draft-ietf-sigtran-signalling-over-sctp-applic-01.txt   draft-ietf-sigtran-signalling-over-sctp-applic-02.txt 
INTERNET-DRAFT L. Coene INTERNET-DRAFT L. Coene
Internet Engineering Task Force Siemens Internet Engineering Task Force M. Tuexen
Issued: 30 October 2000 J. Loughney Issued: December 2000 G. Verwimp
Expires: 30 April 2001 Nokia Expires: June 2001 Siemens
J. Loughney
Nokia
R.R. Stewart
Cisco
Qiaobing Xie
Motorola
M.C. Belinchon
I. Rytina I. Rytina
Ericsson Ericsson
L. Ong L. Ong
Nortel Networks Nortel Networks
Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statement Telephony Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statement
<draft-ietf-sigtran-signalling-over-sctp-applic-01.txt> <draft-ietf-sigtran-signalling-over-sctp-applic-02.txt>
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
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Abstract Abstract
This document describes the applicability of the Stream Control This document describes the applicability of the Stream Control
Transmission Protocol(SCTP) for transport of signalling information Transmission Protocol (SCTP)[RFC2960] for transport of telephony
over IP infrastructure. A few signalling application are descibed signalling information over IP infrastructure. Special considerations
such as signalling System Nr7(SS7), Digital Subsciber Service 1/2 for using SCTP to meet the requirements of transporting telephony
(DSS1/2).... Specific info on signalling transport over signalling [RFC2719] are discussed.
IP(addressing, routing) is also provided. The use and specification
of each of the adaptation layers for signalling transport in
conjunction with SCTP is described.
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000 Draft Telephony Signalling Transport over SCTP AS December 2000
TTTTaaaabbbblllleeee ooooffff CCCCoooonnnntttteeeennnnttttssss TABLE OF CONTENTS
Signalling transport over SCTP Applicability statement ......... ii Telephony Signalling transport over SCTP Applicability state-
Chapter 1: Introduction ........................................ 1 ment ........................................................... ii
Chapter 2: Signalling tranport using SCTP ...................... 3 Chapter 1: Introduction ........................................ 2
Chapter 2.1: Adaptation layers for SCTP ........................ 4 Chapter 1.1: Terminology ....................................... 2
Chapter 2.2: How to define and use adaptation layers ........... 4 Chapter 1.2: Overview .......................................... 3
Chapter 2.3: Adaptation layers for signalling transport ........ 6 Chapter 2: Applicability of Telephony Signalling transport
Chapter 2.4: General issues for transporting signalling using SCTP ..................................................... 4
information over SCTP .......................................... 9 Chapter 3: Issues for transporting Telephony signalling
Chapter 2.4.1: Congestion control issues in signalling infor- information over SCTP .......................................... 5
mation ......................................................... 9 Chapter 3.1: Congestion control ................................ 5
Chapter 2.4.2: Multihoming ..................................... 10 Chapter 3.2: Detection of failures ............................. 5
Chapter 2.4.3: Routing protocols ............................... 11 Chapter 3.2.1: Retransmission TimeOut (RTO) calculation ........ 5
Chapter 2.4.4: Network Management .............................. 11 Chapter 3.2.2: Heartbeat ....................................... 6
Chapter 2.4.5: Congestion control and aviodance ................ 11 Chapter 3.2.3: Maximum Number of retransmissions ............... 6
Chapter 2.3.6: Use of QOS methods .............................. 12 Chapter 3.3: Shorten end-to-end message delay .................. 6
Chapter 2.3.7: Multiple associations ........................... 13 Chapter 3.4: Bundling considerations ............................ 6
Chapter 2.4.8: Efficiency ...................................... 13 Chapter 3.5: Stream Usage ...................................... 6
Chapter 2.4.9: Bundeling ....................................... 13 Chapter 4: Security considerations ............................. 7
Chapter 2.4.10: Portnumbers .................................... 14 Chapter 5: References and related work ......................... 7
Chapter 2.4.11: Sequenced/non-sequenced delivery ............... 14 Chapter 6: Acknowledgments ..................................... 8
Chapter 2.4.12: Stream Usage ................................... 14 Chapter 7: Authors address ..................................... 8
Chapter 2.4.13: Network aperance Identifier .................... 14
Chapter 2.4.14: Segmentation of messages ....................... 15
Chapter 3: Specific issues of SS7 signalling adaptation
layers ......................................................... 15
Chapter 3.1: MTP lvl3 User Adaptation Layer(M3UA) .............. 15
Chapter 3.2: MTP lvl2 User Adapatation Layer(M2UA) ............. 18
Chapter 3.3: SCCP user adaptation layer(SUA) ................... 20
Chapter 3.4: Addressing and signalling ......................... 20
Chapter 4: Specific issues of User-Network signalling adapta-
tion layers .................................................... 30
Chapter 4.1 ISDN User Adaptation Layer(IUA) .................... 30
Chapter 6: Security considerations ............................. 32
Chapter 7: References and related work ......................... 33
Chapter 8: Authors address ..................................... 35
1 INTRODUCTION 1 INTRODUCTION
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000 Transport of telephony signalling requires special considerations.
In order to use SCTP, special care must be taken to meet the perfor-
This applicability statement document covers subject terminology mance, timing and failure management requirements.
and makes a overview of the solutions for transporting SS7, ISDN user or
any other form of signalling information over Internet Protocol infras-
tructure. This includes also a overview of the available Internet and
SS7 addressing. It tries to explain what the meaning is of the different
addressing modes in the internet and Signaling System Nr. 7 and where
their added value resides. Some example scenario's are provided as exam-
ple of how applications in the SS7 and/or internet may be able to reach
each other.
1.1 Terminology 1.1 Terminology
The following functions are commonly identified in related work: The following terms are commonly identified in related work:
Stream Control Transmission Protocol(SCTP): a transport protocol
that will deliver messages in a relialable way to its peer. See
[RFCSCTP] and [SCTPAS].
Signal Transfer Point (STP): This is a node in an SS7 network that
routes signalling messages based on their destination address in
the SS7 network
Signal Relay Point (SRP): This is a node in an SS7 network that
routes signalling messages based on their called party address in
the SS7 network. (Translates Called party address to a destination
pointcode and also translates Calling prty address when needed)
Stream Control Transmission Protocol(SCTP): A transport protocol
designed for the reliable transport of signalling information over
a connectionless network( example: the Internet)
Called Party Address(CLD): Address of the party the message wants
to reach.(Party can be a node, person, network..., a entity in
general)(=Destination address)
Calling Party Address(CLG): Address of the party from which the
message originated.(Originating address)
Global Title:(GT) A globally unique identifier used in the CLD
and/or CLG for identifying a entity. A global title can consist of
a pointcode, translation type, nature of address, numbering plan
and the title itself(=digits).
Pointcode(PC) The Pointcode in SS7 and IP have the same meaning,
but not necessary the same size and interpretation. A pointcode
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000
identifies a node within a particular network.
Routing Indicator: The routing indicator tells the SCCP routing
function which part of the address has to use for routing the
message(SSN + global title or SSN + pointcode).
Translation Type Number(TTN): The translation type number indicates
the translation type of the address.
Numbering Plan(NP): This indicates the numbering plan to which the
digits belong: that can be E164, E212, private numbering plans,
Internet Numbering Plan, .....
Nature-Of-address(NA): The nature of address indicates whether a
address is for national, international or other use.
Encoding Scheme(ES): The encoding scheme indicates how the digits Association: SCTP connection between two endpoints.
are encoded. Encoding is normally in Binary Coded decimal(BCD) for-
mat.
SubSystem Number(SSN) The SSN indicates the application entity that Stream: A uni-directional logical channel established within an
must be reached in the final destination node of the msg
Global Titel Format(GTI): Indicates which of the above mentioned Draft Telephony Signalling Transport over SCTP AS December 2000
parameters are actually present in the party address. If some
parameters are not present in the address then default parameters
are used for executing the Global Title Translation.
Portnumber: Indicates on the tranport level in IP which applica- association, within which all user messages are delivered in
tion needs to be reached in the layer above. sequence except for those submitted to the unordered delivery ser-
vice.
Subsystem number(SSN): Indicates on the networklayer in SS7 which 1.2 Overview
application needs to be reached in the application layer.
Subnet: a subnet is a collections of nodes, belonging to the same SCTP provides a general purpose, reliable transport between two end-
operator/ISP or collective of operators/ISP's. This may be points.
equivalent with a Internet domain. A MTP net is always a subnet.
Subnet may be owned by more than one operator(example MTP NAT0 sub-
net in the US)
Transport Address: An IP address and a port number pair which The following functions are provided by SCTP:
identifies a SCTP association.
