draft-ietf-sipcore-rfc3265bis-09.txt   rfc6665.txt 
Network Working Group A. B. Roach Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) A.B. Roach
Internet-Draft Tekelec Request for Comments: 6665 Tekelec
Obsoletes: 3265 (if approved) April 30, 2012 Obsoletes: 3265 July 2012
Updates: 3261, 4660 Updates: 3261, 4660
(if approved) Category: Standards Track
Intended status: Standards Track ISSN: 2070-1721
Expires: November 1, 2012
SIP-Specific Event Notification SIP-Specific Event Notification
draft-ietf-sipcore-rfc3265bis-09
Abstract Abstract
This document describes an extension to the Session Initiation This document describes an extension to the Session Initiation
Protocol (SIP) defined by RFC 3261. The purpose of this extension is Protocol (SIP) defined by RFC 3261. The purpose of this extension is
to provide an extensible framework by which SIP nodes can request to provide an extensible framework by which SIP nodes can request
notification from remote nodes indicating that certain events have notification from remote nodes indicating that certain events have
occurred. occurred.
Note that the event notification mechanisms defined herein are NOT Note that the event notification mechanisms defined herein are NOT
intended to be a general-purpose infrastructure for all classes of intended to be a general-purpose infrastructure for all classes of
event subscription and notification. event subscription and notification.
This document represents a backwards-compatible improvement on the This document represents a backwards-compatible improvement on the
original mechanism described by RFC 3265, taking into account several original mechanism described by RFC 3265, taking into account several
years of implementation experience. Accordingly, this document years of implementation experience. Accordingly, this document
obsoletes RFC 3265. This document also updates RFC 4660 slightly to obsoletes RFC 3265. This document also updates RFC 4660 slightly to
accommodate some small changes to the mechanism that were discussed accommodate some small changes to the mechanism that were discussed
in that document. in that document.
Status of this Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering This is an Internet Standards Track document.
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference received public review and has been approved for publication by the
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Further information on
Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 5741.
This Internet-Draft will expire on November 1, 2012. Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6665.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
skipping to change at page 2, line 44 skipping to change at page 2, line 44
and Current State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 and Current State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4. Node Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4. Node Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.1. Subscriber Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.1. Subscriber Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.1.1. Detecting Support for SIP Events . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.1.1. Detecting Support for SIP Events . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.1.2. Creating and Maintaining Subscriptions . . . . . . . . 10 4.1.2. Creating and Maintaining Subscriptions . . . . . . . . 10
4.1.3. Receiving and Processing State Information . . . . . . 14 4.1.3. Receiving and Processing State Information . . . . . . 14
4.1.4. Forking of SUBSCRIBE Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4.1.4. Forking of SUBSCRIBE Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.2. Notifier Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4.2. Notifier Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.2.1. Subscription Establishment and Maintenance . . . . . . 17 4.2.1. Subscription Establishment and Maintenance . . . . . . 17
4.2.2. Sending State Information to Subscribers . . . . . . . 20 4.2.2. Sending State Information to Subscribers . . . . . . . 20
4.2.3. PINT Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4.2.3. PSTN/Internet Interworking (PINT) Compatibility . . . 23
4.3. Proxy Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4.3. Proxy Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.4. Common Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4.4. Common Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.4.1. Dialog Creation and Termination . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4.4.1. Dialog Creation and Termination . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.4.2. Notifier Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4.4.2. Notifier Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.4.3. Polling Resource State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4.4.3. Polling Resource State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.4.4. Allow-Events header field usage . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.4.4. "Allow-Events" Header Field Usage . . . . . . . . . . 26
4.5. Targeting Subscriptions at Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.5. Targeting Subscriptions at Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4.5.1. Using GRUUs to Route to Devices . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.5.1. Using GRUUs to Route to Devices . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.5.2. Sharing Dialogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.5.2. Sharing Dialogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.6. CANCEL Requests for SUBSCRIBE and NOTIFY Transactions . . 29 4.6. CANCEL Requests for SUBSCRIBE and NOTIFY Transactions . . 29
5. Event Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 5. Event Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.1. Appropriateness of Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 5.1. Appropriateness of Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.2. Event Template-packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 5.2. Event Template-Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.3. Amount of State to be Conveyed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 5.3. Amount of State to Be Conveyed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.3.1. Complete State Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 5.3.1. Complete State Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.3.2. State Deltas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 5.3.2. State Deltas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.4. Event Package Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 5.4. Event Package Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.4.1. Event Package Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 5.4.1. Event Package Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.4.2. Event Package Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 5.4.2. Event Package Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.4.3. SUBSCRIBE Request Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 5.4.3. SUBSCRIBE Request Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.4.4. Subscription Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 5.4.4. Subscription Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.4.5. NOTIFY Request Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 5.4.5. NOTIFY Request Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
5.4.6. Notifier processing of SUBSCRIBE requests . . . . . . 34 5.4.6. Notifier Processing of SUBSCRIBE Requests . . . . . . 34
5.4.7. Notifier generation of NOTIFY requests . . . . . . . . 34 5.4.7. Notifier generation of NOTIFY requests . . . . . . . . 34
5.4.8. Subscriber processing of NOTIFY requests . . . . . . . 34 5.4.8. Subscriber Processing of NOTIFY Requests . . . . . . . 34
5.4.9. Handling of forked requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 5.4.9. Handling of Forked Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
5.4.10. Rate of notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 5.4.10. Rate of Notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.4.11. State Aggregation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 5.4.11. State Aggregation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.4.12. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 5.4.12. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.4.13. Use of URIs to Retrieve State . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 5.4.13. Use of URIs to Retrieve State . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
6.1. Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 6.1. Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
6.2. Notifier Privacy Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 6.2. Notifier Privacy Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
6.3. Denial-of-Service attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 6.3. Denial-of-Service Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
6.4. Replay Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 6.4. Replay Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
6.5. Man-in-the middle attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 6.5. Man-in-the-Middle Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
6.6. Confidentiality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 6.6. Confidentiality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
7.1. Event Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 7.1. Event Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
7.1.1. Registration Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 7.1.1. Registration Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
7.1.2. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 7.1.2. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
7.2. Reason Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 7.2. Reason Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
7.3. Header Field Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 7.3. Header Field Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
7.4. Response Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 7.4. Response Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
8. Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 8. Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
8.1. New Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 8.1. New Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
8.1.1. SUBSCRIBE method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 8.1.1. SUBSCRIBE Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
8.1.2. NOTIFY method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 8.1.2. NOTIFY Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
8.2. New Header Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 8.2. New Header Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
8.2.1. "Event" Header Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 8.2.1. "Event" Header Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
8.2.2. "Allow-Events" Header Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 8.2.2. "Allow-Events" Header Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
8.2.3. "Subscription-State" Header Field . . . . . . . . . . 43 8.2.3. "Subscription-State" Header Field . . . . . . . . . . 43
8.3. New Response Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 8.3. New Response Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
8.3.1. "202 Accepted" Response Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 8.3.1. 202 (Accepted) Response Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
8.3.2. "489 Bad Event" Response Code . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 8.3.2. 489 (Bad Event) Response Code . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
8.4. Augmented BNF Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 8.4. Augmented BNF Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Appendix A. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Appendix A. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Appendix B. Changes from RFC 3265 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Appendix B. Changes from RFC 3265 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
B.1. Bug 666: Clarify use of expires=xxx with terminated . . . 48 B.1. Bug 666: Clarify use of "expires=xxx" with "terminated" . 48
B.2. Bug 667: Reason code for unsub/poll not clearly B.2. Bug 667: Reason code for unsub/poll not clearly
spelled out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 spelled out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
B.3. Bug 669: Clarify: SUBSCRIBE for a duration might be B.3. Bug 669: Clarify: SUBSCRIBE for a duration might be
answered with a NOTIFY/expires=0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 answered with a NOTIFY/expires=0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
B.4. Bug 670: Dialog State Machine needs clarification . . . . 48 B.4. Bug 670: Dialog State Machine needs clarification . . . . 49
B.5. Bug 671: Clarify timeout-based removal of subscriptions . 48 B.5. Bug 671: Clarify timeout-based removal of subscriptions . 49
B.6. Bug 672: Mandate expires= in NOTIFY . . . . . . . . . . . 48 B.6. Bug 672: Mandate "expires" in NOTIFY . . . . . . . . . . . 49
B.7. Bug 673: INVITE 481 response effect clarification . . . . 49 B.7. Bug 673: INVITE 481 response effect clarification . . . . 49
B.8. Bug 677: SUBSCRIBE response matching text in error . . . . 49 B.8. Bug 677: SUBSCRIBE response matching text in error . . . . 49
B.9. Bug 695: Document is not explicit about response to B.9. Bug 695: Document is not explicit about response to
NOTIFY at subscription termination . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 NOTIFY at subscription termination . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
B.10. Bug 696: Subscription state machine needs clarification . 49 B.10. Bug 696: Subscription state machine needs clarification . 49
B.11. Bug 697: Unsubscription behavior could be clarified . . . 49 B.11. Bug 697: Unsubscription behavior could be clarified . . . 49
B.12. Bug 699: NOTIFY and SUBSCRIBE are target refresh B.12. Bug 699: NOTIFY and SUBSCRIBE are target refresh
requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
B.13. Bug 722: Inconsistent 423 reason phrase text . . . . . . . 49 B.13. Bug 722: Inconsistent 423 reason phrase text . . . . . . . 50
B.14. Bug 741: guidance needed on when to not include B.14. Bug 741: Guidance needed on when to not include
Allow-Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 "Allow-Events" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
B.15. Bug 744: 5xx to NOTIFY terminates a subscription, but B.15. Bug 744: 5xx to NOTIFY terminates a subscription, but
should not . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 should not . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
B.16. Bug 752: Detection of forked requests is incorrect . . . . 50 B.16. Bug 752: Detection of forked requests is incorrect . . . . 50
B.17. Bug 773: Reason code needs IANA registry . . . . . . . . . 50 B.17. Bug 773: Reason code needs IANA registry . . . . . . . . . 50
B.18. Bug 774: Need new reason for terminating subscriptions B.18. Bug 774: Need new reason for terminating subscriptions
to resources that never change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 to resources that never change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
B.19. Clarify handling of Route/Record-Route in NOTIFY . . . . . 50 B.19. Clarify Handling of "Route"/"Record-Route" in NOTIFY . . . 50
B.20. Eliminate implicit subscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 B.20. Eliminate Implicit Subscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
B.21. Deprecate dialog re-use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 B.21. Deprecate Dialog Reuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
B.22. Rationalize dialog creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 B.22. Rationalize Dialog Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
B.23. Refactor behavior sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 B.23. Refactor Behavior Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
B.24. Clarify sections that need to be present in event B.24. Clarify Sections That Need to Be Present in Event
packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
B.25. Make CANCEL handling more explicit . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 B.25. Make CANCEL Handling More Explicit . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
B.26. Remove State Agent Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 B.26. Remove "State Agent" Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
B.27. Miscellanous Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 B.27. Miscellaneous Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The ability to request asynchronous notification of events proves The ability to request asynchronous notification of events proves
useful in many types of SIP services for which cooperation between useful in many types of SIP services for which cooperation between
end-nodes is required. Examples of such services include automatic end-nodes is required. Examples of such services include automatic
callback services (based on terminal state events), buddy lists callback services (based on terminal state events), buddy lists
(based on user presence events), message waiting indications (based (based on user presence events), message waiting indications (based
on mailbox state change events), and PSTN and Internet on mailbox state change events), and PSTN and Internet
Internetworking (PINT) [RFC2848] status (based on call state events). Internetworking (PINT) [RFC2848] status (based on call state events).
