (SCCP) [5,6,7] and Telephone User Part (TUP) [8]. TCAP Control Part (SCCP) [5,6,7] and Telephone User Part (TUP) [8]. TCAP
[9,10,11] or RANAP [12] messages are transferred transparently by the [9,10,11] or RANAP [12] messages are transferred transparently by the
M3UA as SCCP payload, as they are SCCP-User protocols. M3UA as SCCP payload, as they are SCCP-User protocols.
It is recommended that the M3UA use the services of the Stream Control It is recommended that the M3UA use the services of the Stream Control
Transmission Protocol (SCTP) [13] as the underlying reliable common Transmission Protocol (SCTP) [13] as the underlying reliable common
signalling transport protocol. This is to take advantage of various SCTP signalling transport protocol. This is to take advantage of various
features such as: SCTP features such as:
- Explicit packet-oriented delivery (not stream-oriented); - Explicit packet-oriented delivery (not stream-oriented);
- Sequenced delivery of user messages within multiple streams, - Sequenced delivery of user messages within multiple streams,
with an option for order-of-arrival delivery of individual with an option for order-of-arrival delivery of individual
user messages, user messages,
- Optional multiplexing of user messages into SCTP datagrams; - Optional multiplexing of user messages into SCTP datagrams;
- Network-level fault tolerance through support of multi-homing - Network-level fault tolerance through support of multi-homing
at either or both ends of an association; at either or both ends of an association;
- Resistance to flooding and masquerade attacks; and - Data - Resistance to flooding and masquerade attacks; and - Data
segmentation to conform to discovered path MTU size. segmentation to conform to discovered path MTU size.
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1.3.2 Services Provided by the M3UA Layer 1.3.2 Services Provided by the M3UA Layer
The M3UA Layer at an ASP provides the equivalent set of primitives at The M3UA Layer at an ASP provides the equivalent set of primitives at
its upper layer to the MTP3-Users as provided by the MTP Level 3 to its its upper layer to the MTP3-Users as provided by the MTP Level 3 to its
local users at an SS7 SEP. In this way, the ISUP and/or SCCP layer at local users at an SS7 SEP. In this way, the ISUP and/or SCCP layer at
an ASP is unaware that the expected MTP3 services are offered remotely an ASP is unaware that the expected MTP3 services are offered remotely
from an MTP3 Layer at an SG, and not by a local MTP3 layer. The MTP3 from an MTP3 Layer at an SG, and not by a local MTP3 layer. The MTP3
layer at an SG may also be unaware that its local users are actually layer at an SG may also be unaware that its local users are actually
remote user parts over M3UA. In effect, the M3UA extends access to the remote user parts over M3UA. In effect, the M3UA extends access to the
MTP3 layer services to a remote IP-based application. The M3UA does not MTP3 layer services to a remote IP-based application. The M3UA does
itself provide the MTP3 services. not itself provide the MTP3 services. In the case where an ASP is
connected to more than one SG, however, the M3UA must maintain the
status of configured SS7 destinations and route messages according to
availability/congestion status of the routes to these destinations.
The M3UA Layer may also be used for point-to-point signalling between The M3UA Layer may also be used for point-to-point signalling between
two IP Server Processes (IPSPs). In this case, the M3UA provides the two IP Server Processes (IPSPs). In this case, the M3UA provides the
same set of primitives and services at its upper layer as the MTP3. same set of primitives and services at its upper layer as the MTP3.
However, in this case the expected MTP3 services are not offered However, in this case the expected MTP3 services are not offered
remotely from an SG. The MTP3 services are provided but the procedures remotely from an SG. The MTP3 services are provided but the procedures
to support these services are a subset of the MTP3 procedures due to to support these services are a subset of the MTP3 procedures due to
the simplified point-to-point nature of the IPSP to IPSP relationship. the simplified point-to-point nature of the IPSP to IPSP relationship.
1.3.2.1 Support for the transport of MTP3-User Messages 1.3.2.1 Support for the transport of MTP3-User Messages
The M3UA provides the transport of MTP-TRANSFER primitives across an The M3UA provides the transport of MTP-TRANSFER primitives across an
established SCTP association between an SG and an ASP and between IPSPs. established SCTP association between an SG and an ASP and between
IPSPs.
The MTP-TRANSFER primitives are encoded as MTP3-User messages with The MTP-TRANSFER primitives are encoded as MTP3-User messages with
attached MTP3 Routing Labels as described in the message format sections attached MTP3 Routing Labels as described in the message format
of the SCCP and ISUP recommendations. In this way, the SCCP and ISUP sections of the SCCP and ISUP recommendations. In this way, the SCCP
messages received from the SS7 network are not re-encoded into a and ISUP messages received from the SS7 network are not re-encoded into
different format for transport to/from the server processes. As well, a different format for transport to/from the server processes. As
all the required MTP3 Routing Label information (OPC, DPC, SIO) is well, all the required MTP3 Routing Label information (OPC, DPC, SIO)
available at the ASP and the IPSP as is expected by the MTP3-User is available at the ASP and the IPSP as is expected by the MTP3-User
protocol layer. protocol layer.
At an ASP, in the case where a destination is reachable via multiple
SGs, the M3UA must also choose via which SG the message is to be routed
or support load balancing across the SGs, ensuring that no mis-
sequencing occurs.
The M3UA does not impose a 272-octet user information block limit as The M3UA does not impose a 272-octet user information block limit as
specified by the SS7 MTP Level 3 protocol. Larger information blocks specified by the SS7 MTP Level 3 protocol. Larger information blocks
can be accommodated directly by M3UA/SCTP, without the need for an
can be accommodated directly by M3UA/SCTP, without the need for an upper upper layer segmentation/re-assembly procedure as specified in recent
layer segmentation/re-assembly procedure as specified in recent SCCP or SCCP or ISUP versions. However, in the context of an SG, the maximum
ISUP versions. However, in the context of an SG, the maximum 272-octet 272-octet block size must be followed when inter-working to a SS7
block size must be followed when inter-working to a SS7 network that network that does not support the transfer of larger information blocks
does to the final destination. This avoids potential ISUP or SCCP
not support the transfer of larger information blocks to the final fragmentation requirements at the SG. However, if the SS7 network is
destination. This avoids potential ISUP or SCCP fragmentation provisioned to support the Broadband MTP [20] to the final SS7
requirements at the SG. However, if the SS7 network is provisioned to destination, the information block size limit may be increased past 272
support the Broadband MTP [20] to the final SS7 destination, the octets.
information block size limit may be increased past 272 octets.
1.3.2.2 Native Management Functions 1.3.2.2 Native Management Functions
The M3UA provides management of the underlying SCTP transport protocol The M3UA provides management of the underlying SCTP transport protocol
to ensure that SG-ASP and IPSP-IPSP transport is available to the degree to ensure that SG-ASP and IPSP-IPSP transport is available to the
called for by the MTP3-User signalling applications. degree called for by the MTP3-User signalling applications.
The M3UA provides the capability to indicate errors associated with The M3UA provides the capability to indicate errors associated with
received M3UA messages and to notify, as appropriate, local management received M3UA messages and to notify, as appropriate, local management
and/or the peer M3UA. and/or the peer M3UA.
1.3.2.3 Inter-working with MTP3 Network Management Functions 1.3.2.3 Inter-working with MTP3 Network Management Functions
At the SG, the M3UA must also provide inter-working with MTP3 management At the SG, the M3UA must also provide inter-working with MTP3
functions to support seamless operation of the user SCN signalling management functions to support seamless operation of the user SCN
applications in the SS7 and IP domains. This includes: signalling applications in the SS7 and IP domains. This includes:
- Providing an indication to MTP3-Users at an ASP that a remote - Providing an indication to MTP3-Users at an ASP that a remote
destination in the SS7 network is not reachable. destination in the SS7 network is not reachable.
- Providing an indication to MTP3-Users at an ASP that a remote - Providing an indication to MTP3-Users at an ASP that a remote
destination in the SS7 network is now reachable. destination in the SS7 network is now reachable.
- Providing an indication to MTP3-Users at an ASP that messages to a - Providing an indication to MTP3-Users at an ASP that messages to a
remote MTP3-User peer in the SS7 network are experiencing SS7 remote MTP3-User peer in the SS7 network are experiencing SS7
congestion congestion.
- Providing an indication to MTP3-Users at an ASP that a remote MTP3- - Providing an indication to MTP3-Users at an ASP that a remote MTP3-
User peer is unavailable. User peer is unavailable.
The M3UA layer at an ASP may initiate an audit of the availability or The M3UA layer at an ASP may initiate an audit of the availability or
the congested state of remote SS7 destinations. This information is the congested state of remote SS7 destinations. This information is
requested from the M3UA at the SG. requested from the M3UA at the SG.
The M3UA layer at an ASP may also indicate to the SG that the M3UA
itself or the ASP or the ASP's host is congested.
1.3.2.4 Support for the management of SCTP associations between the SG 1.3.2.4 Support for the management of SCTP associations between the SG
and ASPs. and ASPs.
The M3UA layer at the SG maintains the availability state of all The M3UA layer at the SG maintains the availability state of all
configured remote ASPs, in order to manage the SCTP Associations and the configured remote ASPs, in order to manage the SCTP Associations and
the
traffic between the SG and ASPs. As well, the active/inactive state of traffic between the SG and ASPs. As well, the active/inactive state of
remote ASPs is also maintained - Active ASPs are those currently remote ASPs is also maintained - Active ASPs are those currently
receiving traffic from the SG. receiving traffic from the SG.
The M3UA layer may be instructed by local management to establish an The M3UA layer may be instructed by local management to establish an
SCTP association to a peer M3UA node. This can be achieved using the M- SCTP association to a peer M3UA node. This can be achieved using the
SCTP ESTABLISH primitive to request, indicate and confirm the M-SCTP ESTABLISH primitive to request, indicate and confirm the
establishment of an SCTP association with a peer M3UA node. establishment of an SCTP association with a peer M3UA node. In order
to avoid multiple SCTP associations between two IPSPs, one side must be
designated to establish the association or the mutual SCTP endpoint
addresses must be pre-configured.
The M3UA layer may also need to inform local management of the status of The M3UA layer may also need to inform local management of the status
the underlying SCTP associations using the M-SCTP STATUS request and of the underlying SCTP associations using the M-SCTP STATUS request and
indication primitive. For example, the M3UA may inform local management indication primitive. For example, the M3UA may inform local management
of the reason for the release of an SCTP association, determined either of the reason for the release of an SCTP association, determined either
locally within the M3UA layer or by a primitive from the SCTP. locally within the M3UA layer or by a primitive from the SCTP.
Also the M3UA layer may need to inform the local management of the Also the M3UA layer may need to inform the local management of the
change in status of an ASP or AS. This can be achieved using the M-ASP change in status of an ASP or AS. This can be achieved using the M-ASP
STATUS or M-AS STATUS primitives. STATUS or M-AS STATUS primitives.
1.3.2.5 Support for the management of connections to multiple SGs
As shown in Figure 1 an ASP may be connected to multiple SGs. In such a
case a particular SS7 destination may be reachable via more than SG,
i.e., via more than one route. As MTP3 users only maintain status on a
destination and not on a route basis M3UA must maintain the status
(availability and/or congestion of route to destination) of the
individual routes, derive the overall status of the destination from
the status of the individual routes, and inform the MTP3 users of this
derived status whenever it changes.
1.3.3 Signalling Network Architecture 1.3.3 Signalling Network Architecture
A Signalling Gateway is used to support the transport of MTP3-User A Signalling Gateway is used to support the transport of MTP3-User
signalling traffic received from the SS7 network to multiple distributed signalling traffic received from the SS7 network to multiple
ASPs (e.g., MGCs and IP Databases). Clearly, the M3UA protocol distributed ASPs (e.g., MGCs and IP Databases). Clearly, the M3UA
description is not designed to meet any performance and reliability protocol is not designed to meet the performance and reliability
requirements for such transport. However, the conjunction of requirements for such transport by itself. However, the conjunction of
distributed architecture and redundant networks does allow for reliable distributed architecture and redundant networks does allow for a
transport of signalling traffic over IP. The M3UA protocol is flexible sufficiently reliable transport of signalling traffic over IP. The
enough to allow its operation and management in a variety of physical M3UA protocol is flexible enough to allow its operation and management
configurations, enabling Network Operators to meet their performance and in a variety of physical configurations, enabling Network Operators to
reliability requirements. meet their performance and reliability requirements.
To meet the stringent SS7 signalling reliability and performance To meet the stringent SS7 signalling reliability and performance
requirements for carrier grade networks, these Network Operators should requirements for carrier grade networks, Network Operators should
ensure that no single point of failure is present in the end-to-end ensure that no single point of failure is present in the end-to-end
network architecture between an SS7 node and an IP-based application. network architecture between an SS7 node and an IP-based application.
This can typically be achieved through the use of redundant SGs, This can typically be achieved through the use of redundant SGs,
redundant hosts, and the provision of redundant QOS-bounded IP network redundant hosts, and the provision of redundant QOS-bounded IP network
paths for SCTP Associations between SCTP End Points. Obviously, the paths for SCTP Associations between SCTP End Points. Obviously, the
reliability of the SG, the MGC and other IP-based functional elements reliability of the SG, the MGC and other IP-based functional elements
also needs to be taken into account. The distribution of ASPs within also needs to be taken into account. The distribution of ASPs within
the available Hosts must also be considered. As an example, for a the available Hosts must also be considered. As an example, for a
particular Application Server, the related ASPs should be distributed particular Application Server, the related ASPs should be distributed
over at least two Hosts. over at least two Hosts.
skipping to change at page 9, line 33 skipping to change at page 10, line 33
* ******** * / \ * ******** * * ******** * / \ * ******** *
* ********__*_______________/ \_____*__******** * * ********__*_______________/ \_____*__******** *
* * SGP2 *__*__________________________*__* ASP2 * * * * SGP2 *__*__________________________*__* ASP2 * *
* ******** * * ******** * * ******** * * ******** *
* : * SCTP Associations * : * * : * SCTP Associations * : *
* ******** * * ******** * * ******** * * ******** *
* * SGPn * * * * ASPn * * * * SGPn * * * * ASPn * *
* ******** * * ******** * * ******** * * ******** *
************** ************** ************** **************
Figure 1 Physical Model Figure 1 - Physical Model
In this model, each host has many application processes. In the case of In this model, each host has many application processes. In the case
the MGC, an ASP may provide service to one or more application server, of the MGC, an ASP may provide service to one or more application
and is identified as an SCTP end point. In the case of the SG, a pair server, and is identified as an SCTP end point. In the case of the SG,
of signalling gateway processes may represent, as an example, a single a pair of signalling gateway processes may represent, as an example, a
network appearance, serving a signalling point management cluster. single network appearance, serving a signalling point management
cluster.
This example model can also be applied to IPSP-IPSP signalling. In this This example model can also be applied to IPSP-IPSP signalling. In
case, each IPSP would have its services distributed across 2 hosts or this case, each IPSP would have its services distributed across 2 hosts
more, and may have multiple server processes on each host. or more, and may have multiple server processes on each host.
In the example above, each signalling process (SGP, ASP or IPSP) is the In the example above, each signalling process (SGP, ASP or IPSP) is the
end point to more than one SCTP association, leading to many other end point to more than one SCTP association, leading to many other
signalling processes. To support this, a signalling process must be signalling processes. To support this, a signalling process must be
able to support distribution of M3UA messages to many simultaneous able to support distribution of M3UA messages to many simultaneous
active associations. This message distribution function is based on the active associations. This message distribution function is based on
status of provisioned routing keys, the availability of signalling the status of provisioned routing keys, the availability of signalling
points in the SS7 network, and the redundancy model (active-standby, points in the SS7 network, and the redundancy model (active-standby,
load-sharing, n+k) of the remote signalling processes. load-sharing, n+k) of the remote signalling processes.
For carrier grade networks, Operators should ensure that under failure For carrier grade networks, Operators should ensure that under failure
or isolation of a particular signalling process, stable calls or or isolation of a particular signalling process, stable calls or
transactions are not lost. This implies that signalling processes
transactions are not lost. This implies that signalling processes need, need, in some cases, to share the call or transaction state information
in some cases, to share the call or transaction state information with with other signalling processes. In the case of ASPs performing call
other signalling processes. In the case of ASPs performing call
processing, coordination may also be required with the related Media processing, coordination may also be required with the related Media
Gateway to transfer the MGC control for a particular trunk termination. Gateway to transfer the MGC control for a particular trunk termination.
However, this sharing or communication is outside the scope of this However, this sharing or communication is outside the scope of this
document. document.
This model serves as an example. M3UA imposes no restrictions as to the This model serves as an example. M3UA imposes no restrictions as to
exact layout of the network elements, the message distribution the exact layout of the network elements, the message distribution
algorithms and the distribution of the signalling processes. Instead, algorithms and the distribution of the signalling processes. Instead,
it provides a framework and a set of messages that allow for a flexible it provides a framework and a set of messages that allow for a flexible
and scalable signalling network architecture, aiming to provide and scalable signalling network architecture, aiming to provide
reliability and performance. reliability and performance.
1.4 Functional Areas 1.4 Functional Areas
1.4.1 Signalling Point Code Representation 1.4.1 Signalling Point Code Representation
Within an SS7 network, a Signalling Gateway is charged with representing Within an SS7 network, a Signalling Gateway is charged with
a set of nodes in the IP domain into the SS7 network for routing representing a set of nodes in the IP domain into the SS7 network for
purposes. The SG itself, as a physical node in the SS7 network, must be routing purposes. The SG itself, as a physical node in the SS7
addressable with an SS7 Point Code for MTP3 Management purposes. The SG network, must be addressable with an SS7 Point Code for MTP3 Management
Point Code will also be used for addressing any local MTP3-Users at the purposes. The SG Point Code may also be used for addressing any local
SG such as an SG-resident SCCP function. MTP3-Users at the SG such as an SG-resident SCCP function.
An SG may be logically partitioned to operate in multiple SS7 network An SG may be logically partitioned to operate in multiple SS7 network
Appearances. In such a case, the SG must be addressable with a Point Appearances. In such a case, the SG must be addressable with a Point
Code in each network appearance, and must represent a set of nodes in Code in each network appearance, and represents a set of nodes in the
the IP domain into each SS7 network. Alias PCs may also be used within IP domain into each SS7 network. Alias PCs may also be used within an
an SG network appearance, but SG MTP3 management messages to/from the SG network appearance.
SS7 network will not use the alias PCs.
The M3UA places no restrictions on the SS7 Point Code representation of The M3UA places no restrictions on the SS7 Point Code representation of
an AS. Application servers can be represented under the same PC of the an AS. Application Servers can be represented under the same PC of the
SG, their own individual Point Codes or grouped with other applications SG, their own individual Point Codes or grouped with other applications
for Point Code preservation purposes. A single Point Code may be used for Point Code preservation purposes. A single Point Code may be used
to represent the SG and all the ASPs together, if desired. to represent the SG and all the ASPs together, if desired.
If an ASP or group of ASPs is available to the SS7 network via more than Where Application Servers are grouped under a Point Code address, an
one SG, each with its own Point Code, the ASP(s) can be represented by a SPMC will include more than one AS. If full advantage of SS7 management
Point Code that is separate from any SG Point Code. This allows these procedures is to be taken (as is advisable in carrier grade networks)
SGs to be viewed from the SS7 network as "STPs", each having an ongoing care must be taken that, if (the connection to) one AS of an SPMC
"route" to the same ASP(s). Under failure conditions where an ASP fails, all AS of the SPMC fail or become unreachable from the SG. If
becomes unavailable from one of the SGs, this approach enables MTP3 this is not the case, usage of SS7 transfer prohibited procedures by
route management messaging between the SG and SS7 network, allowing the SG becomes problematic as either traffic to the failed AS cannot be
simple SS7 re-routing through an alternate SG without changing the stopped/diverted or traffic to a still available AS will unnecessarily
Destination Point Code Address of SS7 traffic to the ASPs. be stopped/diverted. (Depending on the network configuration it may
even be necessary to assign an individual SS7 point code to each AS.)
Observing these principles is of particular importance if alternative
routing possibilities exist on the SS7 level (e.g. via mated SGs) or
application level (e.g. via another MGC/MG).
If an ASP or group of ASPs is available to the SS7 network via more
than one SG, each with its own Point Code, the ASP(s) should be
represented by a Point Code that is separate from any SG Point Code.
This allows these SGs to be viewed from the SS7 network as "STPs", each
having an ongoing "route" to the same ASP(s). Under failure
conditions where the ASP(s) become(s) unavailable from one of the SGs,
this approach enables MTP3 route management messaging between the SG
and SS7 network, allowing simple SS7 re-routing through an alternate SG
without changing the Destination Point Code Address of SS7 traffic to
the ASP(s).
Where an AS can be reached via more than one SG it is equally important
that the corresponding Routing Keys in the involved SGs are identical.
(Note: It is possible for the Routing Key configuration data to be
temporarily out-of-synch during configuration updates).
+--------+ +--------+
| | | |
+------------+ SG 1 +--------------+ +------------+ SG 1 +--------------+
+-------+ | SS7 links | "STP" | IP network | ---- +-------+ | SS7 links | "STP" | IP network | ----
| SEP +---+ +--------+ +---/ \ | SEP +---+ +--------+ +---/ \
| or | | ASPs | | or | | ASPs |
| STP +---+ +--------+ +---\ / | STP +---+ +--------+ +---\ /
+-------+ | | | | ---- +-------+ | | | | ----
+------------+ SG 2 +--------------+ +------------+ SG 2 +--------------+
| "STP" | | "STP" |
+--------+ +--------+
Note: there is no SG to SG communication shown, so each SG can be Note: there is no SG-to-SG communication shown, so each SG can be
reached only via the direct Linkset from the SS7 network. reached only via the direct linkset from the SS7 network.
The following example shows a signalling gateway partitioned into two The following example shows a signalling gateway partitioned into two
network appearances. network appearances.
SG SG
+-------+ +---------------+ +-------+ +---------------+
| SEP +--------------| SS7 Ntwk |M3UA| ---- | SEP +--------------| SS7 Ntwk |M3UA| ----
+-------+ SS7 links | "A" | | / \ +-------+ SS7 links | "A" | | / \
|__________| +-----------+ ASPs | |__________| +-----------+ ASPs |
| | | \ / | | | \ /
+-------+ | SS7 Ntwk | | ---- +-------+ | SS7 Ntwk | | ----
| SEP +--------------+ "B" | | | SEP +--------------+ "B" | |
+-------+ +---------------+ +-------+ +---------------+
1.4.2 Message Distribution 1.4.2 Message Distribution
1.4.2.1 Address Translation and Mapping at the SG 1.4.2.1 Address Translation and Mapping at the SG
In order to direct messages received from the SS7 MTP3 network to the In order to direct messages received from the SS7 MTP3 network to the
appropriate IP destination, the SG must perform address translation and appropriate IP destination, the SG must perform address translation and
mapping functions using information from the received MTP3-User message. mapping functions using information from the received MTP3-User
message.