2 Signalling tranport using the Stream Control Transmission Protocol - Reliable Data Transfer
(SCTP)
The Stream Control Transmission Protocol(SCTP) provides a high - Multiple streams to help avoid head-of-line blocking
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000 - Ordered and unordered data delivery on a per-stream basis
relialable, redundant transport between 2 endpoints. It contains pro- - Bundling and fragmentation of user data
cedures that will throttle the traffic in case of message loss(meaning
congestion somewhere along the path), protecting the network against a
collapse of the network service. The interface between SCTP and its sig-
nalling applications is handled via adaptation layers which provide a
intermediation layer so that the upper layer signalling protocols of a
certain protocol stack architecture does not have to change their inter-
face towards the transport medium and internal functionality when they
start using SCTP instead of a other transport protocol. Another issue is
that the supported protocol stack architecture will conform to the
internet architecture as described in [RFCblabla] without compromising
its own rules.
For more information of how to use SCTP see [SCTPAS]. The inner workings - Congestion and flow control
of SCTP are described in [RFCSCTP].
2.1 Adaptation layers for SCTP - Support continuous monitoring of reachability
Adaptation layers are used for transporting protocols without having to - Graceful termination of association
change the interfaces between the tranported protocol and SCTP. SCTP is
a stream based protocol while some application of SCTP are message based
protocols. Without a adaptation layer, the transported protocol would
have to change in protocol structure or its underlaying interface or
some intermediate layer would be necessary.
It is the task of the adaptation layer to present the view towards its - Support of multi-homing for added reliability
application protocol as if it was the original protocol or protocol
stack that it is substituting for. therefore a adaptation layer is more
aptly called a Foo User adaptation layer, with foo the protocol is sub-
stituted for.
2.2 How to define and Use adaptation layers - Protection against blind denial-of-service attacks
Many different signaling applications may use SCTP for transporting sig- - Protection against blind masquerade attacks
nalling information. Signalling information usaully have their own
stacks and architecture. In order to let a certain signalling protcol
run over SCTP, first of all must be determined which parts of the old
protocol stack must be replaced. Layers can only be replaced starting
from the bottom of the protocol stack up. Then the replacement consist-
ing of SCTP + an User adaptation layer is inserted in the place of the
old protocol stack layers. The name of the user adaptation layer then
describes up till which layer of the old protocol stack is replaced.
Example M3UA mean that all the MTP levels up till MTP lvl3 area replaced
by SCTP+M3UA.
The basic architecture is as in Figure 2.4.1 : Draft Telephony Signalling Transport over SCTP AS December 2000
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000 Telephony Signalling transport over IP normally uses the following
architecture:
User/Application level Protocols Telephony Application
| | |
+------------------------------------+
| User Adaptation modules |
+------------------------------------+
| |
+------------------------------------+ +------------------------------------+
|Stream Control Transmission protocol| | Signalling Adaptation module |
+------------------------------------+ +------------------------------------+
| |
+------------------------------------+ +------------------------------------+
| Standard IP Transport | |Stream Control Transmission Protocol|
| (SCTP) |
+------------------------------------+ +------------------------------------+
| |
Network Layer (IP) Internet Protocol (IPv4/IPv6)
Figure 2.4.1: Transport Components
The three components of the transport protocol are :
(1) Adaptation modules that support specific primitives, e.g. manage-
ment indications, required by a particular user/ application proto-
col.
(2) the Stream Control Transmission Protocol itself that supports a
common set of reliable transport functions.
(3) a standard IP transport/network protocol provided by the operating
system. In some network scenarios, it has been recognised that TCP
can provide limited (but sufficient) reliable transport functional-
ity for some applications, and this is discussed later in this
document.
Each of the interfaces described above may be implementation depen-
dant. They are in general not specified by the protocol documents.
a few examples of user adaptation layers are shown in the figure
2.4.2:
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000
User/Application level Protocols
:
: MTP lvl3 TCAP SCCP,ISUP
| | | |
+-----------------------+ - - +------+ - +------+ - +-------+
|User Adaptation modules| | MTP | | SCCP | | MTP 3 |
+-----------------------+ | lvl2 | |------| |-------|
| SCTP | | | | MTP 3| | MTP 2 |
+-----------------------+ |- - - | |------| |-------|
| IP Transport | | MTP | | MTP 2| | MTP 1 |
+-----------------------+ | lvl1 | |------| | |
| | | | MTP 1| | |
Network Layer (IP) | | | | | |
(a) (b) (c) (d)
Figure 2.4.1: equivalence of adaptation layer to replaced
layer
(b) User adaptation layer = MTP lvl2 user adaptation layer (M2UA)
(c) " " " = SCCP user adapatation layer (SUA) (d)
" " " = MTP lvl3 User adaptation layer (M3UA)
2.3 Adapation layers for signalling transport
Currently, there are four adaptation layers, to support carrying of SS7
application protocols over IP. These adaptation layers are being
developed for different purposes, and there is no assumption that they
should interwork - i.e. - M2UA carries M3UA. They should be thought of
as individual protocols for specific uses.
Adataption layers can have a peer-to-peer or master-slave relationship.
The master-slave relationship is mostly envisioned for very simple net-
works while the peer-to-peer case is more for fullfledged signalling
networks(akind to the present SS7 network worldwide).
2.3.1 IUA
There is a need for Switched Circuit Network (SCN) signaling protocol
delivery from an ISDN Signaling Gateway (SG) to a Media Gateway Con-
troller (MGC). The delivery mechanism should meet the following cri-
teria
* Support for transport of the Q.921 / Q.931 boundary primitives
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000
* Support for communication between Layer Management modules on SG
and MGC
* Support for management of active associations between SG and MGC
This draft supports both ISDN Primary Rate Access (PRA) as well as Basic
Rate Access (BRA) including the support for both point-to-point mode and
point-to-multipoint modes of communication. QSIG adaptation layer
requirements do not differ from Q.931 adaptation layer, hence the pro-
cedures described in this draft are also applicable to QSIG adaptation
layer.
2.3.2 M2UA
There is a need for SCN signaling protocol delivery from a Signaling
Gateway (SG) to a Media Gateway Controller (MGC) or IP Signaling Point
(IPSP). The delivery mechanism should meet the following criteria:
* Support for MTP Level 2 / MTP Level 3 interface boundary
* Support for communication between Layer Management modules on SG
and MGC
* Support for management of active associations between the SG and
MGC
In other words, the Signaling Gateway will transport MTP Level 3 mes-
sages to a Media Gateway Controller (MGC) or IP Signaling Point (IPSP).
In the case of delivery from an SG to an IPSP, the SG and IPSP function
as traditional SS7 nodes using the IP network as a new type of SS7 link.
This allows for full MTP Level 3 message handling and network management
capabilities.
2.3.3 M3UA
There is a need for SCN signaling protocol delivery from an SS7 Signal-
ing Gateway (SG) to a Media Gateway Controller (MGC) or IP-resident
Database as described in the Framework Architecture for Signalling Tran-
sport [11]. The delivery mechanism should meet the following criteria:
* Support for transfer of all SS7 MTP3-User Part messages (e.g.,
ISUP, SCCP, TUP, etc.)
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000
* Support for the seamless operation of MTP3-User protocol peers
* Support for the management of SCTP transport associations and
traffic between an SG and one or more MGCs or IP-resident Databases
* Support for MGC or IP-resident Database failover and loadsharing
* Support for the asynchronous reporting of status changes to
management
In simplistic terms, the SG will terminate SS7 MTP2 and MTP3 protocols
and deliver ISUP, SCCP and/or any other MTP3-User protocol messages over
SCTP transport associations to MTP3-User peers in MGCs or IP-resident
Databases.
2.3.4 SUA
This document details the delivery of SCCP-user messages (MAP & CAP over
TCAP, RANAP, etc.) over IP, from an SS7 Signaling Gateway (SG) to an
IP-based signaling node (such as an IP-resident Database) as described
in the Framework Architecture for Signaling Transport [11]. The
delivery mechanism SHOULD meet the following criteria:
* Support for transfer of SS7 SCCP-User Part messages (e.g., TCAP,
RANAP, etc.)
* Support for SCCP connectionless service.
* Support for SCCP connection oriented service.
* Support for the seamless operation of SCCP-User protocol peers
* Support for the management of SCTP transport associations
between an SG and one or more IP-based signaling nodes).
* Support for distributed IP-based signaling nodes.
* Support for the asynchronous reporting of status changes to
management
2.3.5 SIP
/* before editor(Whose name I do not know) gets shot: should it be
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000
mentioned here */
2.4 General issues for transporting signalling info over SCTP
2.4.1 Congestion control issues in signalling transport
Congestion control is a primary issue in any network, be it connection-
oriented or connectionless. The basic characteristic of congestion con-
trol in SCTP have been described in [RFCOENE], but some signalling pro-
tocols do have their own congestion control and avoidance techniques
which must be used even if the signalling transport from point A to B
runs completely over IP networks.
These techniques may interact with the congestion control procedures in
SCTP.
