draft-ietf-sip-compression-00.txt   draft-ietf-sip-compression-01.txt 
Internet Engineering Task Force SIP WG Internet Engineering Task Force SIP WG
Internet Draft G. Camarillo Internet Draft G. Camarillo
Ericsson Ericsson
draft-ietf-sip-compression-00.txt draft-ietf-sip-compression-01.txt
August 5, 2002 September 17, 2002
Expires: February 2003 Expires: March 2003
Compressing the Session Initiation Protocol Compressing the Session Initiation Protocol
STATUS OF THIS MEMO STATUS OF THIS MEMO
This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026. all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
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Abstract Abstract
This document describes a mechanism to signal that compression is This document describes a mechanism to signal that compression is
desired for one or more SIP messages. It also states when it is desired for one or more SIP messages. It also states when it is
appropriate to send compressed SIP messages to a SIP entity. appropriate to send compressed SIP messages to a SIP entity.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1 Introduction ........................................ 3 1 Introduction ........................................ 3
2 Overview of operation ............................... 4 2 Overview of operation ............................... 4
3 Sending a Request to a Server ....................... 4 3 SigComp implementations for SIP ..................... 4
3.1 Obtaining a SIP URI with comp=sigcomp ............... 5 4 Sending a Request to a Server ....................... 4
4 Sending a Response to a Client ...................... 6 4.1 Obtaining a SIP or SIPS URI with comp=sigcomp ....... 5
5 Error Situations .................................... 6 5 Sending a Response to a Client ...................... 6
6 Augmented BNF ....................................... 7 6 Error Situations .................................... 7
7 Example ............................................. 7 7 Augmented BNF ....................................... 7
8 Security Considerations ............................. 10 8 Example ............................................. 7
9 Acknowledges ........................................ 10 9 Security Considerations ............................. 10
10 Authors' Addresses .................................. 11 10 Acknowledges ........................................ 10
11 Normative References ................................ 11 11 Authors' Addresses .................................. 10
12 Informative References .............................. 11 12 Normative References ................................ 11
13 Informative References .............................. 11
1 Introduction 1 Introduction
A SIP [1] client sending a request to a SIP server typically performs A SIP [1] client sending a request to a SIP server typically performs
a DNS lookup for the domain name of the server. When NAPTR [4] or SRV a DNS lookup for the domain name of the server. When NAPTR [3] or SRV
[5] records are available for the server, the client can specify the [4] records are available for the server, the client can specify the
type of service it wants. The service in this context is the type of service it wants. The service in this context is the
transport protocol to be used by SIP (e.g., UDP, TCP or SCTP). A SIP transport protocol to be used by SIP (e.g., UDP, TCP or SCTP). A SIP
server that support, for instance, three different transport server that support, for instance, three different transport
protocols, will have three different DNS entries. protocols, will have three different DNS entries.
Since it is foreseen that the number of transport protocols supported Since it is foreseen that the number of transport protocols supported
by a particular application layer protocol is not going to grow by a particular application layer protocol is not going to grow
dramatically, having a DNS entry per transport seems like a scalable dramatically, having a DNS entry per transport seems like a scalable
enough solution. enough solution.
However, sometimes it is necessary to include new layers between the However, sometimes it is necessary to include new layers between the
transport protocol and the application layer protocol. Examples of transport protocol and the application layer protocol. Examples of
these layers are transport layer security and compression. If DNS was these layers are transport layer security and compression. If DNS was
used to discover the availability of these layers for a particular used to discover the availability of these layers for a particular
server, the number of DNS entries needed for that server would grow server, the number of DNS entries needed for that server would grow
dramatically. dramatically.
A server that, for example, supported TCP and SCTP as transports, TLS A server that, for example, supported TCP and SCTP as transports, TLS
for transport security and Sigcomp for signaling compression, would for transport security and SigComp for signaling compression, would
need the 8 DNS entries listed below: need the 8 DNS entries listed below:
1. TCP, no security, no compression 1. TCP, no security, no compression
2. TCP, no security, SigComp 2. TCP, no security, SigComp
3. TCP, TLS, no compression 3. TCP, TLS, no compression
4. TCP, TLS, SigComp 4. TCP, TLS, SigComp
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field. field.