To support this message distribution, the SG must maintain the To support this message distribution, the SG must maintain the
equivalent of a network address translation table, mapping incoming SS7 equivalent of a network address translation table, mapping incoming SS7
message information to an Application Server for a particular message information to an Application Server for a particular
application and range of traffic. This is accomplished by comparing application and range of traffic. This is accomplished by comparing
elements of the incoming SS7 message to provisioned Routing Keys in the elements of the incoming SS7 message to provisioned Routing Keys in the
SG. These Routing Keys in turn make reference to an Application Server SG. These Routing Keys in turn make reference to an Application Server
that is enabled by one or more ASP. These ASPs provide dynamic status that is enabled by one or more ASP. These ASPs provide dynamic status
information to the SG using various management messages defined in the information to the SG using various management messages defined in the
M3UA protocol. Possible SS7 address/routing information that comprise a M3UA protocol. Possible SS7 address/routing information that comprise
Routing Key entry includes, for example, the OPC, DPC, SIO found in the a Routing Key entry includes, for example, the OPC, DPC, SIO found in
MTP3 routing label, or other MTP3-User specific fields such as the ISUP the MTP3 routing label, or other MTP3-User specific fields such as the
CIC, SCCP subsystem number, or TCAP transaction ID. Some example routing ISUP CIC, SCCP subsystem number, or TCAP transaction ID. Some example
keys are: the DPC alone, the DPC/OPC combination, the DPC/OPC/CIC routing keys are: the DPC alone, the DPC/OPC combination, the
DPC/OPC/CIC combination, or the DPC/SSN combination. The particular
combination, or the DPC/SSN combination. The particular information information used to define an M3UA Routing Key is application and
used to define an M3UA Routing Key is application and network dependent, network dependent, and none of the above examples are mandated.
and none of the above examples are mandated.
An Application Server contains a list of one or more ASPs that are An Application Server contains a list of one or more ASPs that are
capable of processing the traffic. This list is assumed to be dynamic, capable of processing the traffic. This list is assumed to be dynamic,
taking into account the availability status of the individual ASPs in taking into account the availability status of the individual ASPs in
the list, configuration changes, and possible fail-over mechanisms. The the list, configuration changes, and possible fail-over mechanisms. The
M3UA protocol includes messages to convey the availability status of the M3UA protocol includes messages to convey the availability status of
individual ASPs as input to a fail-over mechanism. the individual ASPs as input to a fail-over mechanism.
Normally, one or more ASPs is active in the ASP (i.e., currently Normally, one or more ASPs is active in the ASP (i.e., currently
processing traffic) but in certain failure and transition cases it is processing traffic) but in certain failure and transition cases it is
possible that there may not be an active ASP available. Both load- possible that there may not be an active ASP available. Both load-
sharing and backup scenarios are supported. sharing and backup scenarios are supported.
When there is no Routing Key match for an incoming SS7 message, a When there is no Routing Key match for an incoming SS7 message, a
default treatment must be specified. Possible solutions are to provide default treatment must be specified. Possible solutions are to provide
a default Application Server at the SG that directs all unallocated a default Application Server at the SG that directs all unallocated
traffic to a (set of) default ASP(s), or to drop the messages and traffic to a (set of) default ASP(s), or to drop the messages and
provide a notification to management. The treatment of unallocated provide a notification to management. The treatment of unallocated
traffic is implementation dependent. traffic is implementation dependent.
1.4.2.2 Address Translation and Mapping at the ASP 1.4.2.2 Address Translation and Mapping at the ASP
In order to direct messages to the SS7 network, the ASP must also In order to direct messages to the SS7 network, the ASP must also
perform an address translation and mapping function in order to choose perform an address translation and mapping function in order to choose
the proper SGP for a given message. This is accomplished by observing the proper SG or SGP for a given message. This is accomplished by
elements of the outgoing message, SS7 network status, SGP availability observing the Destination Point Code and other elements of the outgoing
and network appearance configuration tables.
A Signalling Gateway contains a list of one or more SGPs that are message, SS7 network status, SG and SGP availability, and network
capable of routing SS7 traffic. As is the case with ASPs, this list can appearance configuration tables.
be dynamic, taking into account the availability status of the
individual SGPs, configuration changes and fail-over mechanisms. A remote Signalling Gateway may be composed of one or more SGPs that
are capable of routing SS7 traffic. As is the case with ASPs, a
dynamic list of SGPs in an SG can be maintained, taking into account
the availability status of the individual SGPs, configuration changes
and fail-over mechanisms. There is, however, no M3UA messaging to
manage the status of an SGP. Whenever an SCTP association to an SGP
exists, it is assumed to be available. Also, every SGP of one SG
communicating with one ASP regarding one AS provides identical SS7
connectivity to this ASP.
1.4.3 SS7 and M3UA Interworking 1.4.3 SS7 and M3UA Interworking
In the case of SS7 and M3UA inter-working, the M3UA adaptation layer is In the case of SS7 and M3UA inter-working, the M3UA adaptation layer is
designed to provide an extension of the MTP3 defined user primitives. designed to provide an extension of the MTP3 defined user primitives.
1.4.3.1 Signalling Gateway SS7 Layers 1.4.3.1 Signalling Gateway SS7 Layers
The SG is responsible for terminating MTP Level 3 of the SS7 protocol, The SG is responsible for terminating MTP Level 3 of the SS7 protocol,
and offering an IP-based extension to its users. and offering an IP-based extension to its users.
>From an SS7 perspective, it is expected that the Signalling Gateway (SG) >From an SS7 perspective, it is expected that the Signalling Gateway
transmits and receives SS7 Message Signalling Units (MSUs) to and from (SG) transmits and receives SS7 Message Signalling Units (MSUs) to and
from
the PSTN over a standard SS7 network interface, using the SS7 Message the PSTN over a standard SS7 network interface, using the SS7 Message
Transfer Part (MTP) [14,15,16] to provide reliable transport of the Transfer Part (MTP) [14,15,16] to provide reliable transport of the
messages. messages.
As a standard SS7 network interface, the use of MTP Level 2 signalling As a standard SS7 network interface, the use of MTP Level 2 signalling
links is not the only possibility. ATM-based High Speed Links can also links is not the only possibility. ATM-based High Speed Links can also
be used with the services of the Signalling ATM Adaptation Layer (SAAL) be used with the services of the Signalling ATM Adaptation Layer (SAAL)
[17,18]. It is possible for IP-based links to be present, using the [17,18]. It is possible for IP-based links to be present, using the
services of the MTP2-User Adaptation Layer (M2UA) [19]. These SS7 services of the MTP2-User Adaptation Layer (M2UA) [19]. These SS7
datalinks may be terminated at a Signalling Transfer Point (STP) or at a datalinks may be terminated at a Signalling Transfer Point (STP) or at
Signalling End Point (SEP). Using the services of MTP3, the SG may be a Signalling End Point (SEP). Using the services of MTP3, the SG may
capable of communicating with remote SS7 SEPs in a quasi-associated be capable of communicating with remote SS7 SEPs in a quasi-associated
fashion, where STPs may be present in the SS7 path between the SEP and fashion, where STPs may be present in the SS7 path between the SEP and
the SG. the SG.
Where ATM-based High Speed Links are used in the SS7 network, it is Where ATM-based High Speed Links are used in the SS7 network, it is
possible for the SG to use the services of the MTP-3b [20] for reliable possible for the SG to use the services of the MTP-3b [20] for reliable
transport to and from an SS7 SEP or STP. The maximum Service Data Unit transport to and from an SS7 SEP or STP. The maximum Service Data Unit
(SDU) supported by the MTP-3b is 4096 octets compared to the 272-octet (SDU) supported by the MTP-3b is 4096 octets compared to the 272-octet
maximum of the MTP3. However, for MTP3-Users to take advantage of the maximum of the MTP3. However, for MTP3-Users to take advantage of the
larger SDU between MTP3-User peers, network architects should ensure larger SDU between MTP3-User peers, network architects should ensure
that MTP3-b is used end-to-end between the SG and the SS7-resident peer. that MTP3-b is used end-to-end between the SG and the SS7-resident
peer.
1.4.3.2 SS7 and M3UA Inter-Working at the SG 1.4.3.2 SS7 and M3UA Inter-Working at the SG
The SG provides a functional inter-working of transport functions The SG provides a functional inter-working of transport functions
between the SS7 network and the IP network by also supporting the M3UA between the SS7 network and the IP network by also supporting the M3UA
adaptation layer. It allows the transfer of MTP3-User signalling adaptation layer. It allows the transfer of MTP3-User signalling
messages to and from an IP-based Application Server Process where the messages to and from an IP-based Application Server Process where the
peer MTP3-User protocol layer exists. peer MTP3-User protocol layer exists.
The Signalling Gateway must maintain knowledge of SS7 node and The Signalling Gateway must maintain knowledge of SS7 node and
Signalling Point Management Cluster (SPMC) status in their respective Signalling Point Management Cluster (SPMC) status in their respective
domains in order to perform a seamless inter-working of the IP-based domains in order to perform a seamless inter-working of the IP-based
signalling and the SS7 domains. For example, SG knowledge of the signalling and the SS7 domains. For example, SG knowledge of the
availability and/or congestion status of the SPMC and SS7 nodes must be availability and/or congestion status of the SPMC and SS7 nodes must be
maintained and disseminated in the respective networks, in order to maintained and disseminated in the respective networks, in order to
ensure that end-to-end operation is transparent to the communicating SCN ensure that end-to-end operation is transparent to the communicating
protocol peers at the SS7 node and ASP. SCN protocol peers at the SS7 node and ASP.
When the SG determines that the transport of SS7 messages to an SPMC is
encountering congestion, the SG may optionally inform the MTP3 route
management function (by an implementation-dependent mechanism). This
information is used by the MTP3 to mark the route to the affected
destination as congested and to trigger MTP Transfer Controlled (TFC)
messages to any SS7 SEPs generating traffic to the congested DPC, as per
current MTP3 procedures.
When the SG determines that the transport of SS7 messages to all ASPs in
a particular SPMC is interrupted, then it may similarly optionally
inform the MTP3 route management function. This information is used by
the MTP3 to mark the route to the affected destination as unavailable,
and in the case of a signalling transfer point, to send MTP Transfer When the SG determines that the transport of SS7 messages to an SPMC
Prohibited (TFP) messages to the relevant adjacent SS7 nodes, according (or possibly to parts of an SPMC) is encountering congestion, the SG
to the local SS7 network procedures. should inform the MTP3 route management function (by an implementation-
dependent mechanism). This information is used by the MTP3 to mark the
"route" to the affected destination as congested and to trigger MTP
Transfer Controlled (TFC) messages to any SS7 SEPs generating traffic
to the congested DPC, as per current MTP3 procedures.
When the SG determines that the transport of SS7 messages to an ASP in a When the SG determines that the transport of SS7 messages to all ASPs
particular SPMC can be resumed, the SG may similarly optionally inform in a particular SPMC is interrupted, then it should similarly inform
the MTP3 route management function. This information is used by the the MTP3 route management function. This information is used by the
MTP3 to mark the route to the affected destination as available, and in MTP3 to mark the "route" to the affected destination as unavailable,
the case of a signalling transfer point, to send MTP Transfer Allowed and in the case of the SG acting as a signalling transfer point (i.e.,
(TFA) messages to the relevant adjacent SS7 nodes, according to the the Point Code of the SG is different from that of the SPMC), to send
local SS7 network procedures. In some SS7 network architectures, MTP Transfer Prohibited (TFP) messages to the relevant adjacent SS7
sending TFP and TFA messages from the SG into the SS7 network should be nodes, according to the local SS7 network procedures.
suppressed. As an example, in the case where the SG is seen by the
adjacent SS7 nodes as an SEP (i.e., in ANSI MTP terms the SG is
connected via A-links or F-links), TFP or TFA messages would not
normally be expected by the adjacent SS7 node.
In the case of SS7 user part management, it is required that the MTP3- When the SG determines that the transport of SS7 messages to an ASP in
User protocols at ASPs receive indications of SS7 signalling point a particular SPMC can be resumed, the SG should similarly inform the
availability, SS7 network congestion and User Part availability as would MTP3 route management function. This information is used by the MTP3
be expected an SS7 SEP node. To accomplish this, the MTP-PAUSE, MTP- to mark the route to the affected destination as available, and in the
RESUME and MTP-STATUS indication primitives received at the MTP3 upper case of a signalling transfer point, to send MTP Transfer Allowed (TFA)
layer interface at the SG need to be made propagated to the remote MTP3- messages to the relevant adjacent SS7 nodes, according to the local SS7
User lower layer interface at the ASP. These indication primitives are network procedures.
also made available to any existing local MTP3-Users at the SG, if
present.
It is important to clarify that MTP3 management messages such as TFPs or For SS7 user part management, it is required that the MTP3-User
TFAs received from the SS7 network are not "encapsulated" and sent protocols at ASPs receive indications of SS7 signalling point
availability, SS7 network congestion, and remote User Part
unavailability as would be expected in an SS7 SEP node. To accomplish
this, the MTP-PAUSE, MTP-RESUME and MTP-STATUS indication primitives
received at the MTP3 upper layer interface at the SG need to be
propagated to the remote MTP3-User lower layer interface at the ASP.
(These indication primitives are, of course, also made available to any
existing local MTP3-Users at the SG, if present.)
It is important to clarify that MTP3 management messages such as TFPs
or TFAs received from the SS7 network are not "encapsulated" and sent
blindly to the ASPs. Rather, the existing MTP3 management procedures blindly to the ASPs. Rather, the existing MTP3 management procedures
are followed within the MTP3 function of the SG to re-calculate the MTP3 are followed within the MTP3 function of the SG to re-calculate the
route set status and initiate any required signalling-route-set-test MTP3 route set status and initiate any required signalling-route-set-
procedures into the SS7 network. Only when an SS7 destination status test procedures into the SS7 network. Only when an SS7 destination
changes are MTP-PAUSE or MTP-RESUME primitives invoked. These status changes are MTP-PAUSE or MTP-RESUME primitives invoked. These
primitives can also be invoked due to local SS7 link set conditions as primitives can also be invoked due to local SS7 link set conditions as
per existing MTP3 procedures. per existing MTP3 procedures.
In case where the MTP in the SG undergoes an MTP restart, event
communication to the concerned ASPs should be handled as follows:
When the SG discovers SS7 network isolation, the SG sends an indication
to all concerned available ASPs (i.e., ASPs in the "active" or
"inactive" state), using a DUNA message. For the purposes of MTP
Restart, all SPMCs with point codes different from that of the SG with
at least one ASP that is active or has sent an ASPAC message to the SG
during the first part of the restart procedure should be considered as
available. If the M3UA at the SG receives any ASPAC messages during
the restart procedure, it delays the ASPAC-ACK messages until the end
of the restart procedure. During the second part of the restart
procedure the M3UA at the SG informs all concerned ASPs in the "active"
or "inactive" state of any unavailable SS7 destinations. At the end of
the restart procedure the M3UA sends an ASPAC-ACK message to all ASPs
in the "active" state.
1.4.3.2 Application Server 1.4.3.2 Application Server
A cluster of application servers is responsible for providing the A cluster of application servers is responsible for providing the
overall support for one or many SS7 upper layers. From an SS7 overall support for one or more SS7 upper layers. From an SS7
standpoint, a signalling point management cluster (SPMC) must provide standpoint, a Signalling Point Management Cluster (SPMC) provides
complete support for the upper layer service for a given point code. As complete support for the upper layer service for a given point code.
an example, such a SPMC providing MGC capabilities must provide complete As an example, an SPMC providing MGC capabilities must provide complete
support for ISUP for a given point code, according to the local SS7 support for ISUP for a given point code, according to the local SS7
network specifications. network specifications.
This measure is necessary to allow the SG to accurately represent the This measure is necessary to allow the SG to accurately represent the
signalling point on the local SS7 network. signalling point on the local SS7 network.
In the case where an ASP is connected to more than one SG, the M3UA
must maintain the status of configured SS7 destinations and route
messages according to availability/congestion status of the routes to
these destinations.
When an ASP enters the "Inactive" state towards an SG the M3UA must
mark all SS7 destinations configured to be reachable via this SG as
available.
When the M3UA at an ASP receives a DUNA message indicating SS7 network
isolation at an SG, it will stop any affected traffic via this SG and
clear any unavailability state of SS7 destinations via this SG. When
the M3UA subsequently receives any DUNA messages from an SG it will
mark the effected SS7 destinations as unavailable via that SG. When
the M3UA receives an ASPAC-ACK message it can resume traffic to
available SS7 destinations via this SG, provided the ASP is in the
active state towards this SG.
1.4.3.3 IPSP 1.4.3.3 IPSP
Since IPSPs use M3UA in a point-to-point fashion, there is no concept of Since IPSPs use M3UA in a point-to-point fashion, there is no concept
routing of messages beyond the remote end. Therefore, SS7 and M3UA of routing of messages beyond the remote end. Therefore, SS7 and M3UA
inter-working is not necessary for this model. inter-working is not necessary for this model.
1.4.4 Redundancy Models 1.4.4 Redundancy Models
The network address translation and mapping function of the M3UA layer The network address translation and mapping function of the M3UA layer
supports signalling process fail-over functions in order to support a supports signalling process fail-over functions in order to support a
high availability of call and transaction processing capability. high availability of call and transaction processing capability.
1.4.4.1 Application Server Redundancy 1.4.4.1 Application Server Redundancy
All MTP3-User messages (e.g., ISUP, SCCP) incoming to an SG from the SS7 All MTP3-User messages (e.g., ISUP, SCCP) incoming to an SG from the
network are assigned to a unique Application Server, based on the SS7 network are assigned to a unique Application Server, based on the
information in the message and the provisioned Routing Keys. information in the message and the provisioned Routing Keys.
The Application Server is, in practical terms a list of all ASPs The Application Server is, in practical terms, a list of all ASPs
actively configured to process a range of MTP3-User traffic defined by configured to process a range of MTP3-User traffic defined by one
Routing Keys. One or more ASPs in the list are normally active (i.e., Routing Key. One or more ASPs in the list are normally active (i.e.,
handling traffic) while any others may be unavailable or inactive, to be handling traffic) while any others may be unavailable or inactive, to
possibly used in the event of failure or unavailability of the active be possibly used in the event of failure or unavailability of the
ASP(s). active ASP(s).
The fail-over model supports an "n+k" redundancy model, where "n" ASPs The fail-over model supports an "n+k" redundancy model, where "n" ASPs
is the minimum number of redundant ASPs required to handle traffic and is the minimum number of redundant ASPs required to handle traffic and
"k" ASPs are available to take over for a failed or unavailable ASP. A "k" ASPs are available to take over for a failed or unavailable ASP. A
"1+1" active/standby redundancy is a subset of this model. A simplex "1+1" active/standby redundancy is a subset of this model. A simplex
"1+0" model is also supported as a subset, with no ASP redundancy. "1+0" model is also supported as a subset, with no ASP redundancy.
At the SG, an Application Server list contains active and inactive ASPs At the SG, an Application Server list contains active and inactive ASPs
to support ASP load-sharing and fail-over procedures. The list of ASPs to support ASP load-sharing and fail-over procedures. The list of ASPs
within a logical Application Server is kept updated in the SG to reflect within a logical Application Server is kept updated in the SG to
the active Application Server Process(es). reflect the active Application Server Process(es).
To avoid a single point of failure, it is recommended that a minimum of To avoid a single point of failure, it is recommended that a minimum of
two ASPs be in the list, resident in separate hosts, and therefore two ASPs be in the list, resident in separate hosts, and therefore
available over different SCTP Associations. For example, in the network available over different SCTP Associations. For example, in the
shown in Figure 1, all messages to DPC x could be sent to ASP1 in Host1 network shown in Figure 1, all messages to DPC x could be sent to ASP1
or ASP1 in Host2. The AS list at SG1 might look like this: in Host1 or ASP1 in Host2. The AS list at SG1 might look like this:
Routing Key {DPC=x) - "Application Server #1" Routing Key {DPC=x) - "Application Server #1"
ASP1/Host1 State=Up, Active ASP1/Host1 - State=Up, Active
ASP1/Host2 State=Up, Inactive ASP1/Host2 - State=Up, Inactive
In this "1+1" redundancy case, ASP1 in Host1 would be sent any incoming In this "1+1" redundancy case, ASP1 in Host1 would be sent any incoming
message with DPC=x. ASP1 in Host2 would normally be brought to the message with DPC=x. ASP1 in Host2 would normally be brought to the
active state upon failure of, or loss of connectivity to, ASP1/Host1. In active state upon failure of, or loss of connectivity to, ASP1/Host1.
this example, both ASPs are Up, meaning that the related SCTP In this example, both ASPs are Up, meaning that the related SCTP
association and far-end M3UA peer is ready. association and far-end M3UA peer is ready.
The AS List at SG1 might also be set up in load-share mode: The AS List at SG1 might also be set up in load-share mode:
Routing Key {DPC=x) - "Application Server #1" Routing Key {DPC=x) - "Application Server #1"
ASP1/Host1 State = Up, Active ASP1/Host1 - State = Up, Active
ASP1/Host2 State = Up, Active ASP1/Host2 - State = Up, Active
In this case, both the ASPs would be sent a portion of the traffic. For In this case, both the ASPs would be sent a portion of the traffic.
example the two ASPs could together form a database, where incoming For example the two ASPs could together form a database, where incoming
queries may be sent to any active ASP. queries may be sent to any active ASP.
Care must be exercised by a Network Operator in the selection of the Care must be exercised by a Network Operator in the selection of the
routing information to be used as the Routing Key for a particular AS. routing information to be used as the Routing Key for a particular AS.
For example, where Application Servers are defined using ranges of ISUP For example, where Application Servers are defined using ranges of ISUP
CIC values, the Operator is implicitly splitting up control of the CIC values, the Operator is implicitly splitting up control of the
related circuit groups. Some CIC value range assignments may interfere related circuit groups. Some CIC value range assignments may interfere
with ISUP circuit group management procedures. Similarly, within an AS, with ISUP circuit group management procedures.
if a load-balancing algorithm were to use CIC values to balance the load
across the ASPs, the span of circuit contol assigned to particular ASPs
must also be weighed against the ISUP circuit group management
procedures.
In the process of fail-over or fail-back, it is recommended that in the In the process of fail-over or fail-back, it is recommended that in the
case of ASPs supporting call processing, stable calls do not fail. It case of ASPs supporting call processing, stable calls do not fail. It
is possible that calls in "transition" may fail, although measures of is possible that calls in "transition" may fail, although measures of
communication between the ASPs involved can be used to mitigate this. communication between the ASPs involved can be used to mitigate this.
For example, the two ASPs may share call state via shared memory, or may For example, the two ASPs may share call state via shared memory, or
use an ASP to ASP protocol to pass call state information. may use an ASP to ASP protocol to pass call state information.
1.4.4.2 Signalling Gateway Redundancy 1.4.4.2 Signalling Gateway Redundancy
Signalling Gateways may also be distributed over multiple hosts. Much Signalling Gateways may also be distributed over multiple hosts. Much
like the AS model, SGs are comprised of one or more SG processes (SGP), like the AS model, SGs may be comprised of one or more SG Processes
distributed over one or more hosts, using an active/standby or a load- (SGPs), distributed over one or more hosts, using an active/standby or
sharing model. An SGP is viewed as a remote SCTP end-point from an ASP a load-sharing model. An SGP is viewed as a remote SCTP end-point from
perspective. an ASP perspective. There is, however, no M3UA protocol to manage the
status of an SGP. Whenever an SCTP association to an SGP exists, the
SGP is assumed to be available. Also, every SGP within an SG
communicating with an ASP provides identical SS7 connectivity to this
ASP. Should an SGP lose all or partial SS7 connectivity and other SGPs
exist, the SGP must terminate the SCTP associations to the concerned
ASPs.