The basic principle is that SCTP will lead the network, in one or more
points along the transmission path, into or near congestion. This is due
to the fact that SCTP will try to share bandwith with other associations
or connections. That requires a somewhat steady stream of messages along
the path from A to B. Unfortunaly most signalling applications do not
have such a behaviour: it consists of a rather limited exchange of mes-
sages between the 2 endpoints with mostely a request - response style of
message exchange. Such a message exchange does not trigger very easily
the congestion control procedure as defined in [RFCSCTP] and [RFCOENE].
It is only when a lot of similar message exchanges(belonging to a lot of
different connections) are taken together, that at that moment only the
proper SCTP congestion procedures can kick in to produce the required
result. With other means SCTP(TCP/MTP lvl2) requires a flow/stream (it
explain the stream part of the name of the SCTP protocol) to operate its
congestion algorithms.
Streams will always try to utilse the maximal bandwith of a router or
link,in contrast transaction based message exchanged will sometimes
utilse the maximal bandwith of a router or link. The net result is the
same, the message gets lost during congestion, the way in how it was
detected is also the same but the way in which it is handle for the
application is different. In transaction based messaging, the end node
has no knowledge of the stream and does not want to know, assuming in
the first place that it was possible to know. It has to know the final
endpoint(identified by its address, be it a Pointcode and/or a Name).
In classical SS7 networks Pointcodes are local to the network of a cer-
tain provider, they are never global(meaning global on a planetary
scale). In exceptional cases can they be used if both endpoints are
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000
located within the same provider network. The more general way of
addressing endpoints is by global titles(GT) and there the rule is that
the endpoint is part of a collection of endpoints with the same service
capability and a particular endpont is selected the first of the
request-response message sequence, the rest of the sequence is routed to
that same endpoint. The selection of the particular server is based on
its own congestion level/ QOS level or whatever service level name
attributed. The selection is with other words a local descision made at
a certain point. Thus transactions generated from the same endpoint A
towards the name B could possible wind up distributed over a unknown
number of servers which would have to have congestion controlled for a
very few messages(meaning the congestion control algorithms never gets a
chance to kick in at all -> conclusion: no congestion control, at least
not in the end-to-end congestion control meaning)
That means that local congestion control should be employed for transac-
tion based messages exchanges, even when used in the internet. The local
congestion control methods are used by M3UA and SUA and are described
more in detail in the management paragraph.
2.4.2 SCTP Multihoming
Redundant communication between 2 SCTP endpoints is achieved by using
multihoming where the endpoint is able to send/receive over more than
one IP transport address.
Under the assumption that every IP transport address will have a
seperate and diverse path towards the remote endpoint, (this is the
responsability of the routing protocols(3.2.4) or of manual configura-
tion), if the transport to one of the IP address/port (= 1 particular
path) fails then the traffic can migrate to the other remaining IP
address/ports(= other paths).
Multihoming could also be used for sharing the traffic load across the
different paths. However as the througput of any of the paths is not
known in advance and constantly changes due to the actions of other
associations and transport protocols along that particular path, this
would require very tight feedback of the paths to the loadsharing func-
tions of the adaptation layer. It would also require to store the
congestion information on path basis instead of on assoication
basis(association = single state per association, one or more paths =
one or more states per asociation).
2.4.3 Routing protocols
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000
In order to provide redundant paths for a certain SCTP association
throughout the network, Routing protocols must support multihoming and
the endnodes must have at LEAST one transport address(that is have more
than 1 interface with a IP address).
It is advisable to let the originator network layer choose from which
source addresss it can send the datagram towards the destination because
the paths are based on source, destination pair. Mosts hosts only look
at the "to" address to determine which interface the message goes out,
based on the routing tables. Once the interface is selected, if the host
network layer is allowed to choose the source, it will happily put in
the source address most closely tied to the interface (assuming you have
bound all interfaces this means the source address of that interface).
By letting the network layer choose the source adres, it may select
sub-optimal paths for return messages. If transport layer should select
both source and destination address, it will NOT change what interface
it goes out unless the network layer is doing strict source/destination
based addressing.
Influence of the IP routing protocols on M3UA routing and SCCP routing.
Intradomain vs Interdomain
- RIP
- OSPF
- BGMP
2.4.4 Network Management
Management messages are exchanged between the M3UA, SUA, IUA and M2UA
peers for exchanging and updating the status of the signalling nodes or
associations. The status describes the state of teh node, or of the
applications located on a certain node. They might also indicated the
load of a certain node.
2.4.5 Congestion control & avoidance
A general overview of congestion control and avoidance can be found in
the SCTP applicability statement[RFCSCTPA].
However some particular restrictions migth be observed when using SCTP
for transporting signalling info over IP infrastructure. This
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000
restrictions must be aplied with care as in most cases, the SCTP associ-
ation is never in complete full control of the links between the 2 nodes
exchanging the signalling info. See paragraph 2.3.12, use of QOS
methods.
This restrictions are mostly based on restriction found in the original
protocol, the adaptation layer is replacing. (Example: boundaries on
message transmission time, retransmission timers and so on). Sometimes
the restriction has a direct impact on some of SCTP protocol variables
which might to be tunable for tranporting signalling traffic.
2.4.6 Use of QOS methods
SCTP is a end-to-end protocol which cannot guarantee the quality-of-
service along the complete path taken by the messages of that particular
association. It only guarantees that a message will be deliverred wintin
a certain timeframe or otherwise be lost. If more guarantees are
required(example: on the timeframe, message loss...) for improving the
relialability of the transport, some form of QOS mechanism may be
needed.
(1) Overprovisioning
Overprovisioning of the links so that the total traffic running
over over the link never excedes the link capacity. In practice,
this may be difficult to ensure reliably. This solution will try to
address the message loss. However the effect of overprovisioning is
conunteracted by the workings of SCTP itself, which will try to
utilise the full bandwitdh of the links/nodes along its path. If
the same performance as MTP is required(regarding msg delays and
msg delivery), then it is advisable to assign at most a single SCTP
association to a IP link. This would also mean that the 2 endpoints
would be directly interconnected. A router may be present but
should carry only the traffic of those SCTP associations between
the 2 nodes. Any router that might be present and carries unrelated
traffic would interfer with the SCTP association esspecially in
high load condition. Due the backoff of SCTP in high load condi-
tions, that would mean that for example 2 associations would get
each about the 50% of the link bandwith or router capacity if both
where trying to run at the highest transmission rate
possible(without packet loss).
If another transport protocol which does not behave as SCTP and/or
TCP would be running on the same link, or through the same router
as the signalling traffic, then the signalling traffic may be
pushed aside by the more aggressive transport protocol.
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000
The general rule is that if the associations try to obtain maximum
throughput accross a single link in absence of any other traffic,
they will over a long time divide the bandwith up in equal
spaces(example 4 users => bandwith of 1 user = Total linkbandwith /
4)
If agressive transport protocols are used, then the SCTP assocai-
tion will be pushed to use minimal bandwith(mathematical speaking :
bandwith use of SCTP will go to 0)
(2) Specific intranet Use of a private network solely for signalling
transport purposes. Private networks may allow better control and
monitoring of resources available. However the same observation as
for overprovionning aplies.
(3) Differentiated services: by providing a certain codepoint in the
Type-of-service field (TOS), certain Differential services can be
selected. Setting the code point for signaling transport requires
some thought. It is good practice to give the signaling transport
a higher priority than the traffic responsible for the signaling.
However the same bandwith sharing observations aplies if more than
one association uses the same differential service codepoint.
(4) Integrated services By use of integrated services [RFC2208],
resources are reserved for signaling transport. If resources are
unavailable for to initiate a new signaling transport, that request
will be denied. Here every assoication may be able to get its own
RSVP reservation, thus getting each their own bandwith. In prac-
tice, RSVP may turn out not to scale very well for large number of
signalling links and this solution may prove to be unfeasable.
2.4.7 Multiple associations.
The association may be spread out acrossn the IPv4 and IPv6 domain.
/* editors note: Multiple associations: see in the MDTP drafts en
SCTP drafts got lost in transit */ This setup is not recommended as
it sees both endpoints in both the IPv4 and IPv6 domain. This
should only happen in switchover cases(when the network switches
from IPv4 to IPv6).
2.4.8 Efficiency
2.4.9 Bundeling
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000
Bundling can be done on SCTP and/or on user adapatation layer. In
case of the adapatation layer it has to specified by the adaptation
protocol.
2.4.10 Portnumbers
The SG acts as a server and listen on the wellknown port of the adapta-
tion layers that the SG supports. The clients can indicate to the SG to
use different portnumbers. (dynamical portnumber assigment) The subse-
quent communication is then exchange via those portnumbers. If 2 servers
try to connect, then the adaptation layer management should resolve to
client-server model.
2.4.11 Sequenced / non-sequenced delivery
SCTP can deliver messages in sequence or not in sequence. Most signal-
ling adaptation layers expect SCTP to deliver the msg in sequence. How-
ever not all SS7 applications (= applications located above the adapta-
tion layer) do need sequenced delivery.
