draft-ietf-sipcore-rejected-09.txt   rfc8688.txt 
SIPCORE E. Burger Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) E.W. Burger
Internet-Draft Georgetown University Request for Comments: 8688 Georgetown University
Intended status: Standards Track B. Nagda Category: Standards Track B. Nagda
Expires: December 30, 2019 Massachusetts Institute of Technology ISSN: 2070-1721 Massachusetts Institute of Technology
June 28, 2019 December 2019
A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Response Code for Rejected Calls A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Response Code for Rejected Calls
draft-ietf-sipcore-rejected-09
Abstract Abstract
This document defines the 608 (Rejected) SIP response code. This This document defines the 608 (Rejected) Session Initiation Protocol
response code enables calling parties to learn that an intermediary (SIP) response code. This response code enables calling parties to
rejected their call attempt. No one will deliver, and thus no one learn that an intermediary rejected their call attempt. No one will
will answer, the call. As a 6xx code, the caller will be aware that deliver, and thus answer, the call. As a 6xx code, the caller will
future attempts to contact the same User Agent Server will likely be aware that future attempts to contact the same User Agent Server
fail. The initial use case driving the need for the 608 response will likely fail. The initial use case driving the need for the 608
code is when the intermediary is an analytics engine. In this case, response code is when the intermediary is an analytics engine. In
the rejection is by a machine or other process. This contrasts with this case, the rejection is by a machine or other process. This
the 607 (Unwanted) SIP response code, which a human at the target contrasts with the 607 (Unwanted) SIP response code in which a human
User Agent Server indicated the user did not want the call. In some at the target User Agent Server indicates the user did not want the
jurisdictions this distinction is important. This document also call. In some jurisdictions, this distinction is important. This
defines the use of the Call-Info header field in 608 responses to document also defines the use of the Call-Info header field in 608
enable rejected callers to contact entities that blocked their calls responses to enable rejected callers to contact entities that blocked
in error. This provides a remediation mechanism for legal callers their calls in error. This provides a remediation mechanism for
that find their calls blocked. legal callers that find their calls blocked.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This is an Internet Standards Track document.
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841.
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and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
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Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2. Terminology
3. Protocol Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3. Protocol Operation
3.1. Intermediary Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.1. Intermediary Operation
3.2. JWS Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.2. JWS Construction
3.2.1. JOSE Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.2.1. JOSE Header
3.2.2. JWT Payload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.2.2. JWT Payload
3.2.3. JWS Signature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.2.3. JWS Signature
3.3. UAC Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.3. UAC Operation
3.4. Legacy Interoperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.4. Legacy Interoperation
3.5. Announcement Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.5. Announcement Requirements
4. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4. Examples
4.1. Full Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.1. Full Exchange
4.2. Web Site jCard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.2. Web Site jCard
4.3. Multi-modal jCard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4.3. Multi-modal jCard
4.4. Legacy Interoperability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4.4. Legacy Interoperability
5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5. IANA Considerations
5.1. SIP Response Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5.1. SIP Response Code
5.2. SIP Feature-Capability Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5.2. SIP Feature-Capability Indicator
5.3. JSON Web Token Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 5.3. JSON Web Token Claim
5.4. Call-Info Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 5.4. Call-Info Purpose
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6. Security Considerations
7. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 7. References
8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 7.1. Normative References
8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 7.2. Informative References
8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Acknowledgements
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Authors' Addresses
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The IETF has been addressing numerous issues surrounding how to The IETF has been addressing numerous issues surrounding how to
handle unwanted and, depending on the jurisdiction, illegal calls handle unwanted and, depending on the jurisdiction, illegal calls
[RFC5039]. STIR [RFC7340] and SHAKEN [SHAKEN] address the [RFC5039]. Secure Telephone Identity Revisited (STIR) [RFC7340] and
cryptographic signing and attestation, respectively, of signaling to Signature-based Handling of Asserted information using toKENs
ensure the integrity and authenticity of the asserted caller (SHAKEN) [SHAKEN] address the cryptographic signing and attestation,
identity. respectively, of signaling to ensure the integrity and authenticity
of the asserted caller identity.
This document describes a new Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) This document describes a new Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
[RFC3261] response code, 608, which allows calling parties to learn [RFC3261] response code, 608, which allows calling parties to learn
that an intermediary rejected their call. As described below, we that an intermediary rejected their call. As described below, we
need a distinct indicator to differentiate between a user rejection need a distinct indicator to differentiate between a user rejection
and an intermediary's rejection of a call. In some jurisdictions, and an intermediary's rejection of a call. In some jurisdictions,
service providers may not be permitted to block calls, even if service providers may not be permitted to block calls, even if
unwanted by the user, unless there is an explicit user request. unwanted by the user, unless there is an explicit user request.
Moreover, users may misidentify the nature of a caller. Moreover, users may misidentify the nature of a caller.
For example, a legitimate caller may call a user who finds the call For example, a legitimate caller may call a user who finds the call
to be unwanted. However, instead of marking the call as unwanted, to be unwanted. However, instead of marking the call as unwanted,
the user may mark the call as illegal. With that information, an the user may mark the call as illegal. With that information, an
analytics engine may determine to block all calls from that source. analytics engine may determine to block all calls from that source.
However, in some jurisdictions blocking calls from that source for However, in some jurisdictions, blocking calls from that source for
other users may not be legal. Likewise, one can envision other users may not be legal. Likewise, one can envision
jurisdictions that allow an operator to block such calls, but only if jurisdictions that allow an operator to block such calls, but only if
there is a remediation mechanism in place to address false positives. there is a remediation mechanism in place to address false positives.
Some call blocking services may return responses such as 604 (Does Some call-blocking services may return responses such as 604 (Does
Not Exist Anywhere). This might be a strategy to try to get a Not Exist Anywhere). This might be a strategy to try to get a
destination's address removed from a calling database. However, destination's address removed from a calling database. However,
other network elements might also interpret this to mean the user other network elements might also interpret this to mean the user
truly does not exist, which might result in the user not being able truly does not exist, which might result in the user not being able
to receive calls from anyone, even if they wanted to receive the to receive calls from anyone, even if they wanted to receive the
calls. In many jurisdictions, providing such false signaling is also calls. In many jurisdictions, providing such false signaling is also
illegal. illegal.
The 608 response code addresses this need of remediating falsely The 608 response code addresses this need of remediating falsely
blocked calls. Specifically, this code informs the SIP User Agent blocked calls. Specifically, this code informs the SIP User Agent
Client (UAC) that an intermediary blocked the call and provides a Client (UAC) that an intermediary blocked the call and provides a
redress mechanism that allows callers to contact the operator of the redress mechanism that allows callers to contact the operator of the
intermediary. intermediary.
In the current call handling ecosystem, users can explicitly reject a In the current call handling ecosystem, users can explicitly reject a
call or later mark a call as being unwanted by issuing a 607 SIP call or later mark a call as being unwanted by issuing a 607 SIP
response code (Unwanted) [RFC8197]. Figure 1 and Figure 2 show the response code (Unwanted) [RFC8197]. Figures 1 and 2 show the
operation of the 607 SIP response code. The User Agent Server (UAS) operation of the 607 SIP response code. The User Agent Server (UAS)
indicates the call was unwanted. As [RFC8197] explains, not only indicates the call was unwanted. As [RFC8197] explains, not only
does the called party desire to reject that call, they can let their does the called party desire to reject that call, they can let their
proxy know that they consider future calls from that source unwanted. proxy know that they consider future calls from that source unwanted.
Upon receipt of the 607 response from the UAS, the proxy may send Upon receipt of the 607 response from the UAS, the proxy may send
unwanted call indicators, such as the value of the From header field unwanted call indicators, such as the value of the From header field
and other information elements, to a call analytics engine. For and other information elements, to a call analytics engine. For
various reasons described in [RFC8197], if a network operator various reasons described in [RFC8197], if a network operator
receives multiple reports of unwanted calls, that may indicate that receives multiple reports of unwanted calls, that may indicate that
the entity placing the calls is likely to be a source of unwanted the entity placing the calls is likely to be a source of unwanted
calls for many people. As such, other customers of the service calls for many people. As such, other customers of the service
provider may want the service provider to automatically reject calls provider may want the service provider to automatically reject calls
on their behalf. on their behalf.
There is another value of the 607 rejection code. Presuming the There is another value of the 607 rejection code. Presuming the
proxy forwards the response code to the User Agent Client (UAC), the proxy forwards the response code to the UAC, the calling UAC or
calling UAC or intervening proxies will also learn the user is not intervening proxies will also learn the user is not interested in
interested in receiving calls from that sender. receiving calls from that sender.