The methods described in this document provide a framework by which The methods described in this document provide a framework by which
notification of these events can be ordered. notification of these events can be ordered.
The event notification mechanisms defined herein are NOT intended to The event notification mechanisms defined herein are NOT intended to
be a general-purpose infrastructure for all classes of event be a general-purpose infrastructure for all classes of event
subscription and notification. Meeting requirements for the general subscription and notification. Meeting requirements for the general
problem set of subscription and notification is far too complex for a problem set of subscription and notification is far too complex for a
single protocol. Our goal is to provide a SIP-specific framework for single protocol. Our goal is to provide a SIP-specific framework for
event notification which is not so complex as to be unusable for event notification that is not so complex as to be unusable for
simple features, but which is still flexible enough to provide simple features, but that is still flexible enough to provide
powerful services. Note, however, that event packages based on this powerful services. Note, however, that event packages based on this
framework may define arbitrarily elaborate rules which govern the framework may define arbitrarily elaborate rules that govern the
subscription and notification for the events or classes of events subscription and notification for the events or classes of events
they describe. they describe.
This document does not describe an extension which may be used This document does not describe an extension that may be used
directly; it must be extended by other documents (herein referred to directly; it must be extended by other documents (herein referred to
as "event packages"). In object-oriented design terminology, it may as "event packages"). In object-oriented design terminology, it may
be thought of as an abstract base class which must be derived into an be thought of as an abstract base class that must be derived into an
instantiatable class by further extensions. Guidelines for creating instantiable class by further extensions. Guidelines for creating
these extensions are described in Section 5. these extensions are described in Section 5.
1.1. Overview of Operation 1.1. Overview of Operation
The general concept is that entities in the network can subscribe to The general concept is that entities in the network can subscribe to
resource or call state for various resources or calls in the network, resource or call state for various resources or calls in the network,
and those entities (or entities acting on their behalf) can send and those entities (or entities acting on their behalf) can send
notifications when those states change. notifications when those states change.
A typical flow of messages would be: A typical flow of messages would be:
skipping to change at page 6, line 10 skipping to change at page 6, line 10
|<------NOTIFY----- | Return current state information |<------NOTIFY----- | Return current state information
|--------200------->| |--------200------->|
|<------NOTIFY----- | Return current state information |<------NOTIFY----- | Return current state information
|--------200------->| |--------200------->|
Subscriptions are expired and must be refreshed by subsequent Subscriptions are expired and must be refreshed by subsequent
SUBSCRIBE requests. SUBSCRIBE requests.
1.2. Documentation Conventions 1.2. Documentation Conventions
There are several paragraphs throughout this document which provide There are several paragraphs throughout this document that provide
motivational or clarifying text. Such passages are non-normative, motivational or clarifying text. Such passages are non-normative and
and are provided only to assist with reader comprehension. These are provided only to assist with reader comprehension. These
passages are set off from the remainder of the text by being indented passages are set off from the remainder of the text by being indented
thus: thus:
This is an example of non-normative explanatory text. It does not This is an example of non-normative explanatory text. It does not
form part of the specification, and is used only for form part of the specification and is used only for clarification.
clarification.
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
In particular, implementors need to take careful note of the meaning In particular, implementors need to take careful note of the meaning
of "SHOULD" defined in RFC 2119. To rephrase: violation of SHOULD- of "SHOULD" defined in RFC 2119. To rephrase: violation of "SHOULD"-
strength requirements requires careful analysis and clearly strength requirements requires careful analysis and clearly
enumerable reasons. It is a protocol violation to fail to comply enumerable reasons. It is a protocol violation to fail to comply
with "SHOULD"-strength requirements whimsically or for ease of with "SHOULD"-strength requirements whimsically or for ease of
implementation. implementation.
The use of quotation marks next to periods and commas follows the
convention used by the American Mathematical Society; although
contrary to traditional American English convention, this usage lends
clarity to certain passages.
2. Definitions 2. Definitions
Event Package: An event package is an additional specification which Event Package: An event package is an additional specification that
defines a set of state information to be reported by a notifier to defines a set of state information to be reported by a notifier to
a subscriber. Event packages also define further syntax and a subscriber. Event packages also define further syntax and
semantics based on the framework defined by this document required semantics that are based on the framework defined by this document
to convey such state information. and are required to convey such state information.
Event Template-Package: An event template-package is a special kind Event Template-Package: An event template-package is a special kind
of event package which defines a set of states which may be of event package that defines a set of states that may be applied
applied to all possible event packages, including itself. to all possible event packages, including itself.
Notification: Notification is the act of a notifier sending a NOTIFY Notification: Notification is the act of a notifier sending a NOTIFY
request to a subscriber to inform the subscriber of the state of a request to a subscriber to inform the subscriber of the state of a
resource. resource.
Notifier: A notifier is a user agent which generates NOTIFY requests Notifier: A notifier is a user agent that generates NOTIFY requests
for the purpose of notifying subscribers of the state of a for the purpose of notifying subscribers of the state of a
resource. Notifiers typically also accept SUBSCRIBE requests to resource. Notifiers typically also accept SUBSCRIBE requests to
create subscriptions. create subscriptions.
Subscriber: A subscriber is a user agent which receives NOTIFY Subscriber: A subscriber is a user agent that receives NOTIFY
requests from notifiers; these NOTIFY requests contain information requests from notifiers; these NOTIFY requests contain information
about the state of a resource in which the subscriber is about the state of a resource in which the subscriber is
interested. Subscribers typically also generate SUBSCRIBE interested. Subscribers typically also generate SUBSCRIBE
requests and send them to notifiers to create subscriptions. requests and send them to notifiers to create subscriptions.
Subscription: A subscription is a set of application state Subscription: A subscription is a set of application state
associated with a dialog. This application state includes a associated with a dialog. This application state includes a
pointer to the associated dialog, the event package name, and pointer to the associated dialog, the event package name, and
possibly an identification token. Event packages will define possibly an identification token. Event packages will define
additional subscription state information. By definition, additional subscription state information. By definition,
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to refresh subscriptions on a periodic basis using a new SUBSCRIBE to refresh subscriptions on a periodic basis using a new SUBSCRIBE
request on the same dialog as defined in [RFC3261]. request on the same dialog as defined in [RFC3261].
If no "Expires" header field is present in a SUBSCRIBE request, the If no "Expires" header field is present in a SUBSCRIBE request, the
implied default MUST be defined by the event package being used. implied default MUST be defined by the event package being used.
200-class responses to SUBSCRIBE requests also MUST contain an 200-class responses to SUBSCRIBE requests also MUST contain an
"Expires" header field. The period of time in the response MAY be "Expires" header field. The period of time in the response MAY be
shorter but MUST NOT be longer than specified in the request. The shorter but MUST NOT be longer than specified in the request. The
notifier is explicitly allowed to shorten the duration to zero. The notifier is explicitly allowed to shorten the duration to zero. The
period of time in the response is the one which defines the duration period of time in the response is the one that defines the duration
of the subscription. of the subscription.
An "expires" parameter on the "Contact" header field has no semantics An "expires" parameter on the "Contact" header field has no semantics
for the SUBSCRIBE method and is explicitly not equivalent to an for the SUBSCRIBE method and is explicitly not equivalent to an
"Expires" header field in a SUBSCRIBE request or response. "Expires" header field in a SUBSCRIBE request or response.
A natural consequence of this scheme is that a SUBSCRIBE request with A natural consequence of this scheme is that a SUBSCRIBE request with
an "Expires" of 0 constitutes a request to unsubscribe from the an "Expires" of 0 constitutes a request to unsubscribe from the
matching subscription. matching subscription.