It is therefore possible for an ASP to route signalling messages It is therefore possible for an ASP to route signalling messages
destined to the SS7 network using more than one SGP. In this model, a destined to the SS7 network using more than one SGP. In this model, a
signalling gateway is deployed as a cluster of hosts acting as a single
Signalling Gateway is deployed as a cluster of hosts acting as a single
SG. A primary/back-up redundancy model is possible, where the SG. A primary/back-up redundancy model is possible, where the
unavailability of the SCTP association to a primary SGP, or the unavailability of the SCTP association to a primary SGP could be used
unavailability of the SS7 destination node from the primary SGP, could to reroute affected traffic to an alternate SGP. A load-sharing model
be used to reroute affected traffic to an alternate SGP. A load-sharing is possible, where the signalling messages are load-shared between
model is possible, where the signalling messages are load-shared between
multiple SGPs. multiple SGPs.
It may also be possible for an AS to use more than one SG to access a It may also be possible for an ASP to use more than one SG to access a
specific SS7 end point, in a model that resembles an SS7 STP mated pair. specific SS7 end point, in a model that resembles an SS7 STP mated
Typically, SS7 STPs are deployed in mated pairs, with traffic load- pair. Typically, SS7 STPs are deployed in mated pairs, with traffic
shared between them. Other models are also possible, subject to the load-shared between them. Other models are also possible, subject to
limitations of the local SS7 network provisioning guidelines. the limitations of the local SS7 network provisioning guidelines.
>From the perspective of an ASP, a particular SG is capable of
transferring traffic to an SS7 destination if an SCTP association with
the SGP is established, the SGP has received an indication from the ASP
that it is actively handling traffic for that destination, and the SG
has not indicated that the destination is inaccessible. When an ASP is
configured to use multiple SGPs or SGs for transferring traffic to the
SS7 network, the ASP must maintain knowledge of the current capability
of the SG to handle traffic to destinations of interest. This
information is crucial to the overall reliability of the service, for
both active/standby and load-sharing model, in the event of failures,
recovery and maintenance activities. The ASP may also use this
information for congestion avoidance purposes.
1.4.5 Management Inhibit/Uninhibit >From the perspective of the M3UA at an ASP, a particular SG is capable
of transferring traffic to an SS7 destination if an SCTP association
with at least one SGP of the SG is established, the SGP has received an
indication from the ASP M3UA that the ASP is actively handling traffic
for that destination, and the SG has not indicated that the destination
is inaccessible. When an ASP is configured to use multiple SGs for
transferring traffic to the SS7 network, the ASP must maintain
knowledge of the current capability of the SGs to handle traffic to
destinations of interest. This information is crucial to the overall
reliability of the service, for both active/standby and load-sharing
model, in the event of failures, recovery and maintenance activities.
The ASP M3UA may also use this information for congestion avoidance
purposes.
Local Management at an ASP or SG may wish to stop traffic across an SCTP 1.4.5 Flow Control
Local Management at an ASP may wish to stop traffic across an SCTP
association in order to temporarily remove the association from service association in order to temporarily remove the association from service
or to perform testing and maintenance activity. The function could or to perform testing and maintenance activity. The function could
optionally be used to control the start of traffic on to a newly optionally be used to control the start of traffic on to a newly
available SCTP association. available SCTP association.
1.4.6 Congestion Management 1.4.6 Congestion Management
The M3UA Layer is informed of local and IP network congestion by means The M3UA Layer is informed of local and IP network congestion by means
of an implementation-dependent function (e.g., an implementation- of an implementation-dependent function (e.g., an implementation-
dependent indication from the SCTP of IP network congestion). When an SG dependent indication from the SCTP of IP network congestion). When an
determines that the transport of SS7 messages to a Signalling Point SG determines that the transport of SS7 messages to a Signalling Point
Management Cluster (SPMC) is encountering congestion, the SG may Management Cluster (SPMC) is encountering congestion, the SG should
optionally trigger SS7 MTP3 Transfer Controlled management messages to trigger SS7 MTP3 Transfer Controlled management messages to originating
originating SS7 nodes. The triggering of SS7 MTP3 Management messages SS7 nodes. The triggering of SS7 MTP3 Management messages from an SG is
from an SG is an implementation-dependent function. an implementation-dependent function.
At an ASP, congestion is indicated to local MTP3-Users by means of an At an ASP, congestion is indicated to local MTP3-Users by means of an
MTP-Status primitive indicating congestion, to invoke appropriate upper MTP-Status primitive indicating congestion, to invoke appropriate upper
layer responses, as per current MTP3 procedures. layer responses, as per current MTP3 procedures.
The M3UA should indicate local ASP congestion to the SG with an SCON
message. When an SG receives an SCON message from an ASP it should
trigger SS7 MTP3 Transfer Controlled management messages to concerned
SS7 destinations according to established MTP procedures.
1.4.7 SCTP Stream Mapping. 1.4.7 SCTP Stream Mapping.
The M3UA at both the SG and ASP also supports the assignment of The M3UA at both the SG and ASP also supports the assignment of
signalling traffic into streams within an SCTP association. Traffic signalling traffic into streams within an SCTP association. Traffic
that requires sequencing must be assigned to the same stream. To that requires sequencing must be assigned to the same stream. To
accomplish this, MTP3-User traffic may be assigned to individual streams accomplish this, MTP3-User traffic may be assigned to individual
based on the SLS value in the MTP3 Routing Label or the ISUP CIC streams based on, for example, the SLS value in the MTP3 Routing Label
assignment, subject of course to the maximum number of streams supported or the ISUP CIC assignment, subject of course to the maximum number of
by the underlying SCTP association. streams supported by the underlying SCTP association.
The use of SCTP streams within M3UA is recommended in order to minimize The use of SCTP streams within M3UA is recommended in order to minimize
transmission and buffering delays, therefore improving the overall transmission and buffering delays, therefore improving the overall
performance and reliability of the signalling elements. The performance and reliability of the signalling elements. The
distribution of the MTP3 user messages over the various streams should distribution of the MTP3 user messages over the various streams should
be done in such be done in such a way to minimize message mis-sequencing, as required
by the SS7 User Parts.
a way to minimize message mis-sequencing, as required by the SS7 User
Parts.
1.4.8 Client/Server Model 1.4.8 Client/Server Model
The SG takes on the role of server while the ASP is the client. ASPs The SG takes on the role of server while the ASP is the client. ASPs
must initiate the SCTP association to the SG. must initiate the SCTP association to the SG.
In the case of IPSP to IPSP communication, one side can be designated
as the initiator of the SCTP association and M3UA messaging.
The SCTP (and UDP/TCP) Registered User Port Number Assignment for M3UA The SCTP (and UDP/TCP) Registered User Port Number Assignment for M3UA
is 2905. is 2905.
1.5 Sample Configurations 1.5 Sample Configurations
1.5.1 Example 1: ISUP message transport 1.5.1 Example 1: ISUP message transport
******** SS7 ***************** IP ******** ******** SS7 ***************** IP ********
* SEP *---------* SG *--------* ASP * * SEP *---------* SG *--------* ASP *
******** ***************** ******** ******** ***************** ********
skipping to change at page 18, line 37 skipping to change at page 21, line 26
| MTP3 | | MTP3 | | M3UA | | M3UA | | MTP3 | | MTP3 | | M3UA | | M3UA |
+------| +------+ +------+ +------+ +------| +------+ +------+ +------+
| MTP2 | | MTP2 | | SCTP | | SCTP | | MTP2 | | MTP2 | | SCTP | | SCTP |
+------+ +------+ +------+ +------+ +------+ +------+ +------+ +------+
| L1 | | L1 | | IP | | IP | | L1 | | L1 | | IP | | IP |
+------+ +------+ +------+ +------+ +------+ +------+ +------+ +------+
|_______________| |______________| |_______________| |______________|
SEP - SS7 Signalling End Point SEP - SS7 Signalling End Point
SCTP - Stream Control Transmission Protocol SCTP - Stream Control Transmission Protocol
NIF Nodal Inter-working Function NIF - Nodal Inter-working Function
In this example, the SG provides an implementation-dependent nodal In this example, the SG provides an implementation-dependent nodal
inter-working function (NIF) that allows the MGC to exchange SS7 inter-working function (NIF) that allows the MGC to exchange SS7
signalling messages with the SS7-based SEP. The NIF within the SG signalling messages with the SS7-based SEP. The NIF within the SG
serves to transport messages within the SG between the MTP3 and M3UA. serves as the interface within the SG between the MTP3 and M3UA. This
This nodal inter-working function has no visible peer protocol with nodal inter-working function has no visible peer protocol with either
either the MGC or SEP. It also provides network status information to the MGC or SEP. It also provides network status information to one or
one or both sides of the network. both sides of the network.
For internal SG modeling purposes, at the NIF level, SS7 signalling For internal SG modeling purposes, at the NIF level, SS7 signalling
messages that are destined to the MGC are received as MTP-TRANSFER messages that are destined to the MGC are received as MTP-TRANSFER
indication primitives from the MTP Level 3 upper layer interface and are indication primitives from the MTP Level 3 upper layer interface and
sent to the local M3UA-resident message distribution function for are sent to the local M3UA-resident message distribution function for
ongoing routing to the final IP destination. MTP-TRANSFER primitives ongoing routing to the final IP destination. MTP-TRANSFER primitives
received from the local M3UA network address translation and mapping received from the local M3UA network address translation and mapping
function are sent to the MTP Level 3 upper layer interface as MTP- function are sent to the MTP Level 3 upper layer interface as MTP-
TRANSFER request primitives for on-going MTP Level 3 routing to an SS7 TRANSFER request primitives for on-going MTP Level 3 routing to an SS7
SEP. For the purposes of providing SS7 network status information the SEP. For the purposes of providing SS7 network status information the
NIF also delivers MTP-PAUSE, MTP-RESUME and MTP-STATUS indication NIF also delivers MTP-PAUSE, MTP-RESUME and MTP-STATUS indication
primitives received from the MTP Level 3 upper layer interface to the primitives received from the MTP Level 3 upper layer interface to the
local M3UA-resident management function. local M3UA-resident management function.
1.5.2 Example 2: SCCP Transport between IPSPs 1.5.2 Example 2: SCCP Transport between IPSPs
******** IP ******** ******** IP ********
* IPSP * * IPSP * * IPSP * * IPSP *
skipping to change at page 19, line 33 skipping to change at page 22, line 27
| M3UA | | M3UA | | M3UA | | M3UA |
+------+ +------+ +------+ +------+
| SCTP | | SCTP | | SCTP | | SCTP |
+------+ +------+ +------+ +------+
| IP | | IP | | IP | | IP |
+------+ +------+ +------+ +------+
|________________| |________________|
This example shows an architecture where no Signalling Gateway is used. This example shows an architecture where no Signalling Gateway is used.
In this example, SCCP messages are exchanged directly between two IP- In this example, SCCP messages are exchanged directly between two IP-
resident IPSPs with resident SCCP-User protocol instances, such as RANAP resident IPSPs with resident SCCP-User protocol instances, such as
or TCAP. SS7 network inter-working is not required, therefore there is RANAP or TCAP. SS7 network inter-working is not required, therefore
no MTP3 network management status information for the SCCP and SCCP-User there is no MTP3 network management status information for the SCCP and
protocols to consider. Any MTP-PAUSE, -RESUME or -STATUS indications SCCP-User protocols to consider. Any MTP-PAUSE, -RESUME or -STATUS
from the M3UA to the SCCP should consider only the status of the SCTP indications from the M3UA to the SCCP should consider only the status
Association and underlying IP network. of the SCTP Association and underlying IP network.
1.5.3 Example 3: SG resident SCCP layer, with remote ASP 1.5.3 Example 3: SG resident SCCP layer, with remote ASP
******** SS7 ***************** IP ******** ******** SS7 ***************** IP ********
* SEP *---------* *--------* * * SEP *---------* *--------* *
* or * * SG * * ASP * * or * * SG * * ASP *
* STP * * * * * * STP * * * * *
******** ***************** ******** ******** ***************** ********
+------+ +---------------+ +------+ +------+ +---------------+ +------+
skipping to change at page 20, line 32 skipping to change at page 23, line 32
+------+ +------+ +------+ +------+ +------+ +------+ +------+ +------+
| L1 | | L1 | | IP | | IP | | L1 | | L1 | | IP | | IP |
+------+ +------+ +------+ +------+ +------+ +------+ +------+ +------+
|_______________| |______________| |_______________| |______________|
STP - SS7 Signalling Transfer Point STP - SS7 Signalling Transfer Point
In this example, the SG contains an instance of the SS7 SCCP protocol In this example, the SG contains an instance of the SS7 SCCP protocol
layer that may, for example, perform the SCCP Global Title Translation layer that may, for example, perform the SCCP Global Title Translation
(GTT) function for messages logically addressed to the SG SCCP. If the (GTT) function for messages logically addressed to the SG SCCP. If the
result of a GTT for an SCCP message yields an SS7 DPC or DPC/SSN address result of a GTT for an SCCP message yields an SS7 DPC or DPC/SSN
result of an SCCP peer located in the IP domain, the resulting MTP- address result of an SCCP peer located in the IP domain, the resulting
TRANSFER request primitive is sent to the local M3UA-resident network MTP-TRANSFER request primitive is sent to the local M3UA-resident
address translation and mapping function for ongoing routing to the network address translation and mapping function for ongoing routing to
final IP destination. the final IP destination.
Similarly, the SCCP instance in an SG can perform the SCCP GTT service Similarly, the SCCP instance in an SG can perform the SCCP GTT service
for messages logically addressed to it from SCCP peers in the IP domain. for messages logically addressed to it from SCCP peers in the IP
In this case, MTP-TRANSFER messages are sent from the local M3UA- domain. In this case, MTP-TRANSFER messages are sent from the local
resident network address translation and mapping function to the SCCP M3UA-resident network address translation and mapping function to the
for GTT. If the result of the GTT yields the address of an SCCP peer in SCCP for GTT. If the result of the GTT yields the address of an SCCP
the SS7 network then the resulting MTP-TRANSFER request is given to the peer in the SS7 network then the resulting MTP-TRANSFER request is
MTP3 for delivery to an SS7-resident node. given to the MTP3 for delivery to an SS7-resident node.
It is possible that the above SCCP GTT at the SG could yield the address It is possible that the above SCCP GTT at the SG could yield the
of an SCCP peer in the IP domain and the resulting MTP-TRANSFER address of an SCCP peer in the IP domain and the resulting MTP-TRANSFER
primitive would be sent back to the M3UA for delivery to an IP primitive would be sent back to the M3UA for delivery to an IP
destination. destination.
For internal SG modeling purposes, this may be accomplished with the use For internal SG modeling purposes, this may be accomplished with the
of an implementation-dependent nodal inter-working function within the use of an implementation-dependent nodal inter-working function within
SG that effectively sits below the SCCP and routes MTP-TRANSFER messages the SG that effectively sits below the SCCP and routes MTP-TRANSFER
to/from both the MTP3 and the M3UA, based on the SS7 DPC or DPC/SSN messages to/from both the MTP3 and the M3UA, based on the SS7 DPC or
DPC/SSN
address information. This nodal inter-working function has no visible address information. This nodal inter-working function has no visible
peer protocol with either the ASP or SEP. peer protocol with either the ASP or SEP.
Note that the services and interface provided by the M3UA are the same Note that the services and interface provided by the M3UA are the same
as in Example 1 and the functions taking place in the SCCP entity are as in Example 1 and the functions taking place in the SCCP entity are
transparent to M3UA. The SCCP protocol functions are not reproduced in transparent to M3UA. The SCCP protocol functions are not reproduced in
the M3UA protocol. the M3UA protocol.
1.6 Definition of M3UA Boundaries 1.6 Definition of M3UA Boundaries
1.6.1 Definition of the boundary between M3UA and an MTP3-User. 1.6.1 Definition of the boundary between M3UA and an MTP3-User.
>From ITU Q.701 [2]: >From ITU Q.701 [14]:
MTP-TRANSFER request MTP-TRANSFER request
MTP-TRANSFER indication MTP-TRANSFER indication
MTP-PAUSE indication MTP-PAUSE indication
MTP-RESUME indication MTP-RESUME indication
MTP-STATUS indication MTP-STATUS indication
1.6.2 Definition of the boundary between M3UA and SCTP 1.6.2 Definition of the boundary between M3UA and SCTP
The upper layer primitives provided by the SCTP are provided in [13] The upper layer primitives provided by the SCTP are provided in [13]
1.6.3 Definition of the Boundary between M3UA and Layer Management 1.6.3 Definition of the Boundary between M3UA and Layer Management
M-SCTP ESTABLISH request M-SCTP ESTABLISH request
M-SCTP ESTABLISH indication Direction: LM -> M3UA
Purpose: LM requests ASP to establish an SCTP association with an SG
or IPSP.
M-STCP ESTABLISH confirm M-STCP ESTABLISH confirm
Direction: M3UA -> LM
Purpose: ASP confirms to LM that it has established an SCTP
association with an SG or IPSP.
M-SCTP ESTABLISH indication
Direction: M3UA -> LM
Purpose: SG or IPSP informs LM that an ASP has established an SCTP
association.
M-SCTP RELEASE request M-SCTP RELEASE request
M-SCTP RELEASE indication Direction: LM -> M3UA
Purpose: LM requests ASP to release an SCTP association with SG or
IPSP.
M-SCTP RELEASE confirm M-SCTP RELEASE confirm
Direction: M3UA -> LM
Purpose: ASP confirms to LM that it has released SCTP association
with SG.
M-SCTP RELEASE indication
Direction: M3UA -> LM
Purpose: SG or IPSP informs LM that ASP has released an SCTP
association.
M-SCTP STATUS request M-SCTP STATUS request
Direction: LM -> M3UA
Purpose: LM requests M3UA to report status of SCTP association.
M-SCTP STATUS indication M-SCTP STATUS indication
Direction: M3UA -> LM
Purpose: M3UA reports status of SCTP association.
M-ASP STATUS request M-ASP STATUS request
Direction: LM -> M3UA
Purpose: LM requests SG or IPSP to report status of remote ASP.
M-ASP STATUS indication M-ASP STATUS indication
Direction: M3UA -> LM
Purpose: SG or IPSP reports status of remote ASP.
M-AS-STATUS request M-AS-STATUS request
Direction: LM -> M3UA
Purpose: LM requests SG or IPSP to report status of AS.
M-AS-STATUS indication M-AS-STATUS indication
Direction: M3UA -> LM
Purpose: SG or IPSP reports status of AS.
M-NOTIFY indication M-NOTIFY indication
Direction: M3UA -> LM
Purpose: ASP reports that it has received a NOTIFY message
from its peer.
M-ERROR indication M-ERROR indication
Direction: M3UA -> LM
Purpose: ASP, SG or IPSP reports that it has received an ERROR
message from its peer.
M-ASP-INHIBIT request M-ASP-DOWN request
M-ASP-UNINHIBIT request Direction: LM -> M3UA
Purpose: LM requests ASP to stop its operation and send an ASP-DOWN
message to the SG.
M-ASP-UP request
Direction: LM -> M3UA
Purpose: LM requests ASP to start its operation and send an ASP-UP
message to the SG.
M-ASP-INACTIVE request
Direction: LM -> M3UA
Purpose: LM requests ASP to stop data transfer and send an ASP-
Inactive message to the SG.
M-ASP-ACTIVE request
Direction: LM -> M3UA
Purpose: LM requests ASP to start data transfer and send an ASP-
Active message to the SG.
2.0 Conventions 2.0 Conventions
The keywords MUST, MUST NOT, REQUIRED, SHALL, SHALL NOT, SHOULD, SHOULD The keywords MUST, MUST NOT, REQUIRED, SHALL, SHALL NOT, SHOULD, SHOULD
NOT, RECOMMENDED, NOT RECOMMENDED, MAY, and OPTIONAL, when they appear NOT, RECOMMENDED, NOT RECOMMENDED, MAY, and OPTIONAL, when they appear
in this document, are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. in this document, are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
3.0 M3UA Protocol Elements 3.0 M3UA Protocol Elements
The general M3UA message format includes a Common Message Header The general M3UA message format includes a Common Message Header
followed by zero or more parameters as defined by the Message Type. For followed by zero or more parameters as defined by the Message Type.
forward compatibility, all Message Types may have attached parameters For forward compatibility, all Message Types may have attached
even if none are specified in this version. parameters even if none are specified in this version.
3.1 Common Message Header 3.1 Common Message Header
The protocol messages for MTP3-User Adaptation require a message The protocol messages for MTP3-User Adaptation require a message
structure that contains a version, message type, message length, and structure that contains a version, message type, message length, and
message contents. This message header is common among all signalling message contents. This message header is common among all signalling
protocol adaptation layers: protocol adaptation layers:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Version | Reserved | Message Class | Message Type | | Version | Reserved | Message Class | Message Type |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Message Length | | Message Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| | \ \
/ /
All fields in an M3UA message MUST be transmitted in the network byte All fields in an M3UA message MUST be transmitted in the network byte
order, unless otherwise stated. order, unless otherwise stated.
M3UA Protocol Version: 8 bits (unsigned integer) M3UA Protocol Version: 8 bits (unsigned integer)
The version field contains the version of the M3UA adaptation layer. The version field contains the version of the M3UA adaptation layer.
The supported versions are: The supported versions are:
Value Version
----- -------
1 Release 1.0 1 Release 1.0
Message Class: 8 bits (unsigned integer) Message Class: 8 bits (unsigned integer)
The following list contains the Message Type Classes for the defined The following list contains the Message Type Classes for the defined
messages. messages.
0 Management (MGMT) Message 0 Management (MGMT) Message
1 Transfer Messages 1 Transfer Messages
2 SS7 Signalling Network Management (SSNM) Messages 2 SS7 Signalling Network Management (SSNM) Messages
skipping to change at page 23, line 36 skipping to change at page 27, line 43
2 to 255 Reserved for Management Messages 2 to 255 Reserved for Management Messages
Transfer Messages Transfer Messages
0 Reserved 0 Reserved
1 Payload Data (DATA) 1 Payload Data (DATA)
2 to 255 Reserved for Transfer Messages 2 to 255 Reserved for Transfer Messages
SS7 Signalling Network Management (SSNM) Messages SS7 Signalling Network Management (SSNM) Messages
0 SS7 Network Isolation (S7ISO) 0 Reserved
1 Destination Unavailable (DUNA) 1 Destination Unavailable (DUNA)
2 Destination Available (DAVA) 2 Destination Available (DAVA)
3 Destination State Audit (DAUD) 3 Destination State Audit (DAUD)
4 SS7 Network Congestion State (SCON) 4 SS7 Network Congestion State (SCON)
5 Destination User Part Unavailable (DUPU) 5 Destination User Part Unavailable (DUPU)
6 to 255 Reserved for SSNM Messages 6 to 255 Reserved for SSNM Messages
ASP State Maintenance (ASPSM) Messages ASP State Maintenance (ASPSM) Messages
0 Reserved 0 Reserved
1 ASP Up (UP) 1 ASP Up (UP)
2 ASP Down (DOWN) 3 Heartbeat (HEARTBEAT) 2 ASP Down (DOWN)
3 Heartbeat (BEAT)
4 ASP Up Ack (UP ACK) 4 ASP Up Ack (UP ACK)
5 ASP Down Ack (DOWN ACK) 5 ASP Down Ack (DOWN ACK)
6 to 255 Reserved for ASPSM Messages 6 Heatbeat Ack (BEAT ACK)
7 to 255 Reserved for ASPSM Messages
ASP Traffic Maintenance (ASPTM) Messages ASP Traffic Maintenance (ASPTM) Messages
0 Reserved 0 Reserved
1 ASP Active (ACTIVE) 1 ASP Active (ACTIVE)
2 ASP Inactive (INACTIVE) 2 ASP Inactive (INACTIVE)
3 ASP Active Ack (ACTIVE ACK) 3 ASP Active Ack (ACTIVE ACK)
4 ASP Inactive Ack (INACTIVE ACK) 4 ASP Inactive Ack (INACTIVE ACK)
5 to 255 Reserved for ASPTM Messages 5 to 255 Reserved for ASPTM Messages
Reserved: 5 bits Reserved: 8 bits
Should be set to all '0's and ignored by the receiver. Should be set to all '0's and ignored by the receiver.