+-----------+ +-----------+
| Call | | Call |
| Analytics | | Analytics |
| Engine | | Engine |
+-----------+ +-----------+
^ | (likely not SIP) ^ | (likely not SIP)
| v | v
+-----------+ +-----------+
+-----+ 607 | Called | 607 +-----+ +-----+ 607 | Called | 607 +-----+
| UAC | <--------- | Party | <-------- | UAS | | UAC | <--------- | Party | <-------- | UAS |
+-----+ | Proxy | +-----+ +-----+ | Proxy | +-----+
+-----------+ +-----------+
Figure 1: Unwanted (607) Call Flow Figure 1: Unwanted (607) Call Flow
For calls rejected with a 607 from a legitimate caller, receiving a For calls rejected with a 607 from a legitimate caller, receiving a
607 response code can inform the caller to stop attempting to call 607 response code can inform the caller to stop attempting to call
the user. Moreover, if a legitimate caller believes the user is the user. Moreover, if a legitimate caller believes the user is
rejecting their calls in error, they can use other channels to rejecting their calls in error, they can use other channels to
contact the user. For example, if a pharmacy calls a user to let contact the user. For example, if a pharmacy calls a user to let
them know their prescription is available for pickup and the user them know their prescription is available for pickup and the user
mistakenly thinks the call is unwanted and issues a 607 response mistakenly thinks the call is unwanted and issues a 607 response
code, the pharmacy, having an existing relationship with the code, the pharmacy, having an existing relationship with the
customer, can send the user an email or push a note to the pharmacist customer, can send the user an email or push a note to the pharmacist
skipping to change at page 5, line 14 skipping to change at line 192
implement as the user usually has a direct relationship with the implement as the user usually has a direct relationship with the
service provider that is blocking calls. service provider that is blocking calls.
However, things become more complicated if an intermediary, such as a However, things become more complicated if an intermediary, such as a
third-party provider of call management services that classifies third-party provider of call management services that classifies
calls based on the relative likelihood that the call is unwanted, calls based on the relative likelihood that the call is unwanted,
misidentifies the call as unwanted. Figure 3 shows this case. Note misidentifies the call as unwanted. Figure 3 shows this case. Note
that the UAS typically does not receive an INVITE since the called that the UAS typically does not receive an INVITE since the called
party proxy rejects the call on behalf of the user. In this party proxy rejects the call on behalf of the user. In this
situation, it would be beneficial for the caller to learn who situation, it would be beneficial for the caller to learn who
rejected the call, so they can correct the misidentification. rejected the call so they can correct the misidentification.
+--------+ +-----------+ +--------+ +-----------+
| Called | | Call | | Called | | Call |
+-----+ | Party | | Analytics | +-----+ +-----+ | Party | | Analytics | +-----+
| UAC | | Proxy | | Engine | | UAS | | UAC | | Proxy | | Engine | | UAS |
+-----+ +--------+ +-----------+ +-----+ +-----+ +--------+ +-----------+ +-----+
| INVITE | | | | INVITE | | |
| --------------> | Is call OK? | | | --------------> | Is call OK? | |
| |------------------->| | | |------------------->| |
| | | | | | | |
| | Yes | | | | Yes | |
| |<-------------------| | | |<-------------------| |
| | | | | | | |
| | INVITE | | | | INVITE | |
| | ------------------------------> | | | ------------------------------> |
| | | | | | | |
| | | 607 | | | | 607 |
| | <------------------------------ | | | <------------------------------ |
| | | | | | | |
| | Unwanted call | | | | Unwanted call | |
| 607 | -----------------> | | | 607 | -----------------> | |
| <-------------- | indicators | | | <-------------- | indicators | |
| | | | | | | |
Figure 2: Unwanted (607) Ladder Diagram Figure 2: Unwanted (607) Ladder Diagram
+-----------+
| Call |
| Analytics |
| Engine |
+-----------+
^ | (likely not SIP)
| v
+-----------+
+-----+ 608 | Called | +-----+
| UAC | <--------- | Party | | UAS |
+-----+ | Proxy | +-----+
+-----------+
Figure 3: Rejected (608) Call Flow +-----------+
| Call |
| Analytics |
| Engine |
+-----------+
^ | (likely not SIP)
| v
+-----------+
+-----+ 608 | Called | +-----+
| UAC | <--------- | Party | | UAS |
+-----+ | Proxy | +-----+
+-----------+
In this situation, one might consider to have the intermediary use Figure 3: Rejected (608) Call Flow
the 607 response code. 607 indicates to the caller the subscriber
In this situation, one might consider having the intermediary use the
607 response code. 607 indicates to the caller that the subscriber
does not want the call. However, [RFC8197] specifies that one of the does not want the call. However, [RFC8197] specifies that one of the
uses of 607 is to inform analytics engines that a user (human) has uses of 607 is to inform analytics engines that a user (human) has
rejected a call. The problem here is that network elements rejected a call. The problem here is that network elements
downstream from the intermediary might interpret the 607 as coming downstream from the intermediary might interpret the 607 as coming
from a user (human) who has marked the call as unwanted, as opposed from a user (human) who has marked the call as unwanted, as opposed
to coming from an algorithm using statistics or machine learning to to coming from an algorithm using statistics or machine learning to
reject the call. An algorithm can be vulnerable to the base rate reject the call. An algorithm can be vulnerable to the base-rate
fallacy [BaseRate] rejecting the call. In other words, those fallacy [BaseRate] rejecting the call. In other words, those
downstream entities should not rely on another entity 'deciding' the downstream entities should not rely on another entity "deciding" the
call is unwanted. By distinguishing between a (human) user rejection call is unwanted. By distinguishing between a (human) user rejection
and an intermediary engine's statistical rejection, a downstream and an intermediary engine's statistical rejection, a downstream
network element that sees a 607 response code can weigh it as a human network element that sees a 607 response code can weigh it as a human
rejection in its call analytics, versus deciding whether to consider rejection in its call analytics, versus deciding whether to consider
a 608 at all, and if so, weighing it appropriately. a 608 at all, and if so, weighing it appropriately.
It is useful for blocked callers to have a redress mechanism. One It is useful for blocked callers to have a redress mechanism. One
can imagine that some jurisdictions will require it. However, we can imagine that some jurisdictions will require it. However, we
must be mindful that most of the calls that intermediaries block must be mindful that most of the calls that intermediaries block
will, in fact, be illegal and eligible for blocking. Thus, providing will, in fact, be illegal and eligible for blocking. Thus, providing
alternate contact information for a user would be counterproductive alternate contact information for a user would be counterproductive
to protecting that user from illegal communications. This is another to protecting that user from illegal communications. This is another
reason we do not propose to simply allow alternate contact reason we do not propose to simply allow alternate contact
information in a 607 response message. information in a 607 response message.
Why do we not use the same mechanism an analytics service provider Why do we not use the same mechanism an analytics service provider
offers their customers? Specifically, why not have the analytics offers their customers? Specifically, why not have the analytics
service provider allow the called party to correct a call blocked in service provider allow the called party to correct a call blocked in
error? The reason is while there is an existing relationship between error? The reason is that while there is an existing relationship
the customer (called party) and the analytics service provider, it is between the customer (called party) and the analytics service
unlikely there is a relationship between the caller and the analytics provider, it is unlikely there is a relationship between the caller
service provider. Moreover, there are numerous call blocking and the analytics service provider. Moreover, there are numerous
providers in the ecosystem. Therefore, we need a mechanism for call blocking providers in the ecosystem. Therefore, we need a
indicating an intermediary rejected a call that also provides contact mechanism for indicating an intermediary rejected a call that also
information for the operator of that intermediary, without exposing provides contact information for the operator of that intermediary
the target user's contact information. without exposing the target user's contact information.
The protocol described in this document uses existing SIP protocol The protocol described in this document uses existing SIP protocol
mechanisms for specifying the redress mechanism. In the Call-Info mechanisms for specifying the redress mechanism. In the Call-Info
header passed back to the UAC, we send additional information header field passed back to the UAC, we send additional information
specifying a redress address. We choose to encode the redress specifying a redress address. We choose to encode the redress
address using jCard [RFC7095]. As we will see later in this address using jCard [RFC7095]. As we will see later in this
document, this information needs to have its own, application-layer document, this information needs to have its own application-layer
integrity protection. Thus, we use jCard rather than vCard [RFC6350] integrity protection. Thus, we use jCard rather than vCard
as we have a marshaling mechanism for creating a JavaScript Object [RFC6350], as we have a marshaling mechanism for creating a
Notation (JSON) [RFC8259] object, such as a jCard, and a standard JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) [RFC8259] object, such as a jCard,
integrity format for such an object, namely JSON Web Signature (JWS) and a standard integrity format for such an object, namely, JSON Web
[RFC7515]. The SIP community is familiar with this concept as it is Signature (JWS) [RFC7515]. The SIP community is familiar with this
the mechanism used by STIR [RFC8224]. concept as it is the mechanism used by STIR [RFC8224].
Integrity protecting the jCard with a cryptographic signature might Integrity protecting the jCard with a cryptographic signature might
seem unnecessary at first, but it is essential to preventing seem unnecessary at first, but it is essential to preventing
potential network attacks. Section 6 describes the attack and why we potential network attacks. Section 6 describes the attack and why we
sign the jCard in more detail. sign the jCard in more detail.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
"OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
14 [RFC2119][RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
capitals, as shown here. capitals, as shown here.