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the request routing procedures outlined in [RFC3261]. It also the request routing procedures outlined in [RFC3261]. It also
contains enough information to identify the resource for which event contains enough information to identify the resource for which event
notification is desired, but not necessarily enough information to notification is desired, but not necessarily enough information to
uniquely identify the nature of the event (e.g., uniquely identify the nature of the event (e.g.,
"sip:adam@example.com" would be an appropriate URI to subscribe to "sip:adam@example.com" would be an appropriate URI to subscribe to
for my presence state; it would also be an appropriate URI to for my presence state; it would also be an appropriate URI to
subscribe to the state of my voice mailbox). subscribe to the state of my voice mailbox).
Subscribers MUST include exactly one "Event" header field in Subscribers MUST include exactly one "Event" header field in
SUBSCRIBE requests, indicating to which event or class of events they SUBSCRIBE requests, indicating to which event or class of events they
are subscribing. The "Event" header field will contain a token which are subscribing. The "Event" header field will contain a token that
indicates the type of state for which a subscription is being indicates the type of state for which a subscription is being
requested. This token will be registered with the IANA and will requested. This token will be registered with the IANA and will
correspond to an event package which further describes the semantics correspond to an event package that further describes the semantics
of the event or event class. of the event or event class.
If the event package to which the event token corresponds defines If the event package to which the event token corresponds defines
behavior associated with the body of its SUBSCRIBE requests, those behavior associated with the body of its SUBSCRIBE requests, those
semantics apply. semantics apply.
Event packages may also define parameters for the Event header field; Event packages may also define parameters for the "Event" header
if they do so, they must define the semantics for such parameters. field; if they do so, they must define the semantics for such
parameters.
3.1.3. Additional SUBSCRIBE Header Field Values 3.1.3. Additional SUBSCRIBE Header Field Values
Because SUBSCRIBE requests create a dialog usage as defined in Because SUBSCRIBE requests create a dialog usage as defined in
[RFC3261], they MAY contain an "Accept" header field. This header [RFC3261], they MAY contain an "Accept" header field. This header
field, if present, indicates the body formats allowed in subsequent field, if present, indicates the body formats allowed in subsequent
NOTIFY requests. Event packages MUST define the behavior for NOTIFY requests. Event packages MUST define the behavior for
SUBSCRIBE requests without "Accept" header fields; usually, this will SUBSCRIBE requests without "Accept" header fields; usually, this will
connote a single, default body type. connote a single, default body type.
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Section 3.1.2). Section 3.1.2).
As in SUBSCRIBE requests, NOTIFY request "Event" header fields MUST As in SUBSCRIBE requests, NOTIFY request "Event" header fields MUST
contain a single event package name for which a notification is being contain a single event package name for which a notification is being
generated. The package name in the "Event" header field MUST match generated. The package name in the "Event" header field MUST match
the "Event" header field in the corresponding SUBSCRIBE request. the "Event" header field in the corresponding SUBSCRIBE request.
Event packages may define semantics associated with the body of their Event packages may define semantics associated with the body of their
NOTIFY requests; if they do so, those semantics apply. NOTIFY NOTIFY requests; if they do so, those semantics apply. NOTIFY
request bodies are expected to provide additional details about the request bodies are expected to provide additional details about the
nature of the event which has occurred and the resultant resource nature of the event that has occurred and the resultant resource
state. state.
When present, the body of the NOTIFY request MUST be formatted into When present, the body of the NOTIFY request MUST be formatted into
one of the body formats specified in the "Accept" header field of the one of the body formats specified in the "Accept" header field of the
corresponding SUBSCRIBE request (or the default type according to the corresponding SUBSCRIBE request (or the default type according to the
event package description, if no Accept header field was specified). event package description, if no "Accept" header field was
This body will contain either the state of the subscribed resource or specified). This body will contain either the state of the
a pointer to such state in the form of a URI (see Section 5.4.13). subscribed resource or a pointer to such state in the form of a URI
(see Section 5.4.13).
4. Node Behavior 4. Node Behavior
4.1. Subscriber Behavior 4.1. Subscriber Behavior
4.1.1. Detecting Support for SIP Events 4.1.1. Detecting Support for SIP Events
The extension described in this document does not make use of the The extension described in this document does not make use of the
"Require" or "Proxy-Require" header fields; similarly, there is no "Require" or "Proxy-Require" header fields; similarly, there is no
token defined for "Supported" header fields. Potential subscribers token defined for "Supported" header fields. Potential subscribers
may probe for the support of SIP Events using the OPTIONS request may probe for the support of SIP events using the OPTIONS request
defined in [RFC3261]. defined in [RFC3261].
The presence of "SUBSCRIBE" in the "Allow" header field of any The presence of "SUBSCRIBE" in the "Allow" header field of any
request or response indicates support for SIP Events; further, in the request or response indicates support for SIP events; further, in the
absence of an "Allow" header field, the simple presence of an "Allow- absence of an "Allow" header field, the simple presence of an "Allow-
Events" header field is sufficient to indicate that the node that Events" header field is sufficient to indicate that the node that
sent the message is capable of acting as a notifier (see sent the message is capable of acting as a notifier (see
Section 4.4.4). Section 4.4.4).
The "methods" parameter for Contact may also be used to The "methods" parameter for Contact may also be used to
specifically announce support for SUBSCRIBE and NOTIFY requests specifically announce support for SUBSCRIBE and NOTIFY requests
when registering. (See [RFC3840] for details on the "methods" when registering. (See [RFC3840] for details on the "methods"
parameter). parameter.)
4.1.2. Creating and Maintaining Subscriptions 4.1.2. Creating and Maintaining Subscriptions
From the subscriber's perspective, a subscription proceeds according From the subscriber's perspective, a subscription proceeds according
to the following state diagram. Events which result in a transition to the following state diagram. Events that result in a transition
back to the same state are not represented in this diagram. back to the same state are not represented in this diagram.
+-------------+ +-------------+
| init |<-----------------------+ | init |<-----------------------+
+-------------+ | +-------------+ |
| Retry-after | Retry-after
Send SUBSCRIBE expires Send SUBSCRIBE expires
| | | |
V Timer N Fires; | V Timer N Fires; |
+-------------+ SUBSCRIBE failure | +-------------+ SUBSCRIBE failure |
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In the state diagram, "Re-subscription times out" means that an In the state diagram, "Re-subscription times out" means that an
attempt to refresh or update the subscription using a new SUBSCRIBE attempt to refresh or update the subscription using a new SUBSCRIBE
request does not result in a NOTIFY request before the corresponding request does not result in a NOTIFY request before the corresponding
Timer N expires. Timer N expires.
Any transition from "notify_wait" into a "pending" or "active" state Any transition from "notify_wait" into a "pending" or "active" state
results in a new subscription. Note that multiple subscriptions can results in a new subscription. Note that multiple subscriptions can
be generated as the result of a single SUBSCRIBE request (see be generated as the result of a single SUBSCRIBE request (see
Section 4.4.1). Each of these new subscriptions exists in its own Section 4.4.1). Each of these new subscriptions exists in its own
independent state machine, and runs its own set of timers. independent state machine and runs its own set of timers.
4.1.2.1. Requesting a Subscription 4.1.2.1. Requesting a Subscription
SUBSCRIBE is a dialog-creating method, as described in [RFC3261]. SUBSCRIBE is a dialog-creating method, as described in [RFC3261].
When a subscriber wishes to subscribe to a particular state for a When a subscriber wishes to subscribe to a particular state for a
resource, it forms a SUBSCRIBE request. If the initial SUBSCRIBE resource, it forms a SUBSCRIBE request. If the initial SUBSCRIBE
request represents a request outside of a dialog (as it typically request represents a request outside of a dialog (as it typically
will), its construction follows the procedures outlined in [RFC3261] will), its construction follows the procedures outlined in [RFC3261]
for UAC request generation outside of a dialog. for User Agent Client (UAC) request generation outside of a dialog.
This SUBSCRIBE request will be confirmed with a final response. 200- This SUBSCRIBE request will be confirmed with a final response.
class responses indicate that the subscription has been accepted, and 200-class responses indicate that the subscription has been accepted
that a NOTIFY request will be sent immediately. and that a NOTIFY request will be sent immediately.
The "Expires" header field in a 200-class response to SUBSCRIBE The "Expires" header field in a 200-class response to SUBSCRIBE
request indicates the actual duration for which the subscription will request indicates the actual duration for which the subscription will
remain active (unless refreshed). The received value might be remain active (unless refreshed). The received value might be
smaller than the value indicated in the SUBSCRIBE request, but cannot smaller than the value indicated in the SUBSCRIBE request but cannot
be larger; see Section 4.2.1 for details. be larger; see Section 4.2.1 for details.
Non-200 class final responses indicate that no subscription or new Non-200-class final responses indicate that no subscription or new
dialog usage has been created, and no subsequent NOTIFY request will dialog usage has been created, and no subsequent NOTIFY request will
be sent. All non-200 class responses (with the exception of "489", be sent. All non-200-class responses (with the exception of 489 (Bad
described herein) have the same meanings and handling as described in Event), described herein) have the same meanings and handling as
[RFC3261]. For the sake of clarity: if a SUBSCRIBE request contains described in [RFC3261]. For the sake of clarity: if a SUBSCRIBE
an "Accept" header field, but that field does not indicate a media request contains an "Accept" header field, but that field does not
type that the notifier is capable of generating in its NOTIFY indicate a media type that the notifier is capable of generating in
requests, then the proper error response is 406 (Not Acceptable). its NOTIFY requests, then the proper error response is 406 (Not
Acceptable).
4.1.2.2. Refreshing of Subscriptions 4.1.2.2. Refreshing of Subscriptions
At any time before a subscription expires, the subscriber may refresh At any time before a subscription expires, the subscriber may refresh
the timer on such a subscription by sending another SUBSCRIBE request the timer on such a subscription by sending another SUBSCRIBE request
on the same dialog as the existing subscription. The handling for on the same dialog as the existing subscription. The handling for
such a request is the same as for the initial creation of a such a request is the same as for the initial creation of a
subscription except as described below. subscription except as described below.