We define two parameters, one for SIP URIs and the other for the Via We define two parameters, one for SIP URIs and the other for the Via
header field. The format of both parameters is the same, as shown in header field. The format of both parameters is the same, as shown in
the examples below: the examples below:
sip:alice@atlanta.com;comp=sigcomp sip:alice@atlanta.com;comp=sigcomp
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP server1.foo.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK87a7;comp=sigcomp Via: SIP/2.0/UDP server1.foo.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK87a7;comp=sigcomp
The presence of this parameter (comp=sigcomp) in a URI indicates that The presence of this parameter (comp=sigcomp) in a URI indicates that
the request has to be compressed using Sigcomp, as defined in [2]. the request has to be compressed using SigComp, as defined in [2].
The presence of comp=sigcomp in a Via header field indicates that the The presence of comp=sigcomp in a Via header field indicates that the
response has to be compressed using Sigcomp. response has to be compressed using SigComp.
Note that, as stated in [3], every implementation that
supports Sigcomp needs to implement the static dictionary
for SIP and SDP.
Therefore, the presence of comp=sigcomp indicates that the SIP entity Therefore, the presence of comp=sigcomp indicates that the SIP entity
identified by the URI or by the Via header field supports SigComp and identified by the URI or by the Via header field supports SigComp and
is willing to receive compressed messages. Having comp=sigcomp mean is willing to receive compressed messages. Having comp=sigcomp mean
"willingness" as well as "support" allows the receiver of a SIP "willingness" as well as "support" allows the receiver of a SIP
message to influence the decision of whether or not to use SigComp at message to influence the decision of whether or not to use SigComp at
a given time. a given time.
3 Sending a Request to a Server 3 SigComp implementations for SIP
Note that, as stated in [5], every implementation that supports
SigComp needs to implement the static dictionary for SIP and SDP.
In addition, every SIP implementation that supports SigComp MUST
implement the procedures described in this document.
4 Sending a Request to a Server
A request is sent to the host part of a URI. This URI, referred to as A request is sent to the host part of a URI. This URI, referred to as
the next-hop URI, is the Request-URI of the request or an entry in the next-hop URI, is the Request-URI of the request or an entry in
the Route header field. the Route header field.
If the next-hop URI contains the parameter comp=sigcomp, the client If the next-hop URI contains the parameter comp=sigcomp, the client
SHOULD compress the request using Sigcomp as defined in [2]. SHOULD compress the request using SigComp as defined in [2].
If the next-hop URI is a SIPS URI, the request MUST be compressed
before it is passed to the TLS layer.
A client MUST NOT send a compressed request to a server if it does A client MUST NOT send a compressed request to a server if it does
not know whether or not the server supports Sigcomp. not know whether or not the server supports SigComp.
Regardless of whether the request is sent compressed or not, if a Regardless of whether the request is sent compressed or not, if a
client would like to receive subsequent requests within the same client would like to receive subsequent requests within the same
dialog in the UAS->UAC direction compressed, this client SHOULD add dialog in the UAS->UAC direction compressed, this client SHOULD add
the parameter comp=sigcomp to the URI in the Contact header field if the parameter comp=sigcomp to the URI in the Contact header field if
it is a user agent client. If the client is a proxy, it SHOULD add it is a user agent client. If the client is a proxy, it SHOULD add
the parameter comp=sigcomp to its URI in the Record-Route header the parameter comp=sigcomp to its URI in the Record-Route header
field. field.
If a user agent client sends a compressed request, it SHOULD add the If a user agent client sends a compressed request, it SHOULD add the
parameter comp=sigcomp to the URI in the Contact header field. If a parameter comp=sigcomp to the URI in the Contact header field. If a
proxy that Record-Routes sends a compressed request, it SHOULD add proxy that Record-Routes sends a compressed request, it SHOULD add
comp=sigcomp to its URI in the Record-Route header field. comp=sigcomp to its URI in the Record-Route header field.