3. Protocol Operation 3. Protocol Operation
This section uses the term 'intermediary' to mean the entity that This section uses the term "intermediary" to mean the entity that
acts as a SIP User Agent Server (UAS) on behalf of the user in the acts as a SIP UAS on behalf of the user in the network as opposed to
network, as opposed to the user's UAS (usually, but not necessarily, the user's UAS (usually, but not necessarily, their phone). The
their phone). The intermediary could be a back-to-back user agent intermediary could be a back-to-back user agent (B2BUA) or a SIP
(B2BUA) or a SIP Proxy. Proxy.
Figure 4 shows an overview of the call flow for a rejected call. Figure 4 shows an overview of the call flow for a rejected call.
+--------+ +-----------+ +--------+ +-----------+
| Called | | Call | | Called | | Call |
+-----+ | Party | | Analytics | +-----+ +-----+ | Party | | Analytics | +-----+
| UAC | | Proxy | | Engine | | UAS | | UAC | | Proxy | | Engine | | UAS |
+-----+ +--------+ +-----------+ +-----+ +-----+ +--------+ +-----------+ +-----+
| INVITE | | | | INVITE | | |
| --------------> | Information from | | | --------------> | Is call OK? | |
| | -----------------> | | | |------------------->| |
| | INVITE | | | | | |
| | Reject | | | | Yes | |
| 608 | <----------------- | | | |<-------------------| |
| <-------------- | call | | | | | |
| | | | | | INVITE | |
| | ------------------------------> |
| | | |
| | | 607 |
| | <------------------------------ |
| | | |
| | Unwanted call | |
| 607 | -----------------> | |
| <-------------- | indicators | |
| | | |
Figure 4: Rejected (608) Ladder Diagram Figure 4: Rejected (608) Ladder Diagram
3.1. Intermediary Operation 3.1. Intermediary Operation
An intermediary MAY issue the 608 response code in a failure response An intermediary MAY issue the 608 response code in a failure response
for an INVITE, MESSAGE, SUBSCRIBE, or other out-of-dialog SIP for an INVITE, MESSAGE, SUBSCRIBE, or other out-of-dialog SIP
[RFC3261] request to indicate that an intermediary rejected the [RFC3261] request to indicate that an intermediary rejected the
offered communication as unwanted by the user. An intermediary MAY offered communication as unwanted by the user. An intermediary MAY
issue the 608 as the value of the "cause" parameter of a SIP reason- issue the 608 as the value of the "cause" parameter of a SIP reason-
value in a Reason header field [RFC3326]. value in a Reason header field [RFC3326].
If an intermediary issues a 608 code and there are no indicators the If an intermediary issues a 608 code and there are no indicators the
calling party will use the contents of the Call-Info header field for calling party will use the contents of the Call-Info header field for
malicious purposes (see Section 6), the intermediary MUST include a malicious purposes (see Section 6), the intermediary MUST include a
Call-Info header field in the response. Call-Info header field in the response.
If there is a Call-Info header field, it MUST have the 'purpose' If there is a Call-Info header field, it MUST have the "purpose"
parameter of 'jwscard'. The value of the Call-Info header field MUST parameter of "jwscard". The value of the Call-Info header field MUST
refer to a valid JSON Web Signature (JWS [RFC7515]) encoding of a refer to a valid JSON Web Signature (JWS) [RFC7515] encoding of a
jCard [RFC7095] object. The following section describes the jCard [RFC7095] object. The following section describes the
construction of the JWS. construction of the JWS.
Proxies need to be mindful that a downstream intermediary may reject Proxies need to be mindful that a downstream intermediary may reject
the attempt with a 608 while other paths may still be in progress. the attempt with a 608 while other paths may still be in progress.
In this situation, the requirements stated in Section 16.7 of In this situation, the requirements stated in Section 16.7 of
[RFC3261] apply. Specifically, the proxy should cancel pending [RFC3261] apply. Specifically, the proxy should cancel pending
transactions and must not create any new branches. Note this is not transactions and must not create any new branches. Note this is not
a new requirement but simply pointing out the existing 6xx protocol a new requirement but simply pointing out the existing 6xx protocol
mechanism in SIP. mechanism in SIP.
3.2. JWS Construction 3.2. JWS Construction
The intermediary constructs the JWS of the jCard as follows. The intermediary constructs the JWS of the jCard as follows.
3.2.1. JOSE Header 3.2.1. JOSE Header
The Javascript Object Signing and Encryption (JOSE) header MUST The Javascript Object Signing and Encryption (JOSE) header MUST
include the typ, alg, and x5u parameters from JWS [RFC7515]. The typ include the typ, alg, and x5u parameters from JWS [RFC7515]. The typ
parameter MUST have the value "vcard+json". Implementations MUST parameter MUST have the value "vcard+json". Implementations MUST
support ES256 as JSON Web Algorithms (JWA [RFC7518]) defines it, and support ES256 as JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [RFC7518] defines it and
MAY support other registered signature algorithms. Finally, the x5u MAY support other registered signature algorithms. Finally, the x5u
parameter MUST be a URI that resolves to the public key certificate parameter MUST be a URI that resolves to the public key certificate
corresponding to the key used to digitally sign the JWS. corresponding to the key used to digitally sign the JWS.
3.2.2. JWT Payload 3.2.2. JWT Payload
The payload contains two JSON values. The first JSON Web Token (JWT) The payload contains two JSON values. The first JSON Web Token (JWT)
claim that MUST be present is the iat (issued at) claim [RFC7519]. claim that MUST be present is the "iat" (issued at) claim [RFC7519].
The "iat" MUST be set to the date and time of the issuance of the 608 The "iat" MUST be set to the date and time of the issuance of the 608
response. This mandatory component protects the response from replay response. This mandatory component protects the response from replay
attacks. attacks.
The second JWT claim that MUST be present is the "jcard" claim. The The second JWT claim that MUST be present is the "jcard" claim. The
value of the jcard [RFC7095] claim is a JSON array conforming to the value of the jcard [RFC7095] claim is a JSON array conforming to the
JSON jCard data format defined in RFC7095 Section 5.3 describes the JSON jCard data format defined in [RFC7095]. Section 5.3 describes
registration. In the construction of the jcard claim, the "jcard" the registration. In the construction of the jcard claim, the
MUST include at least one of the URL, EMAIL, TEL, or ADR properties. "jcard" MUST include at least one of the URL, EMAIL, TEL, or ADR
UACs supporting this specification MUST be prepared to receive a full properties. UACs supporting this specification MUST be prepared to
jCard. Call originators (at the UAC) can use the information receive a full jCard. Call originators (at the UAC) can use the
returned by the jCard to contact the intermediary that rejected the information returned by the jCard to contact the intermediary that
call to appeal the intermediary's blocking of the call attempt. What rejected the call to appeal the intermediary's blocking of the call
the intermediary does if the blocked caller contacts the intermediary attempt. What the intermediary does if the blocked caller contacts
is outside the scope of this document. the intermediary is outside the scope of this document.
3.2.3. JWS Signature 3.2.3. JWS Signature
JWS [RFC7515] specifies the procedure for calculating the signature JWS [RFC7515] specifies the procedure for calculating the signature
over the jCard JWT. Section 4 of this document has a detailed over the jCard JWT. Section 4 of this document has a detailed
example on constructing the JWS, including the signature. example on constructing the JWS, including the signature.
3.3. UAC Operation 3.3. UAC Operation
A UAC conforming to this specification MUST include the sip.608 A UAC conforming to this specification MUST include the sip.608
feature capability indicator in the Feature-Caps header field of the feature-capability indicator in the Feature-Caps header field of the
INVITE request. INVITE request.
Upon receiving a 608 response, UACs perform normal SIP processing for Upon receiving a 608 response, UACs perform normal SIP processing for
6xx responses. 6xx responses.
As for the disposition of the jCard itself, the UAC MUST check the As for the disposition of the jCard itself, the UAC MUST check the
"iat" claim in the JWT. As noted in Section 3.2.3, we are concerned "iat" claim in the JWT. As noted in Section 3.2.2, we are concerned
about replay attacks. Therefore, the UAC MUST reject jCards that about replay attacks. Therefore, the UAC MUST reject jCards that
come with an expired "iat". The definition of "expired" is a matter come with an expired "iat". The definition of "expired" is a matter
of local policy. A reasonable value would be on the order of a of local policy. A reasonable value would be on the order of a
minute due to clock drift and the possibility of the playing of an minute due to clock drift and the possibility of the playing of an
audio announcement before the delivery of the 608 response. audio announcement before the delivery of the 608 response.
3.4. Legacy Interoperation 3.4. Legacy Interoperation
If the UAC indicates support for 608 and the intermediary issues a If the UAC indicates support for 608 and the intermediary issues a
608, life is good, as the UAC will receive all the information it 608, life is good, as the UAC will receive all the information it
needs to remediate an erroneous block by an intermediary. However, needs to remediate an erroneous block by an intermediary. However,
what if the UAC does not understand 608? For example, how can we what if the UAC does not understand 608? For example, how can we
support callers from a legacy, non-SIP public switched network support callers from a legacy, non-SIP, public-switched network
connecting to the SIP network via a media gateway? connecting to the SIP network via a media gateway?