2.4.12 Stream usage
The application can choose on which stream he can send it data. Some
application level protocols may standardize stream number usage conven-
tion, which, for instance, allows to send data msg through certain
stream while management msg through others, so as to avoid user messages
from blocking management messages. This is not a must.
User adaptation layers data msg and adaptation layer management msg may
be transported over different streams. The order of the management msg
should be kept. Sequence is important. Management msg Should be on
stream 0. It is alllowed for some management msg to use unordered ,
non-stream 0 streams. This should be specified by the management part of
the user adaptation layer.
2.4.13 Network apperance Identifier
A similar id to the protocol id (see SCTP applicability
statement[RFCSCTPAS]) is also contained in the adaptation layers, but it
has not the same meaning. It is called the network apperance(akin to the
network identifier in SS7: NAT0, NAT1...). It is a administrable number
to be determined between or within the network operator. The network
apperance identifies a set of pointcodes. SG and Host can be present in
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000
in different network apperances at the same time. Communication should
be done between nodes of the same network apperances(thus having the
same network apperance value).
2.4.14 Segmentation of messages
Segementation of messages in the adaptation layers is not encouraged as
SCTP has already this functionality segmenting/reassembly and MTU
discovery build in.
However, this does not solve the cases in which the messages must tran-
sit from IP to PSTN based transport mechanism. There if a node in the
PSTN decided to segment the message, then the endpoint located in the IP
net MUST be able to reassemble the message.
3 SPECIFIC ISSUES OF SS7 BASED SIGNALLING ADAPTATION LAYERS
SS7 messages are transported across IP using the Stream Control
Transmission Protocol(SCTP). SCTP provides a high relialable, redundant
transport between 2 SS7-over-IP nodes. A SS7-over IP node is a SCTP end-
point.
The interface with SS7 is message based. Therefore a adaptationlayer is
needed to prevent changes to the upper layer SS7 protocols.
Within a asociation between 2 endpoint, 1 or more stream(s) may be avi-
alable. These streams are not directly visible to the adaptation layers.
The linkset towards a certain destination is the collection of all the
links which can send trfaffic to that destination, even with a inter-
mediate node in between(so different path towards that destination
exsist). The MTP linkset is thus equivalent to the SCTP association. The
streams within SCTP may be regarded as the links. A advantage of SCTP
streams is, when one of the multihomed paths fails, the stream will
migrate to one of the still open paths(Soft changeover). In SS7 when a
link fails, a a change over procedure has to be initiated towards a
still working link of the same linkset(=hard changeover)).
In a MTP based network, the capacity of the links is fixed at n times
64Kb (with n= 1,32,...). SCTP association do not have a fixed capacity
assigned to them. The bandwith used/provided by SCTP is dependant on
the rest of the traffic(other SCTP, TCP, RTP,UDP...) going through the
same links of the path followed by the SCTP association. See also the
SCTP applicability statement[RFCOENE].
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000
3.1 MTP lvl3 User Adaptation layers(M3UA)
The MTP lvl 3 user adaptation layer provides a emulation of MTP lvl 3
towards its users. Its function is address translation and mapping,
stream mapping, congestion control and network management.
3.1.1 Routing in M3UA
a strict assignment must be made in the SG to reach the correct Applica-
tion Server(AS) (Example ISUP CICs and trunkgroups must match). The
Application Server Process being part of the AS must have common state
sharing between the ASPs. Each ASP of the same AS can be a different
Application node(AN). Each application is a physical box or host. How
the state is shared, is an internal implementation issue.
The M3UA layer has to handle at least one or more SCTP associations. The
selection of a SCTP association(called the routing key) can be done by
via a single part or multiple parts of the DPC, OPC, SLS, CIC fields of
the MTP routing label. If a association were to fail then alternate map-
pings may be done(Implementation dependant).
3.1.2 M3UA heartbeats
If a M3UA nodes fails,then this must be detected via the use of heart-
beats msg between the M3UA peers. The SCTP heartbeat is not sufficient
because it only determines if a path for the SCTP association exists,
not if M3UA is ready to process msg.
The transmission rate of sending keepalive msg should be engineerable
and the possible loss of keepalive msg could be used for the monitoring
and measurements of the concerned M3UA nodes.
3.1.3 M3UA Network management
Network management messages used used to convey error information,
congestion information and/or state information from one node to
another.
The M3U maintains state of each remote Application Server Process(ASP)
in a remote Application Server(AS). A AS consists of one or more ASP.
3.1.3.1 Management messages
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These messages are used to notify the peer M3UA that a error was
detected in a incoming message. Examples can be : a syntax error in a
data message, unexpected management or maintenance messages in a certain
state, etc...
The diagnostic information may be used to send back more info concerning
the error. This information can be used for debugging purposes. Error
messages should never be returned upon receipt of error messages them-
selves.
3.1.3.2 Application Server maintenance
The application server process maintenance messages indicates that it
may be ready to receive or not to receive management or data messages.
Each of those messages is acknowledge to the peer M3UA.
The ASP-UP messages indicate the first stage of communication,
namely that a SCTP association was setup between the 2 ASP, was
succesfull. The ASP-UP messages indicate that further M3UA manage-
ments message might be exchanged between the 2 nodes. ASP-UP mes-
sages do never allow the exchange of user data traffic. ASP-UP(or
DOWN) messages are per default for all the routing contexts of the
ASP.
The ASP-ACTIVE messages indicates the second stage of communica-
tion, namely that the ASP is ready to send/receive user data
traffic for one or more routing contexts. User data traffic may
only be initiated after the acknowledgement has been received. The
ASP active messages may indicate the AS traffic handling method of
the user messages. The user message may be directed to a single
active ASP of the AS(over-ride mode) or may be load shared between
all the active ASP of the AS(load-share mode). The algorithm for
loadsharing within a AS should make sure that user data(=signalling
messages) of the same call or transaction should be sent to the
same ASP. It should also take into account as much as possible the
load of every ASP wihtin the AS and slect the least loaded ASP by
preference. Load information concerning ASP will be conveyed using
the signalling network management messages.
Heartbeat message is optional and is used only in case that the
underlying transport layer does NOT have a heartbeat messages
mechanism(example TCP).
3.1.3.3 Signalling network management
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The signalling network management messages play a role in indicating -
whether a destination is avialable or not(via DUNA/DAVA)
the congestion info required for congestion handling of M3UA data
messages(via SCON)
the avialability of the user parts in a destination(DUPU)
3.1.4 Different flavours of MTP
A few different message layouts do exist in the world, among the most
important are ITU format, ANSI format..etc. This is vissible in M3UA as
the complete service information octet and MTP routing lable is carried
in the M3UA DATA message. The SIO and the routing lable has a different
layout for ITU, ANSI adn other MTP formats. Each node within the network
must employ the same format for a certain network apperance. Different
network apperance identifiers may use different MTP formats but this is
not a must.
3.2 MTP lvl2 User Adaptation layer(M2UA)
The MTP lvl 2 user adaptation layer provides a emulation of a single MTP
link between 2 SS7 nodes. Routing of messages is not required here.
3.2.1 Link and application redudancy
Link reduncancy is accomplished via multihoming in SCTP itself. If mul-
tihoming is used, then there are different paths toward the destination.
A path of as SCTP association does not correspond with a classical SS7
link or SS7 linkset. In a multihomed association, only one of the paths
is activly used, while the remaining others are just sampled(via the
heartbeat) to see if they are still there. The streams within a SCTP
association should be looked upon a links, and the SCTP association
should be looked upon as the linkset. Multiple associations towards a
single destination(or application redundancy) is only possible if dif-
ferent portnumbers are employed for each association. Application redun-
dancy is handled in the user adapatation layers via switching over from
one association to another association.
If a true classical linkset is needed, then multiple, not multihomed,
associations should be used. Each association should employ a different
portnumber and one of the different multihomed IP addresses.
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000
3.2.2 Link state control
SCTP does not provide information about the link state(as it is not a
link protocol, it only emulates a link). The layers above M2UA do need
this information for corect operation. Therefore some info concerning
the link state(= SCTP state) needs to be conveyed between the 2 peers.
The link aligment initiates the SCTP association setup procedure. Each
M2UA is listening on its wellknown M2UA port for new SCTP associations.
Multple links may be used(as in paragraph 3.2.1). after establishing the
associations, the round trip time must be determined and analysed. This
allows for user input(implementation dependant) on the characteristic of
the association.
The link is then allowed to go into service. processor outage might also
be detected and be conveyed to the remote peer. Processor outage indi-
cates that the upper layer of the peer that sended the message, was not
able to process the M2UA messages.
The flow control is a implementation dependant function. It migth get
its information from SCTP which contains the state about the congestion
of its association. However that info must be mapped to approriate
congestion levels(ANSI/ITU/...) for processing by MTP lvl3.