If a client sends a compressed request, it SHOULD add the parameter If a client sends a compressed request, it SHOULD add the parameter
comp=sigcomp to the topmost entry of the Via header field. comp=sigcomp to the topmost entry of the Via header field.
If a client does not know whether or not the server supports Sigcomp, If a client does not know whether or not the server supports SigComp,
but in case the server supported it, it would like to receive but in case the server supported it, it would like to receive
compressed responses, this client SHOULD add the parameter compressed responses, this client SHOULD add the parameter
comp=sigcomp to the topmost entry of the Via header field. The comp=sigcomp to the topmost entry of the Via header field. The
request, however, as stated above, will not be compressed. request, however, as stated above, will not be compressed.
3.1 Obtaining a SIP URI with comp=sigcomp 4.1 Obtaining a SIP or SIPS URI with comp=sigcomp
For requests within a dialog, a next-hop URI with the comp=sigcomp For requests within a dialog, a next-hop URI with the comp=sigcomp
parameter is obtained from a Record-Route header field when the parameter is obtained from a Record-Route header field when the
dialog is established. A client sending a request outside a dialog dialog is established. A client sending a request outside a dialog
can also obtain SIP URIs with comp=sigcomp in a Contact header field can also obtain SIP URIs with comp=sigcomp in a Contact header field
in a 3xx or 485 response to the request. in a 3xx or 485 response to the request.
However, clients establishing a session will not typically be willing However, clients establishing a session will not typically be willing
to wait until the dialog is establish in order to begin compressing to wait until the dialog is established in order to begin compressing
messages. One of the biggest gains that SigComp can bring to SIP is messages. One of the biggest gains that SigComp can bring to SIP is
the ability to compress the initial INVITE of a dialog, when the user the ability to compress the initial INVITE of a dialog, when the user
is waiting for the session to be established. Therefore, clients need is waiting for the session to be established. Therefore, clients need
a means to obtain a comp=sigcomp URI from their outbound proxy before a means to obtain a comp=sigcomp URI from their outbound proxy before
the user decides to establish a session. the user decides to establish a session.
One solution to this problem is manual configuration. However, One solution to this problem is manual configuration. However,
sometimes it is necessary to have clients configured in an automatic sometimes it is necessary to have clients configured in an automatic
fashion. Unfortunately, current mechanisms for SIP client fashion. Unfortunately, current mechanisms for SIP client
configuration (e.g., using DHCP [6]) do not allow to provide the configuration (e.g., using DHCP [6]) do not allow to provide the
client with URI parameters. In this case, the client SHOULD send an client with URI parameters. In this case, the client SHOULD send an
uncompressed OPTIONS request to its outbound proxy. The outbound uncompressed OPTIONS request to its outbound proxy. The outbound
proxy can provide an alternative SIP URI with the comp=sigcomp proxy can provide an alternative SIP URI with the comp=sigcomp
parameter in a Contact header field in a 200 OK response to the parameter in a Contact header field in a 200 OK response to the
OPTIONS. The client can use this URI for subsequent requests that are OPTIONS. The client can use this URI for subsequent requests that are
sent though the same outbound proxy using compression. sent through the same outbound proxy using compression.
RFC3261 [1] does not define how a proxy should respond to an OPTIONS RFC3261 [1] does not define how a proxy should respond to an OPTIONS
request addressed to itself. It only describes how servers respond to request addressed to itself. It only describes how servers respond to
OPTIONS addressed to a particular user. Section 11.2 of RFC3261 says: OPTIONS addressed to a particular user. Section 11.2 of RFC3261 says:
Contact header fields MAY be present in a 200 (OK) response Contact header fields MAY be present in a 200 (OK) response
and have the same semantics as in a 3xx response. That is, and have the same semantics as in a 3xx response. That is,
they may list a set of alternative names and methods of they may list a set of alternative names and methods of
reaching the user. reaching the user.
We extend this behavior to proxy servers responding to OPTIONS We extend this behavior to proxy servers responding to OPTIONS
addressed to them. They MAY list a set of alternative URIs to contact addressed to them. They MAY list a set of alternative URIs to contact
the proxy. the proxy.