Message Length: 32-bits (unsigned integer) Message Length: 32-bits (unsigned integer)
The Message Length defines the length of the message in octets, not The Message Length defines the length of the message in octets,
including the header. including the header.
3.2 Variable-Length Parameter Format 3.2 Variable-Length Parameter Format
M3UA messages consist of a Common Header followed by zero or more M3UA messages consist of a Common Header followed by zero or more
variable-length parameters, as defined by the message type. The parameters, as defined by the message type. The variable-length
variable-length parameters contained in a message are defined in a Tag- parameters contained in a message are defined in a Tag-Length-Value
Length-Value format as shown below. format as shown below.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Parameter Tag | Parameter Length | | Parameter Tag | Parameter Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \ \ \
/ Parameter Value / / Parameter Value /
\ \ \ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Parameter Tag: 16 bits (unsigned integer) Parameter Tag: 16 bits (unsigned integer)
Tag field is a 16-bit identifier of the type of parameter. It takes a Tag field is a 16-bit identifier of the type of parameter. It takes
value of 0 to 65534. a value of 0 to 65534.
The value of 65535 is reserved for IETF-defined extensions. Values The value of 65535 is reserved for IETF-defined extensions. Values
other than those defined in specific parameter description are other than those defined in specific parameter description are
reserved for use by the IETF. reserved for use by the IETF.
Parameter Length: 16 bits (unsigned integer) Parameter Length: 16 bits (unsigned integer)
The Parameter Length field contains the size of the parameter in The Parameter Length field contains the size of the parameter in
bytes, including the Parameter Tag, Parameter Length, and Parameter bytes, including the Parameter Tag, Parameter Length, and Parameter
Value fields. The Parameter Length does not include any padding Value fields. The Parameter Length does not include any padding
bytes. bytes.
Parameter Value: variable-length. Parameter Value: variable-length.
The Parameter Value field contains the actual information to be The Parameter Value field contains the actual information to be
transferred in the parameter. transferred in the parameter.
The total length of a parameter (including Tag, Parameter Length and The total length of a parameter (including Tag, Parameter Length and
Value fields) MUST be a multiple of 4 bytes. If the length of the Value fields) MUST be a multiple of 4 bytes. If the length of the
parameter is not a multiple of 4 bytes, the sender pads the Parameter parameter is not a multiple of 4 bytes, the sender pads the
at the end (i.e., after the Parameter Value field) with all zero Parameter at the end (i.e., after the Parameter Value field) with
bytes. The length of the padding is NOT included in the parameter all zero bytes. The length of the padding is NOT included in the
length field. A sender should NEVER pad with more than 3 bytes. The parameter length field. A sender should NEVER pad with more than 3
receiver MUST ignore the padding bytes. bytes. The receiver MUST ignore the padding bytes.
3.2 Transfer Messages 3.3 Transfer Messages
The following section describes the Transfer messages and parameter The following section describes the Transfer messages and parameter
contents. contents.
3.2.1 Payload Data Message (DATA) 3.3.1 Payload Data Message (DATA)
The Data message contains the SS7 MTP3-User protocol data, which is an The Data message contains the SS7 MTP3-User protocol data, which is an
MTP-TRANSFER primitive, including the complete MTP3 Routing Label. The MTP-TRANSFER primitive, including the complete MTP3 Routing Label. The
Data message contains the following variable length parameters: Data message contains the following variable length parameters:
Network Appearance Optional Network Appearance Optional
Protocol Data Mandatory Protocol Data Mandatory
The following format MUST be used for the Data Message: The following format MUST be used for the Data Message:
skipping to change at page 25, line 51 skipping to change at page 30, line 24
| Tag = 3 | Length | | Tag = 3 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \ \ \
/ Protocol Data / / Protocol Data /
\ \ \ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Network Appearance: 32-bits (unsigned integer) Network Appearance: 32-bits (unsigned integer)
The optional Network Appearance parameter identifies the SS7 network The optional Network Appearance parameter identifies the SS7 network
context for the message, for the purposes of logically separating the context for the message, for the purposes of logically separating
signalling traffic between the SG and the Application Server Process the signalling traffic between the SG and the Application Server
over a common SCTP Association. An example is where an SG is Process over a common SCTP Association. An example is where an SG
logically partitioned to appear as an element in four different is logically partitioned to appear as an element in four different
national SS7 networks. national SS7 networks.
In a Data message, the Network Appearance defines the SS7 Point Codes In a Data message, the Network Appearance implicitly defines the SS7
used, the SS7 Network Indicator value and MTP3/MTP3-User protocol Point Code format used, the SS7 Network Indicator value, and the
type/variant/version used within the SS7 network partition. Where an MTP3/MTP3-User protocol type/variant/version used within the SS7
SG operates in the context of a single SS7 network, or individual network partition. Where an SG operates in the context of a single
SCTP associations are dedicated to each SS7 network context, or the SS7 network, or individual SCTP associations are dedicated to each
Network Indicator in the SIO of the MTP-Transfer primitive is SS7 network context, or the Network Indicator in the SIO of the MTP-
sufficient, the Network Appearance parameter is not required. Transfer primitive is sufficient, the Network Appearance parameter
is not required.
The Network Appearance parameter value assigned according to network The Network Appearance parameter value is of local significance
operator policy. The values used are of local significance only, only, coordinated between the SG and ASP.
coordinated between the SG and ASP.
Where the optional Network Appearance parameter is present, it must Where the optional Network Appearance parameter is present, it must
be the first parameter in the message as it defines the format of the be the first parameter in the message as it defines the format of
Protocol Data field. the Protocol Data field.
Protocol Data: variable length Protocol Data: variable length
The Protocol Data field contains the MTP3-User application message, The Protocol Data field contains the SS7 MTP3-User application
which is in effect an MTP-TRANSFER primitive. As defined for a message, including the complete Routing Label. The Protocol Data
specific value of the Protocol Identifier, this will include the MTP- parameter contains the following fields:
User Data and includes the MTP Routing Label (SS7 OPC, DPC, SLS), and
the SIO (Service Indicator, Network Indicator & optional Message
Priority codes). Note: in the case of ISUP messages, the Circuit
Identification Code is also included.
3.3 SS7 Signalling Network Management (SSNM) Messages Service Information Octet. Includes:
Service Indicator,
Network Indicator,
and Spare/Priority codes
3.3.1 Destination Unavailable (DUNA) MTP Routing Label. Includes:
Destination Point Code,
Originating Point Code,
And Signalling Link Selection Code (SLS)
User Protocol Data. Includes MTP3-User protocol elements:
ISUP, SCCP, or TUP parameters
The format is as defined in the relevant MTP standards for the SS7
protocol being transported. The format is either implicitly known
or identified by the Network Appearance parameter.
For the ANSI protocol example, the Protocol Data field format is
shown below:
0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| SIO | DPC Network | DPC Cluster | DPC Member |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| OPC Network | OPC Cluster | OPC Member | SLS |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \
/ Protocol Data /
\ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|MSB---------------------------------------------------------LSB|
For the ITU international protocol example, the Protocol Data field
is shown below.
0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| SIO | DPC | DPC | DPC | OPC | OPC |
| |Zone | Region | SP |Zone | Region |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|*| OPC | SLS | |
|*| SP | | |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +
\ \
/ Protocol Data /
\ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|MSB---------------------------------------------------------LSB|
* LSB of OPC Region
3.4 SS7 Signalling Network Management (SSNM) Messages
3.4.1 Destination Unavailable (DUNA)
The DUNA message is sent from the SG to all concerned ASPs to indicate The DUNA message is sent from the SG to all concerned ASPs to indicate
that the SG has determined that one or more SS7 destinations are that the SG has determined that one or more SS7 destinations are
unreachable. The MTP3-User at the ASP is expected to stop traffic to unreachable. It is also sent in response to a message from the ASP to
the affected destination through the SG initiating the DUNA as per the an unreachable SS7 destination. The MTP3-User at the ASP is expected
defined MTP3-User procedures. to stop traffic to the affected destination through the SG initiating
the DUNA as per the defined MTP3-User procedures.
The DUNA message contains the following parameters: The DUNA message contains the following parameters:
Network Appearance Optional Network Appearance Optional
Affected Destination Mandatory Affected Destinations Mandatory
Info String Optional Info String Optional
The format for DUNA Message parameters is as follows: The format for DUNA Message parameters is as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag = 1 | Length =8 | | Tag = 1 | Length =8 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Network Appearance* | | Network Appearance* |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag = 5 | Length | | Tag = 5 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Mask | Affected DPC 1 | | Mask | Affected DPC 1 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \ \ \
| ... | / ... /
\ \ \ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Mask | Affected DPC n | | Mask | Affected DPC n |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag = 4 | Length | | Tag = 4 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \ \ \
| INFO String* | / INFO String* /
\ \ \ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Network Appearance: 32-bit unsigned integer Network Appearance: 32-bit unsigned integer
The optional Network Appearance parameter identifies the SS7 network The optional Network Appearance parameter identifies the SS7 network
context for the message, for the purposes of logically separating the context for the message, for the purposes of logically separating
signalling traffic between the SG and the Application Server Process the signalling traffic between the SG and the Application Server
over a common SCTP Association. An example is where an SG is logically Process over a common SCTP Association. An example is where an SG
partitioned to appear as an element in four different national SS7 is logically partitioned to appear as an element in four different
networks. national SS7 networks.
In an SSNM message, the Network Appearance parameter defines the format In an SSNM message, the Network Appearance parameter defines the
of the Affected DPC(s) in the Affected Destination parameter. The DPC format of the Affected DPC(s) in the Affected Destination parameter.
point code length (e.g., 14-, 16-, or 24-bit) and sub-field definitions The DPC point code length (e.g., 14-, 16-, or 24-bit) and sub-field
(e.g., ANSI 24-bit network/cluster/member, ITU-international 14-bit definitions (e.g., ANSI 24-bit network/cluster/member, ITU-
zone/region/signal_point, many national field variants, ...) are fixed international 14-bit zone/region/signal_point, many national field
within a particular Network Appearance. Where an SG operates in the variants, ...) are fixed within a particular Network Appearance.
context of a single SS7 network, or individual SCTP associations are Where an SG operates in the context of a single SS7 network, or
dedicated to each SS7 network context, the Network Appearance parameter individual SCTP associations are dedicated to each SS7 network
is not required and the format of the Affected DPC(s) is understood context, the Network Appearance parameter is not required and the
implicitly. format of the Affected DPC(s) is understood implicitly.
The format of the Network Appearance parameter is an integer, the values The format of the Network Appearance parameter is an integer, the
of which are assigned according to network operator policy. The values values used are of local significance only, coordinated between the
used are of local significance only, coordinated between the SG and ASP. SG and ASP.
Where the optional Network Appearance parameter is present, it must be Where the optional Network Appearance parameter is present, it must
the first parameter in the message as it defines the format of the be the first parameter in the message as it defines the format of
Affected DPCs in the Affected Destination parameter. the Affected DPCs in the Affected Destination parameter.
Affected Destination: 24-bits Affected Destinations: n x 32-bits
The Affected Destination parameter contains one or more Affected The Affected Destinations parameter contains up to sixteen Affected
Destination Point Codes, each a three-octet parameter to allow for 14-, Destination Point Code fields, each a three-octet parameter to allow
16- and 24-bit binary formatted SS7 Point Codes. Affected Point Codes for 14-, 16- and 24-bit binary formatted SS7 Point Codes. Affected
that are less than 24-bits, are padded on the left to the 24-bit Point Codes that are less than 24-bits, are padded on the left to
boundary. The encoding is shown below for ANSI and ITU Point Code the 24-bit boundary. The encoding is shown below for ANSI and ITU
examples. Point Code examples.
ANSI 24-bit Point Code: ANSI 24-bit Point Code:
0 1 2 3-----> 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Mask | Network | Cluster | Member | | Mask | Network | Cluster | Member |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|MSB-----------------------------------------LSB| |MSB-----------------------------------------LSB|
ITU 14-bit Point Code: ITU 14-bit Point Code:
0 1 2 3-----> 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Mask |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|Zone | Region | SP | | Mask |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|Zone | Region | SP |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|MSB--------------------LSB| |MSB--------------------LSB|
It is optional to send an Affected Destination parameter with more than It is optional to send an Affected Destinations parameter with more
one Affected DPC but it is mandatory to receive it. All the Affected than one Affected DPC but it is mandatory to receive and process it.
DPCs included must be within the same Network Appearance. Including All the Affected DPCs included must be within the same Network
multiple Affected DPCs may be useful when reception of an MTP3 Appearance. Including multiple Affected DPCs may be useful when
management message or a linkset event simultaneously affects the reception of an MTP3 management message or a linkset event
availability status of a list of destinations at an SG. simultaneously affects the availability status of a list of
destinations at an SG.
Mask: 8-bits Mask: 8-bit unsigned integer
The Mask parameter is used to identify a contiguous range of Affected The Mask field associated with each Affected DPC in the Affected
Destination Point Codes, independent of the point code format. Destinations parameter, used to identify a contiguous range of
Identifying a contiguous range of Affected DPCs may be useful when Affected Destination Point Codes, independent of the point code
reception of an MTP3 management message or a linkset event format. Identifying a contiguous range of Affected DPCs may be
simultaneously affects the availability status of a series of useful when reception of an MTP3 management message or a linkset
destinations at an SG. For example, if all DPCs in an ANSI cluster are event simultaneously affects the availability status of a series of
determined to be unavailable due to local linkset unavailability, the destinations at an SG. For example, if all DPCs in an ANSI cluster
DUNA could identify potentially 256 Affected DPCs in a single Affected are determined to be unavailable due to local linkset
DPC field. unavailability, the DUNA could identify potentially 256 Affected
DPCs in a single Affected DPC field.
The Mask parameter is an integer representing a bit mask that can be The Mask parameter represents a bit mask that can be applied to the
applied to the related Affected DPC field. The bit mask identifies how related Affected DPC field. The bit mask identifies how many bits
many bits of the Affected DPC field is significant and which are of the Affected DPC field are significant and which are effectively
effectively "wildcarded". For example, a mask of "8" indicates that the "wildcarded". For example, a mask of "8" indicates that the last
last eight bits of the DPC is "wildcarded". For an ANSI 24-bit Affected eight bits of the DPC is "wildcarded". For an ANSI 24-bit Affected
DPC, this is equivalent to signalling that all DPCs in an ANSI Cluster DPC, this is equivalent to signalling that all DPCs in an ANSI
are unavailable. A mask of "3" indicates that the last three bits of Cluster are unavailable. A mask of "3" indicates that the last
the DPC is "wildcarded". For a 14-bit ITU Affected DPC, this is three bits of the DPC is "wildcarded". For a 14-bit ITU Affected
equivalent to signaling that an ITU Region is unavailable. DPC, this is equivalent to signaling that an ITU Region is
unavailable. A mask value equal to the number of bits in the DPC
indicates that the entire network appearance is affected - this is
used to indicate network isolation to the ASP.
Info String: variable length Info String: variable length
The optional INFO String parameter can carry any meaningful 8-BIT ASCII The optional INFO String parameter can carry any meaningful 8-BIT
character string along with the message. Length of the INFO String ASCII character string along with the message. Length of the INFO
parameter is from 0 to 255 characters. No procedures are presently String parameter is from 0 to 255 characters. No procedures are
identified for its use but the INFO String may be used by Operators to presently identified for its use but the INFO String may be used by
identify in text form the location reflected by the Affected DPC for Operators to identify in text form the location reflected by the
debugging purposes. Affected DPC for debugging purposes.
3.3.2 Destination Available (DAVA) 3.4.2 Destination Available (DAVA)
The DAVA message is sent from the SG to all concerned ASPs to indicate The DAVA message is sent from the SG to all concerned ASPs to indicate
that the SG has determined that one or more SS7 destinations are now that the SG has determined that one or more SS7 destinations are now
reachable. The ASP MTP3-User protocol is expected to resume traffic to reachable, or in response to a DAUD message if appropriate. The ASP
the affected destination through the SG initiating the DUNA. MTP3-User protocol is expected to resume traffic to the affected
destination through the SG initiating the DUNA.
The DAVA message contains the following parameters: The DAVA message contains the following parameters:
Network Appearance Optional Network Appearance Optional
Affected Destination Mandatory Affected Destinations Mandatory
Info String Optional Info String Optional
The format and description of DAVA Message parameters is the same as for The format and description of the Network Appearance, Affected
the DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.) Destinations and Info String parameters is the same as for the DUNA
message (See Section 3.4.1.)
3.3.3 Destination State Audit (DAUD) 3.4.3 Destination State Audit (DAUD)
The DAUD message can be sent from the ASP to the SG to audit the The DAUD message can be sent from the ASP to the SG to audit the
availability/congestion state of SS7 routes to one or more affected availability/congestion state of SS7 routes to one or more affected
destinations. See Section 3.4.3 for the audit procedures. destinations.
The DAUD message contains the following parameters: The DAUD message contains the following parameters:
Network Appearance Optional Network Appearance Optional
Affected Destination Mandatory Affected Destinations Mandatory
Info String Optional Info String Optional
The format and description of DAUD Message parameters is the same as for The format and description of DAUD Message parameters is the same as
the DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.) for the DUNA message (See Section 3.4.1.)
Multiple Affected Destination Point Codes parameters may optionally be
included in a DAUD message. However all the Affected Destination Point
Codes must be part of the same Network Appearance.
3.3.4 SS7 Network Congestion (SCON) 3.4.4 SS7 Network Congestion (SCON)
The SCON message can be sent from the SG to all concerned ASPs to The SCON message can be sent from the SG to all concerned ASPs to
indicate that the congestion level in the SS7 network to one or more indicate the congestion level in the SS7 network to one or more
destinations has changed. destinations or in response to a DAUD message, if appropriate. For
some MTP protocol variants (e.g., ANSI MTP) the SCON may be sent when
the SS7 congestion level changes. The SCON message is also sent from
the M3UA of an ASP to the SG or IPSP indicating that the M3UA or the
ASP is congested.
The SCON message contains the following parameters: The SCON message contains the following parameters:
Network Appearance Optional Network Appearance Optional
Affected Destination Mandatory Affected Destinations Mandatory
Congestion Level Mandatory
Info String Optional Info String Optional
The format for SCON Message parameters is as follows: The format for SCON Message parameters is as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag = 1 | Length =8 | | Tag = 1 | Length =8 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Network Appearance* | | Network Appearance* |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag = 5 | Length | | Tag = 5 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Cong. Level 1 | Affected DPC 1 | | Cong. Level 1 | Affected DPC 1 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \ \ \
| ... | / ... /
\ \ \ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Cong. Level n | Affected DPC n | | Cong. Level n | Affected DPC n |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag = 4 | Length | | Tag = 4 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \ \ \
| INFO String* | / INFO String* /
\ \ \ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
The format and description of the Network Appearance, Affected The Affected Destinations parameter differs from the Affected
Destination and Info String parameters is the same as for the DUNA Destinations parameter in the DUNA, DAVA, and DAUD in that a Congestion
message (See Section 3.3.2.1.) Level field is included instead of a Mask field. Therefore ranges of
congested Affected DPCs cannot be signaled, but this is consistent with
operation in the SS7 network.
Congestion Level: 8-bits (unsigned integer) The format and description of the Network Appearance and Info String
parameters is the same as for the DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.)
The valid values for the optional Congestion Level parameter are shown Congestion Level field: 8-bits (unsigned integer)
in the following table.
The Congestion Level field, associated with each Affected DPC in the
Affected Destinations parameter, contains one of the following
values:
0 No Congestion or Undefined 0 No Congestion or Undefined
1 Congestion Level 1 1 Congestion Level 1
2 Congestion Level 2 2 Congestion Level 2
3 Congestion Level 3 3 Congestion Level 3
The congestion levels are as defined in the national congestion method The congestion levels are as defined in the national congestion
in the ITU MTP recommendation [14] or in the ANSI MTP standard [15]. method in the appropriate MTP recommendation [14,15]. For MTP
For MTP congestion methods that do not employ congestion levels (e.g., congestion methods that do not employ congestion levels (e.g., the
the ITU international method, the parameter is always "Undefined". ITU international method, the parameter is always "Undefined".
3.3.5 Destination User Part Unavailable (DUPU) When an SCON is received at the SG, a TFC message is generated into the
SS7 network.
Editors Note: May need a different message type (ASPCON) and specify
more detailed procedures at the SG or IPSP upon reception.
3.4.5 Destination User Part Unavailable (DUPU)
The DUPU message is used by an SG to inform an ASP that a remote peer The DUPU message is used by an SG to inform an ASP that a remote peer
MTP3-User User Part (e.g., ISUP or SCCP) at an SS7 node is unavailable. MTP3-User Part (e.g., ISUP or SCCP) at an SS7 node is unavailable.
The DUPU message contains the following parameters: The DUPU message contains the following parameters:
Network Appearance Optional Network Appearance Optional
Affected Destination Mandatory Affected Destinations Mandatory
Unavailability Cause Mandatory User/Cause Mandatory
MTP3-User Identity Mandatory
Info String Optional Info String Optional
The format for DUPU Message parameters is as follows: The format for DUPU Message parameters is as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag = 1 | Length | | Tag = 1 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Network Appearance* | | Network Appearance* |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag = 5 | Length = 8 | | Tag = 5 | Length = 8 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Cause | User | Affected Destination | | Reserved | Affected DPC |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag = 9 | Length = 8 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Cause | User |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag = 4 | Length | | Tag = 4 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \ \ \
| INFO String* | / INFO String* /
\ \ \ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
The format and description of the Network Appearance, Affected User/Cause: 32-bits
Destination and Info String parameters is the same as for the DUNA
message (See Section 3.3.2.1.) One exception is that the Affected The Unavailability Cause and MTP3-User Identity fields, associated
Desination parameter in the DUPU message can only contain one Affected with the Affected DPC in the Affected Destinations parameter, are
DPC. encoded as follows:
Unavailability Cause: 4-bits (unsigned integer) Unavailability Cause field: 16-bits (unsigned integer)
The Unavailability Cause parameter provides the reason for the The Unavailability Cause parameter provides the reason for the
unavailability of the MTP3-User. The valid values for the unavailability of the MTP3-User. The valid values for the
Unavailability Cause parameter are shown in the following table. The Unavailability Cause parameter are shown in the following table.
values agree with those provided in the SS7 MTP3 User Part Unavailable The values agree with those provided in the SS7 MTP3 User Part
message. Depending on the MTP3 protocol used in the network context, Unavailable message. Depending on the MTP3 protocol used in the
additional values may be used the specification of the relevant MTP3 network appearance, additional values may be used - the
protocol variant/version is definitive. specification of the relevant MTP3 protocol variant/version
recommendation is definitive.