3.2.3 Changeover
Changeover is the way in which signalling traffic going via one
link(association) is diverted onto a alternate signalling
link(association). This has to be done without missequencing, duplica-
tion or message loss. That would require fine, internal control of the
SCTP association for retrieving the unsend messages.Presumably until the
Cumulative TSN, taking care of the gaps in TSN that did make it, unfor-
tunaly missequenceing is enarly guaranteed to occur as the already
succesfully acknowledge msg will get a headstart to those who have to be
redirected. Resending from the cumulative TSN does not solve the problem
either because we would end up with duplicated messages at the end node.
3.3 SCCP User Adaptation layer(SUA)
The SCCP user adaptation layer provides a emulation of SCCP services on
a node.
/* work in progress */
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000
3.4 Addressing: how to reach the remote end
One of the basic problems in any network is to get from point A to point
B. The application in the IP and PSTN world must have the possiblity to
reach their peer wherever they may be located. Another problem is how to
choose between different point B. The first problem is solved via SCTP
associations(you put the msg in SCTP at one end, and voila, it comes out
at the other end). The second problem is solved via addressing. Some
signalling is point-to-point, meaning that it simply needs a SCTP asso-
ciation to get to the other side(UIA, M2UA is a case in point). Other
Signalling needs to route based on its addressing contained in the
message(M3UA, SUA).
3.4.1 Internet addressing
Every layer needs to determine the service to which it wants to deliver
its information. The way in which this is done depends from layer to
layer. The transport protocols above the IP network protocol are indi-
cated in the protocol extension headers field contained at the end of
the IP header. Every protocol has its own standardized protocol number.
The transport layer determines the application to which it wants to
deliver the information by the portnumber.
The tuple destination address and portnumber uniqely identifies a appli-
cation in the internet. Further selectors may be used in higher layers
to obtain the desired application. The IP address itself is a pointcode.
The following types of pointcode may de distinguished :
- Unicast address: a unicast address designates a single node
within a IP network. It can have some hierarchy in it or not. The
address may be globally unique or be a private pointcode.
- Multicast address: the message is send to all nodes
belonging/attached to that multicast address/group.( Similar prin-
ciple as with SCCP broadcast but different implementation)
- Link-local address: these are addresses assigned to the link(wow
local "private").
- Site-local address: these are addresses assigned to a site(wow
local, "private")
- ...
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000
As the meaning of the pointcodes is only known to IP and it has a rela-
tion to the link and its interface to the link, layers which only know
about destinations(such as SCCP), SHOULD NOT/MUST NOT try to to inter-
prete the IP address.
The IP pointcode does not strictly identify the node in the network but
rather the interface to the IP network layer. Thus IP nodes can have
more than 1 Pointcode(and those PC can be used for having 2 links
between 2 adjacend nodes, a feature that is called multihoming ).
3.4.2 SS7 addressing
SS7 was develop in stages: ISUP and MTP were first developped. The deci-
sion to route was done by the application in a similar way as the
MFC/... signalling determined the trunk to the next exchange. ISUP had
to determine for a certain E164 number a DPC(= the pointcode of the
adjacend exchange) and then the msg was routed to the office where the
same procedure was done over all again.(=link-by- link routing)
(1) MTP addres: MTP routing label consists of a Network indicator(also
called A MTP-SAP=service acces point) , a destination
Pointcode(=DPC) and a origination Pointcode(OPC). The MTP-SAP indi-
cates for which network the pointcode in the routing label is
valid. If the routing table has been engineerd in a node for that
network, the message can reach that destination. The size of a
pointcode is fixed within a single network. Different networks can
have different sizes of pointcodes:
- ITU 14 bit
- China 24 bit
- ANSI 24 bit
- Others.....
A MTP pointcode is private to its own network. The global unique-
ness is NEVER assured by the MTP pointcode but by global titles(as
used in SCCP and in ISUP).
The representation of pointcodes can be diverse: decimal, 3-4-3-4
format, 8-8-8 format .... It is allowed to structure the
pointcode(akind to CIDR and its prefixes in IP).
MTP uses static routing: no routing protocols like RIP, OSPF or BGP
are used for finding out routes between nodes in a MTP network.
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000
However it is allowed to use dynamic routing in a MTP net. The ITU
marked this as "For Further study", but they never got around to
it.
(2) SCCP adress : The SCCP address is a variable length address build
as a collection of optional elements. It identifies destinations
and has no notion about routes to those destinations. That is left
to the underlying network layer(MTP or IP). A destination can be a
network, node ,application entity, a person... Routing is static.
The SCCP address is generally refered to as a Global title. The
global title must be globally unique(at least on a world scale) as
this allows the A-party to reach the B-party End-to-End without
setting up a connection through the network. It can also be used
for Link-by-link routing.
The function responsible for deriving a pointcode from a global
title is (not surprisingly) called the global title translation
function(GTT). The GTT is a local function which bases it transla-
tion and routing decision on the local situation(translation rule,
loadsharing of destinations, route to backup node...) It has no
topological knowledge of the network(something MTP and certainly IP
have). The GTT function can therefore not only be used by msg with
SCCP address but also by Q931 or other signaling messages for find-
ing out to which destination the message must be sent.
The elements of the Global Title consists of the following:
- MTP pointcode AND Network indicator(=MTP-SAP). The network
indicator indicates to which network the msg belongs.
- Subsystem Number: indicates to which application the msg
belongs.
- Global title: a structure indicating a global identification
of a node and/or application. A GT may occur in the SCCP
Calling(=Originator address) and in the Called(Destination
address) Party address.
If only a MTP pointcode, network indicator and SSN is present, then
the message can only be routed within that particular MTP network.
If a global title(meaning if translation type, nature of addres
and/or Digits) is present (accompanied possibly by a MTP pointcode,
network indicator and SSN), then the msg can be routed across mul-
tiple MTP networks, provided the networks are interconnected and
the destination is reachable.
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000
(3) Global Title and Global Title Translations:
A global title contains the following elements. They are nearly all
optional, the occurrence of the field in the SCCP message itself is
governed by the global title format field(GTI) in the message.
-Translation Type(TTN): should indicate what sort of transla-
tion is needed. The most used TTN is the UNKNOWN. In the US
some of the TTN have been used to address the
application(instead of the SSN), thus doubling as application
entity selectors. The Translation Type Number has no counter-
part in IP.
- Numbering plan(NP): this contains the numbering plan indica-
tion to which the rest of the address conforms. This may be
the E164, E212, E211, private numbering plans, .... The
Numbering plan indication has no explicit counterpart in IP.
It is implicitly included in the IPv4 address and partly
explicitly included in the IPv6(example : E164 numbers
included in OSI-NSAP address in IPv6)
- Nature-of-address(NA): this indicates the national or inter-
national use of the address. The Nature-of-Address has no
counterpart in IP. This could be interpreted as scope indica-
tion of the address, something that is explicitly present in
Ipv6 pointcodes(Link local, site local...).
- Encoding scheme(ES): this is a implicit parameter used to
indicate the format of the global title digits(BCD even or BCD
uneven). The Encoding scheme has no counterpart in IP.
- Global title digits: digits in the format specified by the
encoding scheme. They contain the global identification of
node(and possibly also of the application within that node.)
Also the number of digits is included(as GT is a variable
length address.
- Subsystem Number(SSN): indicates the application entity
which should be reached . Some of the SSN are universally
defined while others are not. Some are even double used. The
SSN corresponds roughly to the portnumber of IP. However SSNs
are derived at the network layer and go straight through to
the application layer. Portnumbers only obtain their visibil-
ity from the transportlayer.
- Global title format: indicates which of the field mentioned
above are explicitly contained in the called or calling party
address of the message. Some formats indicates that some
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000
fields(like NA and NP) are specified implicitly.
Global title have no explicit counterpart in IP. IP addresses are
implicitly assumed to be Global (NAT not included). A GT could also
be a name(such as in Directory Naming service (DNS)).
Also some routing information is included in the calling/called
party address.
- routing Indicator: indicates to the node processing
calling/called party address how to route the message on. The
message can be routed on the Pointcode (and SSN: applicable
only in the final end-node) or on global title(this requires a
translation).The routing indicator has no counterpart in IP.
Depending on the routing indicator the message will be routed by
SCCP. If route-on-SPC then MTP will do the routing. If route-on-GT
then the SCCP global Title translation function will be invoked to
determine the next(possible final or intermediate) node of the mes-
sage. The address will be examined on the TTN,NP,NA and Digits and
a translation will be done yielding a MTP pointcode + network indi-
cator. A SSN may also be the additional outcome of the Global Title
Translation(GTT). This MTP address is then used by MTP to route to
the next destination(intermediate or final).