Note that receiving incoming requests (even initial INVITEs) Note that receiving incoming requests (even initial INVITEs)
compressed is not a problem, since user agents can REGISTER a SIP URI compressed is not a problem, since user agents can REGISTER a SIP URI
with comp=sigcomp in their registrar. All incoming requests for the with comp=sigcomp in their registrar. All incoming requests for the
user will be sent to this SIP URI using compression. user will be sent to this SIP URI using compression.
4 Sending a Response to a Client 5 Sending a Response to a Client
A response is sent to the host in the sent-by parameter of the Via A response is sent to the host in the sent-by parameter of the Via
header field. If the topmost Via header field contains the parameter header field. If the topmost Via header field contains the parameter
comp=sigcomp, the response SHOULD be compressed. Otherwise, the comp=sigcomp, the response SHOULD be compressed. Otherwise, the
response MUST NOT be compressed. response MUST NOT be compressed.
A proxy performing Record-Route inspects the Record-Route header A proxy performing Record-Route inspects the Record-Route header
field in the response and the Contact header field in the request field in the response and the Contact header field in the request
that triggered this response (see example in Section 7). It looks for that triggered this response (see example in Section 8). It looks for
the URI of the next upstream (closer to the user agent client) hop in the URI of the next upstream (closer to the user agent client) hop in
the route set. If this URI contains the parameter comp=sigcomp, the the route set. If this URI contains the parameter comp=sigcomp, the
proxy SHOULD add comp=sigcomp to its entry in the Record-Route header proxy SHOULD add comp=sigcomp to its entry in the Record-Route header
field. If this URI does not contain the parameter comp=sigcomp, the field. If this URI does not contain the parameter comp=sigcomp, the
proxy SHOULD remove comp=sigcomp (if it is present) from its entry in proxy SHOULD remove comp=sigcomp (if it is present) from its entry in
the Record-Route header field. the Record-Route header field.
The same way, a user agent server SHOULD add comp=sigcomp to the The same way, a user agent server SHOULD add comp=sigcomp to the
Contact header field of the response if the URI of the next upstream Contact header field of the response if the URI of the next upstream
hop in the route set contained the parameter comp=sigcomp. hop in the route set contained the parameter comp=sigcomp.
5 Error Situations 6 Error Situations
If a compressed SIP request arrives to a SIP server that does not If a compressed SIP request arrives to a SIP server that does not
understand SigComp, the server will not have any means to indicate understand SigComp, the server will not have any means to indicate
the error to the client. The message will be impossible to parse, and the error to the client. The message will be impossible to parse, and
there will be no Via header field indicating an address to send the there will be no Via header field indicating an address to send the
error response. error response.
If a SIP client sends a compressed request and the client transaction If a SIP client sends a compressed request and the client transaction
times out without having received any response, the client SHOULD times out without having received any response, the client SHOULD
retry the same request without using compression. If the compressed retry the same request without using compression. If the compressed
request was sent over a TCP connection, the client SHOULD close that request was sent over a TCP connection, the client SHOULD close that
connection and open a new one to send the uncompressed request. connection and open a new one to send the uncompressed request.
Otherwise the server would not be able to detect the beginning of the Otherwise the server would not be able to detect the beginning of the
new message. new message.
6 Augmented BNF 7 Augmented BNF
This section provides the augmented Backus-Naur Form (BNF) of both This section provides the augmented Backus-Naur Form (BNF) of both
parameters described above. parameters described above.