0 Unknown 0 Unknown
1 Unequipped Remote User 1 Unequipped Remote User
2 Inaccessible Remote User 2 Inaccessible Remote User
MTP3-User Identity: 4-bits (unsigned integer) MTP3-User Identity field: 16-bits (unsigned integer)
The MTP3-User Identity describes the specific MTP3-User that is The MTP3-User Identity describes the specific MTP3-User that is
unavailable (e.g., ISUP, SCCP, ...). The valid values for the MTP3-User unavailable (e.g., ISUP, SCCP, ...). Some of the valid values for
Identity are shown below. The values agree with those provided in the the MTP3-User Identity are shown below. The values agree with those
SS7 MTP3 User Part Unavailable message and Service Indicator. Depending provided in the SS7 MTP3 User Part Unavailable message and Service
on the MTP3 protocol used in the network context, additional values may Indicator. Depending on the MTP3 protocol used in the network
be used the specification of the relevant MTP3 protocol appearance, additional values may be used - the specification of the
variant/version is definitive. relevant MTP3 protocol variant/version recommendation is definitive.
Value Description 0 to 2 Reserved
00 - 02 Reserved 3 SCCP
03 SCCP 4 TUP
04 TUP 5 ISUP
05 ISUP 6 to 8 Reserved
06 08 Reserved 9 Broadband ISUP
09 Broadband ISUP
10 Satellite ISUP 10 Satellite ISUP
3.4 Application Server Process Maintenance (ASPM) Messages The Affected Destinations parameter differs from the Affected
Destinations parameter in the DUNA, DAVA, and DAUD in that a Reserved
field is included instead of a Mask field. Therefore, ranges of
congested Affected DPCs cannot be signaled, but this is consistent with
operation in the SS7 network. The Affected Destinations parameter in
the DUPU message can only contain one Affected DPC.
3.4.1 ASP Up (ASPUP) The format and description of the Network Appearance and Info String
parameters is the same as for the DUNA message (See Section 3.4.1.).
3.5 Application Server Process Maintenance (ASPM) Messages
3.5.1 ASP Up (ASPUP)
The ASP UP (ASPUP) message is used to indicate to a remote M3UA peer The ASP UP (ASPUP) message is used to indicate to a remote M3UA peer
that the Adaptation layer is ready to receive traffic or maintenance that the Adaptation layer is ready to receive SSNM or ASPM management
messages. messages for all Routing Keys that the ASP is configured to serve.
The ASPUP message contains the following parameters: The ASPUP message contains the following parameters:
Adaptation Layer Identifer Optional Adaptation Layer Identifier Optional
Protocol Identifier Optional
INFO String Optional INFO String Optional
The format for ASPUP Message parameters is as follows: The format for ASPUP Message parameters is as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag = 2 | Length | | Tag = 2 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Adaptation Layer Identifier* | | Adaptation Layer Identifier* |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag = 4 | Length | | Tag = 4 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \ \ \
| INFO String* | / INFO String* /
\ \ \ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
The format and description of the optional Info String parameter is the The format and description of the optional Info String parameter is the
same as for the DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.) same as for the DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.)
Adaptation Layer Identity: 32-bits () Adaptation Layer Identifier: 32-bits
The optional Adaptation Layer Identifier (ALI) is a string that The optional Adaptation Layer Identifier (ALI) is a string that
identifies the adaptation layer. This string must be set to "M3UA" identifies the adaptation layer. This string must be set to "M3UA"
which results in a length of 8. The ALI would normally only be used in which results in a length of 8. The ALI would normally only be used in
the initial ASP Up message across a new SCTP association to ensure both the initial ASP Up message across a new SCTP association to ensure both
peers are assuming the same adaptation layer protocol. peers are assuming the same adaptation layer protocol.
3.4.2 ASP Up Ack Editors Note: Info in SCTP (Payload Identifier) could be used - is
there any need for ALI anymore?
The ASP UP Ack message is used to acknowledge an ASP-Up message received 3.5.2 ASP Up Ack
from a remote M3UA peer.
The ASP UP Ack message is used to acknowledge an ASP-Up message
received from a remote M3UA peer.
The ASPUP Ack message contains the following parameters: The ASPUP Ack message contains the following parameters:
Adaptation Layer Identifier (optional) Adaptation Layer Identifier (optional)
Protocol Identifier (optional)
INFO String (optional) INFO String (optional)
The format for ASPUP Ack Message parameters is as follows: The format for ASPUP Ack Message parameters is as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag =2 | Length | | Tag =2 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \ \ \
| Adaptation Layer Identifier* | / Adaptation Layer Identifier* /
\ \ \ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag =4 | Length | | Tag =4 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \ \ \
| INFO String* | / INFO String* /
\ \ \ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
The format and description of the optional Info String parameter is the The format and description of the optional Info String parameter is the
same as for the DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.) same as for the DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.)
The format and description of the optional Adaptation Layer Identifier The format and description of the optional Adaptation Layer Identifier
(ALI) parameter is the same as for the ASP-UP message. (See Section (ALI) parameter is the same as for the ASP-UP message. (See Section
3.4.1) 3.4.1)
3.4.3 ASP Down (ASPDN) 3.5.3 ASP Down (ASPDN)
The ASP Down (ASPDN) message is used to indicate to a remote M3UA peer The ASP Down (ASPDN) message is used to indicate to a remote M3UA peer
that the adaptation layer is not ready to receive traffic or maintenance that the adaptation layer is not ready to receive traffic or
messages. maintenance messages.
The ASPDN message contains the following parameters: The ASPDN message contains the following parameters:
Reason Mandatory Reason Mandatory
INFO String Optional INFO String Optional
The format for the ASPDN message parameters is as follows: The format for the ASPDN message parameters is as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Reason | | Reason |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag =4 | Length | | Tag =4 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \ \ \
| INFO String* | / INFO String* /
\ \ \ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
The format and description of the optional Info String parameter is the The format and description of the optional Info String parameter is the
same as for the DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.) same as for the DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.)
Reason: 32-bit (unsigned integer) Reason: 32-bit (unsigned integer)
The Reason parameter indicates the reason that the remote M3UA The Reason parameter indicates the reason that the remote M3UA
adaptation layer is unavailable. The valid values for Reason are shown adaptation layer is unavailable. The valid values for Reason are
in the following table. shown in the following table.
1 Processor Outage 0 Unspecified
2 Management Inhibit 1 User Unavailable
2 Management Blocking
3.4.4 ASP Down Ack 3.5.4 ASP Down Ack
The ASP Down Ack message is used to acknowledge an ASP-Down message The ASP Down Ack message is used to acknowledge an ASP-Down message
received from a remote M3UA peer. received from a remote M3UA peer.
The ASP Down Ack message contains the following parameters: The ASP Down Ack message contains the following parameters:
Reason Mandatory Reason Mandatory
INFO String Optional INFO String Optional
The format for the ASPDN Ack message parameters is as follows: The format for the ASPDN Ack message parameters is as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Reason | | Reason |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag = 4 | Length | | Tag = 4 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \ \ \
| INFO String* | / INFO String* /
\ \ \ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
The format and description of the optional Info String parameter is the The format and description of the optional Info String parameter is the
same as for the DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.) same as for the DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.)
The format of the Reason parameter is the same as for the ASP-Down The format of the Reason parameter is the same as for the ASP-Down
message. (See Section 3.4.3) message. (See Section 3.4.3)
3.4.5 ASP Active (ASPAC) 3.5.5 ASP Active (ASPAC)
The ASPAC message is sent by an ASP to indicate to a remote M3UA peer The ASPAC message is sent by an ASP to indicate to a remote M3UA peer
that it is Active and ready to process signalling traffic for a that it is Active and ready to process signalling traffic for a
particular Application Server particular Application Server. The ASPAC affects only the ASP state
for the routing keys identified by the Routing Contexts, if present.
The ASPAC message contains the following parameters: The ASPAC message contains the following parameters:
Type Mandatory Type Mandatory
Routing Context Optional Routing Context Optional
INFO String Optional INFO String Optional
The format for the ASPAC message is as follows: The format for the ASPAC message is as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | | Type |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag =6 | Length | | Tag =6 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \ \ \
| Routing Context* | / Routing Context* /
\ \ \ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag = 4 | Length | | Tag = 4 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \ \ \
| INFO String* | / INFO String* /
\ \ \ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type: 32-bit (unsigned integer) Type: 32-bit (unsigned integer)
The Type parameter identifies the traffic mode of operation of the ASP The Type parameter identifies the traffic mode of operation of the
within an AS. The valid values for Type are shown in the following ASP within an AS. The valid values for Type are shown in the
table. following table.
1 Over-ride 1 Over-ride
2 Load-share 2 Load-share
3 Over-ride (Standby)
4 Loadshare (Standby)
Within a particular Routing Context, only one Type can be used. The Within a particular Routing Context, Over-ride and Loadshare Types
Over-ride value indicates that the ASP is operating in Over-ride mode, cannot be mixed. The Over-ride value indicates that the ASP is
where the ASP takes over all traffic in an Application Server (i.e., operating in Over-ride mode, and the ASP wishes to take over all
primary/back-up operation), over-riding any currently active ASP in the traffic in an Application Server (i.e., primary/back-up operation),
AS. In Load-share mode, the ASP will share in the traffic distribution over-riding any currently active ASP in the AS. In Load-share mode,
with any other currently active ASPs. the ASP wishes to share in the traffic distribution with any other
currently active ASPs. The Standby versions of the Over-ride and
A node that receives an ASPAC with an incorrect Type for a particular Loadshare Types indicate that the ASP is declaring itself ready to
Routing Context will respond with an Error Message (Cause: Invalid accept traffic but leaves it up to the sender as to when the traffic
Traffic Handling Mode. is started. Over-ride (Standby) indicates that the traffic sender
continues to use the currently active ASP until it can no longer
send/receive traffic (i.e., the currently active ASP transitions to
Down or Inactive). At this point the sender may immediately move
the ASP to Active and commence traffic. Loadshare (Standby) is
similar - the sender continues to loadshare to the current ASPs
until there it is determined that there is insufficient resources in
the Loadshare group. When there is insufficient ASPs, the sender
may immediately move the ASP to Active.
Routing Context: Routing Context:
The optional Routing Context parameter contains (a list of) integers The optional Routing Context parameter contains (a list of) 4-byte
indexing the Application Server traffic that the sending ASP is unsigned integers indexing the Application Server traffic that the
sending ASP is configured/registered to receive.
configured/registered to receive. There is one-to-one relationship There is one-to-one relationship between an index entry and an SG
between an index entry and an SG Routing Key or AS Name. Because an AS Routing Key or AS Name. Because an AS can only appear in one
can only appear in one Network Appearance, the Network Appearance Network Appearance, the Network Appearance parameter is not required
parameter is not required in the ASPAC message. in the ASPAC message.
An Application Server Process may be configured to process traffic for An Application Server Process may be configured to process traffic
more than one logical Application Server. From the perspective of an for more than one logical Application Server. From the perspective
ASP, a Routing Context defines a range of signalling traffic that the of an ASP, a Routing Context defines a range of signalling traffic
ASP is currently configured to receive from the SG. For example, an ASP that the ASP is currently configured to receive from the SG. For
could be configured to support call processing for multiple ranges of example, an ASP could be configured to support call processing for
PSTN trunks and therefore receive related signalling traffic, identified multiple ranges of PSTN trunks and therefore receive related
by separate SS7 DPC/OPC/CIC_ranges. signalling traffic, identified by separate SS7 DPC/OPC/CIC_ranges.
The format and description of the optional Info String parameter is the The format and description of the optional Info String parameter is the
same as for the DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.) same as for the DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.)
3.4.6 ASP Active Ack 3.5.6 ASP Active Ack
The ASPAC Ack message is used to acknowledge an ASP-Active message The ASPAC Ack message is used to acknowledge an ASP-Active message
received from a remote M3UA peer. received from a remote M3UA peer.
The ASPAC Ack message contains the following parameters: The ASPAC Ack message contains the following parameters:
Type Mandatory Type Mandatory
Routing Context Optional Routing Context Optional
INFO String Optional INFO String Optional
The format for the ASPAC Ack message is as follows: The format for the ASPAC Ack message is as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | | Type |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag = 6 | Length | | Tag = 6 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \ \ \
| Routing Context* | / Routing Context* /
\ \ \ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag = 4 | Length | | Tag = 4 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \ \ \
| INFO String* | / INFO String* /
\ \ \ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
The format and description of the optional Info String parameter is the The format and description of the optional Info String parameter is the
same as for the DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.) same as for the DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.)
The format of the Type and Routing Context parameters is the same as for The format of the Type and Routing Context parameters is the same as
the ASP-Active message. (See Section 3.4.5). for the ASP-Active message. (See Section 3.4.5).
3.4.7 ASP Inactive (ASPIA) 3.5.7 ASP Inactive (ASPIA)
The ASPIA message is sent by an ASP to indicate to a remote M3UA peer The ASPIA message is sent by an ASP to indicate to a remote M3UA peer
that it is no longer processing signalling traffic within a particular that it is no longer processing signalling traffic within a particular
Application Server. Application Server. The ASPIA affects only the ASP state in the
Routing Keys identified by the Routing Contexts, if present.
The ASPIA message contains the following parameters: The ASPIA message contains the following parameters:
Type Mandatory Type Mandatory
Routing Context Optional Routing Context Optional
INFO String Optional INFO String Optional
The format for the ASPIA message parameters is as follows: The format for the ASPIA message parameters is as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | | Type |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag = 6 | Length | | Tag = 6 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \ \ \
| Routing Context* | / Routing Context* /
\ \ \ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag = 4 | Length | | Tag = 4 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \ \ \
| INFO String* | / INFO String* /
\ \ \ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
The Type parameter identifies the traffic mode of operation of the ASP Type: 32-bit (unsigned integer)
within an AS. The valid values for Type are shown in the following
table.
Value Description The Type parameter identifies the traffic mode of operation of the
0x1 Over-ride ASP within an AS. The valid values for Type are shown in the
0x2 Load-share following table.
Within a particular Routing Context, only one Type can be used. The
Over-ride value indicates that the ASP is operating in Over-ride mode,
and will no longer handle traffic within an Application Server (i.e., it 1 Over-ride
is now a backup in a primary/back-up arrangement). The Load-share value 2 Load-share
indicates that the ASP is operating in Load-share mode and will no
longer share in the traffic distribution with any other currently active
ASPs.
A node that receives an ASPIA with an incorrect Type for a particular Within a particular Routing Context, only one Type can be used. The
Routing Context will respond with an Error Message (Cause: Invalid Over-ride value indicates that the ASP is operating in Over-ride
Traffic Handling Mode. mode, and will no longer handle traffic within an Application Server
(i.e., it is now a backup in a primary/back-up arrangement). The
Load-share value indicates that the ASP is operating in Load-share
mode and will no longer share in the traffic distribution with any
other currently active ASPs.
A node that receives an ASPIA with an incorrect Type for a
particular routing Context will respond with an Error Message
(Cause: Invalid Traffic Handling Mode.
The format and description of the optional Routing Context and Info The format and description of the optional Routing Context and Info
String parameters is the same as for the ASPAC message (See Section String parameters is the same as for the ASPAC message (See Section
2.3.3.3.) 2.3.3.3.)
3.4.8 ASP Inactive Ack 3.5.8 ASP Inactive Ack
The ASPIA Ack message is used to acknowledge an ASP-Inactive message The ASPIA Ack message is used to acknowledge an ASP-Inactive message
received from a remote M3UA peer. received from a remote M3UA peer.
The ASPIA Ack message contains the following parameters: The ASPIA Ack message contains the following parameters:
Type Mandatory Type Mandatory
Routing Context Optional Routing Context Optional
INFO String Optional INFO String Optional
The format for the ASPIA Ack message is as follows: The format for the ASPIA Ack message is as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | | Type |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag = 6 | Length | | Tag = 6 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \ \ \
| Routing Context* | / Routing Context* /
\ \ \ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag = 4 | Length | | Tag = 4 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \ \ \
| INFO String* | / INFO String* /
\ \ \ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
The format and description of the optional Info String parameter is the The format and description of the optional Info String parameter is the
same as for the DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.) same as for the DUNA message (See Section 3.3.2.1.)
The format of the Type and Routing Context parameters is the same as for The format of the Type and Routing Context parameters is the same as
the ASP-Inctive message. (See Section 3.4.7). for the ASP-Inactive message. (See Section 3.4.7).
3.4.9 Heartbeat (BEAT) 3.5.9 Heartbeat (BEAT)
The Heartbeat message is optionally used to ensure that the M3UA peers The Heartbeat message is optionally used to ensure that the M3UA peers
are still available to each other. It is recommended for use when the are still available to each other. It is recommended for use when the
M3UA runs over a transport layer other than the SCTP, which has its own M3UA runs over a transport layer other than the SCTP, which has its own
heartbeat. heartbeat.
The BEAT message contains no parameters. The BEAT message contains the following parameters:
3.5 Management Messages Heatbeat Data Optional
3.5.1 Error (ERR) The format for the BEAT message is as follows:
0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag = 8 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \
/ Heartbeat Data * /
\ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
The Heartbeat Data parameter contents are defined by the sending node.
The Heartbeat Data could include, for example, a Heartbeat Sequence
Number and/or Timestamp. The receiver of a Heartbeat message does not
process this field as it is only of significance to the sender. The
receiver MUST respond with a BEAT-Ack message.
3.5.10 Heartbeat Ack (Beat-Ack)
The Heartbeat Ack message is sent in response to a received Heartbeat
message. It includes all the parameters of the received Heartbeat
message, without any change.
3.6 Management Messages
3.6.1 Error (ERR)
The Error message is used to notify a peer of an error event associated The Error message is used to notify a peer of an error event associated
with an incoming message. For example, the message type might be with an incoming message. For example, the message type might be
unexpected given the current state, or a parameter value might be unexpected given the current state, or a parameter value might be
invalid. invalid.
The ERR message contains the following parameters: The ERR message contains the following parameters:
Error Code Mandatory Error Code Mandatory
Diagnostic Information Optional Diagnostic Information Optional
skipping to change at page 40, line 44 skipping to change at page 47, line 53
The format for the ERR message is as follows: The format for the ERR message is as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Error Code | | Error Code |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag = 7 | Length | | Tag = 7 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \ \ \
| Diagnostic Information* | / Diagnostic Information* /
\ \ \ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Error Code: 32-bits (unsigned integer) Error Code: 32-bits (unsigned integer)
The Error Code parameter indicates the reason for the Error Message. The Error Code parameter indicates the reason for the Error Message.
The Error parameter value can be one of the following values: The Error parameter value can be one of the following values:
Invalid Version 0x1 1 Invalid Version
Invalid Network Appearance 0x2 2 Invalid Network Appearance
Invalid Adaptation Layer Identifier 0x3 3 Invalid Adaptation Layer Identifier
Invalid Message Type 0x4 4 Invalid Message Type
Invalid Traffic Handling Mode 0x5 5 Invalid Traffic Handling Mode
Unexpected Message Type 0x6 6 Unexpected Message Type
Protocol Error 0x7 7 Protocol Error
8 Invalid Routing Context
Diagnostic Information: variable length Diagnostic Information: variable length
When included, the optional Diagnostic information can be any When included, the optional Diagnostic information can be any
information germane to the error condition, to assist in identification information germane to the error condition, to assist in
of the error condition. In the case of an Invalid Network Appearance, identification of the error condition. In the case of an Invalid
Adaptation Layer Identifier or Traffic Handling Mode, the Diagnostic Network Appearance, Adaptation Layer Identifier, Traffic Handling
information includes the received parameter. In the other cases, the Mode or Invalid Routing Context, the Diagnostic information includes
Diagnostic information may be the first 40 bytes of the offending the received parameter. In the other cases, the Diagnostic
message. information may be the first 40 bytes of the offending message.
In the case of an Invalid Version Error Code, the Common Header contains In the case of an Invalid Version Error Code, the Common Header
the supported Version. contains the supported Version.
Error messages are not generated in response to other Error messages. Error messages are not generated in response to other Error messages.
3.5.2 Notify (NTFY) 3.6.2 Notify (NTFY)
The Notify message used to provide an autonomous indication of M3UA The Notify message used to provide an autonomous indication of M3UA
events to an M3UA peer. events to an M3UA peer.
The NTFY message contains the following parameters: The NTFY message contains the following parameters:
Status Type Mandatory Status Type Mandatory
Status Identification Mandatory Status Identification Mandatory
Routing Context Optional Routing Context Optional
INFO String Optional INFO String Optional
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The format for the NTFY message is as follows: The format for the NTFY message is as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Status Type | Status Identification | | Status Type | Status Identification |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag = 6 | Length | | Tag = 6 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \ \ \
| Routing Context* | / Routing Context* /
\ \ \ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Tag = 4 | Length | | Tag = 4 | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\ \ \ \
| INFO String* | / INFO String* /
\ \ \ \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Status Type: 16-bits (unsigned integer) Status Type: 16-bits (unsigned integer)
The Status Type parameter identifies the type of the Notify message. The Status Type parameter identifies the type of the Notify message.
Following are the valid Status Type values: Following are the valid Status Type values:
1 Application Server state change (AS_State_Change) 1 Application Server State Change (AS-StateChange)
2 Other 2 Other
Status Information: 16-bits (unsigned integer) Status Information: 16-bits (unsigned integer)
The Status Information parameter contains more detailed information for The Status Information parameter contains more detailed information
the notification, based on the value of the Status Type. for the notification, based on the value of the Status Type.
If the Status Type is AS_State_Change the following Status Information If the Status Type is AS_State_Change the following Status
values are used: Information values are used:
1 Application Server Down (AS_Down) 1 reserved
2 Application Server Up (AS_Up) 2 Application Server Inactive (AS-Inactive)
3 Application Server Active (AS_Active) 3 Application Server Active (AS-Active)
4 Application Server Pending (AS_Pending) 4 Application Server Pending (AS-Pending)
5 Alternate ASP Active
6 Insufficient ASPs
These notifications are sent from an SG to an ASP upon a change in These notifications are sent from an SG to an ASP upon a change in
status of a particular Application Server. The value reflects the new status of a particular Application Server. The value reflects the
state of the Application Server. new state of the Application Server.
If the Status Type is Other, then the following Status Information If the Status Type is Other, then the following Status Information
values are defined: values are defined:
1 Insufficient ASP resources active in AS 1 Insufficient ASP resources active in AS
2 Alternate ASP Active
This notification is not based on the SG reporting the state change of These notifications are not based on the SG reporting the state change
an ASP or AS. For the value defined the SG is indicating to an ASP(s) of an ASP or AS. In the Insufficent ASP Resources case, the SG is
in the AS that another ASP is required in order to handle the load of indicating to an "Inactive" ASP(s) in the AS that another ASP is
the AS. required in order to handle the load of the AS (Load-sharing mode).
For the Alternate ASP Active case, an ASP is informed when an alternate
ASP transitions to the ASP-Active state in Over-ride mode.
The format and description of the optional Routing Context and Info The format and description of the optional Routing Context and Info
String parameters is the same as for the ASPAC message (See Section String parameters is the same as for the ASPAC message (See Section
3.4.6.) 3.4.6.)
4.0 Procedures 4.0 Procedures
The M3UA layer needs to respond to various local primitives it receives The M3UA layer needs to respond to various local primitives it receives
from the SCTP and M3UA-User layers and Layer Management as well as the from the SCTP and M3UA-User layers and Layer Management as well as the
messages that it receives from the peer M3UA layers. This section messages that it receives from the peer M3UA layers. This section
describes the M3UA procedures in response to these events. describes the M3UA procedures in response to these events.