If required, the TTN, NP, NA, SSN and possible all the digits may
be transformed into a TTN', NP' , NA' , SSN' and digits'. It will
change the address (if the routing policy prescribes it) in a
effort to reach the final destination. The only rule to which it
has to adhere is that the change in addresses must be so that the
return message(from the B-party) must reach the originator of the
start msg(=A-party). This means that the message routing is NOT
symmetric. Global title translation conforms to the notion of a
Store-Compute-and-Forward network as opposed to a IP network which
is a Store-and-Forward network. This translation is completely
stateless(we are routing unitdata messages). The same function can
also be invoked for connections(see SCCP connection-oriented) then
the translation is done only once at the connection setup phase and
SCCP connection oriented will then contain the state.
The translation rules for digits consist of:
- Deleting digits.
- Inserting digits
- Replacing digits
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000
- Copying digits
That means that your called party address may have completely
changed once it went through the GTT and at the same time the cal-
ling party address must also be changed to adhere to the rule that
the backward message MUST be routable so that a end-to-end dialogue
may be send up between 2 nodes.
3.4.3 How to reach applications in SS7
Every layer needs to determine the service access point to which it
wants to deliver its information. The basic element in SS7 to determine
this is the Subsystem Number(SSN for short). the SSN can be found in MTP
and SCCP. The MTP has a SSN which indicates along others ISUP, SCCP
,..etc... The SSN in MTP are standardized on international level.
Locally defined SSN are allowed but may not be used outside that net-
work.
The SSN used in SCCP indicates directly to which application the message
must be send to. These SSN may be standardized but that is not a
prerequisite(see Q715). Some applications have standardized SSN, while
others use(and sometimes reuse) not standardized SSN. When messages go
from a net with SSN1 to a net with SSN2(SSN1 and SSN2 indicate the same
protocol) global title translation must be invoke to convert the SSN's.
This is one of the most basic and simplest use of Global Title transla-
tion in SS7.
The general architecture is decribed in [RFC2719].
3.4.4 Routing of SS7 message in a IP net.
As the signalling is in fact transported over a "SS7" overlay network on
top of IP, both SS7 pointcodes and IP pointcodes are used. The basic
routing in the overlay network is done using SS7 pointcodes. However at
a certain point, that SS7 pointcode must be mapped to a IP pointcode
because (1) SCTP uses the IP pointcode(+portnumber) for selecting the
correct association and (2) IP routes only on IP pointcodes.
The way in way this mapping can be done, could be static or dynamic.
This is dependant on what adaptation layer is used and also on the sort
of network architecture(redundant servers, associations...).
/* editors note: work in progress */
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000
3.4.5 Routing using globally assigned IP addresses.
/* editors note: This section might address a problem in SS7 of shor-
tage of pointcodes in certain SS7 nets, notably the international
(INAT0) SS7 network) */
IP addresses are required to be globally unique. If SS7 wants to tran-
sport its messages over a IP network, then they should be treated as
global addresses. This means that SS7 shall look at them as global
titles, it shall NOT rely on the specific handling of the addresses by
the underlying IP layer and below. This also means that SCCP is a prere-
quisite for transporting message over a IP infrastructure when non-call
related messages are to be transported over IP. ISUP and other signaling
protocols will have to the same for call related messages , translating
the addresses it has in the adaptation layers to IP addresses. They can
all invoke the GTT function if wanted.
The following cases may be envisioned:
- E164,E212, (=telephone numbers) to IP address(depending on
the underlying network Ipv4 or Ipv6) (equivalent to transla-
tion MTP 14bit, 24bit ...)
- IP address to IP address - IP address to MTP address
- IP address to a form of a telephone address (=E164*) :
needed if the message transit from a IP net to a IP net via a
couple of MTP nets.
As some forms of IP addresses have a very limited scope(such as
link-local and site local), they should better not be used.
The following poitncodes can be used:
- IPv4 unicast : Globally assigned - IPv4 multicast: Globaly
assigned, very few avialable Note 1.
- IPv6 unicast :
- IPv6 multicast: Note 1
- IPv6 anycast:
- IPv6 link-local:
- IPv6 site-local:
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000
Note 1: A word of care is advised when using multicast addresses.
This is especially true if the routing indicator in SCCP is Route-
on-GT. SCCP has no knowledge whether the translation yielded a uni-
cast or multicast PC, so it cannot and it will not take action to
relay or stop the message. The use of this form of address is
dependant on the application in question.
Note 2
Implications of this are that GTT function could support IP
pointcodes. The IP pointcode must be put in the digit block of the
GT. The representation may be in BCD, the meaning of it should not.
The length of a Ipv4 address(32bits) should then be 8 digits(always
fixed). The length of a Ipv6 address(128bits) should be 32 digits.
The GT number of digits in the SCCP header should allow for at
least 32 digits(some extra digits may need to be inserted for
proper routing). The result attached to a certain translation must
be or a MTP PC(14,24) or a Ipv4 PC or a Ipv6 PC. The nature of
address may be defined as indicating a international address with
bitmap format. This could even lead to a new GTT operation (besides
insert, copy, delete, replace) called bitmapPCCopy. The bit-
mapPCcopy takes the IPvx poitncode out of the GT and uses it as the
resulting pointcode of the GTT for further routing. The same effect
can also be achieved via proper engineering of the GT database.
Other possibilities include User adaptation layers which maps the
MTP pointcode to IP pointcode or a mapping from MTP pointcode to a
certain SCTP session.
If GTT is used then IP must need a Numbering plan indicator(NP
value normally assigned by SG11). This may or may not be agreed
with SG11. This is not mandatory(but it is encouraged) as already
there exists private numbering plans not known to SG11. As long as
you make sure at the network border via GTT that the next network
will be able to route the message NP , you can do pretty much any-
thing. This is a bilateral agreement between operators/Internet
Service providers) In general any value may be used as long as it
is routable in your own subnet and that you or somebody else is
able to route it further over its own net.
Also maybe the portnumber may become part of the input/output to
the GTT function.
(1) IPv4 Considerations
When coding a Ipv4 address, the length of the address (32 bits)
should then be 8 digits(always fixed). The GT number of digits in
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000
the SCCP header should allow for at least 32 digits (some extra
digits may need to be inserted for proper routing). The result
attached to a certain translation must be or a MTP PC(14,24) or a
Ipv4 PC or a Ipv6 PC.
(2) IPv6 Considerations
When coding a IPv6, the length of the address (128 bits) should be
32 digits. The GT number of digits in the SCCP header should allow
for at least 32 digits (some extra digits may need to be inserted
for proper routing). The result attached to a certain translation
must be or a MTP PC(14,24) or a Ipv4 PC or a Ipv6 PC.
(3) Routing SS7 messages and dynamic assigned adresses
Problems may occur with dynamically assigned IP addresses. The node
could obtain a IP address that is later reclaimed and/or replaced
by another IP address out of a pool of IP addresses. The destina-
tion address in the routing tables would have to be invalidated or
changed. Therefore it is strongly recommended to use a fixed
assigned IP address. Do not forget that the IP node which is work-
ing in the SS7 net is supposed to be up all the time. It should not
be regarded as a dial-up user(for which Dynamic assigned addresses
are meant).
Also, dynamically assigned address may invalidate security features
of SCTP. If transport addresses may change during the lifetime of
a SCTP association, it is impossible to reliably ensure that the
current transport address is the transport address which was used
in the setup of the association.
If this practice should turn out to be unavoidable, then a Q3/SNMP
Management msg would be required to be exchanged between DHCP and
SCCP network element configuration part so that the pointcode
attached to a certain GT must be updated, deleted or added. The
same solution is also feasible for working in NAT's with dynamical
assigned addresses.
(4) Routing SS7 message and Network address Translators.
Network Address Translator(NAT) are boxes which map a private IP
net address to a globally assigned IP address. This happens because
there are many more users within the private IP net than there a
globally assigned IP addresses allocated to that private IP net.
That means that the mapping is ALWAYS dynamic. The mapping must be
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000
both ways and via the same NAT and the NAT is always the final des-
tination. Also the association is based on state(thus breaking the
end-to-end principle). This amounts to crossing a network border.
It should be envisioned to use a static private address in the NAT.
It would be advisiable to termination the association from the pub-
lic network at the NAT, and have separate association(s) within the
private network. Then there is a clear network border at the cross-
ing between the NAT and that internet.
Endpoint Endpoint Endpoint
A(NAT) B (NAT) C
+------+ +------+ +----+
| ISEP |----------| SG |----------| SG |---
+------+ +------+ +----+
association 1 ! association 2 !
! !
NAT ! internet ! PSTN
! !
Fig 5.x: use of SCTP associations with NAT's
Another solution is the use of name option for setting up the SCTP
association.
(5) Routing SS7 messages and routing protocols
The term routing protocols has a much broader sense in the Internet
than in the SS7 world. SS7 designates such protocols as Management
protocols(SCCP management, MTP management...) The scope of SS7
management protocols is much smaller. They only exchange informa-
tions of links in service and nodes in service(mostly only the own
links and the adjacend nodes) The topology of the network is NOT
exchanged between SS7 nodes. In general most nodes haven't got the
faintest idea how even the topology of its own subnet may look
like.(and they don't care).