If a SUBSCRIBE request to refresh a subscription receives a 404, 405, If a SUBSCRIBE request to refresh a subscription receives a 404, 405,
410, 416, 480-485, 489, 501, or 604 response, the subscriber MUST 410, 416, 480-485, 489, 501, or 604 response, the subscriber MUST
consider the subscription terminated. (See [RFC5057] for further consider the subscription terminated. (See [RFC5057] for further
details and notes about the effect of error codes on dialogs and details and notes about the effect of error codes on dialogs and
usages within dialog, such as subscriptions). If the subscriber usages within dialog, such as subscriptions). If the subscriber
wishes to re-subscribe to the state, he does so by composing an wishes to re-subscribe to the state, he does so by composing an
unrelated initial SUBSCRIBE request with a freshly-generated Call-ID unrelated initial SUBSCRIBE request with a freshly generated Call-ID
and a new, unique "From" tag (see Section 4.1.2.1.) and a new, unique "From" tag (see Section 4.1.2.1).
If a SUBSCRIBE request to refresh a subscription fails with any error If a SUBSCRIBE request to refresh a subscription fails with any error
code other than those listed above, the original subscription is code other than those listed above, the original subscription is
still considered valid for the duration of the most recently known still considered valid for the duration of the most recently known
"Expires" value as negotiated by the most recent successful SUBSCRIBE "Expires" value as negotiated by the most recent successful SUBSCRIBE
transaction, or as communicated by a NOTIFY request in its transaction, or as communicated by a NOTIFY request in its
"Subscription-State" header field "expires" parameter. "Subscription-State" header field "expires" parameter.
Note that many such errors indicate that there may be a problem Note that many such errors indicate that there may be a problem
with the network or the notifier such that no further NOTIFY with the network or the notifier such that no further NOTIFY
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which has processed a successful subscription or subscription which has processed a successful subscription or subscription
refresh. To ensure that subscribers do not wait indefinitely for a refresh. To ensure that subscribers do not wait indefinitely for a
subscription to be established, a subscriber starts a Timer N, set to subscription to be established, a subscriber starts a Timer N, set to
64*T1, when it sends a SUBSCRIBE request. If this Timer N expires 64*T1, when it sends a SUBSCRIBE request. If this Timer N expires
prior to the receipt of a NOTIFY request, the subscriber considers prior to the receipt of a NOTIFY request, the subscriber considers
the subscription failed, and cleans up any state associated with the the subscription failed, and cleans up any state associated with the
subscription attempt. subscription attempt.
Until Timer N expires, several NOTIFY requests may arrive from Until Timer N expires, several NOTIFY requests may arrive from
different destinations (see Section 4.4.1). Each of these requests different destinations (see Section 4.4.1). Each of these requests
establish a new dialog usage and a new subscription. After the establishes a new dialog usage and a new subscription. After the
expiration of Timer N, the subscriber SHOULD reject any such NOTIFY expiration of Timer N, the subscriber SHOULD reject any such NOTIFY
requests that would otherwise establish a new dialog usage with a requests that would otherwise establish a new dialog usage with a 481
"481" response code. (Subscription does not exist) response code.
Until the first NOTIFY request arrives, the subscriber should Until the first NOTIFY request arrives, the subscriber should
consider the state of the subscribed resource to be in a neutral consider the state of the subscribed resource to be in a neutral
state. Event package specifications MUST define this "neutral state" state. Event package specifications MUST define this "neutral state"
in such a way that makes sense for their application (see in such a way that makes sense for their application (see
Section 5.4.7). Section 5.4.7).
Due to the potential for out-of-order messages, packet loss, and Due to the potential for out-of-order messages, packet loss, and
forking, the subscriber MUST be prepared to receive NOTIFY requests forking, the subscriber MUST be prepared to receive NOTIFY requests
before the SUBSCRIBE transaction has completed. before the SUBSCRIBE transaction has completed.
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Except as noted above, processing of this NOTIFY request is the same Except as noted above, processing of this NOTIFY request is the same
as in Section 4.1.3. as in Section 4.1.3.
4.1.3. Receiving and Processing State Information 4.1.3. Receiving and Processing State Information
Subscribers receive information about the state of a resource to Subscribers receive information about the state of a resource to
which they have subscribed in the form of NOTIFY requests. which they have subscribed in the form of NOTIFY requests.
Upon receiving a NOTIFY request, the subscriber should check that it Upon receiving a NOTIFY request, the subscriber should check that it
matches at least one of its outstanding subscriptions; if not, it matches at least one of its outstanding subscriptions; if not, it
MUST return a "481 Subscription does not exist" response unless MUST return a 481 (Subscription does not exist) response unless
another 400- or 500-class response is more appropriate. The rules another 400- or 500-class response is more appropriate. The rules
for matching NOTIFY requests with subscriptions that create a new for matching NOTIFY requests with subscriptions that create a new
dialog usage are described in Section 4.4.1. Notifications for dialog usage are described in Section 4.4.1. Notifications for
subscriptions which were created inside an existing dialog match if subscriptions that were created inside an existing dialog match if
they are in the same dialog and the "Event" header fields match (as they are in the same dialog and the "Event" header fields match (as
described in Section 8.2.1). described in Section 8.2.1).
If, for some reason, the event package designated in the "Event" If, for some reason, the event package designated in the "Event"
header field of the NOTIFY request is not supported, the subscriber header field of the NOTIFY request is not supported, the subscriber
will respond with a "489 Bad Event" response. will respond with a 489 (Bad Event) response.
To prevent spoofing of events, NOTIFY requests SHOULD be To prevent spoofing of events, NOTIFY requests SHOULD be
authenticated, using any defined SIP authentication mechanism, such authenticated using any defined SIP authentication mechanism, such as
as those described in sections 22.2 and 23 of [RFC3261]. those described in Sections 22.2 and 23 of [RFC3261].
NOTIFY requests MUST contain "Subscription-State" header fields which NOTIFY requests MUST contain "Subscription-State" header fields that
indicate the status of the subscription. indicate the status of the subscription.
If the "Subscription-State" header field value is "active", it means If the "Subscription-State" header field value is "active", it means
that the subscription has been accepted and (in general) has been that the subscription has been accepted and (in general) has been
authorized. If the header field also contains an "expires" authorized. If the header field also contains an "expires"
parameter, the subscriber SHOULD take it as the authoritative parameter, the subscriber SHOULD take it as the authoritative
subscription duration and adjust accordingly. The "retry-after" and subscription duration and adjust accordingly. The "retry-after" and
"reason" parameters have no semantics for "active". "reason" parameters have no semantics for "active".
If the "Subscription-State" value is "pending", the subscription has If the "Subscription-State" value is "pending", the subscription has
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field also contains an "expires" parameter, the subscriber SHOULD field also contains an "expires" parameter, the subscriber SHOULD
take it as the authoritative subscription duration and adjust take it as the authoritative subscription duration and adjust
accordingly. No further action is necessary on the part of the accordingly. No further action is necessary on the part of the
subscriber. The "retry-after" and "reason" parameters have no subscriber. The "retry-after" and "reason" parameters have no
semantics for "pending". semantics for "pending".
If the "Subscription-State" value is "terminated", the subscriber If the "Subscription-State" value is "terminated", the subscriber
MUST consider the subscription terminated. The "expires" parameter MUST consider the subscription terminated. The "expires" parameter
has no semantics for "terminated" -- notifiers SHOULD NOT include an has no semantics for "terminated" -- notifiers SHOULD NOT include an
"expires" parameter on a "Subscription-State" header field with a "expires" parameter on a "Subscription-State" header field with a
value of "terminated," and subscribers MUST ignore any such value of "terminated", and subscribers MUST ignore any such
parameter, if present. If a reason code is present, the client parameter, if present. If a reason code is present, the client
should behave as described below. If no reason code or an unknown should behave as described below. If no reason code or an unknown
reason code is present, the client MAY attempt to re-subscribe at any reason code is present, the client MAY attempt to re-subscribe at any
time (unless a "retry-after" parameter is present, in which case the time (unless a "retry-after" parameter is present, in which case the
client SHOULD NOT attempt re-subscription until after the number of client SHOULD NOT attempt re-subscription until after the number of
seconds specified by the "retry-after" parameter). The reason codes seconds specified by the "retry-after" parameter). The reason codes
defined by this document are: defined by this document are:
deactivated: The subscription has been terminated, but the deactivated: The subscription has been terminated, but the
subscriber SHOULD retry immediately with a new subscription. One subscriber SHOULD retry immediately with a new subscription. One
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re-subscribe. re-subscribe.
rejected: The subscription has been terminated due to change in rejected: The subscription has been terminated due to change in
authorization policy. Clients SHOULD NOT attempt to re-subscribe. authorization policy. Clients SHOULD NOT attempt to re-subscribe.