4.1 Procedures to support the services of the M3UA layer 4.1 Procedures to support the services of the M3UA layer
4.1.1 Receipt of primitives from the M3UA-User 4.1.1 Receipt of primitives from the M3UA-User
On receiving an MTP-Transfer primitive from an upper layer, or the nodal On receiving an MTP-Transfer primitive from an upper layer, or the
inter-working function at an SG, the M3UA layer will send a nodal inter-working function at an SG, the M3UA layer will send a
corresponding Data message (see Section 2) to its M3UA peer. The M3UA corresponding DATA message (see Section 3) to its M3UA peer. The M3UA
layer must fill in various fields of the common and specific headers layer must fill in the fields of the common and specific headers
correctly. correctly.
At an SG, the M3UA address translation and mapping function determines At an SG, the M3UA address translation and mapping function determines
the Application Server (AS) based on the information in the incoming the Application Server (AS) based on the information in the incoming
message. From an ordered list of ASPs within the AS table, an Active message. From the list of ASPs within the AS table, an Active ASP is
ASP is selected and a Data message is constructed and issued on the selected and a DATA message is constructed and issued on the
corresponding SCTP Association. If more than one ASP is active (i.e., corresponding SCTP Association. If more than one ASP is active (i.e.,
traffic is to be load-shared across all the active ASPs), one of the traffic is to be load-shared across all the active ASPs), one of the
active ASPs from the list is selected. The selection algorithm is active ASPs from the list is selected. The selection algorithm is
implementation dependent but could be roud-robin or based on, for implementation dependent but could, for example, be round-robin or
example, the SLS or ISUP CIC. The appropriate selection algorithm must based on, for example, the SLS or ISUP CIC. The appropriate selection
be chosen carefully as it is dependent on application assumptions and algorithm must be chosen carefully as it is dependent on application
understanding of the degree of state coordination between the active assumptions and understanding of the degree of state coordination
ASPs in the AS. between the active ASPs in the AS.
In addition, the message needs to be sent on the appropriate SCTP In addition, the message needs to be sent on the appropriate SCTP
stream, again taking care to meet the message sequencing needs of the stream, again taking care to meet the message sequencing needs of the
signalling application. signalling application.
4.1.2 Receipt of primitives from the Layer Management 4.1.2 Receipt of primitives from the Layer Management
On receiving these primitives from the local Layer Management, the M3UA On receiving these primitives from the local Layer Management, the M3UA
layer will send the corresponding management message (Error) to its layer will provide the appropriate response primitive across the
peer. The M3UA layer must fill in the various fields of the common and internal local Layer Management interface.
specific headers correctly.
4.2 Receipt of Peer Management messages An M-SCTP ESTABLISH request from Layer Management will initiate the
establishment of an SCTP association. An M-SCTP ESTABLISH confirm will
be sent to Layer Management when the initiated association set-up is
complete. An M-SCTP ESTABLISH indication is sent to Layer Management
upon successful completion of an incoming SCTP association set-up from
a peer M3UA node
Upon receipt of Management messages, the M3UA layer must invoke the An M-SCTP RELEASE request from Layer Management will initate the tear-
corresponding Layer Management primitive indications (M-ERROR ind.) to down of an SCTP association. An M-SCTP RELEASE confirm will be sent by
the local layer management. Layer Management when the association teardown is complete. An M-SCTP
RELEASE indication is sent to Layer Management upon successful tear-
down of an SCTP association initiated by a peer M3UA
4.3 Procedures to support the M3UA services in Section 1.4.4 M-SCTP STATUS request and indication support a Layer Management query
of the local status of a particular SCTP association.
M-NOTIFY indication and M-ERROR indication indicate to Layer Management
the notification or error information contained in a received M3UA
Notify or Error message. These indications can also be generated based
on local M3UA events.
M-ASP STATUS request/indication and M-AS-STATUS request/indication
support a Layer Management query of the local status of a particular
ASP or AS. No M3UA peer protocol is invoked.
M-ASP-UP request, M-ASP-DOWN request, M-ASP-INACTIVE request and M-ASP-
ACTIVE request allow Layer Management at an ASP to initiate state
changes . These requests result in outgoing M3UA ASP-UP, ASP-DOWN,
ASP-INACTIVE and ASP-ACTIVE messages.
4.2 Receipt of M3UA Peer Management messages
Upon receipt of M3UA Management messages, the M3UA layer must invoke
the corresponding Layer Management primitive indications (e.g., M-AS
Status ind., M-ASP Status ind., M-ERROR ind., ...) to the local layer
management.
M-NOTIFY indication and M-ERROR indication indicate to Layer Management
the notification or error information contained in a received M3UA
Notify or Error message. These indications can also be generated based
on local M3UA events.
4.3 Procedures to support the M3UA Management services
These procedures support the M3UA management of SCTP Associations These procedures support the M3UA management of SCTP Associations
between SGs and ASPs. between SGs and ASPs.
4.3.1 State Maintenance 4.3.1 AS and ASP State Maintenance
The M3UA layer on the SG maintains the state of each AS, in each The M3UA layer on the SG maintains the state of each remote ASP, in
Application Server that it is configured to receive traffic, as input to each Application Server that the ASP is configured to receive traffic,
the M3UA address translation and mapping function. as input to the M3UA message distribution function. Similarly, where
IPSPs use M3UA in a point-to-point fashion, the M3UA layer in an IPSP
maintains the state of remote ASPs in IPSPs. For the purposes of the
following procedures, only the SG/ASP case is described but the SG side
of the procedures also apply to an IPSP sending traffic to an AS
consisting of remote ASPs in IPSPs.
4.3.1.1 ASP States 4.3.1.1 ASP States
The state of each ASP, in each AS that it is configured, is maintained The state of each remote ASP, in each AS that it is configured to
in the M3UA layer in the SG. The state of a particular ASP in a operate, is maintained in the M3UA layer in the SG or IPSP. The state
particular AS changes due to events. The events include: of a particular ASP in a particular AS changes due to events. The
events include:
* Reception of messages from the peer M3UA layer at the ASP * Reception of messages from the peer M3UA layer at the ASP
* Reception of some messages from the peer M3UA layer at other ASPs * Reception of some messages from the peer M3UA layer at other ASPs
in the AS in the AS (e.g., ASPAC Take-over)
* Reception of indications from the SCTP layer * Reception of indications from the SCTP layer
* Switch-over Time triggers
The ASP state transition diagram is shown in Figure 4. The possible The ASP state transition diagram is shown in Figure 4. The possible
states of an ASP are: states of an ASP are:
ASP-DOWN: The remote M3UA peer at the ASP is unavailable and/or the SCTP ASP-DOWN: The remote M3UA peer at the ASP is unavailable and/or the
association is down. Initially all ASPs will be in this state. related SCTP association is down. Initially all ASPs will be in this
state. An ASP in this state should not be sent any M3UA messages.
ASP-UP: The remote M3UA peer at the ASP is available (and the SCTP ASP-INACTIVE: The remote M3UA peer at the ASP is available (and the
association is up) but application traffic is stopped. related SCTP association is up) but application traffic is stopped. In
this state the ASP can be sent any non-Data M3UA messages.
ASP-ACTIVE: The remote M3UA peer at the ASP is available and application ASP-ACTIVE: The remote M3UA peer at the ASP is available and
traffic is active (for a particular Routing Context or set of Routing application traffic is active (for a particular Routing Context or set
Contexts). of Routing Contexts).
ASP-STANDBY: The remote M3UA peer at the ASP is available and ready to
receive application traffic at any time (for a particular Routing
Context or set of Routing Contexts). In this state the ASP can be sent
any non-Data M3UA messages.
Figure 4: ASP State Transition Diagram Figure 4: ASP State Transition Diagram
+-------------+ +-------------+
+----------------------| | | ASP-ACTIVE |
| Alternate +-------| ASP-ACTIVE |<------------+ +----------------------| or |
| ASP | +-------------+ | | Alternate +-------| ASP-STNDBY* |
| Takeover | ^ | | | ASP | +-------------+
| | ASP | | ASP | | Takeover | ^ |
| | Active | | Inactive | ASP | | ASP | | ASP
| | | v |Takeover | | Active | | Inact
| | +-------------+ | | | | v
| | | |-------------+ | | +-------------+
| +------>| ASP-UP |-------------+
| +-------------+ |
| ^ | |
ASP Down/ | ASP | | ASP Down / | ASP
SCTP CDI | Up | | SCTP CDI | Down/
| | v | SCTP
| +-------------+ | CDI
| | | | | | | |
+--------------------->| |<------------+ | +------>| ASP-INACT |
| +-------------+
| ^ |
ASP Down/ | ASP | | ASP Down /
SCTP CDI | Up | | SCTP CDI
| | v
| +-------------+
| | |
+--------------------->| |
| ASP-DOWN | | ASP-DOWN |
+-------------+ +-------------+
*Note: ASP-ACTIVE and ASP-STNDBY differ only in whether the ASP is
currently receiving Data traffic.
SCTP CDI: The local SCTP layer's Communication Down Indication to the SCTP CDI: The local SCTP layer's Communication Down Indication to the
Upper Layer Protocol (M3UA) on an SG. The local SCTP will send this Upper Layer Protocol (M3UA) on an SG. The local SCTP will send this
indication when it detects the loss of connectivity to the ASP's peer indication when it detects the loss of connectivity to the ASP's peer
SCTP layer. SCTP layer. SCTP CDI is understood as either a SHUTDOWN COMPLETE
notification or COMMUNICATION LOST notification from the SCTP.
Ts: Switch-over Time Triggers. This timer is configurable by the
0perator on a per AS basis.
4.3.1.2 AS States 4.3.1.2 AS States
The state of the AS is maintained in the M3UA layer on the SG. The state of the AS is maintained in the M3UA layer on the SG.
The state of an AS changes due to events. These events include: The state of an AS changes due to events. These events include:
* ASP state transitions * ASP state transitions
* Recovery timer triggers * Recovery timer triggers
The possible states of an AS are: The possible states of an AS are:
AS-DOWN: The Application Server is unavailable. This state implies that AS-DOWN: The Application Server is unavailable. This state implies
all related ASPs are in the ASP-DOWN state for this AS. Initially the AS that all related ASPs are in the ASP-DOWN state for this AS. Initially
will be in this state. the AS will be in this state.
AS-UP: The Application Server is available but no application traffic is AS-INACTIVE: The Application Server is available but no application
active (i.e., one or more related ASPs are in the ASP-UP state, but none traffic is active (i.e., one or more related ASPs are in the ASP-
in the ASP-Active state). Inactive state, but none in the ASP-Active state).
AS-ACTIVE: The Application Server is available and application traffic AS-ACTIVE: The Application Server is available and application traffic
is active. This state implies that one ASP is in the ASP-ACTIVE state. is active. This state implies that at least one ASP is in the ASP-
ACTIVE state.
AS-PENDING: An active ASP has transitioned from active to inactive or AS-PENDING: An active ASP has transitioned to inactive and it was the
down and it was the last remaining active ASP in the AS. A recovery last remaining active ASP in the AS (and no STANDBY ASPs are available.
timer T(r) will be started and all incoming SCN messages will be queued A recovery timer T(r) will be started and all incoming SCN messages
by the SG. If an ASP becomes active before T(r) expires, the AS will will be queued by the SG. If an ASP becomes active before T(r) expires,
move to AS-ACTIVE state and all the queued messages will be sent to the the AS will move to AS-ACTIVE state and all the queued messages will be
active ASP. sent to the active ASP.
If T(r) expires before an ASP becomes active, the SG stops queuing If T(r) expires before an ASP becomes active, the SG stops queuing
messages and discards all previously queued messages. The AS will move messages and discards all previously queued messages. The AS will move
to AS-UP if at least one ASP is in ASP-UP state, otherwise it will move to AS-INACTIVE if at least one ASP is in ASP-INACTIVE state, otherwise
to AS-DOWN state. it will move to AS-DOWN state.
Figure 5: AS State Transition Diagram Figure 5: AS State Transition Diagram
+----------+ one ASP trans to ACTIVE +-------------+ +----------+ one ASP trans to ACTIVE +-------------+
| |---------------------------->| | | |---------------------------->| |
| AS-UP | | AS-ACTIVE | | AS-INACT | | AS-ACTIVE |
| |<--- --| | | |<--- | |
+----------+ \ / +-------------+ +----------+ \ +-------------+
^ | \ Tr Expiry, / ^ | ^ | \ Tr Expiry, ^ |
| | \ at least one / | | | | \ at least one | |
| | \ ASP in UP / | | | | \ ASP in INACT | |
| | \ / | | | | \ | |
| | \ / | | | | \ | |
| | \ /-------/ | | | | \ | |
one ASP | | all ASP / one ASP | | Last ACTIVE one ASP | | all ASP \ one ASP | | Last ACT ASP
ASP trans | | trans to \ trans to | | trans to
trans | | trans to / \ trans to | | trans to UP or INACT
to UP | | DOWN / -------\ ACTIVE | | DOWN to INACT| | DOWN -------\ ACTIVE | | or DOWN
| | / \ | | | | \ | |
| | / \ | | | | \ | |
| | / \ | | | | \ | |
| | /all ASP \ | | | | \ | |
| v / trans to \ | v | v \ | v
+----------+ / DOWN \ +-------------+ +----------+ \ +-------------+
| |<-/ --| | | | --| |
| AS-DOWN | | AS-PENDING | | AS-DOWN | | AS-PENDING |
| | | (queueing) | | | | (queueing) |
| |<----------------------------| | | |<----------------------------| |
+----------+ Tr Expiry no ASP +-------------+ +----------+ Tr Expiry no ASP +-------------+
in UP state in INACT state
Tr = Recovery Timer Tr = Recovery Timer
4.3.2 ASPM procedures for primitives 4.3.2 M3UA Management procedures for primitives
Before the establishment of an SCTP association the ASP state at both Before the establishment of an SCTP association the ASP state at both
the SG and ASP is assumed to be "Down". the SG and ASP is assumed to be "Down".
As the ASP is responsible for initiating the setup of an SCTP As the ASP is responsible for initiating the setup of an SCTP
association to an SG, the M3UA layer at an ASP receives an M-SCTP association to an SG, the M3UA layer at an ASP receives an M-SCTP
ESTABLISH request primitive from the Layer Management, the M3UA layer ESTABLISH request primitive from the Layer Management, the M3UA layer
will try to establish an SCTP association with the remote M3UA peer at will try to establish an SCTP association with the remote M3UA peer at
an SG. Upon reception of an eventual SCTP-Communication Up confirm an SG. Upon reception of an eventual SCTP-Communication Up confirm
primitive from the SCTP, the M3UA layer will invoke the primitive M-SCTP primitive from the SCTP, the M3UA layer will invoke the primitive M-
ESTABLISH confirm to the Layer Management. SCTP ESTABLISH confirm to the Layer Management.
The M3UA layers at the SG will receive an SCTP-Communication_Up The M3UA layers at the SG will receive an SCTP-CommunicationUp
indication primitive from the SCTP when the association is successfully indication primitive from the SCTP when the association is successfully
set up. The M3UA layer will then invoke the primitive M-SCTP ESTABLISH set up. The M3UA layer will then invoke the primitive M-SCTP ESTABLISH
indication to the Layer Management. indication to the Layer Management.
Once the SCTP association is established and assuming that the local Once the SCTP association is established and assuming that the local
M3UA-User is ready, the local ASP M3UA Application Server Process M3UA-User is ready, the local ASP M3UA Application Server Process
Maintenance (ASPM) function will initiate the ASPM procedures, using the Maintenance (ASPM) function will initiate the ASPM procedures, using
ASP-Up/-Down/-Active/-Inactive messages to convey the ASP-state to the the ASP-Up/-Down/-Active/-Inactive messages to convey the ASP-state to
SG - see Section 4.3.3. the SG - see Section 4.3.3.
If the M3UA layer subsequently receives an SCTP-Communication Down If the M3UA layer subsequently receives an SCTP-Communication Down
indication from the underlying SCTP layer, it will inform the Layer indication from the underlying SCTP layer, it will inform the Layer
Management by invoking the M-SCTP STATUS indication primitive. The state Management by invoking the M-SCTP STATUS indication primitive. The
of the remote ASP will be moved to "Down". state of the remote ASP will be moved to "Down". At an ASP, the MTP3-
User at an ASP will be informed of the unavailability of any affected
SS7 destinations through the use of MTP-PAUSE primitives. In the case
of SS7 network isolation, the local MTP3-Users may be informed by
implementation-dependent means as there is currently no primitive
defined for conveying this information.
At an ASP, the Layer Management may try to re-establish the SCTP At an ASP, the Layer Management may try to re-establish the SCTP
association using M-SCTP ESTABLISH request primitive. association using M-SCTP ESTABLISH request primitive.
4.3.3 ASPM procedures for peer-to-peer messages 4.3.3 M3UA Management procedures for peer-to-peer messages
All ASPM messages are sent on a sequenced stream to ensure ordering. All M3UA MGMT and ASP Maintenance messages are sent on a sequenced
SCTP stream '0' is used. stream to ensure ordering. SCTP stream '0' is used.
4.3.3.1 ASP-Up 4.3.3.1 ASP-Up
After an ASP has successfully established an SCTP association to an SG, After an ASP has successfully established an SCTP association to an SG
the SG waits for the ASP to send an ASP-Up message, indicating that the or IPSP, the SG or IPSP waits for the ASP to send an ASP-Up message,
ASP M3UA peer is available. The ASP is always the initiator of the ASP- indicating that the ASP M3UA peer is available. The ASP is always the
Up exchange. initiator of the ASP-Up exchange.
When an ASP-Up message is received at an SG and internally the ASP is When an ASP-Up message is received at an SG or IPSP and internally the
not considered locked-out for local management reasons, the SG marks the remote ASP is not considered locked-out for local management reasons,
remote ASP as 'Up'. The SG responds with an ASP-Up Ack message in the SG marks the remote ASP as 'Inactive'. If the SG knows via
acknowledgement. The SG sends an-Up Ack message in response to a configuration data which Application Servers that the ASP is configured
received ASP-Up message even if the ASP is already marked as "Up" at the to operate in, it can update the ASP status to "Inactive" in each AS
SG. pool that it is a member. Alternatively, the SG may move the ASP into
a pool of Inactive ASPs available for future activation in AS pool(s)
denoted in the subsequent ASP-Active Routing Contexts. The SG responds
with an ASP-Up Ack message in acknowledgement. The SG sends an ASP-Up
Ack message in response to a received ASP-Up message even if the ASP is
already marked as "Inactive" at the SG.
If for any local reason the SG cannot respond with an ASP-Up Ack, the SG If for any local reason (e.g., management lock-out) the SG cannot
responds to an ASP-Up with a ASP-Down message. respond with an ASP-Up Ack, the SG responds to an ASP-Up with an ASP-
Down Ack message with Reason "Management Blocking".
At the ASP, the ASP-Up Ack message received from the SG is not At the ASP, the ASP-Up Ack message received is not acknowledged. If
acknowledged by the ASP. If the ASP does not receive a response from the ASP does not receive a response , or an ASP-Down Ack is received,
the SG, or an ASP-Down is received, the ASP may resend ASP-Up messages the ASP may resend ASP-Up messages every 2 seconds until it receives an
every 2 seconds until it receives an ASP-Up Ack message from the SG. ASP-Up Ack message. The ASP may decide to reduce the frequency (say to
The ASP may decide to reduce the frequency (say to every 5 seconds) if every 5 seconds) if an ASP-Up Ack is not received after a few tries.
an ASP-Up Ack is not received after a few tries.
The ASP must wait for the ASP-Up Ack message from the SG before sending The ASP must wait for the ASP-Up Ack message before sending any ASP
any ASP traffic control messages (ASPAC or ASPIA) or Data messages or it traffic control messages (i.e., ASPAC). If the SG or IPSP receives any
will risk message loss. If the SG receives Data messages before an ASP other M3UA messages before an ASP Up is received, the SG or IPSP should
Up is received, the SG should discard. discard them.
4.3.3.2 ASP-Down 4.3.3.2 ASP-Down
The ASP will send an ASP-Down to an SG when the ASP is to be removed The ASP will send an ASP-Down to an SG or IPSP when the ASP wishes to
from the list of ASPs in all Application Servers that it is a member. be removed from service in all Application Servers that it is a member
And no longer receive any M3UA traffic or management messages.
Whether the ASP is permanently removed from any AS is a function of
configuration management.
The SG marks the ASP as "Down" and returns an ASP-Down Ack message to The SG marks the ASP as "Down" and returns an ASP-Down Ack message to
the ASP if one of the following events occur: the ASP if one of the following events occur:
- an ASP-Down message is received from the ASP, - an ASP-Down message is received from the ASP,
- another ASPM message is received from the ASP and the SG has - another ASPM message is received from the ASP and the SG has
locked out the ASP for management reasons. locked out the ASP for management reasons.
The SG sends an ASP-Down Ack message in response to a received ASP-Down The SG sends an ASP-Down Ack message in response to a received ASP-Down
message from the ASP even if the ASP is already marked as "Down" at the message from the ASP even if the ASP is already marked as "Down" at the
skipping to change at page 49, line 45 skipping to change at page 58, line 8
If the ASP does not receive a response from the SG, the ASP may send If the ASP does not receive a response from the SG, the ASP may send
ASP-Down messages every 2 seconds until it receives an ASP-Down Ack ASP-Down messages every 2 seconds until it receives an ASP-Down Ack
message from the SG or the SCTP association goes down. The ASP may message from the SG or the SCTP association goes down. The ASP may
decide to reduce the frequency (say to every 5 seconds) if an ASP-Down decide to reduce the frequency (say to every 5 seconds) if an ASP-Down
Ack is not received after a few tries. Ack is not received after a few tries.
4.3.3.3 M3UA Version Control 4.3.3.3 M3UA Version Control
If an ASP-Up message with an unsupported version is received, the If an ASP-Up message with an unsupported version is received, the
receiving end responds with an Error message, indicating the version the receiving end responds with an Error message, indicating the version
receiving node supports. the receiving node supports and notifies Layer Management.
This is useful when protocol version upgrades are being performed in a This is useful when protocol version upgrades are being performed in a
network. A node upgraded to a newer version should support the older network. A node upgraded to a newer version should support the older
versions used on other nodes it is communicating with. Because ASPs versions used on other nodes it is communicating with. Because ASPs
initiate the ASP-Up procedure it is assumed that the Error message would initiate the ASP-Up procedure it is assumed that the Error message
normally come from the SG. would normally come from the SG.
4.3.3.4 ASP-Active 4.3.3.4 ASP-Active
Anytime after the ASP has received an ASP-Up Ack from the SG, the ASP Anytime after the ASP has received an ASP-Up Ack from the SG or IPSP,
sends an ASP-Active (ASPAC) to the SG indicating that the ASP is ready the ASP sends an ASP-Active (ASPAC) to the SG indicating that the ASP
to start processing traffic. In the case where an ASP is is ready to start processing traffic. In the case where an ASP wishes
configured/registered to process the traffic for more than one to process the traffic for more than one Application Server across a
Application Server across an SCTP association, the ASPAC contains one or common SCTP association, the ASPAC contains a list of one or more
more Routing Contexts to indicate for which Application Servers the Routing Contexts to indicate for which Application Servers the ASPAC
ASPAC applies. applies. In the case where an ASP-Active message does not contain a
Routing Context, the receiver must know, via configuration data, which
AS pools the ASP will be a member.