We address this situation by having the first network element that We address this situation by having the first network element that
conforms with this specification play an announcement in the media. conforms with this specification play an announcement. See
See Section 3.5 for requirements on the announcement. The simple Section 3.5 for requirements on the announcement. The simple rule is
rule is a network element that inserts the sip.608 feature capability a network element that inserts the sip.608 feature capability MUST be
MUST be able to convey at a minimum how to contact the operator of able to convey at a minimum how to contact the operator of the
the intermediary that rejected the call attempt. intermediary that rejected the call attempt.
The degenerate case is the intermediary is the only element that The degenerate case is the intermediary is the only element that
understands the semantics of the 608 response code. Obviously, any understands the semantics of the 608 response code. Obviously, any
SIP device will understand that a 608 response code is a 6xx error. SIP device will understand that a 608 response code is a 6xx error.
However, there are no other elements in the call path that understand However, there are no other elements in the call path that understand
the meaning of the value of the Call-Info header field. The the meaning of the value of the Call-Info header field. The
intermediary knows this is the case as the INVITE request will not intermediary knows this is the case as the INVITE request will not
have the sip.608 feature capability. In this case, one can consider have the sip.608 feature capability. In this case, one can consider
the intermediary to be the element 'inserting' a virtual sip.608 the intermediary to be the element "inserting" a virtual sip.608
feature capability. If the caveats described in Section 3.5 and feature capability. If the caveats described in Sections 3.5 and 6
Section 6 do not hold, the intermediary MUST play the announcement. do not hold, the intermediary MUST play the announcement.
Now we take the case where a network element that understands the 608 Now we take the case where a network element that understands the 608
response code receives an INVITE for further processing. A network response code receives an INVITE for further processing. A network
element conforming with this specification MUST insert the sip.608 element conforming with this specification MUST insert the sip.608
feature capability, per the behaviors described in Section 4.2 of feature capability per the behaviors described in Section 4.2 of
[RFC6809]. [RFC6809].
Do note that even if a network element plays an announcement Do note that even if a network element plays an announcement
describing the contents of the 608 response message, the network describing the contents of the 608 response message, the network
element MUST forward the 608 response code message as the final element MUST forward the 608 response code message as the final
response to the INVITE. response to the INVITE.
One aspect of using a feature capability is that only the network One aspect of using a feature capability is that only the network
elements that will either consume (UAC) or play an announcement elements that will either consume (UAC) or play an announcement
(media gateway, session border controller (SBC [RFC7092]), or proxy) (media gateway, session border controller (SBC) [RFC7092], or proxy)
need to understand the sip.608 feature capability. If the other need to understand the sip.608 feature capability. If the other
network elements conform to Section 16.6 of [RFC3261], they will pass network elements conform to Section 16.6 of [RFC3261], they will pass
header fields such as "Feature-Caps: *;+sip.608" unmodified and header fields such as "Feature-Caps: *;+sip.608" unmodified and
without need for upgrade. without need for upgrade.
Because the ultimate disposition of the call attempt will be a Because the ultimate disposition of the call attempt will be a
600-class response, the network element conveying the announcement in 600-class response, the network element conveying the announcement in
the legacy direction MUST use the 183 Session Progress response to the legacy direction MUST use the 183 Session Progress response to
establish the media session. Because of the small chance the UAC is establish the media session. Because of the small chance the UAC is
an extremely old legacy device and is using UDP, the UAC MUST include an extremely old legacy device and is using UDP, the UAC MUST include
support for 100Rel [RFC3262] in its INVITE and the network element support for 100rel [RFC3262] in its INVITE, the network element
conveying the announcement MUST Require 100Rel in the 183 and the UAC conveying the announcement MUST Require 100rel in the 183, and the
MUST issue a PRACK to which the network element MUST respond 200 OK UAC MUST issue a Provisional Response ACKnowledgement (PRACK) to
PRACK. which the network element MUST respond 200 OK PRACK.
3.5. Announcement Requirements 3.5. Announcement Requirements
There are a few requirements on the element that handles the There are a few requirements on the element that handles the
announcement for legacy interoperation. announcement for legacy interoperation.
As noted above, the element that inserts the sip.608 feature As noted above, the element that inserts the sip.608 feature
capability is responsible for conveying the information referenced by capability is responsible for conveying the information referenced by
the Call-Info header field in the 608 response message. However, the Call-Info header field in the 608 response message. However,
this specification does not mandate how to convey that information. this specification does not mandate how to convey that information.
Let us take the case where a telecommunications service provider Let us take the case where a telecommunications service provider
controls the element inserting the sip.608 feature capability. It controls the element inserting the sip.608 feature capability. It
would be reasonable to expect the service provider would play an would be reasonable to expect the service provider would play an
announcement in the media path towards the UAC (caller). It is announcement in the media path towards the UAC (caller). It is
important to note the network element should be mindful of the media important to note the network element should be mindful of the media
type requested by the UAC as it formulates the announcement. For type requested by the UAC as it formulates the announcement. For
example, it would make sense for an INVITE that only indicated audio example, it would make sense for an INVITE that only indicated audio
codecs in the Session Description Protocol (SDP) [RFC4566] to result codecs in the Session Description Protocol (SDP) [RFC4566] to result
in an audio announcement. Likewise, if the INVITE only indicated a in an audio announcement. Likewise, if the INVITE only indicated
real-time text codec [RFC4103] and the network element can render the real-time text [RFC4103] and the network element can render the
information in the requested media format, the network element should information in the requested media format, the network element should
send the information in a text format. send the information in a text format.
It is also possible for the network element inserting the sip.608 It is also possible for the network element inserting the sip.608
feature capability to be under the control of the same entity that feature capability to be under the control of the same entity that
controls the UAC. For example, a large call center might have legacy controls the UAC. For example, a large call center might have legacy
UACs, but have a modern outbound calling proxy that understands the UACs, but have a modern outbound calling proxy that understands the
full semantics of the 608 response code. In this case, it is enough full semantics of the 608 response code. In this case, it is enough
for the outbound calling proxy to digest the Call-Info information for the outbound calling proxy to digest the Call-Info information
and handle the information digitally, rather than 'transcoding' the and handle the information digitally rather than "transcoding" the
Call-Info information for presentation to the caller. Call-Info information for presentation to the caller.
4. Examples 4. Examples
These examples are not normative, do not include all protocol These examples are not normative, do not include all protocol
elements, and may have errors. Review the protocol documents for elements, and may have errors. Review the protocol documents for
actual syntax and semantics of the protocol elements. actual syntax and semantics of the protocol elements.