The interaction between IP routing protocols and SS7 routing may
require some study especially in the case that routes start chang-
ing due to routing recomputation. The loadsharing and
primary/backup systems of GTT seems not to be impacted as it relies
on destinations and not on links. As long as a destination is
accessible/avialable in the IP net, then messages may be send to
it. If the destination is no longer avialable, then GTT must per-
form according to its own rules. Beware of changing conditions
being triggered by routing updates.
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000
(6) Routing SS7 messages and automatic renumbering
Automatic renumbering is the process of changing the IP addresses
of one or more nodes in a network so that the prefix of the address
(which is then common for all the changed nodes) allows to have a
routing table with a reduced number of entries. This renumbering is
mainly of interest in IPv6 networks.
If this happens, a similar solution(management request of the GT Figure 1.1: Telephony signalling transport protocol stack
tree) should be used to change the pointcode derived from GT.
4 SPECIFIC ISSUES OF USER-NETWORK BASED SIGNALLING ADAPTATION LAYERS The components of the protocol stack are :
4.1 ISDN User Adaptation layer(IUA) (1) Adaptation modules are used when the telephony application needs to
preserve an existing primitive interface. (e.g. management indica-
tions, data operation primitives, ... for a particular
user/application protocol).
The ISDN user adaptation layer provides a emulation of a signalling link (2) SCTP, specially configured to meet the telephony application per-
from transporting user-network signalling(in most case Q931) from point formance requirements.
to point. Routing of messages is not required here. Only changeovers
between ASP of a AS is needed at most. One or more terminal equipment
may be involved in the signalling exchange.
3.1.2 IUA heartbeats (3) The standard Internet Protocol.
If a IUA nodes fails,then this must be detected via the use of heart- 2 Applicability of Telephony Signalling transport using SCTP
beats msg between the IUA peers. The SCTP heartbeat is not sufficient
because it only determines if a path for the SCTP association exists,
not if IUA is ready to process msg.
The transmission rate of sending keepalive msg should be engineerable SCTP can be used as the transport protocol for telephony applications.
and the possible loss of keepalive msg could be used for the monitoring Message boundaries are preserved during data transport and so no message
and measurements of the concerned IUA nodes. delineation is needed. The user data can be delivered by the order of
transmission within a stream(in sequence delivery) or the order of
arrival.
3.1.3 IUA Network management SCTP can be used to provide redundancy and fault tolerance at the tran-
sport layer and below. Telephony applications needing this level of
fault tolerance can make use of SCTP's multi-homing support.
Network management messages used used to convey error information, SCTP can be used for telephony applications where head-of-line blocking
congestion information and/or state information from one node to is a concern. Such an application should use multiple streams to provide
another.
The IUA maintains state of each remote Application Server Process(ASP) Draft Telephony Signalling Transport over SCTP AS December 2000
in a remote Application Server(AS). A AS consists of one or more ASP.
3.1.3.1 Management messages independent ordering of telephony signalling messages.
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000 3 Issues for transporting telephony signalling over SCTP
These messages are used to notify the peer IUA that a error was detected 3.1 Congestion Control
in a incoming message. Examples can be : a syntax error in a data mes-
sage, unexpected management or maintenance messages in a certain state,
etc...
The diagnostic information may be used to send back more info concerning The basic mechanism of congestion control in SCTP have been described in
the error. This information can be used for debugging purposes. Error [RFC2960]. SCTP congestion control sometimes conflicts with the timing
messages should never be returned upon receipt of error messages them- requirements of telephony signalling transport.
selves.
Also Terminal Endpoint Identifier (TEI) status messages are exchanged In an engineered network (e.g. a private intranet), in which network
which indicates the status of particular terminal equipment. capacity and maximum traffic is very well understood, some telephony
signalling applications may choose to relax the congestion control rules
in order to satisfy the timing requirements. But this should be done
without destabilising the network, otherwise this would lead to poten-
tial congestion collapse of the network.
3.1.3.2 Application Server maintenance Some telephony signalling applications may have their own congestion
control and flow control techniques. These techniques may interact with
the congestion control procedures in SCTP. Additionally, telephony
applications may use SCTP stream based flow control [SCTPFLOW].
The application server process maintenance messages indicates that it 3.2 Detection of failures
may be ready to receive or not to receive management or data messages.
Each of those messages is acknowledge to the peer IUA.
The ASP-UP messages indicate the first stage of communication, Telephony systems often must achieve high availability in operation. For
namely that a SCTP association was setup between the 2 ASP, was example, they are often required to be able to preserve stable calls
succesfull. The ASP-UP messages indicate that further IUA manage- during a component failure. Therefore error situations at the transport
ments message might be exchanged between the 2 nodes. ASP-UP mes- layer and below must be detected very fast so that the application can
sages do never allow the exchange of user data traffic. ASP-UP(or take approriate steps to recover and preserve the stable calls. This
DOWN) messages are per default for all the routing contexts of the poses special requirements on SCTP to discover unreachablility of a des-
ASP. tination address or a peer.
The ASP-ACTIVE messages indicates the second stage of communica- 3.2.1 Retransmission TimeOut (RTO) calculation
tion, namely that the ASP is ready to send/receive user data
traffic for one or more routing contexts. User data traffic may
only be initiated after the acknowledgement has been received. The
ASP active messages may indicate the AS traffic handling method of
the user messages. The user message may be directed to a single
active ASP of the AS(over-ride mode) or may be load shared between
all the active ASP of the AS(load-share mode). The algorithm for
loadsharing within a AS should make sure that user data(=signalling
messages) of the same call or transaction should be sent to the
same ASP. It should also take into account as much as possible the
load of every ASP wihtin the AS and slect the least loaded ASP by
preference. Load information concerning ASP will be conveyed using
the signalling network management messages.
Heartbeat message is optional and is used only in case that the The SCTP protocol parameter RTO.Min value has a direct impact on the
underlying transport layer does NOT have a heartbeat messages calculation of the RTO itself. Some telephony applications want to lower
mechanism(example TCP). the value of the RTO.Min to less than 1 second. This would allow the
message sender to reach the maximum number-of-retransmission threshold
faster in the case of network failures. However, lowering RTO.Min may
have a negative impact on network behaviour [ALLMAN99].
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000 In some rare cases, telephony applications might not want to use the
exponential timer back-off concept in RTO calculation in order to speed
3.1.3.3 Signalling network management Draft Telephony Signalling Transport over SCTP AS December 2000
The signalling network management messages are not needed because there up failure detection. The danger of doing this is that, when network
is no network to watch over. ISDN signalling is only point-to-point. congestion occurs, not backing off the timer may worsen the congestion
situation. Therefore, this strategy should never be used in public
Internet.
/* editors note: work in progress */ It should be noted that not using delayed SACK will also help faster
failure detection.
6.0 Security 3.2.2 Heartbeat
The following aspects of security are : For faster detection of (un)availability of idle paths, the telephony
application may consider lowering the SCTP parameter HB.interval. It
should be noted this will result in a higher traffic load.
Authentication: 3.2.3 Maximum number of retransmissions
Information is sent/received from a known and/or trusted partner. Setting Path.Max.Retrans and Association.Max.Retrans SCTP parameters to
Until recently the number of interconnects of a SS7 node with lower values will speed up both destination address and peer failure
another SS7 node belonging to another operator was relativily lim- detection. However, if these values are set too low, the probability of
ited and those other operators were implicitly known (and sometimes false detections will increase.
trusted). Due to the increasing interconnect demands between dif-
ferent operators on a voluntary or mandatory basis, the trusted
relation does not longer exist. That mean that a operator will not
accept all SS7 msg send to him by another operator. This is done
using MTP and SCCP screening: depending on the information in the
different MTP fields(example OPC...) and/or SCCP fields(example
Calling party address, SSN...) a msg may be rejected or accepted
for transport across or termination into the network. In the worst
case it may try to screen up to the application level(example: the
user info in a IAM msg or in a TC INVOKE component, Application
Context name screening). See [16].
A SS7 gateway using screening does behave like a firewall. 3.3 Shorten end-to-end message delay
Intergrity: Telephony applications often require short end-to-end message delays.
The methods described in section 3.2.1 on lowering RTO and not using
delayed SACK may be considered.
Information may not be modified while in transit. The integrity of 3.4 Bundling considerations
a msg in a public network is not guaranteed. If it is transported
over a IP network the integrity may be guaranteed at 2 levels. (1)
the IP level using IPSEC: which is equivalent to providing
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000 Bundling small telephony signalling messages at transmission helps
improve the bandwidth usage efficiency of the network. On the downside,
bundling may introduce additional delay to some of the messages. This
should be taken into consideration when end-to-end delay is a concern.
integrity on on SS7 link level basis. Keydistribution is at most 3.5 Stream Usage
limited to the network of that operator. (2) End-To-End integrity
using TCAP: For further study in the ITU.