The "retry-after" parameter has no semantics for "rejected". The "retry-after" parameter has no semantics for "rejected".
timeout: The subscription has been terminated because it was not timeout: The subscription has been terminated because it was not
refreshed before it expired. Clients MAY re-subscribe refreshed before it expired. Clients MAY re-subscribe
immediately. The "retry-after" parameter has no semantics for immediately. The "retry-after" parameter has no semantics for
"timeout". This reason code is also associated with polling of "timeout". This reason code is also associated with polling of
resource state, as detailed in Section 4.4.3 resource state, as detailed in Section 4.4.3.
giveup: The subscription has been terminated because the notifier giveup: The subscription has been terminated because the notifier
could not obtain authorization in a timely fashion. If a "retry- could not obtain authorization in a timely fashion. If a "retry-
after" parameter is also present, the client SHOULD wait at least after" parameter is also present, the client SHOULD wait at least
the number of seconds specified by that parameter before the number of seconds specified by that parameter before
attempting to re-subscribe; otherwise, the client MAY retry attempting to re-subscribe; otherwise, the client MAY retry
immediately, but will likely get put back into pending state. immediately, but will likely get put back into pending state.
noresource: The subscription has been terminated because the noresource: The subscription has been terminated because the
resource state which was being monitored no longer exists. resource state that was being monitored no longer exists. Clients
Clients SHOULD NOT attempt to re-subscribe. The "retry-after" SHOULD NOT attempt to re-subscribe. The "retry-after" parameter
parameter has no semantics for "noresource". has no semantics for "noresource".
invariant: The subscription has been terminated because the resource invariant: The subscription has been terminated because the resource
state is guaranteed not to change for the foreseeable future. state is guaranteed not to change for the foreseeable future.
This may be the case, for example, when subscribing to the This may be the case, for example, when subscribing to the
location information of a fixed-location land-line telephone. location information of a fixed-location land-line telephone.
When using this reason code, notifiers are advised to include a When using this reason code, notifiers are advised to include a
"retry-after" parameter with a large value (for example, 31536000 "retry-after" parameter with a large value (for example, 31536000
-- or one year) to prevent older, RFC 3265-compliant clients from -- or one year) to prevent older clients that are RFC 3265
periodically resubscribing. Clients SHOULD NOT attempt to compliant from periodically re-subscribing. Clients SHOULD NOT
resubscribe after receiving a reason code of "invariant," attempt to re-subscribe after receiving a reason code of
regardless of the presence of or value of a "retry-after" "invariant", regardless of the presence of or value of a "retry-
parameter. after" parameter.
Other specifications may define new reason codes for use with the Other specifications may define new reason codes for use with the
"Subscription-State" header field. "Subscription-State" header field.
Once the notification is deemed acceptable to the subscriber, the Once the notification is deemed acceptable to the subscriber, the
subscriber SHOULD return a 200 response. In general, it is not subscriber SHOULD return a 200 response. In general, it is not
expected that NOTIFY responses will contain bodies; however, they expected that NOTIFY responses will contain bodies; however, they
MAY, if the NOTIFY request contained an "Accept" header field. MAY, if the NOTIFY request contained an "Accept" header field.
Other responses defined in [RFC3261] may also be returned, as Other responses defined in [RFC3261] may also be returned, as
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longer than the time necessary for automated processing. In longer than the time necessary for automated processing. In
particular, subscribers MUST NOT wait for a user response before particular, subscribers MUST NOT wait for a user response before
returning a final response to a NOTIFY request. returning a final response to a NOTIFY request.
4.1.4. Forking of SUBSCRIBE Requests 4.1.4. Forking of SUBSCRIBE Requests
In accordance with the rules for proxying non-INVITE requests as In accordance with the rules for proxying non-INVITE requests as
defined in [RFC3261], successful SUBSCRIBE requests will receive only defined in [RFC3261], successful SUBSCRIBE requests will receive only
one 200-class response; however, due to forking, the subscription may one 200-class response; however, due to forking, the subscription may
have been accepted by multiple nodes. The subscriber MUST therefore have been accepted by multiple nodes. The subscriber MUST therefore
be prepared to receive NOTIFY requests with "From:" tags which differ be prepared to receive NOTIFY requests with "From:" tags that differ
from the "To:" tag received in the SUBSCRIBE 200-class response. from the "To:" tag received in the SUBSCRIBE 200-class response.
If multiple NOTIFY requests are received in different dialogs in If multiple NOTIFY requests are received in different dialogs in
response to a single SUBSCRIBE request, each dialog represents a response to a single SUBSCRIBE request, each dialog represents a
different destination to which the SUBSCRIBE request was forked. different destination to which the SUBSCRIBE request was forked.
Subscriber handling in such situations varies by event package; see Subscriber handling in such situations varies by event package; see
Section 5.4.9 for details. Section 5.4.9 for details.
4.2. Notifier Behavior 4.2. Notifier Behavior
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subscriptions except upon receipt of a SUBSCRIBE request. However, subscriptions except upon receipt of a SUBSCRIBE request. However,
for historical reasons, the implicit creation of subscriptions as for historical reasons, the implicit creation of subscriptions as
defined in [RFC3515] is still permitted. defined in [RFC3515] is still permitted.
[RFC3265] allowed the creation of subscriptions using means other [RFC3265] allowed the creation of subscriptions using means other
than the SUBSCRIBE method. The only standardized use of this than the SUBSCRIBE method. The only standardized use of this
mechanism is the REFER method [RFC3515]. Implementation mechanism is the REFER method [RFC3515]. Implementation
experience with REFER has shown that the implicit creation of a experience with REFER has shown that the implicit creation of a
subscription has a number of undesirable effects, such as the subscription has a number of undesirable effects, such as the
inability to signal the success of a REFER request while signaling inability to signal the success of a REFER request while signaling
a problem with the subscription; and difficulty performing one a problem with the subscription, and difficulty performing one
action without the other. Additionally, the proper exchange of action without the other. Additionally, the proper exchange of
dialog identifiers is difficult without dialog re-use (which has dialog identifiers is difficult without dialog reuse (which has
its own set of problems; see Section 4.5). its own set of problems; see Section 4.5).
4.2.1.1. Initial SUBSCRIBE Transaction Processing 4.2.1.1. Initial SUBSCRIBE Transaction Processing
In no case should a SUBSCRIBE transaction extend for any longer than In no case should a SUBSCRIBE transaction extend for any longer than
the time necessary for automated processing. In particular, the time necessary for automated processing. In particular,
notifiers MUST NOT wait for a user response before returning a final notifiers MUST NOT wait for a user response before returning a final
response to a SUBSCRIBE request. response to a SUBSCRIBE request.
This requirement is imposed primarily to prevent the non-INVITE This requirement is imposed primarily to prevent the non-INVITE
transaction timeout timer F (see [RFC3261]) from firing during the transaction timeout timer F (see [RFC3261]) from firing during the
SUBSCRIBE transaction, since interaction with a user would often SUBSCRIBE transaction, since interaction with a user would often
exceed 64*T1 seconds. exceed 64*T1 seconds.
The notifier SHOULD check that the event package specified in the The notifier SHOULD check that the event package specified in the
"Event" header field is understood. If not, the notifier SHOULD "Event" header field is understood. If not, the notifier SHOULD
return a "489 Bad Event" response to indicate that the specified return a 489 (Bad Event) response to indicate that the specified
event/event class is not understood. event/event class is not understood.
The notifier SHOULD also perform any necessary authentication and The notifier SHOULD also perform any necessary authentication and
authorization per its local policy. See Section 4.2.1.3. authorization per its local policy. See Section 4.2.1.3.
The notifier MAY also check that the duration in the "Expires" header The notifier MAY also check that the duration in the "Expires" header
field is not too small. If and only if the expiration interval is field is not too small. If and only if the expiration interval is
greater than zero AND smaller than one hour AND less than a notifier- greater than zero AND smaller than one hour AND less than a notifier-
configured minimum, the notifier MAY return a "423 Interval Too configured minimum, the notifier MAY return a 423 (Interval Too
Brief" error which contains a "Min-Expires" header field field. The Brief) error that contains a "Min-Expires" header field. The
"Min-Expires" header field is described in [RFC3261]. "Min-Expires" header field is described in [RFC3261].
Once the notifier determines that it has enough information to create Once the notifier determines that it has enough information to create
the subscription (i.e., it understands the event package, the the subscription (i.e., it understands the event package, the
subscription pertains to a known resource, and there are no other subscription pertains to a known resource, and there are no other
barriers to creating the subscription), it creates the subscription barriers to creating the subscription), it creates the subscription
and a dialog usage, and returns a 200 (OK) response. and a dialog usage, and returns a 200 (OK) response.
When a subscription is created in the notifier, it stores the event When a subscription is created in the notifier, it stores the event
package name as part of the subscription information. package name as part of the subscription information.
The "Expires" values present in SUBSCRIBE 200-class responses behave The "Expires" values present in SUBSCRIBE 200-class responses behave
in the same way as they do in REGISTER responses: the server MAY in the same way as they do in REGISTER responses: the server MAY
shorten the interval, but MUST NOT lengthen it. shorten the interval but MUST NOT lengthen it.
If the duration specified in a SUBSCRIBE request is unacceptably If the duration specified in a SUBSCRIBE request is unacceptably
short, the notifier may be able to send a 423 response, as short, the notifier may be able to send a 423 response, as
described earlier in this section. described earlier in this section.
200-class responses to SUBSCRIBE requests will not generally contain 200-class responses to SUBSCRIBE requests will not generally contain
any useful information beyond subscription duration; their primary any useful information beyond subscription duration; their primary
purpose is to serve as a reliability mechanism. State information purpose is to serve as a reliability mechanism. State information
will be communicated via a subsequent NOTIFY request from the will be communicated via a subsequent NOTIFY request from the
notifier. notifier.
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4.2.1.2. Confirmation of Subscription Creation/Refreshing 4.2.1.2. Confirmation of Subscription Creation/Refreshing
Upon successfully accepting or refreshing a subscription, notifiers Upon successfully accepting or refreshing a subscription, notifiers
MUST send a NOTIFY request immediately to communicate the current MUST send a NOTIFY request immediately to communicate the current
resource state to the subscriber. This NOTIFY request is sent on the resource state to the subscriber. This NOTIFY request is sent on the
same dialog as created by the SUBSCRIBE response. If the resource same dialog as created by the SUBSCRIBE response. If the resource
has no meaningful state at the time that the SUBSCRIBE request is has no meaningful state at the time that the SUBSCRIBE request is
processed, this NOTIFY request MAY contain an empty or neutral body. processed, this NOTIFY request MAY contain an empty or neutral body.