4.1. Full Exchange 4.1. Full Exchange
skipping to change at page 12, line 36 skipping to change at line 537
MESSAGE, OPTIONS MESSAGE, OPTIONS
Content-Type: application/sdp Content-Type: application/sdp
Date: Tue, 16 Aug 2016 19:23:38 GMT Date: Tue, 16 Aug 2016 19:23:38 GMT
Feature-Caps: *;+sip.608 Feature-Caps: *;+sip.608
Identity: eyJhbGciOiJFUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6InBhc3Nwb3J0IiwicHB0Ijoic2hha2V Identity: eyJhbGciOiJFUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6InBhc3Nwb3J0IiwicHB0Ijoic2hha2V
uIiwieDV1IjoiaHR0cDovL2NlcnQuZXhhbXBsZTIubmV0L2V4YW1wbGUuY2VydCJ9.eyJ uIiwieDV1IjoiaHR0cDovL2NlcnQuZXhhbXBsZTIubmV0L2V4YW1wbGUuY2VydCJ9.eyJ
hdHRlc3QiOiJBIiwiZGVzdCI6eyJ0biI6IisxMjE1NTU1MDExMyJ9LCJpYXQiOiIxNDcx hdHRlc3QiOiJBIiwiZGVzdCI6eyJ0biI6IisxMjE1NTU1MDExMyJ9LCJpYXQiOiIxNDcx
Mzc1NDE4Iiwib3JpZyI6eyJ0biI6IisxMjE1NTU1MDExMiJ9LCJvcmlnaWQiOiIxMjNlN Mzc1NDE4Iiwib3JpZyI6eyJ0biI6IisxMjE1NTU1MDExMiJ9LCJvcmlnaWQiOiIxMjNlN
DU2Ny1lODliLTEyZDMtYTQ1Ni00MjY2NTU0NDAwMCJ9.QAht_eFqQlaoVrnEV56Qly-OU DU2Ny1lODliLTEyZDMtYTQ1Ni00MjY2NTU0NDAwMCJ9.QAht_eFqQlaoVrnEV56Qly-OU
tsDGifyCcpYjWcaR661Cz1hutFH2BzIlDswTahO7ujjqsWjeoOb4h97whTQJg;info= tsDGifyCcpYjWcaR661Cz1hutFH2BzIlDswTahO7ujjqsWjeoOb4h97whTQJg;info=
<http://cert.example2.net/example.cert>;alg=ES256 <http://cert.example2.net/example.cert>;alg=ES256
Content-Length: 153 Content-Length: 153
v=0 v=0
o=- 13103070023943130 1 IN IP6 2001:db8::177 o=- 13103070023943130 1 IN IP6 2001:db8::177
c=IN IP6 2001:db8::177 c=IN IP6 2001:db8::177
t=0 0 t=0 0
m=audio 54242 RTP/AVP 0 m=audio 54242 RTP/AVP 0
a=sendrecv a=sendrecv
An intermediary could reply: An intermediary could reply:
skipping to change at page 13, line 31 skipping to change at line 575
} }
Now, let us construct a minimal jCard. For this example, the jCard Now, let us construct a minimal jCard. For this example, the jCard
refers the caller to an email address, refers the caller to an email address,
remediation@blocker.example.net: remediation@blocker.example.net:
["vcard", ["vcard",
[ [
["version", {}, "text", "4.0"], ["version", {}, "text", "4.0"],
["fn", {}, "text", "Robocall Adjudication"], ["fn", {}, "text", "Robocall Adjudication"],
["email", {"type":"work"}, ["email", {"type":"work"}, "text",
"text", "remediation@blocker.example.net"] "remediation@blocker.example.net"]
] ]
] ]
With this jCard, we can now construct the JWT: With this jCard, we can now construct the JWT:
{ {
"iat":1546008698, "iat":1546008698,
"jcard":["vcard", "jcard":["vcard",
[ [
["version", {}, "text", "4.0"], ["version", {}, "text", "4.0"],
["fn", {}, "text", "Robocall Adjudication"], ["fn", {}, "text", "Robocall Adjudication"],
["email", {"type":"work"}, ["email", {"type":"work"},
"text", "remediation@blocker.example.net"] "text", "remediation@blocker.example.net"]
] ]
] ]
} }
To calculate the signature, we need to encode the JSON Object Signing To calculate the signature, we need to encode the JSON Object Signing
and Encryption (JOSE) header and JWT into base64url. As an and Encryption (JOSE) header and JWT into base64url. As an
implementation note, one can trim whitespace in the JSON objects to implementation note, one can trim whitespace in the JSON objects to
save a few bytes. UACs MUST be prepared to receive pretty-printed, save a few bytes. UACs MUST be prepared to receive pretty-printed,
compact, or bizarrely formatted JSON. For the purposes of this compact, or bizarrely formatted JSON. For the purposes of this
example, we leave the objects with pretty whitespace. Speaking of example, we leave the objects with pretty whitespace. Speaking of
pretty vs. machine formatting, these examples have line breaks in the pretty vs. machine formatting, these examples have line breaks in the
base64url encodings for ease of publication in the RFC format. The base64url encodings for ease of publication in the RFC format. The
specification of base64url allows for these line breaks and the specification of base64url allows for these line breaks, and the
decoded text works just fine. However, those extra line break octets decoded text works just fine. However, those extra line-break octets
would affect the calculation of the signature. Implementations MUST would affect the calculation of the signature. Implementations MUST
NOT insert line breaks into the base64url encodings of the JOSE NOT insert line breaks into the base64url encodings of the JOSE
header or JWT. This also means UACs MUST be prepared to receive header or JWT. This also means UACs MUST be prepared to receive
arbitrarily long octet streams from the URI referenced by the Call- arbitrarily long octet streams from the URI referenced by the Call-
Info SIP header. Info header field.
base64url of JOSE header: base64url of JOSE header:
eyJhbGciOiJFUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6InZjYXJkK2pzb24iLCJ4NXUiOiJodHRwczov eyJhbGciOiJFUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6InZjYXJkK2pzb24iLCJ4NXUiOiJodHRwczov
L2NlcnRzLmV4YW1wbGUubmV0L3JlamVjdF9rZXkuY2VyIn0= L2NlcnRzLmV4YW1wbGUubmV0L3JlamVjdF9rZXkuY2VyIn0=
base64url of JWT: base64url of JWT:
eyJpYXQiOjE1NDYwMDg2OTgsImpjYXJkIjpbInZjYXJkIixbWyJ2ZXJzaW9uIix7 eyJpYXQiOjE1NDYwMDg2OTgsImpjYXJkIjpbInZjYXJkIixbWyJ2ZXJzaW9uIix7
fSwidGV4dCIsIjQuMCJdLFsiZm4iLHt9LCJ0ZXh0IiwiUm9ib2NhbGwgQWRqdWRp fSwidGV4dCIsIjQuMCJdLFsiZm4iLHt9LCJ0ZXh0IiwiUm9ib2NhbGwgQWRqdWRp
Y2F0aW9uIl0sWyJlbWFpbCIseyJ0eXBlIjoid29yayJ9LCJ0ZXh0IiwicmVtZWRp Y2F0aW9uIl0sWyJlbWFpbCIseyJ0eXBlIjoid29yayJ9LCJ0ZXh0IiwicmVtZWRp
YXRpb25AYmxvY2tlci5leGFtcGxlLm5ldCJdXV19 YXRpb25AYmxvY2tlci5leGFtcGxlLm5ldCJdXV19
In this case, the object to sign (remembering this is just a single, In this case, the object to sign (remembering this is just a single
long line; the line breaks are for ease of review but do not appear long line; the line breaks are for ease of review but do not appear
in the actual object) is as follows: in the actual object) is as follows:
eyJhbGciOiJFUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6InZjYXJk eyJhbGciOiJFUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6InZjYXJk
K2pzb24iLCJ4NXUiOiJodHRwczovL2NlcnRzLmV4YW1wbGUubmV0L3JlamVjdF9r K2pzb24iLCJ4NXUiOiJodHRwczovL2NlcnRzLmV4YW1wbGUubmV0L3JlamVjdF9r
ZXkuY2VyIn0.eyJpYXQiOjE1NDYwMDg2OTgsImpjYXJkIjpbInZjYXJkIixbWyJ2 ZXkuY2VyIn0.eyJpYXQiOjE1NDYwMDg2OTgsImpjYXJkIjpbInZjYXJkIixbWyJ2
ZXJzaW9uIix7fSwidGV4dCIsIjQuMCJdLFsiZm4iLHt9LCJ0ZXh0IiwiUm9ib2Nh ZXJzaW9uIix7fSwidGV4dCIsIjQuMCJdLFsiZm4iLHt9LCJ0ZXh0IiwiUm9ib2Nh
bGwgQWRqdWRpY2F0aW9uIl0sWyJlbWFpbCIseyJ0eXBlIjoid29yayJ9LCJ0ZXh0 bGwgQWRqdWRpY2F0aW9uIl0sWyJlbWFpbCIseyJ0eXBlIjoid29yayJ9LCJ0ZXh0
IiwicmVtZWRpYXRpb25AYmxvY2tlci5leGFtcGxlLm5ldCJdXV19 IiwicmVtZWRpYXRpb25AYmxvY2tlci5leGFtcGxlLm5ldCJdXV19
We use the following X.509 PKCS #8-encoded ECDSA key, also We use the following X.509 PKCS #8-encoded Elliptic Curve Digital
shamelessly taken from [SHAKEN]), as an example key for signing the Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) key, also shamelessly taken from
hash of the above text. Do NOT use this key in real life! It is for [SHAKEN], as an example key for signing the hash of the above text.
example purposes only. At the very least, we would strongly Do NOT use this key in real life! It is for example purposes only.
recommend encrypting the key at rest. At the very least, we would strongly recommend encrypting the key at
rest.
-----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY----- -----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----
MIGHAgEAMBMGByqGSM49AgEGCCqGSM49AwEHBG0wawIBAQQgi7q2TZvN9VDFg8Vy MIGHAgEAMBMGByqGSM49AgEGCCqGSM49AwEHBG0wawIBAQQgi7q2TZvN9VDFg8Vy
qCP06bETrR2v8MRvr89rn4i+UAahRANCAAQWfaj1HUETpoNCrOtp9KA8o0V79IuW qCP06bETrR2v8MRvr89rn4i+UAahRANCAAQWfaj1HUETpoNCrOtp9KA8o0V79IuW
ARKt9C1cFPkyd3FBP4SeiNZxQhDrD0tdBHls3/wFe8++K2FrPyQF9vuh ARKt9C1cFPkyd3FBP4SeiNZxQhDrD0tdBHls3/wFe8++K2FrPyQF9vuh
-----END PRIVATE KEY----- -----END PRIVATE KEY-----
-----BEGIN PUBLIC KEY----- -----BEGIN PUBLIC KEY-----
MFkwEwYHKoZIzj0CAQYIKoZIzj0DAQcDQgAE8HNbQd/TmvCKwPKHkMF9fScavGeH MFkwEwYHKoZIzj0CAQYIKoZIzj0DAQcDQgAE8HNbQd/TmvCKwPKHkMF9fScavGeH
78YTU8qLS8I5HLHSSmlATLcslQMhNC/OhlWBYC626nIlo7XeebYS7Sb37g== 78YTU8qLS8I5HLHSSmlATLcslQMhNC/OhlWBYC626nIlo7XeebYS7Sb37g==
-----END PUBLIC KEY----- -----END PUBLIC KEY-----
The resulting JWS, using the above key on the above object, renders The resulting JWS, using the above key on the above object, renders
the following ECDSA P-256 SHA-256 digital signature. the following ECDSA P-256 SHA-256 digital signature.