When an ASP Active (ASPAC) message is received, the SG responds to the When an ASP Active (ASPAC) message is received, the SG or IPSP responds
ASP with a ASPAC Ack message acknowledging that the ASPAC was received to the ASP with an ASPAC Ack message, acknowledging that the ASPAC was
and starts sending traffic for the associated Application Server(s) to received and, depending on the ASPAC Type value received, moves the ASP
that ASP. to the "Active" or "Standby" state within the associated Application
Server(s). The ASP MUST not send Data messages before receiving an
ASPAC Ack. If the SG or IPSP receives any Data messages before an
ASPAC is received, the SG or IPSP should discard them.
There are two modes of Application Server traffic handling in the SG There are two modes of Application Server traffic handling in the SG
M3UA - Over-ride and Load-share. The Type parameter in the ASPAC M3UA - Over-ride and Load-share. The Type parameter in the ASPAC
message indicates the traffic handling mode used in a particular message indicates the traffic handling mode used in a particular
Application Server. If the SG determines that the mode indicated in an Application Server. If the SG determines that the mode indicated in an
ASPAC is incompatible with the mode currently used in the AS, the SG ASPAC is incompatible with the mode currently used in the AS, the SG
responds with an Error message indicating "Invalid Traffic Handling responds with an Error message indicating "Invalid Traffic Handling
Mode". Mode".
In the case of an Over-ride mode AS, reception of an ASPAC message at an In the case of an Over-ride mode AS, reception of an ASPAC message at
SG causes the redirection of all traffic for the AS to the ASP that sent an SG causes the redirection of all traffic for the AS to the ASP that
the ASPAC. The SG responds to the ASPAC with an ASP-Active Ack message sent the ASPAC. Any previously active ASP in the AS is now considered
to the ASP. Any previously active ASP in the AS is now considered
Inactive and will no longer receive traffic from the SG within the AS. Inactive and will no longer receive traffic from the SG within the AS.
The SG sends a Notify (Alternate ASP-Active) to the previously active The SG or IPSP sends a Notify (Alternate ASP-Active) to the previously
ASP in the AS, after stopping all traffic to that ASP. active ASP in the AS, after stopping all traffic to that ASP. In the
case of Over-ride (Standby) mode the actions are the same with the
exception that the traffic is not started to the ASP until the
previously active ASP transitions to "Inactive or "Down" state. At
this point the ASP that sent the Over-Ride (Standby) ASPAC is moved to
In the case of a Load-share mode AS, reception of an ASPAC message at an the Active state and the traffic is redirected. A Notify message is
SG causes the direction of traffic to the ASP sending the ASPAC, in not sent in this case.
addition to all the other ASPs that are currently active in the AS. The
algorithm at the SG for load-sharing traffic within an AS to all the In the case of a Load-share mode AS, reception of an ASPAC message at
active ASPs is application and network dependent. The algorithm could, an SG or IPSP causes the direction of traffic to the ASP sending the
for example be round-robin or based on information in the Data message ASPAC, in addition to all the other ASPs that are currently active in
(e.g, such as the SLS, SCCP SSN, ISUP CIC value), depending on the the AS. The algorithm at the SG for load-sharing traffic within an AS
requirements of the application and the call/transaction state handling to all the active ASPs is implementation dependent. The algorithm
assumptions of the collection of ASPs in the AS. The SG responds to the could, for example be round-robin or based on information in the Data
ASPAC with an ASP-Active Ack message to the ASP. message (e.g., such as the SLS, SCCP SSN, ISUP CIC value).
Depending on the requirements of the application and the
call/transaction state handling assumptions of the collection of ASPs
in the AS. The SG or IPSP responds to the ASPAC with an ASP-Active Ack
message to the ASP. N the case of Loadshare (Standby) mode, the
actions are the same with the exception that the traffic is not started
to the ASP until the SG or IPSP determines that there are insufficient
resources available in the AS. This is likely due to one of the active
loadsharing ASPs transitions to the "Inactive" or "Down" state. At
this point the ASP that sent the Loadshare (Standby) ASPAC s moved to
the Active state and traffic is started. A Notify message is not sent
in this case.
All ASPs within a loadsharing mode AS must be able to handle any
traffic within the AS, in order to accommodate any potential fail-over
or rebalancing of the offered load.
A node that receives an ASPAC with an incorrect Type for a particular
Routing Context will respond with an Error Message (Cause: Invalid
Traffic Handling Mode). A node that receives an unknown Routing
Context value responds with an Error message (Cause: Invalid Routing
Context).
4.3.3.5 ASP Inactive 4.3.3.5 ASP Inactive
When an ASP wishes to withdraw from receiving traffic within an AS, the When an ASP wishes to withdraw from receiving traffic within an AS, the
ASP sends an ASP Inactive (ASPIA) to the SG. In the case where an ASP ASP sends an ASP Inactive (ASPIA) to the SG or IPSP. In the case where
is configured/registered to process the traffic for more than one an ASP is processing the traffic for more than one Application Server
Application Server across an SCTP association, the ASPIA contains one or across a common SCTP association, the ASPIA contains one or more
more Routing Contexts to indicate for which Application Servers the Routing Contexts to indicate for which Application Servers the ASPIA
ASPIA applies. applies. In the case where an ASP-Inactive message does not contain a
Routing Context, the receiver must know via configuration data which AS
pools the ASP is a member and move the ASP to the "Inactive" state in
each AS.
There are two modes of Application Server traffic handling in the SG There are two modes of Application Server traffic handling in the SG or
M3UA when withdrawing an ASP from service - Over-ride and Load-share. IPSP M3UA when withdrawing an ASP from service - Over-ride and Load-
The Type parameter in the ASPIA message indicates the mode used in a share. The Type parameter in the ASPIA message indicates the mode used
particular Application Server. If the SG determines that the mode in a particular Application Server. If the SG or IPSP determines that
indicates in an ASPAC is incompatible with the traffic handling mode
currently used in the AS, the SG responds with an Error message
indicating "Invalid Traffic Handling Mode".
In the case of an Over-ride mode AS, where normally another ASP has the mode indicates in an ASPIA is inconsistent with the traffic
already taken over the traffic within the AS with an Over-ride ASPAC, handling mode currently used in the AS, a this is reported to local
the ASP that sends the ASPIA is already considered by the SG to be management indicating("Invalid Traffic Handling Mode"). The ASPIA is
"Inactive" (i.e., in the "Up" state). An ASPIA Ack message is sent to still processed.
the ASP, after ensuring that all traffic is stopped to the ASP.
In the case of a Load-share mode AS, the SG moves the ASP to the "Up" In the case of an Over-ride mode AS, where another ASP has already
state and the AS traffic is re-allocated across the remaining "active" taken over the traffic within the AS with an Over-ride ASPAC, the ASP
ASPs per the load-sharing algorithm currently used within the AS. An that sends the ASPIA is already considered by the SG to be "Inactive".
ASPIA Ack message is sent to the ASP after all traffic is halted to the An ASPIA Ack message is sent to the ASP, after ensuring that all
ASP. traffic is stopped to the ASP. In the case where another ASP has
already sent an Over-ride (Standby) ASPAC, the ASP is moved to the
"Inactive state" and traffic s immediately started to the standby ASP.
If no other ASPs are "Active" in the Application Server, the SG either In the case of a Load-share mode AS, the SG moves the ASP to the
discards all incoming messages for the AS or starts buffering the "Inactive" state and the AS traffic is re-allocated across the
incoming messages for T(r)seconds, after which messages will be remaining "active" ASPs per the load-sharing algorithm currently used
within the AS. A NTFY(Insufficient ASPs) may be sent to all inactive
ASPs, if required. However, if a Loadshare (Standby) ASP is available,
it may be now immediately included in the loadshare group and a Notify
message is not sent. An ASPIA Ack message is sent to the ASP after all
traffic is halted.
If no other ASPs are "Active" or "Standby" in the Application Server,
the SG sends a NTFY(AS-Pending) to all inactive ASPs of the AS and
either discards all incoming messages for the AS or starts buffering
the incoming messages for T(r)seconds, after which messages will be
discarded. T(r) is configurable by the network operator. If the SG discarded. T(r) is configurable by the network operator. If the SG
receives an ASPAC from receives an ASPAC from an ASP in the AS before expiry of T(r), the
an ASP in the AS before expiry of T(r), the buffered traffic is directed buffered traffic is directed to the ASP and the timer is cancelled. If
to the ASP and the timer is cancelled. T(r) expires, the AS is moved to the "Down" state.
4.3.3.6 NotifyIn the case where a Notify (AS-Up) message is sent by an 4.3.3.6 Notify
SG that now has no ASPs active to service the traffic, the Notify does
not force the ASP(s) receiving the message to become active. The ASPs A Notify message reflecting a change in the AS state is sent to all
ASPs in the AS, except those in the "Down" state, with appropriate
Status Identification.
In the case where a Notify (AS-Pending) message is sent by an SG that
now has no ASPs active to service the traffic, or a NTFY(Insufficient
ASPs) is sent in the Loadshare mode, the Notify does not explicitly
force the ASP(s) receiving the message to become active. The ASPs
remain in control of what (and when) action is taken. remain in control of what (and when) action is taken.
4.3.3.7 Heartbeat 4.3.3.7 Heartbeat
The optional Heartbeat procedures may be used when operating over The optional Heartbeat procedures may be used when operating over
transport layers that do not have their own heartbeat mechanism for transport layers that do not have their own heartbeat mechanism for
detecting loss of the transport association (i.e., other than the SCTP). detecting loss of the transport association (i.e., other than the
SCTP).
Once the ASP sends an ASP-Up message to the SG, the ASP sends Beat After receiving an ASP-Up Ack message from an M3UA peer in response to
messages periodically, subject to a provisionable timer T(beat). The SG an ASP-Up message, an ASP may optionally send Beat messages
M3UA, upon receiving a BEAT message from the ASP, responds with a BEAT periodically, subject to a provisionable timer T(beat). Upon receiving
message. If no BEAT message (or any other M3UA message), is received a BEAT message, the M3UA peer MUST respond with a BEAT ACK
from the ASP within the timer 2*T(beat), the ASP will consider the message. If no BEAT ACK message (or any other M3UA message), is
remote M3UA as 'Down". received by the ASP within the timer 2*T(beat), the ASP will consider
the remote M3UA peer as "Down".
At the ASP, if no BEAT message (or any other M3UA message) is received At the ASP, if no BEAT ACK message (or any other M3UA message) is
from the SG within 2*T(beat), the SG is considered unavailable. received from the M3UA peer within 2*T(beat), the remote M3UA peer is
considered unavailable. Transmission of BEAT messages is stopped and
ASP-Up procedures are used to re-establish communication with the SG
M3UA peer.
Transmission of BEAT messages is stopped and ASP-Up procedures are used The BEAT message may optionally contain an opaque Heartbeat Data
to re-establish communication with the SG M3UA peer. parameter that MUST be echoed back unchanged in the related Beat Ack
message. The ASP upon examining the contents of the returned BEAT Ack
message MAY choose to consider the remote ASP as unavailable. The
contents/format of the Heartbeat Data parameter is implementation-
dependent and only of local interest to the original sender. The
contents may be used, for example, to support a Heartbeat sequence
algorithm (to detect missing Heartbeats), and/or a timestamp mechanism
(to evaluate delays).
Note: Heartbeat related events are not shown in Figure 4 "ASP state Note: Heartbeat related events are not shown in Figure 4 "ASP state
transition diagram". transition diagram".
4.4 Procedures to support the M3UA services in Section 1.4.3 4.4 Procedures to support the M3UA services
4.4.1 At an SG 4.4.1 At an SG
On receiving an MTP-PAUSE, MTP-RESUME, or MTP-STATUS indication On receiving an MTP-PAUSE, MTP-RESUME, or MTP-STATUS indication
primitive from the nodal inter-working function at an SG, the SG M3UA primitive from the nodal inter-working function at an SG, the SG M3UA
layer will send a corresponding SSNM DUNA, DAVA, SCON, or DUPU message layer will send a corresponding SSNM DUNA, DAVA, SCON, or DUPU message
(see Section 2) to the M3UA peers at concerned ASPs. The M3UA layer (see Section 2) to the M3UA peers at concerned ASPs. The M3UA layer
must fill in various fields of the SSNM messages consistently with the must fill in various fields of the SSNM messages consistently with the
information received in the primitives. information received in the primitives.
The SG M3UA determines the set of concerned ASPs to be informed based on The SG M3UA determines the set of concerned ASPs to be informed based
the SS7 network partition for which the primitive indication is on the SS7 network partition for which the primitive indication is
relevant. In this way, all ASPs configured to send/receive traffic relevant. In this way, all ASPs configured to send/receive traffic
within a particular network appearance are informed. If the SG operates within a particular network appearance are informed. If the SG
within a single SS7 network appearance, then all ASPs are informed. operates within a single SS7 network appearance, then all ASPs are
informed.
Optionally, the SG M3UA may filter further based on the Affected Point Optionally, the SG M3UA may filter further based on the Affected Point
Code in the MTP-PAUSE, MTP-Resume, or MTP-Status indication primitives. Code in the MTP-PAUSE, MTP-Resume, or MTP-Status indication primitives.
In this way ASPs can be informed only of affected destinations to which In this way ASPs can be informed only of affected destinations to which
they actually communicate. The SG M3UA may also suppress DUPU messages they actually communicate. The SG M3UA may also suppress DUPU messages
to ASPs that do not implement an MTP3-User protocol peer for the to ASPs that do not implement an MTP3-User protocol peer for the
affected MTP3-User. affected MTP3-User.
DUNA, DAVA, SCON messages must be sent on a sequenced stream as these DUNA, DAVA, SCON messages must be sent on a sequenced stream as these
primitives should arrive in order. Stream 0 is used. Sequencing is not primitives should arrive in order. Stream 0 is used. Sequencing is
required for the DUPU or DAUD message, which may optionally be sent un- not required for the DUPU or DAUD message, which may optionally be sent
sequenced. un-sequenced. The same applies for the SCON message if the
international congestion method (see Q.704) is used.
4.4.2 At an ASP 4.4.2 At an ASP
At an ASP, upon receiving an SSNM message from the remote M3UA Peer, the 4.4.2.1 Single SG configurations
M3UA layer invokes the appropriate primitive indications to the resident
M3UA-Users. Local management is informed. At an ASP, upon receiving an SSNM message from the remote M3UA Peer,
the M3UA layer invokes the appropriate primitive indications to the
resident M3UA-Users. Local management is informed.
In the case where a local event has caused the unavailability or
congestion status of SS7 destinations, the M3UA at the ASP should pass
up appropriate indications n the primitives to the M3UA User, as though
equivalent SSNM messages were received. For example, the loss of an
SCTP association to an SG may cause the unavailability of a set of SS7
destinations. MTP-Pause indications to the M3UA User is appropriate.
To accomplish this, the M3UA layer at an ASP maintains the status of
routes via the SG, much like an MTP3 layer maintains route-set status.
4.4.2.2 Multiple SG configurations
At an ASP, upon receiving an SSNM message from the remote M3UA Peer,
the
M3UA layer updates the status of the affected route(s) via the
originating SG and determines, whether or not the overall availability
or congestion status of the effected destination(s) has changed. In
this case the M3UA layer invokes the appropriate primitive indications
to the resident M3UA-Users. Local management is informed.
4.4.3 ASP Auditing 4.4.3 ASP Auditing
An ASP may optionally initiate an audit procedure in order to enquire of An ASP may optionally initiate an audit procedure in order to enquire
an SG the availability or congestion status of an SS7 destination or set of an SG the availability and, if the congestion method with multiple
of destinations. A Destination Audit (DAUD) message is sent from the congestion levels and message priorities is used, congestion status of
ASP to the SG requesting the current availability or congestion status an SS7 destination or set of destinations. A Destination Audit (DAUD)
of one or more SS7 Destination Point Codes. message is sent from the ASP to the SG requesting the current
availability and congestion status of one or more SS7 Destination Point
Codes.
The DAUD may be sent by the ASP in the following cases. The DAUD may be The DAUD may be sent un-sequenced. The DAUD may be sent by the ASP in
sent unsequenced. the following cases:
- Periodic. A Timer originally set upon reception of DUVA or SCON - Periodic. A Timer originally set upon reception of DUNA or SCON
message has expired without a subsequent DAVA, DUVA or SCON message has expired without a subsequent DAVA, DUNA or SCON
updating the availability/congestion status of the affected updating the availability/congestion status of the affected
Destination Point Codes. The Timer is reset upon issuing a DAUD. Destination Point Codes. The Timer is reset upon issuing a DAUD.
In this case the DAUD is sent to the SG that originally sent the In this case the DAUD is sent to the SG that originally sent the
SSNM message. SSNM message.
- the ASP is newly "Up" or "Active" or has been isolated from an SG - the ASP is newly "Inactive" or "Active" or has been isolated from
for an extended period. The SG can request the an SG for an extended period. The ASP can request the
availabilty/congestion status of one or more SS7 destinations to availability/congestion status of one or more SS7 destinations to
which it expects to communicate. which it expects to communicate.
In the first case, the DAUD procedure must not be invoked for the case In the first case, the DAUD procedure must not be invoked for the case
of received SCON containing a congestion level value of "no congestion" of received SCON containing a congestion level value of "no
or undefined" (i.e., congestion Level = "0"). This is because the value congestion" or undefined" (i.e., congestion Level = "0"). This is
ndicates either congestion abatement or that the ITU MTP3 international because the value indicates either congestion abatement or that the ITU
ongestion method is being used. In the international congestion method, MTP3 international congestion method is being used. In the
the MTP3 at the SG does not maintain the congestion status of any international congestion method, the MTP3 at the SG MTP3 does not
destinations and therefore cannot provide any congestion information in maintain the congestion status of any destinations and therefore the SG
response to the DAUD. For the same reason, in the second case a DAUD cannot provide any congestion information in response to the DAUD. For
cannot reveal any congested destination(s). the same reason, in the second case a DAUD cannot reveal any congested
destination(s).
The SG must respond to a DAUD with the MTP3 status of the routeset The SG MUST respond to a DAUD with the MTP3 status of the routeset
associated with each Destination Point Code(s) in the DAUD. The status associated with each Destination Point Code(s) in the DAUD. The status
of each SS7 destination requested is indicated in a DUNA (if of each SS7 destination requested is indicated in a DUNA (if
unavailable), DAVA (if available/uncongested) or an SCON (if unavailable), DAVA (if available/uncongested) or an SCON (if
available/congested). Optionally, any DUNA or DAVA in response to a available/congested). Optionally, any DUNA or DAVA message in response
DAUD may contain more than one Affected Point Code. to a DAUD may contain a list of up to sixteen Affected Point Codes.
Note that from the point of view of an ASP sending an DAUD, the Note that from the point of view of an ASP sending an DAUD, the
subsequent reception of an SCON implies that the Affected Destination is subsequent reception of an SCON implies that the Affected Destination
available. The reception of a DAVA implies that the routeset to the is available. The reception of a DAVA implies that the routeset to the
Affected Destination are not congested. Obviously with the reception of Affected Destination is not congested. Obviously with the reception of
an DUNA, the routeset to the Affected Destination can not also be an DUNA, the routeset to the Affected Destination can not also be
congested. congested.
5.0 Examples of M3UA Procedures 5.0 Examples of M3UA Procedures
5.1 Establishment of Association and Traffic between SGs and ASPs 5.1 Establishment of Association and Traffic between SGs and ASPs
5.1.1 Single ASP in an Application Server ("1+0" sparing) 5.1.1 Single ASP in an Application Server ("1+0" sparing)
This scenario shows the example M3UA message flows for the establishment This scenario shows the example M3UA message flows for the
of traffic between an SG and an ASP, where only one ASP is configured establishment of traffic between an SG and an ASP, where only one ASP
within an AS (no backup). It is assumed that the SCTP association is is configured within an AS (no backup). It is assumed that the SCTP
already set-up. association is already set-up. The sending of DUNA/SCON messages by the
SG is not shown but would be similar to 5.1.2.
SG ASP1 SG ASP1
| |
|<---------ASP Up----------| |<---------ASP Up----------|
|-------ASP-Up Ack-------->| |-------ASP-Up Ack-------->|
| - | | |
|<-------ASP Active--------| |<-------ASP Active--------|
|-----ASP Active Ack------>| |-----ASP Active Ack------>|
| | | |
5.1.2 Two ASPs in Application Server ("1+1" sparing) 5.1.2 Two ASPs in Application Server ("1+1" sparing)
This scenario shows the example M3UA message flows for the establishment This scenario shows the example M3UA message flows for the
of traffic between an SG and two ASPs in the same Application Server, establishment of traffic between an SG and two ASPs in the same
where ASP1 is configured to be "active" and ASP2 a "standby" in the Application Server, where ASP1 is configured to be "active" and ASP2 a
event of communication failure or the withdrawal from service of ASP1. "standby" in the event of communication failure or the withdrawal from
ASP2 may act as a hot, warm, or cold standby depending on the extent to service of ASP1. ASP2 may act as a hot, warm, or cold standby
which ASP1 and ASP2 share call/transaction state or can communicate call depending on the extent to which ASP1 and ASP2 share call/transaction
state under failure/withdrawal events. The example message flow is the state or can communicate call state under failure/withdrawal events.
same whether the ASP-Active messages are Over-ride or Load-share mode The example message flow is the same whether the ASP-Active messages
although typically this example would use an Over-ride mode. are Over-ride or Load-share mode although typically this example would
use an Over-ride mode. In the case of MTP Restart, the SG starts
sending any relevant DUNA and SCON messages to the ASPs as soon as they
enter the ASP-INACTIVE state. The ASP-Active Ack message is only sent
after all relevant DUNA/SCON messages have been transmitted to the
concerned ASP.
SG ASP1 ASP2 SG ASP1 ASP2
| | | | | |
|<--------ASP Up----------| | |<--------ASP Up----------| |
|-------ASP-Up Ack------->| | |-------ASP-Up Ack------->| |
| | | | | |
|<-----------------------------ASP Up----------------| |<-----------------------------ASP Up----------------|
|-----------------------------ASP-Up Ack------------>| |-----------------------------ASP-Up Ack------------>|
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
|<-------ASP Active-------| | |<-------ASP Active-------| |
|------ASP-Active Ack---->| | |------ASP-Active Ack---->| |
| | | | | |
5.1.3 Two ASPs in an Application Server ("1+1" sparing, load-sharing 5.1.3 Two ASPs in an Application Server ("1+1" sparing, load-sharing
case) case)
This scenario shows a similar case to Section 4.1.2 but where the two This scenario shows a similar case to Section 4.1.2 but where the two
ASPs are brought to "active" and load-share the traffic load. In this ASPs are brought to "active" and load-share the traffic load. In this
case, one ASP is sufficient to handle the total traffic load. case, one ASP is sufficient to handle the total traffic load. The
sending of DUNA/SCON messages by the SG is not shown but would be
similar to 5.1.2.