Confidentiality: Telephony signalling traffic is often composed of multiple, independent
message sequences. It is highly desirable to transfer those independent
message sequences in separate SCTP streams. This reduces the probability
of head-of-line blocking in which the retransmission of a lost message
affects the delivery of other messages not belonging to the same message
sequence.
Confidentiality of the user data must be ensured. User data can Draft Telephony Signalling Transport over SCTP AS December 2000
not be examined by unauthorized users.
Availability: 4 Security considerations
The communicating endpoint must remain in service in all circon- SCTP only tries to increase the availability of a network. SCTP does not
stances. All SS7 nodes have to remain active for the 99.999% of the contain any protocol mechanisms which are directly related to user mes-
time. sage authentication, integrity and confidentiality functions. For such
features, it depends on the IPSEC protocols and architecture and/or on
security features of its user protocols.
The description of the internet security architecture and the use of it Mechanisms for reducing the risk of blind denial-of-service attacks and
is described in [18]. masquerade attacks are built into SCTP protocol. See RFC2960, section 11
for detailed information.
Apart from the above mentioned classic security cases, also attacks as Currently the IPSEC working group is investigating the support of mul-
mentioned in [RFCSCTP] and [RFCOENE] must be handled. As the user adap- tihoming by IPSEC protocols. At the present time to use IPSEC, one must
tation layers are all users of SCTP, they are automatically protected use 2 * N * M security associations if one endpoint uses N addresses and
from such a attacks. This would NOT be the case if they had used TCP or the other M addresses.
UDP or whatever other transport protocol presently avialable. More info
on these security issues can be found in [RFCOENE].
10 References and related work 5 References and related work
[RFCSCTP] Stewart, R. R., Xie, Q., Morneault, K., Sharp, C. , , [RFC2960] Stewart, R. R., Xie, Q., Morneault, K., Sharp, C. , ,
Schwarzbauer, H. J., Taylor, T., Rytina, I., Kalla, M., Zhang, L. Schwarzbauer, H. J., Taylor, T., Rytina, I., Kalla, M., Zhang, L.
and Paxson, V, "Stream Control Transmission Protocol", <draft- and Paxson, V, "Stream Control Transmission Protocol", RFC2960,
ietf-sigtran-sctp-13.txt>, July 2000. Work In Progress. October 2000.
[RFCOENE] Coene, L., Tuexen, M., Loughney, J., Rytina, I., Ong, L. and
Stewart, R. R., "Stream Control Transmission Protocol", <draft-
ietf-sigtran-sctp-13.txt>, July 2000. Work In Progress.
[Q1400] SG11, ITU-T Recommendation Q.1400, " architecture framework for
the development of signaling and OA&M protocols using OSI concepts
",1993
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000 [RFCOENE] Coene, L., Tuexen, M., Verwimp, G., Loughney, J., Stewart, R.
R., Xie, Q., Holdrege, M., Belinchon, M.C., and Jungmayer, A.,
"Stream Control Transmission Protocol Applicability statement",
<draft-ietf-sigtran-sctp-applicability-03.txt>, December 2000. Work
In Progress.
[RFC2719] Ong, L., Rytina, I., Garcia, M., Schwarzbauer, H., Coene, L., [RFC2719] Ong, L., Rytina, I., Garcia, M., Schwarzbauer, H., Coene, L.,
Lin, H., Juhasz, I., Holdrege, M., Sharp, C., "Framework Architec- Lin, H., Juhasz, I., Holdrege, M., Sharp, C., "Framework Architec-
ture for Signaling Transport", RFC2719, October 1999 ture for Signalling Transport", RFC2719, October 1999
[IANA] Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, http://www.iana.org/, April
2000
[RFC814] Clark, D.D., "Names, addresses, ports and routes", RFC 0814,
July 1982.
[M2UA] Morneault, K., Kalla, M., Sidebottom, G., Dantu, R., George, T.,
"SS7 MTP2-User Adaptation Layer (M2UA)", <draft-ietf-sigtran-m2ua-
04.txt> ,Work in progress
[M2PUA] Morneault, K., Kalla, M., Sidebottom, G., Dantu, R., George, T.,
"SS7 MTP2-User Peer-to-peer Adaptation Layer (M2PUA)", <draft-
ietf-sigtran-m2peer-02.txt> ,Work in progress
[M3UA] Sidebottom,G., Ong, L., Mousseau, G., Rytina, I., Schwarzbauer,
HJ., Morneault, K., Kalla, M., "SS7 MTP3-User Adaptation Layer
(M3UA)", <draft-ietf-sigtran-m3ua-04.txt> ,Work in progress
[IUA] Kalla, M., Rengasami, S., Morneault, K., Sidebottom, G. "ISDN
Q.921-User Adaptation Layer(IUA)", <draft-ietf-sigtran-iua-07.txt>
,Work in progress
[RFCSCTPAS] Coene, L., Tuexen, M., Loughney, J., Rytina, I., Ong, L.,
Stewart, R. R., "Stream Control Transmission Protocol Applicabil-
ity Statement", <draft-ietf-sigtran-sctp-applicability-02.txt>,
Work in progress
[Q700] ITU-T Recommendation Q.700, "Introduction to CCITT Signaling Sys-
tem No.7", March, 1993
[Q700] ITU-T Recommendation Q.701-705, "Message Transfer part No. 7",
1996
[Q710] ITU-T Recommendation Q.710-715, "Signaling Connection Control
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000 [SCTPFLOW] Stewart, R., Ramalho, M., Xie, Q., Conrad, P. and Rose, M.,
"SCTP Stream based flow control", September 2000, Work in Progress.
Part No. 7", 1996 [ALLMAN99] Allman, M. and Paxson, V., "On Estimating End-to-End Network
Path Properties", Proc. SIGCOMM'99, 1999.
[Q770] ITU-T Recommendation Q.770-775, "Transaction Capabilities Appli- Draft Telephony Signalling Transport over SCTP AS December 2000
cation Part No. 7", 1996
[Q1400] ITU-T Recommendation Q.1400, " architecture framework for the 6 Acknowledgments
development of signaling and OA&M protocols using OSI concepts
",1993
[RFC1035] Mockapetris, P., "Domain Names, Implementation and specifica- The authors wish to thank Renee Revis, H.J. Schwarzbauer, T. Taylor, G.
tion", RFC1035, November 1987 Sidebottom, K. Morneault, T. George, M. Stillman and many others for
their invaluable comments.
11 Author's Address 7 Author's Address
Lode Coene Lode Coene Phone: +32-14-252081
Siemens Atea Siemens Atea EMail: lode.coene@siemens.atea.be
Atealaan 34 Atealaan 34
B-2200 Herentals B-2200 Herentals
Belgium Belgium
Phone: +32-14-252081 John Loughney Phone: +358-9-43761
EMail: lode.coene@siemens.atea.be Nokia Research Center EMail: john.loughney@nokia.com
John Loughney
Nokia
Research centre
Itamerenkatu 11-13 Itamerenkatu 11-13
FIN-00180 Helsinki FIN-00180 Helsinki
Finland Finland
Phone: +358-9-43761 Michel Tuexen Phone: +49-89-722-47210
EMail: john.loughney@nokia.com Siemens AG EMail: Michael.Tuexen@icn.siemens.de
Hofmannstr. 51
81359 Munich
Germany
Ian Rytina Randall R. Stewart Phone: +1-815-477-2127
24 Burning Bush Trail. EMail: rrs@cisco.com
Crystal Lake, IL 60012
USA
Qiaobing Xie Phone: +1-847-632-3028
Motorola, Inc. EMail: qxie1@email.mot.com
1501 W. Shure Drive
Arlington Heights, IL 60004
USA
Maria-Carmen Belinchon Phone: +34-91-339-3535
Ericsson Espana S. A. EMail: Maria.C.Belinchon@ericsson.com
Network Communication Services
Retama 7, 5th floor
Madrid, 28045
Spain
Draft Telephony Signalling Transport over SCTP AS December 2000
Ian Rytina EMail:ian.rytina@ericsson.com
Ericsson Australia Ericsson Australia
37/360 Elizabeth Street 37/360 Elizabeth Street
Melbourne, Victoria 3000 Melbourne, Victoria 3000
Australia Australia
Phone : - Lyndon Ong Phone: -
EMail:ian.rytina@ericsson.com Nortel Networks EMail: long@nortelnetworks.com
Lyndon Ong
Draft Signalling Transport over SCTP applicability statementOctober 2000
Nortel Networks
4401 Great America Parkway 4401 Great America Parkway
Santa Clara, CA 95054 Santa Clara, CA 95054
USA USA
Phone: - Gery Verwimp Phone: +32-14-253424
EMail: long@nortelnetworks.com Siemens Atea EMail: gery.verwimp@siemens.atea.be
Atealaan 34
B-2200 Herentals
Belgium
Expires: April 2001 Expires: June 2001
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Draft Telephony Signalling Transport over SCTP AS December 2000
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