The compression URI parameter is a "uri-parameter", as defined by the The compression URI parameter is a "uri-parameter", as defined by the
SIP ABNF (Section 25.1 of [1]): SIP ABNF (Section 25.1 of [1]):
compression-param = "comp=" ("sigcomp" / other-compression) compression-param = "comp=" ("sigcomp" / other-compression)
other-compression = token other-compression = token
The Via compression parameter is a "via-extension", as defined by the The Via compression parameter is a "via-extension", as defined by the
SIP ABNF (Section 25.1 of [1]): SIP ABNF (Section 25.1 of [1]):
via-compression = "comp" EQUAL ("sigcomp" / other-compression) via-compression = "comp" EQUAL ("sigcomp" / other-compression)
other-compression = token other-compression = token
7 Example 8 Example
The following example illustrates the use of the parameters defined The following example illustrates the use of the parameters defined
above. The call flow of Figure 1 shows an INVITE-200 OK-ACK handshake above. The call flow of Figure 1 shows an INVITE-200 OK-ACK handshake
between a UAC and a UAS through two proxies. Proxy P1 does not between a UAC and a UAS through two proxies. Proxy P1 does not
Record-Route but proxy P2 does. Both proxies support compression, but Record-Route but proxy P2 does. Both proxies support compression, but
they do not use it by default. they do not use it by default.
UAC P1 P2 UAS UAC P1 P2 UAS
|(1)INVITE(c) | | | |(1)INVITE(c) | | |
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Contact header fields. We have not used a correct format for these Contact header fields. We have not used a correct format for these
header fields. We have rather focus on the contents of the header header fields. We have rather focus on the contents of the header
fields and on the presence (or absence) of the "comp=sigcomp" fields and on the presence (or absence) of the "comp=sigcomp"
parameter. parameter.
(1) INVITE UAS (1) INVITE UAS
Via: UAC;comp=sigcomp Via: UAC;comp=sigcomp
Route:P1;comp=sigcomp Route:P1;comp=sigcomp
Contact: UAC;comp=sigcomp Contact: UAC;comp=sigcomp
P1 is the outbound proxy of the UAC, and it supports Sigcomp. The UAC P1 is the outbound proxy of the UAC, and it supports SigComp. The UAC
is configured to send compressed traffic to P1, and therefore, it is configured to send compressed traffic to P1, and therefore, it
compresses the INVITE (1). In addition, the UAC wants to receive compresses the INVITE (1). In addition, the UAC wants to receive
future requests and responses for this dialog compressed. Therefore, future requests and responses for this dialog compressed. Therefore,
it adds the comp=Sigcomp parameter to the Via and to the Contact it adds the comp=Sigcomp parameter to the Via and to the Contact
header fields. header fields.
(2) INVITE UAS (2) INVITE UAS
Via: P1 Via: P1
Via: UAC;comp=sigcomp Via: UAC;comp=sigcomp
Route:P2 Route:P2
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INVITE (3), P2 did not used the comp=sigcomp parameter. Now it adds INVITE (3), P2 did not used the comp=sigcomp parameter. Now it adds
it in the 200 OK (5). This will allow the UAC sending compressed it in the 200 OK (5). This will allow the UAC sending compressed
requests within this dialog. requests within this dialog.
(6) 200 OK (6) 200 OK
Via: UAC;comp=sigcomp Via: UAC;comp=sigcomp
Record-Route:P2;comp=sigcomp Record-Route:P2;comp=sigcomp
Contact: UAS Contact: UAS
P1 sends the 200 OK (6) compressed to the UAC because the Via header P1 sends the 200 OK (6) compressed to the UAC because the Via header
field contained the comp=Sigcomp parameter. field contained the comp=sigcomp parameter.
(7) ACK UAS (7) ACK UAS
Via: UAC;comp=sigcomp Via: UAC;comp=sigcomp
Route:P2;comp=sigcomp Route:P2;comp=sigcomp
Contact: UAC;comp=sigcomp Contact: UAC;comp=sigcomp
The UAC sends the ACK (7) compressed directly to P2 (P1 did not The UAC sends the ACK (7) compressed directly to P2 (P1 did not
Record-Route). Record-Route).
(8) ACK UAS (8) ACK UAS
Via: P2 Via: P2
Via: UAC;comp=sigcomp Via: UAC;comp=sigcomp
Contact: UAC;comp=sigcomp Contact: UAC;comp=sigcomp
P2 sends the ACK (8) uncompressed to the UAS. P2 sends the ACK (8) uncompressed to the UAS.