See Section 4.2.2 for further details on NOTIFY request generation. See Section 4.2.2 for further details on NOTIFY request generation.
Note that a NOTIFY request is always sent immediately after any 200- Note that a NOTIFY request is always sent immediately after any
class response to a SUBSCRIBE request, regardless of whether the 200-class response to a SUBSCRIBE request, regardless of whether the
subscription has already been authorized. subscription has already been authorized.
4.2.1.3. Authentication/Authorization of SUBSCRIBE Requests 4.2.1.3. Authentication/Authorization of SUBSCRIBE Requests
Privacy concerns may require that notifiers apply policy to determine Privacy concerns may require that notifiers apply policy to determine
whether a particular subscriber is authorized to subscribe to a whether a particular subscriber is authorized to subscribe to a
certain set of events. Such policy may be defined by mechanisms such certain set of events. Such policy may be defined by mechanisms such
as access control lists or real-time interaction with a user. In as access control lists or real-time interaction with a user. In
general, authorization of subscribers prior to authentication is not general, authorization of subscribers prior to authentication is not
particularly useful. particularly useful.
SIP authentication mechanisms are discussed in [RFC3261]. Note that, SIP authentication mechanisms are discussed in [RFC3261]. Note that,
even if the notifier node typically acts as a proxy, authentication even if the notifier node typically acts as a proxy, authentication
for SUBSCRIBE requests will always be performed via a "401" response, for SUBSCRIBE requests will always be performed via a 401
not a "407". Notifiers always act as a user agents when accepting (Unauthorized) response, not a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required).
subscriptions and sending notifications. Notifiers always act as user agents when accepting subscriptions and
sending notifications.
Of course, when acting as a proxy, a node will perform normal Of course, when acting as a proxy, a node will perform normal
proxy authentication (using 407). The foregoing explanation is a proxy authentication (using 407). The foregoing explanation is a
reminder that notifiers are always UAs, and as such perform UA reminder that notifiers are always user agents and, as such,
authentication. perform user agent authentication.
If authorization fails based on an access list or some other If authorization fails based on an access list or some other
automated mechanism (i.e., it can be automatically authoritatively automated mechanism (i.e., it can be automatically authoritatively
determined that the subscriber is not authorized to subscribe), the determined that the subscriber is not authorized to subscribe), the
notifier SHOULD reply to the request with a "403 Forbidden" or "603 notifier SHOULD reply to the request with a 403 (Forbidden) or 603
Decline" response, unless doing so might reveal information that (Decline) response, unless doing so might reveal information that
should stay private; see Section 6.2. should stay private; see Section 6.2.
If the notifier owner is interactively queried to determine whether a If the notifier owner is interactively queried to determine whether a
subscription is allowed, a 200 (OK) response is returned immediately. subscription is allowed, a 200 (OK) response is returned immediately.
Note that a NOTIFY request is still formed and sent under these Note that a NOTIFY request is still formed and sent under these
circumstances, as described in the previous section. circumstances, as described in the previous section.
If subscription authorization was delayed and the notifier wishes to If subscription authorization was delayed and the notifier wishes to
convey that such authorization has been declined, it may do so by convey that such authorization has been declined, it may do so by
sending a NOTIFY request containing a "Subscription-State" header sending a NOTIFY request containing a "Subscription-State" header
field with a value of "terminated" and a reason parameter of field with a value of "terminated" and a reason parameter of
"rejected". "rejected".
4.2.1.4. Refreshing of Subscriptions 4.2.1.4. Refreshing of Subscriptions
When a notifier receives a subscription refresh, assuming that the When a notifier receives a subscription refresh, assuming that the
subscriber is still authorized, the notifier updates the expiration subscriber is still authorized, the notifier updates the expiration
time for subscription. As with the initial subscription, the server time for subscription. As with the initial subscription, the server
MAY shorten the amount of time until expiration, but MUST NOT MAY shorten the amount of time until expiration but MUST NOT increase
increase it. The final expiration time is placed in the "Expires" it. The final expiration time is placed in the "Expires" header
header field in the response. If the duration specified in a field in the response. If the duration specified in a SUBSCRIBE
SUBSCRIBE request is unacceptably short, the notifier SHOULD respond request is unacceptably short, the notifier SHOULD respond with a 423
with a "423 Interval Too Brief" response. (Interval Too Brief) response.
If no refresh for a notification address is received before its If no refresh for a notification address is received before its
expiration time, the subscription is removed. When removing a expiration time, the subscription is removed. When removing a
subscription, the notifier SHOULD send a NOTIFY request with a subscription, the notifier SHOULD send a NOTIFY request with a
"Subscription-State" value of "terminated" to inform it that the "Subscription-State" value of "terminated" to inform it that the
subscription is being removed. If such a request is sent, the subscription is being removed. If such a request is sent, the
"Subscription-State" header field SHOULD contain a "reason=timeout" "Subscription-State" header field SHOULD contain a "reason=timeout"
parameter. parameter.
Clients can cause a subscription to be terminated immediately by Clients can cause a subscription to be terminated immediately by
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notifier may choose to omit state information from the terminal notifier may choose to omit state information from the terminal
NOTIFY request. NOTIFY request.
The sending of a NOTIFY request when a subscription expires allows The sending of a NOTIFY request when a subscription expires allows
the corresponding dialog usage to be terminated, if appropriate. the corresponding dialog usage to be terminated, if appropriate.
4.2.2. Sending State Information to Subscribers 4.2.2. Sending State Information to Subscribers
Notifiers use the NOTIFY method to send information about the state Notifiers use the NOTIFY method to send information about the state
of a resource to subscribers. The notifier's view of a subscription of a resource to subscribers. The notifier's view of a subscription
is shown in the following state diagram. Events which result in a is shown in the following state diagram. Events that result in a
transition back to the same state are not represented in this transition back to the same state are not represented in this
diagram. diagram.
+-------------+ +-------------+
| init | | init |
+-------------+ +-------------+
| |
Receive SUBSCRIBE, Receive SUBSCRIBE,
Send NOTIFY Send NOTIFY
| |
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This behavior prevents unnecessary transmission of state This behavior prevents unnecessary transmission of state
information for subscribers who have crashed or disappeared from information for subscribers who have crashed or disappeared from
the network. Because such transmissions will be sent multiple the network. Because such transmissions will be sent multiple
times, per the retransmission algorithm defined in [RFC3261] times, per the retransmission algorithm defined in [RFC3261]
(instead of the typical single transmission for functioning (instead of the typical single transmission for functioning
clients), continuing to service them when no client is available clients), continuing to service them when no client is available
to acknowledge them could place undue strain on a network. Upon to acknowledge them could place undue strain on a network. Upon
client restart or reestablishment of a network connection, it is client restart or reestablishment of a network connection, it is
expected that clients will send SUBSCRIBE requests to refresh expected that clients will send SUBSCRIBE requests to refresh
potentially stale state information; such requests will re-install potentially stale state information; such requests will reinstall
subscriptions in all relevant nodes. subscriptions in all relevant nodes.
If the NOTIFY transaction fails due to the receipt of a 404, 405, If the NOTIFY transaction fails due to the receipt of a 404, 405,
410, 416, 480-485, 489, 501, or 604 response to the NOTIFY request, 410, 416, 480-485, 489, 501, or 604 response to the NOTIFY request,
the notifier MUST remove the corresponding subscription. See the notifier MUST remove the corresponding subscription. See
[RFC5057] for further details and notes about the effect of error [RFC5057] for further details and notes about the effect of error
codes on dialogs and usages within dialog (such as subscriptions). codes on dialogs and usages within dialog (such as subscriptions).
A notify error response would generally indicate that something A notify error response would generally indicate that something
has gone wrong with the subscriber or with some proxy on the way has gone wrong with the subscriber or with some proxy on the way
to the subscriber. If the subscriber is in error, it makes the to the subscriber. If the subscriber is in error, it makes the
most sense to allow the subscriber to rectify the situation (by most sense to allow the subscriber to rectify the situation (by
re-subscribing) once the error condition has been handled. If a re-subscribing) once the error condition has been handled. If a
proxy is in error, the periodic sending of SUBSCRIBE requests to proxy is in error, the periodic sending of SUBSCRIBE requests to
refresh the expiration timer will re-install subscription state refresh the expiration timer will reinstall subscription state
once the network problem has been resolved. once the network problem has been resolved.
NOTIFY requests MUST contain a "Subscription-State" header field with NOTIFY requests MUST contain a "Subscription-State" header field with
a value of "active", "pending", or "terminated". The "active" value a value of "active", "pending", or "terminated". The "active" value
indicates that the subscription has been accepted and has been indicates that the subscription has been accepted and has been
authorized (in most cases; see Section 6.2). The "pending" value authorized (in most cases; see Section 6.2). The "pending" value
indicates that the subscription has been received, but that policy indicates that the subscription has been received, but that policy
information is insufficient to accept or deny the subscription at information is insufficient to accept or deny the subscription at
this time. The "terminated" value indicates that the subscription is this time. The "terminated" value indicates that the subscription is
not active. not active.