7uz2SADRvPFOQOO_UgF2ZTUjPlDTegtPrYB04UHBMwBD6g9AmL 7uz2SADRvPFOQOO_UgF2ZTUjPlDTegtPrYB04UHBMwBD6g9AmL
5harLJdTKDSTtH-LOV1jwJaGRUOUJiwP27ag 5harLJdTKDSTtH-LOV1jwJaGRUOUJiwP27ag
Thus, the JWS stored at https://blocker.example.net/complaints-jws, Thus, the JWS stored at https://blocker.example.net/complaints-jws
would contain: would contain:
eyJhbGciOiJFUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6InZjYXJkK2pzb24iLCJ4NXUiOiJodHRwczovL eyJhbGciOiJFUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6InZjYXJkK2pzb24iLCJ4NXUiOiJodHRwczovL
2NlcnRzLmV4YW1wbGUubmV0L3JlamVjdF9rZXkuY2VyIn0.eyJpYXQiOjE1NDYwMD 2NlcnRzLmV4YW1wbGUubmV0L3JlamVjdF9rZXkuY2VyIn0.eyJpYXQiOjE1NDYwMD
g2OTgsImpjYXJkIjpbInZjYXJkIixbWyJ2ZXJzaW9uIix7fSwidGV4dCIsIjQuMCJ g2OTgsImpjYXJkIjpbInZjYXJkIixbWyJ2ZXJzaW9uIix7fSwidGV4dCIsIjQuMCJ
dLFsiZm4iLHt9LCJ0ZXh0IiwiUm9ib2NhbGwgQWRqdWRpY2F0aW9uIl0sWyJlbWFp dLFsiZm4iLHt9LCJ0ZXh0IiwiUm9ib2NhbGwgQWRqdWRpY2F0aW9uIl0sWyJlbWFp
bCIseyJ0eXBlIjoid29yayJ9LCJ0ZXh0IiwicmVtZWRpYXRpb25AYmxvY2tlci5le bCIseyJ0eXBlIjoid29yayJ9LCJ0ZXh0IiwicmVtZWRpYXRpb25AYmxvY2tlci5le
GFtcGxlLm5ldCJdXV19.7uz2SADRvPFOQOO_UgF2ZTUjPlDTegtPrYB04UHBMwBD6 GFtcGxlLm5ldCJdXV19.7uz2SADRvPFOQOO_UgF2ZTUjPlDTegtPrYB04UHBMwBD6
g9AmL5harLJdTKDSTtH-LOV1jwJaGRUOUJiwP27ag g9AmL5harLJdTKDSTtH-LOV1jwJaGRUOUJiwP27ag
4.2. Web Site jCard 4.2. Web Site jCard
For an intermediary that provides a Web site for adjudication, the For an intermediary that provides a Web site for adjudication, the
jCard could contain the following. Note we do not show the jCard could contain the following. Note that we do not show the
calculation of the JWS; the URI reference in the Call-Info header calculation of the JWS; the URI reference in the Call-Info header
field would be to the JWS of the signed jCard. field would be to the JWS of the signed jCard.
["vcard", ["vcard",
[ [
["version", {}, "text", "4.0"], ["version", {}, "text", "4.0"],
["fn", {}, "text", "Robocall Adjudication"], ["fn", {}, "text", "Robocall Adjudication"],
["url", {"type":"work"}, ["url", {"type":"work"},
"text", "https://blocker.example.net/adjudication-form"] "text", "https://blocker.example.net/adjudication-form"]
] ]
] ]
4.3. Multi-modal jCard 4.3. Multi-modal jCard
For an intermediary that provides a telephone number and a postal For an intermediary that provides a telephone number and a postal
address, the jCard could contain the following. Note we do not show address, the jCard could contain the following. Note that we do not
the calculation of the JWS; the URI reference in the Call-Info header show the calculation of the JWS; the URI reference in the Call-Info
field would be to the JWS of the signed jCard. header field would be to the JWS of the signed jCard.
["vcard", ["vcard",
[ [
["version", {}, "text", "4.0"], ["version", {}, "text", "4.0"],
["fn", {}, "text", "Robocall Adjudication"], ["fn", {}, "text", "Robocall Adjudication"],
["adr", {"type":"work"}, "text", ["adr", {"type":"work"}, "text",
["Argument Clinic", ["Argument Clinic",
"12 Main St","Anytown","AP","000000","Somecountry"] "12 Main St","Anytown","AP","000000","Somecountry"]
] ]
["tel", {"type":"work"}, "uri", "tel:+1-555-555-0112"] ["tel", {"type":"work"}, "uri", "tel:+1-555-555-0112"]
skipping to change at page 17, line 5 skipping to change at line 724
knows it can simply perform the processing described in this knows it can simply perform the processing described in this
document. Since the intermediary saw the sip.608 feature capability, document. Since the intermediary saw the sip.608 feature capability,
it knows it does not need to send any media describing whom to it knows it does not need to send any media describing whom to
contact in the event of an erroneous rejection. For illustrative contact in the event of an erroneous rejection. For illustrative
purposes, the figure shows generic SIP Proxies in the flow. Their purposes, the figure shows generic SIP Proxies in the flow. Their
presence or absence or the number of proxies is not relevant to the presence or absence or the number of proxies is not relevant to the
operation of the protocol. They are in the figure to show that operation of the protocol. They are in the figure to show that
proxies that do not understand the sip.608 feature capability can proxies that do not understand the sip.608 feature capability can
still participate in a network offering 608 services. still participate in a network offering 608 services.
+---------+ +---------+
| Call | | Call |
|Analytics| |Analytics|
| Engine | | Engine |
+--+--+---+ +--+--+---+
^ | ^ |
| | | |
| v | v
+-+--+-+ +-+--+-+
+---+ +-----+ +---+ +-----+ +-----+ |Called| +---+ +-----+ +---+ +-----+ +-----+ |Called|
|UAC+----+Proxy+----+SBC+----+Proxy+----+Proxy+----+Party | |UAC+----+Proxy+----+SBC+----+Proxy+----+Proxy+----+Party |
+---+ +-----+ +---+ +-----+ +-----+ |Proxy | +---+ +-----+ +---+ +-----+ +-----+ |Proxy |
| | +------+ | | +------+
| INVITE | | | INVITE | |
|------------------>| | |------------------>| |
| | INVITE | | | INVITE |
| |------------------------------>| | |------------------------------>|
| | Feature-Caps: *;+sip.608 | | | Feature-Caps: *;+sip.608 |
| | | | | |
| | 608 Rejected | | | 608 Rejected |
| |<------------------------------| | |<------------------------------|
| 183 | Call-Info: <...> | | 183 | Call-Info: <...> |
|<------------------| [path for Call-Info elided | |<------------------| [path for Call-Info elided |
| SDP for media | for illustration purposes]| | SDP for media | for illustration purposes]|
| | | | | |
| PRACK | | | PRACK | |
|------------------>| | |------------------>| |
| | | | | |
| 200 OK PRACK | | | 200 OK PRACK | |
|<------------------| | |<------------------| |
| | | | | |
|<== Announcement ==| | |<== Announcement ==| |
| | | | | |
| 608 Rejected | | | 608 Rejected | |
|<------------------| | |<------------------| |
| Call-Info: <...> | | | Call-Info: <...> | |
| | | | | |
Figure 5: Legacy Operation Figure 5: Legacy Operation
When the SBC receives the 608 response code, it correlates that with When the SBC receives the 608 response code, it correlates that with
the original INVITE from the UAC. The SBC remembers that it inserted the original INVITE from the UAC. The SBC remembers that it inserted
the sip.608 feature capability, which means it is responsible for the sip.608 feature capability, which means it is responsible for
somehow alerting the UAC the call failed and whom to contact. At somehow alerting the UAC the call failed and disclosing whom to
this point the SBC can play a prompt, either natively or through a contact. At this point, the SBC can play a prompt, either natively
mechanism such as NETANN [RFC4240], that sends the relevant or through a mechanism such as NETANN [RFC4240], that sends the
information in the appropriate media to the UAC. Since this is a relevant information in the appropriate media to the UAC. Since this
potentially long transaction and there is a chance the UAC is using is a potentially long transaction and there is a chance the UAC is
an unreliable transport protocol, the UAC will have indicated support using an unreliable transport protocol, the UAC will have indicated
for provisional responses, the SBC will indicate it requires a PRACK support for provisional responses, the SBC will indicate it requires
from the UAC in the 183 response, the UAC will provide the PRACK, and a PRACK from the UAC in the 183 response, the UAC will provide the
the SBC will acknowledge receipt of the PRACK before playing the PRACK, and the SBC will acknowledge receipt of the PRACK before
announcement. playing the announcement.