8 Security Considerations 9 Security Considerations
A SIP entity receiving a compressed message has to decompress it and A SIP entity receiving a compressed message has to decompress it and
to parse it. This requires slightly more processing power than only to parse it. This requires slightly more processing power than only
parsing a message. This implies that a denial of service attack using parsing a message. This implies that a denial of service attack using
compressed messages would be slightly worse than an attack with compressed messages would be slightly worse than an attack with
uncompressed messages. uncompressed messages.
An attacker inserting the parameter comp=sigcomp in a SIP message An attacker inserting the parameter comp=sigcomp in a SIP message
could make a SIP entity send compressed messages to another SIP could make a SIP entity send compressed messages to another SIP
entity that did not support Sigcomp. Appropriate integrity mechanisms entity that did not support SigComp. Appropriate integrity mechanisms
should be used to avoid this attack. should be used to avoid this attack.
9 Acknowledges 10 Acknowledges
Jonathan Rosenberg and Miguel Angel Garcia provided valuable comments
on this memo.
10 Authors' Addresses Allison Mankin, Jonathan Rosenberg and Miguel Angel Garcia provided
valuable comments on this memo.
11 Authors' Addresses
Gonzalo Camarillo Gonzalo Camarillo
Ericsson Ericsson
Advanced Signalling Research Lab. Advanced Signalling Research Lab.
FIN-02420 Jorvas FIN-02420 Jorvas
Finland Finland
electronic mail: Gonzalo.Camarillo@ericsson.com electronic mail: Gonzalo.Camarillo@ericsson.com
11 Normative References 12 Normative References
[1] J. Rosenberg, H. Schulzrinne, G. Camarillo, A. Johnston, J. [1] J. Rosenberg, H. Schulzrinne, G. Camarillo, A. Johnston, J.
Peterson, R. Sparks, M. Handley, and E. Schooler, "SIP: session Peterson, R. Sparks, M. Handley, and E. Schooler, "SIP: session
initiation protocol," RFC 3261, Internet Engineering Task Force, June initiation protocol," RFC 3261, Internet Engineering Task Force, June
2002. 2002.
[2] R. Price, J. Rosenberg, C. Bormann, H. Hannu, and Z. Liu, [2] R. Price et al. , "Signaling compression," Internet Draft,
"Universal decompressor virtual machine (udvm)," Internet Draft, Internet Engineering Task Force, June 2002. Work in progress.
Internet Engineering Task Force, Jan. 2002. Work in progress.
[3] M. Garcia et al. , "The session initiation protocol (SIP) and
session description protocol (SDP) static dictionary for signaling
compression (sigcomp)," Internet Draft, Internet Engineering Task
Force, July 2002. Work in progress.
12 Informative References 13 Informative References
[4] M. Mealling and R. Daniel, "The naming authority pointer (NAPTR) [3] M. Mealling and R. Daniel, "The naming authority pointer (NAPTR)
DNS resource record," RFC 2915, Internet Engineering Task Force, DNS resource record," RFC 2915, Internet Engineering Task Force,
Sept. 2000. Sept. 2000.
[5] A. Gulbrandsen, P. Vixie, and L. Esibov, "A DNS RR for specifying [4] A. Gulbrandsen, P. Vixie, and L. Esibov, "A DNS RR for specifying
the location of services (DNS SRV)," RFC 2782, Internet Engineering the location of services (DNS SRV)," RFC 2782, Internet Engineering
Task Force, Feb. 2000. Task Force, Feb. 2000.
[5] M. Garcia et al. , "The session initiation protocol (SIP) and
session description protocol (SDP) static dictionary for signaling
compression (sigcomp)," Internet Draft, Internet Engineering Task
Force, July 2002. Work in progress.
[6] H. Schulzrinne, "DHCP option for SIP servers," Internet Draft, [6] H. Schulzrinne, "DHCP option for SIP servers," Internet Draft,
Internet Engineering Task Force, Mar. 2002. Work in progress. Internet Engineering Task Force, Mar. 2002. Work in progress.
Full Copyright Statement Full Copyright Statement
Copyright (c) The Internet Society (2002). All Rights Reserved. Copyright (c) The Internet Society (2002). All Rights Reserved.
This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
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