If the value of the "Subscription-State" header field is "active" or If the value of the "Subscription-State" header field is "active" or
"pending", the notifier MUST also include in the "Subscription-State" "pending", the notifier MUST also include in the "Subscription-State"
header field an "expires" parameter which indicates the time header field an "expires" parameter that indicates the time remaining
remaining on the subscription. The notifier MAY use this mechanism on the subscription. The notifier MAY use this mechanism to shorten
to shorten a subscription; however, this mechanism MUST NOT be used a subscription; however, this mechanism MUST NOT be used to lengthen
to lengthen a subscription. a subscription.
Including expiration information for active and pending Including expiration information for active and pending
subscriptions is necessary in case the SUBSCRIBE request forks, subscriptions is necessary in case the SUBSCRIBE request forks,
since the response to a forked SUBSCRIBE request may not be since the response to a forked SUBSCRIBE request may not be
received by the subscriber. [RFC3265] allowed the notifier some received by the subscriber. [RFC3265] allowed the notifier some
discretion in the inclusion of this parameter, so subscriber discretion in the inclusion of this parameter, so subscriber
implementations are warned to handle the lack of an "expires" implementations are warned to handle the lack of an "expires"
parameter gracefully. Note well that this "expires" value is a parameter gracefully. Note well that this "expires" value is a
parameter on the "Subscription-State" header field, NOT an parameter on the "Subscription-State" header field NOT the
"Expires" header field. "Expires" header field.
The period of time for a subscription can be shortened to zero by The period of time for a subscription can be shortened to zero by
the notifier. In other words, it is perfectly valid for a the notifier. In other words, it is perfectly valid for a
SUBSCRIBE request with a non-zero expires to be answered with a SUBSCRIBE request with a non-zero expires to be answered with a
NOTIFY request that contains "Subscription-Status: NOTIFY request that contains "Subscription-Status:
terminated;reason=expired". This merely means that the notifier terminated;reason=expired". This merely means that the notifier
has shortened the subscription timeout to zero, and the has shortened the subscription timeout to zero, and the
subscription has expired instantaneously. The body may contain subscription has expired instantaneously. The body may contain
valid state, or it may contain a neutral state (see valid state, or it may contain a neutral state (see
Section 5.4.7). Section 5.4.7).
If the value of the "Subscription-State" header field is If the value of the "Subscription-State" header field is
"terminated", the notifier SHOULD also include a "reason" parameter. "terminated", the notifier SHOULD also include a "reason" parameter.
The notifier MAY also include a "retry-after" parameter, where The notifier MAY also include a "retry-after" parameter, where
appropriate. For details on the value and semantics of the "reason" appropriate. For details on the value and semantics of the "reason"
and "retry-after" parameters, see Section 4.1.3. and "retry-after" parameters, see Section 4.1.3.
4.2.3. PINT Compatibility 4.2.3. PSTN/Internet Interworking (PINT) Compatibility
The "Event" header field is considered mandatory for the purposes of The "Event" header field is considered mandatory for the purposes of
this document. However, to maintain compatibility with PINT (see this document. However, to maintain compatibility with PINT (see
[RFC2848]), notifiers MAY interpret a SUBSCRIBE request with no [RFC2848]), notifiers MAY interpret a SUBSCRIBE request with no
"Event" header field as requesting a subscription to PINT events. If "Event" header field as requesting a subscription to PINT events. If
a notifier does not support PINT, it SHOULD return "489 Bad Event" to a notifier does not support PINT, it SHOULD return 489 (Bad Event) to
any SUBSCRIBE requests without an "Event" header field. any SUBSCRIBE requests without an "Event" header field.
4.3. Proxy Behavior 4.3. Proxy Behavior
Proxies need no additional behavior beyond that described in Proxies need no additional behavior beyond that described in
[RFC3261] to support SUBSCRIBE and NOTIFY transactions. If a proxy [RFC3261] to support SUBSCRIBE and NOTIFY transactions. If a proxy
wishes to see all of the SUBSCRIBE and NOTIFY requests for a given wishes to see all of the SUBSCRIBE and NOTIFY requests for a given
dialog, it MUST add a Record-Route header field to the initial dialog, it MUST add a "Record-Route" header field to the initial
SUBSCRIBE request and all NOTIFY requests. It MAY choose to include SUBSCRIBE request and all NOTIFY requests. It MAY choose to include
Record-Route in subsequent SUBSCRIBE requests; however, these "Record-Route" in subsequent SUBSCRIBE requests; however, these
requests cannot cause the dialog's route set to be modified. requests cannot cause the dialog's route set to be modified.
Proxies that did not add a Record-Route header field to the initial Proxies that did not add a "Record-Route" header field to the initial
SUBSCRIBE request MUST NOT add a Record-Route header field to any of SUBSCRIBE request MUST NOT add a "Record-Route" header field to any
the associated NOTIFY requests. of the associated NOTIFY requests.
Note that subscribers and notifiers may elect to use S/MIME Note that subscribers and notifiers may elect to use Secure/
encryption of SUBSCRIBE and NOTIFY requests; consequently, proxies Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME) encryption of
cannot rely on being able to access any information that is not SUBSCRIBE and NOTIFY requests; consequently, proxies cannot rely
explicitly required to be proxy-readable by [RFC3261]. on being able to access any information that is not explicitly
required to be proxy-readable by [RFC3261].
4.4. Common Behavior 4.4. Common Behavior
4.4.1. Dialog Creation and Termination 4.4.1. Dialog Creation and Termination
Dialogs usages are created upon completion of a NOTIFY transaction Dialogs usages are created upon completion of a NOTIFY transaction
for a new subscription, unless the NOTIFY request contains a for a new subscription, unless the NOTIFY request contains a
"Subscription-State" of "terminated." "Subscription-State" of "terminated."
Because the dialog usage is established by the NOTIFY request, the Because the dialog usage is established by the NOTIFY request, the
route set at the subscriber is taken from the NOTIFY request itself, route set at the subscriber is taken from the NOTIFY request itself,
as opposed to the route set present in the 200-class response to the as opposed to the route set present in the 200-class response to the
SUBSCRIBE request. SUBSCRIBE request.
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Dialogs usages are created upon completion of a NOTIFY transaction Dialogs usages are created upon completion of a NOTIFY transaction
for a new subscription, unless the NOTIFY request contains a for a new subscription, unless the NOTIFY request contains a
"Subscription-State" of "terminated." "Subscription-State" of "terminated."
Because the dialog usage is established by the NOTIFY request, the Because the dialog usage is established by the NOTIFY request, the
route set at the subscriber is taken from the NOTIFY request itself, route set at the subscriber is taken from the NOTIFY request itself,
as opposed to the route set present in the 200-class response to the as opposed to the route set present in the 200-class response to the
SUBSCRIBE request. SUBSCRIBE request.
NOTIFY requests are matched to such SUBSCRIBE requests if they NOTIFY requests are matched to such SUBSCRIBE requests if they
contain the same "Call-ID", a "To" header field "tag" parameter which contain the same "Call-ID", a "To" header field "tag" parameter that
matches the "From" header field "tag" parameter of the SUBSCRIBE matches the "From" header field "tag" parameter of the SUBSCRIBE
request, and the same "Event" header field. Rules for comparisons of request, and the same "Event" header field. Rules for comparisons of
the "Event" header fields are described in Section 8.2.1. the "Event" header fields are described in Section 8.2.1.
A subscription is destroyed after a notifier sends a NOTIFY request A subscription is destroyed after a notifier sends a NOTIFY request
with a "Subscription-State" of "terminated," or in certain error with a "Subscription-State" of "terminated", or in certain error
situations described elsewhere in this document. The subscriber will situations described elsewhere in this document. The subscriber will
generally answer such final requests with a "200 OK" response (unless generally answer such final requests with a 200 (OK) response (unless
a condition warranting an alternate response has arisen). Except a condition warranting an alternate response has arisen). Except
when the mechanism described in Section 4.5.2 is used, the when the mechanism described in Section 4.5.2 is used, the
destruction of a subscription results in the termination of its destruction of a subscription results in the termination of its
associated dialog. associated dialog.
A subscriber may send a SUBSCRIBE request with an "Expires" header A subscriber may send a SUBSCRIBE request with an "Expires" header
field of 0 in order to trigger the sending of such a NOTIFY field of 0 in order to trigger the sending of such a NOTIFY
request; however, for the purposes of subscription and dialog request; however, for the purposes of subscription and dialog
lifetime, the subscription is not considered terminated until the lifetime, the subscription is not considered terminated until the
NOTIFY transaction with a "Subscription-State" of "terminated" NOTIFY transaction with a "Subscription-State" of "terminated"
completes. completes.
4.4.2. Notifier Migration 4.4.2. Notifier Migration
It is often useful to allow migration of subscriptions between It is often useful to allow migration of subscriptions between
notifiers. Such migration may be effected by sending a NOTIFY notifiers. Such migration may be effected by sending a NOTIFY
request with a "Subscription-State" header field of "terminated", and request with a "Subscription-State" header field of "terminated" and
a reason parameter of "deactivated". This NOTIFY request is a reason parameter of "deactivated". This NOTIFY request is
otherwise normal, and is formed as described in Section 4.2.2. otherwise normal and is formed as described in Section 4.2.2.
Upon receipt of this NOTIFY request, the subscriber SHOULD attempt to Upon receipt of this NOTIFY request, the subscriber SHOULD attempt to
re-subscribe (as described in the preceding sections). Note that re-subscribe (as described in the preceding sections). Note that
this subscription is established on a new dialog, and does not re-use this subscription is established on a new dialog, and does not reuse
the route set from the previous subscription dialog. the route set from the previous subscription dialog.