As an example, the SBC could extract the FN and TEL jCard fields and As an example, the SBC could extract the FN and TEL jCard fields and
play something like a special information tone (see Telcordia SR-2275 play something like a special information tone (see Section 6.21.2.1
[SR-2275] section 6.21.2.1 or ITU-T E.180 [ITU.E.180.1998] section of Telcordia [SR-2275] or Section 7 of ITU-T E.180 [ITU.E.180.1998]),
7), followed by "Your call has been rejected by ...", followed by a followed by "Your call has been rejected by...", followed by a text-
text-to-speech translation of the FN text, followed by "You can reach to-speech translation of the FN text, followed by "You can reach them
them on", followed by a text-to-speech translation of the telephone on...", followed by a text-to-speech translation of the telephone
number in the TEL field. number in the TEL field.
Note the SBC also still sends the full 608 response code, including Note that the SBC also still sends the full 608 response code,
the Call-Info header, towards the UAC. including the Call-Info header field, towards the UAC.
5. IANA Considerations 5. IANA Considerations
5.1. SIP Response Code 5.1. SIP Response Code
This document defines a new SIP response code, 608 in the "Response This document defines a new SIP response code, 608, in the "Response
Codes" subregistry of the "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Codes" subregistry of the "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
Parameters" registry defined in [RFC3261]. Parameters" registry defined in [RFC3261].
Response code: 608 Response code: 608
Description: Rejected
Description: Rejected Reference: RFC 8688
Reference: [RFCXXXX]
5.2. SIP Feature-Capability Indicator 5.2. SIP Feature-Capability Indicator
This document defines the feature capability sip.608 in the "SIP This document defines the feature capability, sip.608, in the "SIP
Feature-Capability Indicator Registration Tree" registry defined in Feature-Capability Indicator Registration Tree" registry defined in
[RFC6809]. [RFC6809].
Name: sip.608 Name: sip.608
Description: This feature-capability indicator, when included in a
Description: This feature capability indicator, when included in a Feature-Caps header field of an INVITE request,
Feature-Caps header field of an INVITE request, indicates that the indicates that the entity associated with the indicator
entity associated with the indicator will be responsible for will be responsible for indicating to the caller any
indicating to the caller any information contained in the 608 SIP information contained in the 608 SIP response code,
response code, specifically the value referenced by the Call-Info specifically, the value referenced by the Call-Info
header. header field.
Reference: RFC 8688
Reference: [RFCXXXX]
5.3. JSON Web Token Claim 5.3. JSON Web Token Claim
This document defines the new JSON Web Token claim in the "JSON Web This document defines the new JSON Web Token claim in the "JSON Web
Token Claims" sub-registry created by [RFC7519]. Section 3.2.2 Token Claims" subregistry created by [RFC7519]. Section 3.2.2
defines the syntax. The required information is: defines the syntax. The required information is:
Claim Name: jcard Claim Name: jcard
Claim Description: jCard data Claim Description: jCard data
Change Controller: IESG Change Controller: IESG
Reference: RFC 8688, [RFC7095]
Reference: [RFCXXXX], [RFC7095]
5.4. Call-Info Purpose 5.4. Call-Info Purpose
This document defines the new predefined value "jwscard" for the This document defines the new predefined value "jwscard" for the
"purpose" header field parameter of the Call-Info header field. This "purpose" header field parameter of the Call-Info header field. This
modifies the "Header Field Parameters and Parameter Values" modifies the "Header Field Parameters and Parameter Values"
subregistry of the "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Parameters" subregistry of the "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Parameters"
registry by adding this RFC as a reference to the line for the header registry by adding this RFC as a reference to the line for the header
field "Call-Info" and parameter name "purpose": field "Call-Info" and parameter name "purpose":
Header Field: Call-Info Header Field: Call-Info
Parameter Name: purpose
Parameter Name: purpose
Predefined Values: Yes Predefined Values: Yes
Reference: RFC 8688
Reference: [RFCXXXX]
6. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
Intermediary operators need to be mindful to whom they are sending Intermediary operators need to be mindful to whom they are sending
the 608 response. The intermediary could be rejecting a truly the 608 response. The intermediary could be rejecting a truly
malicious caller. This raises two issues. The first is the caller, malicious caller. This raises two issues. The first is the caller,
now alerted an intermediary is automatically rejecting their call now alerted that an intermediary is automatically rejecting their
attempts, may change their call behavior to defeat call blocking call attempts, may change their call behavior to defeat call-blocking
systems. The second, and more significant risk, is that by providing systems. The second, and more significant risk, is that by providing
a contact in the Call-Info header field, the intermediary may be a contact in the Call-Info header field, the intermediary may be
giving the malicious caller a vector for attack. In other words, the giving the malicious caller a vector for attack. In other words, the
intermediary will be publishing an address that a malicious actor may intermediary will be publishing an address that a malicious actor may
use to launch an attack on the intermediary. Because of this, use to launch an attack on the intermediary. Because of this,
intermediary operators may wish to configure their response to only intermediary operators may wish to configure their response to only
include a Call-Info header field for INVITE or other signed include a Call-Info header field for INVITE, or other signed
initiating methods and that pass validation by STIR [RFC8224]. initiating methods, that pass validation by STIR [RFC8224].
Another risk is as follows. Consider an attacker that floods a proxy Another risk is as follows. Consider an attacker that floods a proxy
that supports the sip.608 feature. However, the SDP in the INVITE that supports the sip.608 feature. However, the SDP in the INVITE
request refers to a victim device. Moreover, the attacker somehow request refers to a victim device. Moreover, the attacker somehow
knows there is a 608-aware gateway connecting to the victim who is on knows there is a 608-aware gateway connecting to the victim who is on
a segment that lacks the sip.608 feature capability. Because the a segment that lacks the sip.608 feature capability. Because the
mechanism described here can result in sending an audio file to the mechanism described here can result in sending an audio file to the
target of the SDP, an attacker could use the mechanism described by target of the SDP, an attacker could use the mechanism described by
this document as an amplification attack, given a SIP INVITE can be this document as an amplification attack, given a SIP INVITE can be
under 1 kilobyte and an audio file can be hundreds of kilobytes. One under 1 kilobyte and an audio file can be hundreds of kilobytes. One
skipping to change at page 20, line 39 skipping to change at line 892
of using that information to verify the recipient's identity, they of using that information to verify the recipient's identity, they
are phishing the information for nefarious ends. A similar scenario are phishing the information for nefarious ends. A similar scenario
can unfold if the malicious agent inserts a URI that points to a can unfold if the malicious agent inserts a URI that points to a
phishing or other site. As such, we strongly recommend the recipient phishing or other site. As such, we strongly recommend the recipient
validates to whom they are communicating with if asking to adjudicate validates to whom they are communicating with if asking to adjudicate
an erroneously rejected call attempt. Since we may also be concerned an erroneously rejected call attempt. Since we may also be concerned
about intermediate nodes modifying contact information, we can about intermediate nodes modifying contact information, we can
address both issues with a single solution. The remediation is to address both issues with a single solution. The remediation is to
require the intermediary to sign the jCard. Signing the jCard require the intermediary to sign the jCard. Signing the jCard
provides integrity protection. In addition, one can imagine provides integrity protection. In addition, one can imagine
mechanisms such as used by SHAKEN [SHAKEN]. mechanisms such as used by [SHAKEN].
Similarly, one can imagine an adverse agent that maliciously spoofs a Similarly, one can imagine an adverse agent that maliciously spoofs a
608 response with a victim's contact address to many active callers, 608 response with a victim's contact address to many active callers
who may then all send redress requests to the specified address (the who may then all send redress requests to the specified address (the
basis for a denial-of-service attack). The process would occur as basis for a denial-of-service attack). The process would occur as
follows: (1) a malicious agent senses INVITE requests from a variety follows: (1) a malicious agent senses INVITE requests from a variety
of UACs and (2) spoofs 608 responses with an unsigned redress address of UACs and (2) spoofs 608 responses with an unsigned redress address
before the intended receivers can respond, causing (3) the UACs to before the intended receivers can respond, causing (3) the UACs to
all contact the redress address at once. The jCard encoding allows all contact the redress address at once. The jCard encoding allows
the UAC to verify the blocking intermediary's identity before the UAC to verify the blocking intermediary's identity before
contacting the redress address. Specifically, because the sender contacting the redress address. Specifically, because the sender
signs the jCard, we can cryptographically trace the sender of the signs the jCard, we can cryptographically trace the sender of the
jCard. Given the protocol machinery of having a signature, one can jCard. Given the protocol machinery of having a signature, one can
apply local policy to decide whether to believe the sender of the apply local policy to decide whether to believe that the sender of
jCard represents the owner of the contact information found in the the jCard represents the owner of the contact information found in
jCard. This guards against a malicious agent spoofing 608 responses. the jCard. This guards against a malicious agent spoofing 608
responses.