SG ASP1 ASP2 SG ASP1 ASP2
| | | | | |
|<---------ASP Up---------| | |<---------ASP Up---------| |
|--------ASP-Up Ack------>| | |--------ASP-Up Ack------>| |
| | | | | |
|<------------------------------ASP Up---------------| |<------------------------------ASP Up---------------|
|-----------------------------ASP Up Ack------------>| |-----------------------------ASP Up Ack------------>|
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
|<--ASP Active (Ldshr)----| | |<--ASP Active (Ldshr)----| |
|-----ASP-Active Ack----->| | |-----ASP-Active Ack----->| |
| | | | | |
|<----------------------------ASP Active (Ldshr)-----| |<----------------------------ASP Active (Ldshr)-----|
|-------------------------------ASP-Active Ack------>| |-------------------------------ASP-Active Ack------>|
| | | | | |
5.1.4 Three ASPs in an Application Server ("n+k" sparing, load-sharing 5.1.4 Three ASPs in an Application Server ("n+k" sparing, load-sharing
case) case)
This scenario shows the example M3UA message flows for the establishment This scenario shows the example M3UA message flows for the
of traffic between an SG and three ASPs in the same Application Server, establishment of traffic between an SG and three ASPs in the same
where two of the ASPs are brought to "active" and share the load. In Application Server, where two of the ASPs are brought to "active" and
this case, a minimum of two ASPs are required to handle the total share the load. In this case, a minimum of two ASPs are required to
traffic load (2+1 sparing). handle the total traffic load (2+1 sparing). The sending of DUNA/SCON
messages by the SG is not shown but would be similar to 5.1.2.
SG ASP1 ASP2 ASP3 SG ASP1 ASP2 ASP3
| | | | | | | |
|<------ASP Up-------| | | |<------ASP Up-------| | |
|-----ASP-Up Ack---->| | | |-----ASP-Up Ack---->| | |
| | | | | | | |
|<--------------------------ASP Up-------| | |<--------------------------ASP Up-------| |
|-------------------------ASP-Up Ack)--->| | |-------------------------ASP-Up Ack)--->| |
| | | | | | | |
|<---------------------------------------------ASP Up--------| |<---------------------------------------------ASP Up--------|
skipping to change at page 56, line 16 skipping to change at page 66, line 35
5.2.1 (1+1 Sparing, withdrawal of ASP, Back-up Over-ride) 5.2.1 (1+1 Sparing, withdrawal of ASP, Back-up Over-ride)
Following on from the example in Section 4.1.2, and ASP withdraws from Following on from the example in Section 4.1.2, and ASP withdraws from
service: service:
SG ASP1 ASP2 SG ASP1 ASP2
| | | | | |
|<-----ASP Inactive-------| | |<-----ASP Inactive-------| |
|----ASP Inactive Ack---->| | |----ASP Inactive Ack---->| |
|-------------------------NTFY(AS-Down) (Optional)-->| |------------------------NTFY(AS-Inact.)(Optional)-->|
| | | | | |
|<------------------------------ ASP Active----------| |<------------------------------ ASP Active----------|
|------------------------------ASP-Active Ack)------>| |------------------------------ASP-Active Ack)------>|
| | | |
Note: If the SG detects loss of the M3UA peer (M3UA heartbeat loss or Note: If the SG detects loss of the M3UA peer (M3UA heartbeat loss or
detection of SCTP failure), the initial SG-ASP1 ASP Inactive message detection of SCTP failure), the initial SG-ASP1 ASP Inactive message
exchange would not occur. exchange would not occur.
5.2.2 (1+1 Sparing, Back-up Over-ride) 5.2.2 (1+1 Sparing, Back-up Over-ride)
Following on from the example in Section 4.1.2, and ASP2 wishes to over- Following on from the example in Section 4.1.2, and ASP2 wishes to
ride ASP1 and take over the traffic: over-ride ASP1 and take over the traffic:
SG ASP1 ASP2 SG ASP1 ASP2
| | | | | |
|<------------------------------ ASP Active----------| |<------------------------------ ASP Active----------|
|-------------------------------ASP-Active Ack------>| |-------------------------------ASP-Active Ack------>|
|----NTFY(Alt ASP-Act)--->| |----NTFY(Alt ASP-Act)--->|
| | | | | |
5.2.3 (n+k Sparing, Load-sharing case, withdrawal of ASP) 5.2.3 (n+k Sparing, Load-sharing case, withdrawal of ASP)
skipping to change at page 57, line 7 skipping to change at page 67, line 35
|---ASP-Inact Ack--->| | | |---ASP-Inact Ack--->| | |
| | | | | | | |
|---------------------------------NTFY(Ins. ASPs)(Optional)->| |---------------------------------NTFY(Ins. ASPs)(Optional)->|
| | | | | | | |
|<-----------------------------------------ASP Act (Ldshr)---| |<-----------------------------------------ASP Act (Ldshr)---|
|-------------------------------------------ASP Act (Ack)--->| |-------------------------------------------ASP Act (Ack)--->|
| | | | | | | |
The Notify message to ASP3 is optional, as well as the ASP-Active from The Notify message to ASP3 is optional, as well as the ASP-Active from
ASP3. The optional Notify can only occur if the SG maintains knowledge ASP3. The optional Notify can only occur if the SG maintains knowledge
of the minimum ASP resources required for example if the SG knows that of the minimum ASP resources required - for example if the SG knows
"n+k" = "2+1" for a load-share AS and "n" currently equals "1". that "n+k" = "2+1" for a load-share AS and "n" currently equals "1".
Note: If the SG detects loss of the ASP1 M3UA peer (M3UA heartbeat loss Note: If the SG detects loss of the ASP1 M3UA peer (M3UA heartbeat loss
or detection of SCTP failure), the first SG-ASP1 ASP Inactive message or detection of SCTP failure), the first SG-ASP1 ASP Inactive message
exchange would not occur. exchange would not occur.
5.3 M3UA/MTP3-User Boundary Examples 5.3 M3UA/MTP3-User Boundary Examples
5.3.1 At an ASP 5.3.1 At an ASP
This section describes the primitive mapping from the MTP3 User to M3UA This section describes the primitive mapping from the MTP3 User to M3UA
at an ASP. at an ASP.
5.3.1.1 Support for MTP-Transfer on the ASP 5.3.1.1 Support for MTP-Transfer on the ASP
5.3.1.1.1 Support for MTP-Transfer Request 5.3.1.1.1 Support for MTP-Transfer Request
When the MTP3-User on the ASP has data to send into the SS7 network, it When the MTP3-User on the ASP has data to send into the SS7 network, it
will use the MTP-Transfer Request primitive. The M3UA on the ASP will will use the MTP-Transfer Request primitive. The M3UA on the ASP will
do the following when it receives an MTP-Transfer Request primitive from do the following when it receives an MTP-Transfer Request primitive
the M3UA user: from the M3UA user:
- Determine the correct SG - Determine the correct SG
- Determine the correct association to the chosen SG - Determine the correct association to the chosen SG
- Determine the correct stream in the association (e.g., based on - Determine the correct stream in the association (e.g., based on
SLS) SLS)
- Determine whether to complete the optional fields of the Data - Determine whether to complete the optional fields of the Data
message message
skipping to change at page 58, line 7 skipping to change at page 68, line 36
- Send the Data message to the remote M3UA peer in the SG, over the - Send the Data message to the remote M3UA peer in the SG, over the
SCTP association SCTP association
SG ASP SG ASP
| | | |
|<-----Data Message-------|<--MTP-Transfer req. |<-----Data Message-------|<--MTP-Transfer req.
| | | |
5.3.1.1.2 Support for MTP Transfer Indication 5.3.1.1.2 Support for MTP Transfer Indication
When the M3UA on the ASP has received Data messages from the remote M3UA When the M3UA on the ASP has received Data messages from the remote
peer in the SG it will do the following: M3UA peer in the SG it will do the following:
- Evaluate the optional fields of the Data message if present - Evaluate the optional fields of the Data message if present
- Map the Payload of a Data message into the MTP-Transfer Indication - Map the Payload of a Data message into the MTP-Transfer Indication
primitive primitive
- Pass the MTP-Transfer Indication primitive to the user part. In - Pass the MTP-Transfer Indication primitive to the user part. In
case of multiple user parts, the optional fields of the Data case of multiple user parts, the optional fields of the Data
message are used to determine the concerned user part. message are used to determine the concerned user part.
SG ASP SG ASP
| | | |
|------Data Message------>|---MTP-Transfer ind. |------Data Message------>|---MTP-Transfer ind.
| | | |
5.3.1.1.3 Support for ASP Querying of SS7 Destination States 5.3.1.1.3 Support for ASP Querying of SS7 Destination States
There are situations such as temporary loss of connectivity to the SG There are situations such as temporary loss of connectivity to the SG
that may cause the M3UA on the ASP to audit SS7 destination availability that may cause the M3UA on the ASP to audit SS7 destination
states. Note: there is no primitive for the MTP3-User to request this availability states. Note: there is no primitive for the MTP3-User to
audit from the M3UA as this is initiated by an internal M3UA management request this audit from the M3UA as this is initiated by an internal
function. M3UA management function.
The M3UA on the ASP normally sends Destination State Audit (DAUD) The M3UA on the ASP normally sends Destination State Audit (DAUD)
messages for each of the destinations that the ASP supports. messages for each of the destinations that the ASP supports.
SG ASP SG ASP
| | | |
|<-----DAUD Message ------| |<-----DAUD Message ------|
|<-----DAUD Message ------| |<-----DAUD Message ------|
|<-----DAUD Message ------| |<-----DAUD Message ------|
| | | |
skipping to change at page 59, line 21 skipping to change at page 69, line 50
- Pass the MTP-Transfer Request primitive to the MTP3 of the - Pass the MTP-Transfer Request primitive to the MTP3 of the
concerned network appearance. concerned network appearance.
SG ASP SG ASP
| | | |
<---MTP-Transfer req.|<------Data Message------| <---MTP-Transfer req.|<------Data Message------|
| | | |
5.3.2.2 Support for MTP-Transfer Indication at the SG 5.3.2.2 Support for MTP-Transfer Indication at the SG
When the MTP3 on the SG has data to pass its user parts, it will use the When the MTP3 on the SG has data to pass its user parts, it will use
MTP-Transfer Indication primitive. The M3UA on the S>G will do the the MTP-Transfer Indication primitive. The M3UA on the SG will do the
following when it receives an MTP-Transfer Indication: following when it receives an MTP-Transfer Indication:
- Determine the correct ASP - Determine the correct ASP
- Determine the correct association to the chosen ASP - Determine the correct association to the chosen ASP
- Determine the correct stream in the association (e.g., based on - Determine the correct stream in the association (e.g., based on
SLS) SLS)
- Determine whether to complete the optional fields of the Data - Determine whether to complete the optional fields of the Data
skipping to change at page 60, line 9 skipping to change at page 70, line 36
5.3.2.3 Support for MTP-PAUSE, MTP-RESUME, MTP-STATUS 5.3.2.3 Support for MTP-PAUSE, MTP-RESUME, MTP-STATUS
The MTP-PAUSE, MTP-RESUME and MTP-STATUS indication primitives from the The MTP-PAUSE, MTP-RESUME and MTP-STATUS indication primitives from the
MTP3 upper layer interface at the SG need to be made available to the MTP3 upper layer interface at the SG need to be made available to the
remote MTP3 User Part lower layer interface at the concerned ASP(s). remote MTP3 User Part lower layer interface at the concerned ASP(s).
5.3.2.3.1 Destination Unavailable 5.3.2.3.1 Destination Unavailable
The MTP3 on the SG will generate an MTP-PAUSE primitive when it The MTP3 on the SG will generate an MTP-PAUSE primitive when it
determines locally that an SS7 destination is unreachable. The M3UA determines locally that an SS7 destination is unreachable. The M3UA
will map this primitive to a Destination Unavailable (DUNA) message. It will map this primitive to a Destination Unavailable (DUNA) message.
will determine which ASP(s) to send the DUNA based on the Network The SG M3UA determines the set of concerned ASPs to be informed based
Appearance information. on internal SS7 network information associated with the MTP-PAUSE
primitive indication.
SG ASP SG ASP
| | | |
--MTP-PAUSE ind.-->|------DUNA Message ----->|--MTP-PAUSE ind.--> --MTP-PAUSE ind.-->|------DUNA Message ----->|--MTP-PAUSE ind.-->
| | | |
5.3.2.3.2 Destination Available 5.3.2.3.2 Destination Available
The MTP3 on the SG will generate an MTP-RESUME primitive when it The MTP3 on the SG will generate an MTP-RESUME primitive when it
determines locally that an SS7 destination that was previously determines locally that an SS7 destination that was previously
unreachable is now reachable. The M3UA will map this primitive to a unreachable is now reachable. The M3UA will map this primitive to a
Destination Unavailable (DAVA) message. It will determine which ASP(s) Destination Available (DAVA) message. The SG M3UA determines the set
to send the DUNA based on the Network Appearance information. of concerned ASPs to be informed based on internal SS7 network
information associated with the MTP-RESUME primitive indication.
SG ASP SG ASP
| | | |
--MTP-RESUME ind.-->|------DAVA Message ----->|--MTP-RESUME ind.--> --MTP-RESUME ind.-->|------DAVA Message ----->|--MTP-RESUME ind.-->
| | | |
5.3.2.3.3 SS7 Network Congestion 5.3.2.3.3 SS7 Network Congestion
The MTP3 on the SG will generate an MTP-STATUS primitive when it The MTP3 on the SG will generate an MTP-STATUS primitive when it
determines locally that the route to an SS7 destination is congested. determines locally that the route to an SS7 destination is congested.
skipping to change at page 61, line 8 skipping to change at page 71, line 26
based on the intended Application Server. based on the intended Application Server.
SG ASP SG ASP
| | | |
--MTP-STATUS ind.-->|------SCON Message ----->|--MTP-STATUS ind.--> --MTP-STATUS ind.-->|------SCON Message ----->|--MTP-STATUS ind.-->
| | | |
5.3.2.3.4 Destination User Part Unavailable 5.3.2.3.4 Destination User Part Unavailable
The MTP3 on the SG will generate an MTP-STATUS primitive when it The MTP3 on the SG will generate an MTP-STATUS primitive when it
determines locally that an SS7 destination User Part is unavailable. receives an UPU message from the SS7 network. The M3UA will map this
The M3UA will map this primitive to a Destination User Part Unavailable primitive to a Destination User Part Unavailable (DUPU) message. It
(DUPU) message. It will determine which ASP(s) to send the DUPU based will determine which ASP(s) to send the DUPU based on the intended
on the intended Application Server. Application Server.
SG ASP SG ASP
| | | |
--MTP-STATUS ind.-->|------DUPU Message ----->|--MTP-STATUS ind.--> --MTP-STATUS ind.-->|------DUPU Message ----->|--MTP-STATUS ind.-->
| | | |
6.0 Security 6.0 Security
6.1 Introduction 6.1 Introduction
M3UA is designed to carry signalling messages for telephony services. As M3UA is designed to carry signalling messages for telephony services.
such, M3UA must involve the security needs of several parties: the end As such, M3UA must involve the security needs of several parties: the
users of the services; the network providers and the applications end users of the services; the network providers and the applications
involved. Additional requirements may come from local regulation. involved. Additional requirements may come from local regulation.
While having some overlapping security needs, any security solution While having some overlapping security needs, any security solution
should fulfill all of the different parties' needs. should fulfill all of the different parties' needs.
6.2 Threats 6.2 Threats
There is no quick fix, one-size-fits-all solution for security. As a There is no quick fix, one-size-fits-all solution for security. As a
transport protocol, M3UA has the following security objectives: transport protocol, M3UA has the following security objectives:
* Availability of reliable and timely user data transport. * Availability of reliable and timely user data transport.
skipping to change at page 61, line 53 skipping to change at page 72, line 29
* Masquerade * Masquerade
* Improper Monopolization of Services * Improper Monopolization of Services
When M3UA is running in professionally managed corporate or service When M3UA is running in professionally managed corporate or service
provider network, it is reasonable to expect that this network includes provider network, it is reasonable to expect that this network includes
an appropriate security policy framework. The "Site Security Handbook" an appropriate security policy framework. The "Site Security Handbook"
[21] should be consulted for guidance. [21] should be consulted for guidance.
When the network in which M3UA runs in involves more than one party, it When the network in which M3UA runs in involves more than one party, it
may not be reasonable to expect that all parties have implemented may not be reasonable to expect that all parties have implemented
security in a sufficient manner. In such a case, it is recommended that security in a sufficient manner. In such a case, it is recommended
that
IPSEC is used to ensure confidentiality of user payload. Consult [22] IPSEC is used to ensure confidentiality of user payload. Consult [22]
for more information on configuring IPSEC services. for more information on configuring IPSEC services.
6.3 Protecting Confidentiality 6.3 Protecting Confidentiality
Particularly for mobile users, the requirement for confidentiality may Particularly for mobile users, the requirement for confidentiality may
include the masking of IP addresses and ports. In this case application include the masking of IP addresses and ports. In this case
level encryption is not sufficient; IPSEC ESP should be used instead. application level encryption is not sufficient; IPSEC ESP should be
Regardless of which level performs the encryption, the IPSEC ISAKMP used instead. Regardless of which level performs the encryption, the
service should be used for key management. IPSEC ISAKMP service should be used for key management.
7.0 IANA Considerations 7.0 IANA Considerations
A request will be made to IANA to assign an M3UA value for the Payload A request will be made to IANA to assign an M3UA value for the Payload
Protocol Identifier in SCTP Payload Data chunk. The following SCTP Protocol Identifier in SCTP Payload Data chunk. The following SCTP
Payload Protocol Identifier will be registered: Payload Protocol Identifier will be registered:
M3UA tbd M3UA "3"
The SCTP Payload Protocol Identifier is included in each SCTP Data The SCTP Payload Protocol Identifier is included in each SCTP Data
chunk, to indicate which protocol the SCTP is carrying. This Payload chunk, to indicate which protocol the SCTP is carrying. This Payload
Protocol Identifier is not directly used by SCTP but may be used by Protocol Identifier is not directly used by SCTP but may be used by
certain network entities to identify the type of information being certain network entities to identify the type of information being
carried in a Data chunk. carried in a Data chunk.
The User Adaptation peer may use the Payload Protocol Identifier as a The User Adaptation peer may use the Payload Protocol Identifier as a
way of determining additional information about the data being presented way of determining additional information about the data being
to it by SCTP. presented to it by SCTP.
8.0 Acknowledgements 8.0 Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank John Loughney, Neil Olson, Michael The authors would like to thank John Loughney, Neil Olson, Michael
Tuexen, Nikhil Jain, Steve Lorusso, Dan Brendes, Heinz Prantner, Barry Tuexen, Nikhil Jain, Steve Lorusso, Dan Brendes, Joe Keller, Heinz
Nagelberg for their valuable comments and suggestions. Prantner, Barry Nagelberg, Naoto Makinae for their valuable comments
and suggestions.
9.0 References 9.0 References
[1] RFC 2719, "Framework Architecture for Signaling Transport" [1] RFC 2719, "Framework Architecture for Signaling Transport"
[2] ITU-T Recommendations Q.761 to Q.767, 'Signalling System No.7 (SS7) [2] ITU-T Recommendations Q.761 to Q.767, 'Signalling System No.7 (SS7)
ISDN User Part (ISUP)' - ISDN User Part (ISUP)'
[3] ANSI T1.113 - 'Signaling System Number 7 ISDN User Part [3] ANSI T1.113 - 'Signaling System Number 7 - ISDN User Part
[4] ETSI ETS 300 356-1 "Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN); [4] ETSI ETS 300 356-1 "Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN);
Signalling System No.7; ISDN User Part (ISUP) version 2 for the Signalling System No.7; ISDN User Part (ISUP) version 2 for the
international interface; Part 1: Basic services" international interface; Part 1: Basic services"
[5] ITU-T Recommendations Q.711-715, 'Signalling System No. 7 (SS7) - [5] ITU-T Recommendations Q.711-715, 'Signalling System No. 7 (SS7) -
Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP)' Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP)'
[6] ANSI T1.112 'Signaling System Number 7 Signaling Connection [6] ANSI T1.112 'Signaling System Number 7 - Signaling Connection
Control Part' Control Part'
[7] ETSI ETS 300 009-1, "Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN); [7] ETSI ETS 300 009-1, "Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN);
Signalling System No.7; Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP) Signalling System No.7; Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP)
(connectionless and connection-oriented class 2) to support (connectionless and connection-oriented class 2) to support
international interconnection; Part 1: Protocol specification" international interconnection; Part 1: Protocol specification"
[8] ITU-T Recommendations Q.720, 'Telephone User Part' [8] ITU-T Recommendations Q.720, 'Telephone User Part'
[9] ITU-T Recommendation Q.771-775 'Signalling System No. 7 SS7) - [9] ITU-T Recommendation Q.771-775 'Signalling System No. 7 SS7) -
Transaction Capabilities (TCAP) Transaction Capabilities (TCAP)
[10] ANSI T1.114 'Signaling System Number 7 Transaction Capabilities [10] ANSI T1.114 'Signaling System Number 7 - Transaction Capabilities
Application Part' Application Part'
[11] ETSI ETS 300 287-1, "Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN); [11] ETSI ETS 300 287-1, "Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN);
Signalling System No.7; Transaction Capabilities (TC) version 2; Signalling System No.7; Transaction Capabilities (TC) version 2;
Part 1: Protocol specification" Part 1: Protocol specification"
[12] 3G TS 25.410 V3.1.0 (2000-01) Technical Specification 3rd [12] 3G TS 25.410 V3.1.0 (2000-01) Technical Specification - 3rd
Generation partnership Project; Technical Specification Group Generation partnership Project; Technical Specification Group
Radio Access Network; UTRAN Iu Interface: General Aspects and Radio Access Network; UTRAN Iu Interface: General Aspects and
Principles (3G TS 25.410 Version 3.1.0 Release 1999) Principles (3G TS 25.410 Version 3.1.0 Release 1999)
[13] Stream Control Transport Protocol <draft-ietf-sigtran-sctp- [13] Stream Control Transport Protocol <draft-ietf-sigtran-sctp-
13.txt>, July 2000, Work in Progress 13.txt>, July 2000, Work in Progress
[14] ITU-T Recommendations Q.701-Q.705, 'Signalling System No. 7 (SS7) [14] ITU-T Recommendations Q.701-Q.705, 'Signalling System No. 7 (SS7)
- Message Transfer Part (MTP)' - Message Transfer Part (MTP)'
skipping to change at page 64, line 43 skipping to change at page 75, line 22
37/360 Elizabeth Street 37/360 Elizabeth Street
Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia
ian.rytina@ericsson.com ian.rytina@ericsson.com
Hanns Juergen Schwarzbauer Hanns Juergen Schwarzbauer
SIEMENS AG SIEMENS AG
Hofmannstr. 51 Hofmannstr. 51
81359 Munich, Germany 81359 Munich, Germany
HannsJuergen.Schwarzbauer@icn.siemens.de HannsJuergen.Schwarzbauer@icn.siemens.de
Klaus D. Gradischnig
SIEMENS AG
Hofmannstr. 51
81359 Munich, Germany
klaus.gradischnig@icn.siemens.de
Ken Morneault Ken Morneault
Cisco Systems Inc. Cisco Systems Inc.
13615 Dulles Technology Drive 13615 Dulles Technology Drive
Herndon, VA, USA 20171 Herndon, VA, USA 20171
EMail: kmorneau@cisco.com EMail: kmorneau@cisco.com
Malleswar Kalla Malleswar Kalla
Telcordia Technologies Telcordia Technologies
MCC 1J211R MCC 1J211R
445 South Street 445 South Street
Morristown, NJ, USA 07960 Morristown, NJ, USA 07960
EMail: kalla@research.telcordia.com EMail: kalla@research.telcordia.com
Normand Glaude Normand Glaude
Performance Technologies Performance Technologies
150 Metcalf Sreet, Suite 1300 150 Metcalf Sreet, Suite 1300
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K2P 1P1 Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K2P 1P1
EMail: nglaude@microlegend.com EMail: nglaude@microlegend.com
This draft expires December 2000. This draft expires March 2000.
 End of changes. 

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