Specifically, one could use policies around signing certificate Specifically, one could use policies around signing certificate
issuance as a mechanism for traceback to the entity issuing the issuance as a mechanism for traceback to the entity issuing the
jCard. One check could be verifying the identity of the subject of jCard. One check could be verifying that the identity of the subject
the certificate relates to the To header field of the initial SIP of the certificate relates to the To header field of the initial SIP
request, similar to validating the intermediary was vouching for the request, similar to validating that the intermediary was vouching for
From header field of a SIP request with that identity. Note that we the From header field of a SIP request with that identity. Note that
are only protecting against a malicious intermediary and not a hidden we are only protecting against a malicious intermediary and not a
intermediary attack (formerly known as a "man in the middle attack"). hidden intermediary attack (formerly known as a "man-in-the-middle
Thus, we only need to ensure the signature is fresh, which is why we attack"). Thus, we only need to ensure the signature is fresh, which
include "iat". For most implementations, we assume that the is why we include "iat". For most implementations, we assume that
intermediary has a single set of contact points and will generate the the intermediary has a single set of contact points and will generate
jCard on demand. As such, there is no need to directly correlate the jCard on demand. As such, there is no need to directly correlate
HTTPS fetches to specific calls. However, since the intermediary is HTTPS fetches to specific calls. However, since the intermediary is
in control of the jCard and Call-Info response, an intermediary may in control of the jCard and Call-Info response, an intermediary may
choose to encode per-call information in the URI returned in a given choose to encode per-call information in the URI returned in a given
608 response. However, if the intermediary does go that route, the 608 response. However, if the intermediary does go that route, the
intermediary MUST use a non-deterministic URI reference mechanism and intermediary MUST use a non-deterministic URI reference mechanism and
be prepared to return dummy responses to URI requests referencing be prepared to return dummy responses to URI requests referencing
calls that do not exist so that attackers attempting to glean call calls that do not exist so that attackers attempting to glean call
metadata by guessing URI's (and thus calls) will not get any metadata by guessing URIs (and thus calls) will not get any
actionable information from the HTTPS GET. actionable information from the HTTPS GET.
Since the decision of whether to include Call-Info in the 608 Since the decision of whether to include Call-Info in the 608
response is a matter of policy, one thing to consider is whether a response is a matter of policy, one thing to consider is whether a
legitimate caller can ascertain whom to contact without including legitimate caller can ascertain whom to contact without including
such information in the 608. For example, in some jurisdictions, if such information in the 608. For example, in some jurisdictions, if
only the terminating service provider can be the intermediary, the only the terminating service provider can be the intermediary, the
caller can look up who the terminating service provider is based on caller can look up who the terminating service provider is based on
the routing information for the dialed number. Thus, the Call-Info the routing information for the dialed number. Thus, the Call-Info
jCard could be redundant information. However, the factors going jCard could be redundant information. However, the factors going
into a particular service provider's or jurisdiction's choice of into a particular service provider's or jurisdiction's choice of
whether to include Call-Info is outside the scope of this document. whether to include Call-Info is outside the scope of this document.
7. Acknowledgements 7. References
This document liberally lifts from [RFC8197] in its text and
structure. However, the mechanism and purpose of 608 is quite
different than 607. Any errors are the current editor's and not the
editor of RFC8197. Thanks also go to Ken Carlberg of the FCC, Russ
Housley, Paul Kyzivat, and Tolga Asveren for their suggestions on
improving the draft. Tolga's suggestion to provide a mechanism for
legacy interoperability served to expand the draft by 50%. In
addition, Tolga came up with the jCard attack. Finally, Christer
Holmberg as always provided a close reading and fixed a SIP feature
capability bug found by Yehoshua Gev.
Of course, we appreciated the close read and five pages of comments
from our estimable Area Director, Adam Roach. In addition, we
received valuable comments during IETF Last Call and JWT review from
Ines Robles, Mike Jones, and Brian Campbell and IESG review from
Alissa Cooper, Eric Vyncke, Alexey Melnikov, Benjamin Kaduk, Barry
Leiba, and with most glee, Warren Kumari.
Finally, Bhavik Nagda provided clarifying edits as well and more
especially wrote and tested an implementation of the 608 response
code in Kamailio. Code is available at <https://github.com/
nagdab/608_Implementation>. Grace Chuan from MIT regenerated and
verified the JWT while working at the FCC.
8. References
8.1. Normative References 7.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC3261] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston, [RFC3261] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E. A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261, Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
DOI 10.17487/RFC3261, June 2002, DOI 10.17487/RFC3261, June 2002,
skipping to change at page 23, line 25 skipping to change at line 995
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7518>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7518>.
[RFC7519] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web Token [RFC7519] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web Token
(JWT)", RFC 7519, DOI 10.17487/RFC7519, May 2015, (JWT)", RFC 7519, DOI 10.17487/RFC7519, May 2015,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7519>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7519>.
[RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC [RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174, 2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>. May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.
8.2. Informative References 7.2. Informative References
[BaseRate] [BaseRate] Bar-Hillel, M., "The Base-Rate Fallacy in Probability
Bar-Hillel, M., "The Base-Rate Fallacy in Probability Judgements", April 1977,
Judgements", 4 1977, < <https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA045772>.
https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA045772>.
[ITU.E.180.1998] [ITU.E.180.1998]
International Telecommunications Union, "Technical ITU-T, "Technical characteristics of tones for the
characteristics of tones for the telephone service", telephone service", ITU-T Recommendation E.180/Q.35, March
ITU Recommendation E.180/Q.35, March 1998. 1998.
[RFC4103] Hellstrom, G. and P. Jones, "RTP Payload for Text [RFC4103] Hellstrom, G. and P. Jones, "RTP Payload for Text
Conversation", RFC 4103, DOI 10.17487/RFC4103, June 2005, Conversation", RFC 4103, DOI 10.17487/RFC4103, June 2005,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4103>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4103>.
[RFC4240] Burger, E., Ed., Van Dyke, J., and A. Spitzer, "Basic [RFC4240] Burger, E., Ed., Van Dyke, J., and A. Spitzer, "Basic
Network Media Services with SIP", RFC 4240, Network Media Services with SIP", RFC 4240,
DOI 10.17487/RFC4240, December 2005, DOI 10.17487/RFC4240, December 2005,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4240>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4240>.
skipping to change at page 24, line 40 skipping to change at line 1058
Interchange Format", STD 90, RFC 8259, Interchange Format", STD 90, RFC 8259,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8259, December 2017, DOI 10.17487/RFC8259, December 2017,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8259>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8259>.
[RFC8445] Keranen, A., Holmberg, C., and J. Rosenberg, "Interactive [RFC8445] Keranen, A., Holmberg, C., and J. Rosenberg, "Interactive
Connectivity Establishment (ICE): A Protocol for Network Connectivity Establishment (ICE): A Protocol for Network
Address Translator (NAT) Traversal", RFC 8445, Address Translator (NAT) Traversal", RFC 8445,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8445, July 2018, DOI 10.17487/RFC8445, July 2018,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8445>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8445>.
[SHAKEN] Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (ATIS) [SHAKEN] ATIS/SIP Forum IP-INNI Task Group, "Signature-based
and the SIP Forum, "Signature-based Handling of Asserted Handling of Asserted information using toKENs (SHAKEN)",
information using toKENs (SHAKEN)", ATIS 1000074, 1 2017, ATIS 1000074, January 2017,
<https://www.sipforum.org/download/sip-forum-twg-10- <https://www.sipforum.org/download/sip-forum-twg-10-
signature-based-handling-of-asserted-information-using- signature-based-handling-of-asserted-information-using-
tokens-shaken-pdf/?wpdmdl=2813>. tokens-shaken-pdf/?wpdmdl=2813>.
[SR-2275] Telcordia, "Bellcore Notes on the Networks", Telcordia SR- [SR-2275] Telcordia, "Telcordia Notes on the Networks", Telcordia
2275, October 2000. SR-2275, October 2000.
Acknowledgements
This document liberally lifts from [RFC8197] in its text and
structure. However, the mechanism and purpose of 608 is quite
different than 607. Any errors are the current editor's and not the
editor of RFC 8197. Thanks also go to Ken Carlberg of the FCC, Russ
Housley, Paul Kyzivat, and Tolga Asveren for their suggestions on
improving the document. Tolga's suggestion to provide a mechanism
for legacy interoperability served to expand the document by 50%. In
addition, Tolga came up with the jCard attack. Finally, Christer
Holmberg, as always, provided a close reading and fixed a SIP
feature-capability bug found by Yehoshua Gev.
Of course, we appreciated the close read and five pages of comments
from our estimable Area Director, Adam Roach. In addition, we
received valuable comments during IETF Last Call and JWT review from
Ines Robles, Mike Jones, and Brian Campbell, and IESG review from
Alissa Cooper, Eric Vyncke, Alexey Melnikov, Benjamin Kaduk, Barry
Leiba, and with most glee, Warren Kumari.
Finally, Bhavik Nagda provided clarifying edits as well and, more
especially, wrote and tested an implementation of the 608 response
code in Kamailio. Code is available at https://github.com/
nagdab/608_Implementation. Grace Chuan from MIT regenerated and
verified the JWT while working at the FCC.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Eric W. Burger Eric W. Burger
Georgetown University Georgetown University
37th & O St, NW 37th & O St, NW
Washington, DC 20057 Washington, DC 20057
USA United States of America
Email: eburger@standardstrack.com Email: eburger@standardstrack.com
Bhavik Nagda Bhavik Nagda
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology
77 Massachusetts Avenue 77 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02139 Cambridge, MA 02139
USA United States of America
Email: nagdab@gmail.com Email: nagdab@gmail.com
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