The actual migration is effected by making a change to the policy The actual migration is effected by making a change to the policy
(such as routing decisions) of one or more servers to which the (such as routing decisions) of one or more servers to which the
SUBSCRIBE request will be sent in such a way that a different node SUBSCRIBE request will be sent in such a way that a different node
ends up responding to the SUBSCRIBE request. This may be as simple ends up responding to the SUBSCRIBE request. This may be as simple
as a change in the local policy in the notifier from which the as a change in the local policy in the notifier from which the
subscription is migrating so that it serves as a proxy or redirect subscription is migrating so that it serves as a proxy or redirect
server instead of a notifier. server instead of a notifier.
Whether, when, and why to perform notifier migrations may be Whether, when, and why to perform notifier migrations may be
described in individual event packages; otherwise, such decisions are described in individual event packages; otherwise, such decisions are
a matter of local notifier policy, and are left up to individual a matter of local notifier policy and are left up to individual
implementations. implementations.
4.4.3. Polling Resource State 4.4.3. Polling Resource State
A natural consequence of the behavior described in the preceding A natural consequence of the behavior described in the preceding
sections is that an immediate fetch without a persistent subscription sections is that an immediate fetch without a persistent subscription
may be effected by sending a SUBSCRIBE with an "Expires" of 0. may be effected by sending a SUBSCRIBE with an "Expires" of 0.
Of course, an immediate fetch while a subscription is active may be Of course, an immediate fetch while a subscription is active may be
effected by sending a SUBSCRIBE request with an "Expires" equal to effected by sending a SUBSCRIBE request with an "Expires" equal to
the number of seconds remaining in the subscription. the number of seconds remaining in the subscription.
Upon receipt of this SUBSCRIBE request, the notifier (or notifiers, Upon receipt of this SUBSCRIBE request, the notifier (or notifiers,
if the SUBSCRIBE request was forked) will send a NOTIFY request if the SUBSCRIBE request was forked) will send a NOTIFY request
containing resource state in the same dialog. containing resource state in the same dialog.
Note that the NOTIFY requests triggered by SUBSCRIBE requests with Note that the NOTIFY requests triggered by SUBSCRIBE requests with
"Expires" header fields of 0 will contain a "Subscription-State" "Expires" header fields of 0 will contain a "Subscription-State"
value of "terminated", and a "reason" parameter of "timeout". value of "terminated" and a "reason" parameter of "timeout".
Polling of event state can cause significant increases in load on the Polling of event state can cause significant increases in load on the
network and notifiers; as such, it should be used only sparingly. In network and notifiers; as such, it should be used only sparingly. In
particular, polling SHOULD NOT be used in circumstances in which it particular, polling SHOULD NOT be used in circumstances in which it
will typically result in more network messages than long-running will typically result in more network messages than long-running
subscriptions. subscriptions.
When polling is used, subscribers SHOULD attempt to cache When polling is used, subscribers SHOULD attempt to cache
authentication credentials between polls so as to reduce the number authentication credentials between polls so as to reduce the number
of messages sent. of messages sent.
Due to the requirement on notifiers to send a NOTIFY request Due to the requirement on notifiers to send a NOTIFY request
immediately upon receipt of a SUBSCRIBE request, the state immediately upon receipt of a SUBSCRIBE request, the state
provided by polling is limited to the information that the provided by polling is limited to the information that the
notifier has immediate local access to when it receives the notifier has immediate local access to when it receives the
SUBSCRIBE request. If, for example, the notifier generally needs SUBSCRIBE request. If, for example, the notifier generally needs
to retrieve state from another network server, then that state to retrieve state from another network server, then that state
will be absent from the NOTIFY request that results from polling. will be absent from the NOTIFY request that results from polling.
4.4.4. Allow-Events header field usage 4.4.4. "Allow-Events" Header Field Usage
The "Allow-Events" header field, if present, MUST include a The "Allow-Events" header field, if present, MUST include a
comprehensive and inclusive list of tokens which indicates the event comprehensive and inclusive list of tokens that indicates the event
packages for which the User Agent can act as a notifier. In other packages for which the user agent can act as a notifier. In other
words, a user agent sending an "Allow-Events" header field is words, a user agent sending an "Allow-Events" header field is
advertising that it can process SUBSCRIBE requests and generate advertising that it can process SUBSCRIBE requests and generate
NOTIFY requests for all of the event packages listed in that header NOTIFY requests for all of the event packages listed in that header
field. field.
Any user agent that can act as a notifier for one or more event Any user agent that can act as a notifier for one or more event
packages SHOULD include an appropriate "Allow-Events" header field packages SHOULD include an appropriate "Allow-Events" header field
indicating all supported events in all methods which initiate dialogs indicating all supported events in all methods which initiate dialogs
and their responses (such as INVITE) and OPTIONS responses. and their responses (such as INVITE) and OPTIONS responses.
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Any user agent that can act as a notifier for one or more event Any user agent that can act as a notifier for one or more event
packages SHOULD include an appropriate "Allow-Events" header field packages SHOULD include an appropriate "Allow-Events" header field
indicating all supported events in all methods which initiate dialogs indicating all supported events in all methods which initiate dialogs
and their responses (such as INVITE) and OPTIONS responses. and their responses (such as INVITE) and OPTIONS responses.
This information is very useful, for example, in allowing user This information is very useful, for example, in allowing user
agents to render particular interface elements appropriately agents to render particular interface elements appropriately
according to whether the events required to implement the features according to whether the events required to implement the features
they represent are supported by the appropriate nodes. they represent are supported by the appropriate nodes.
On the other hand, it doesn't necessarily make much sense to On the other hand, it doesn't necessarily make much sense to
indicate supported events inside a dialog established by a NOTIFY indicate supported events inside a dialog established by a NOTIFY
request if the only event package supported is the one associated request if the only event package supported is the one associated
with that subscription. with that subscription.
Note that "Allow-Events" header fields MUST NOT be inserted by Note that "Allow-Events" header fields MUST NOT be inserted by
proxies. proxies.
The "Allow-Events" header field does not include a list of the event The "Allow-Events" header field does not include a list of the event
template packages supported by an implementation. If a subscriber template-packages supported by an implementation. If a subscriber
wishes to determine which event template packages are supported by a wishes to determine which event template-packages are supported by a
notifier, it can probe for such support by attempting to subscribe to notifier, it can probe for such support by attempting to subscribe to
the event template packages it wishes to use. the event template-packages it wishes to use.
For example: to check for support for the templatized package For example: to check for support for the templatized package
"presence.winfo", a client may attempt to subscribe to that event "presence.winfo", a client may attempt to subscribe to that event
package for a known resource, using an "Expires" header value of package for a known resource, using an "Expires" header value of
0. if the response is a 489 error code, then the client can deduce 0. If the response is a 489 error code, then the client can
that "presence.winfo" is unsupported. deduce that "presence.winfo" is unsupported.
4.5. Targeting Subscriptions at Devices 4.5. Targeting Subscriptions at Devices
[RFC3265] defined a mechanism by which subscriptions could share [RFC3265] defined a mechanism by which subscriptions could share
dialogs with invite usages and with other subscriptions. The purpose dialogs with invite usages and with other subscriptions. The purpose
of this behavior was to allow subscribers to ensure that a of this behavior was to allow subscribers to ensure that a
subscription arrived at the same device as an established dialog. subscription arrived at the same device as an established dialog.
Unfortunately, the re-use of dialogs has proven to be exceedingly Unfortunately, the reuse of dialogs has proven to be exceedingly
confusing. [RFC5057] attempted to clarify proper behavior in a confusing. [RFC5057] attempted to clarify proper behavior in a
variety of circumstances; however, the ensuing rules remain confusing variety of circumstances; however, the ensuing rules remain confusing
and prone to implementation error. At the same time, the mechanism and prone to implementation error. At the same time, the mechanism
described in [RFC5627] now provides a far more elegant and described in [RFC5627] now provides a far more elegant and
unambiguous means to achieve the same goal. unambiguous means to achieve the same goal.
Consequently, the dialog re-use technique described in RFC 3265 is Consequently, the dialog reuse technique described in RFC 3265 is now
now deprecated. deprecated.
This dialog-sharing technique has also historically been used as a This dialog-sharing technique has also historically been used as a
means for targeting an event package at a dialog. This usage can be means for targeting an event package at a dialog. This usage can be
seen, for example, in certain applications of the REFER method seen, for example, in certain applications of the REFER method
[RFC3515]. With the removal of dialog re-use, an alternate (and more [RFC3515]. With the removal of dialog reuse, an alternate (and more
explicit) means of targeting dialogs needs to be used for this type explicit) means of targeting dialogs needs to be used for this type
of correlation. The appropriate means of such targeting is left up of correlation. The appropriate means of such targeting is left up
to the actual event packages. Candidates include the "Target-Dialog" to the actual event packages. Candidates include the "Target-Dialog"
header field [RFC4538], the "Join" header field [RFC3911], and the header field [RFC4538], the "Join" header field [RFC3911], and the
"Replaces" header field [RFC3891], depending on the semantics "Replaces" header field [RFC3891], depending on the semantics
desired. Alternately, if the semantics of those header fields do not desired. Alternately, if the semantics of those header fields do not
match the event package's purpose for correlation, event packages can match the event package's purpose for correlation, event packages can
devise their own means of identifying dialogs. For an example of devise their own means of identifying dialogs. For an example of
this approach, see the Dialog Event Package [RFC4235]. this approach, see the Dialog Event Package [RFC4235].
4.5.1. Using GRUUs to Route to Devices 4.5.1. Using GRUUs to Route to Devices
Notifiers MUST implement the Globally Routable User-Agent URI (GRUU) Notifiers MUST implement the Globally Routable User Agent URI (GRUU)
extension defined in [RFC5627], and MUST use a GRUU as their local extension defined in [RFC5627], and MUST use a GRUU as their local
target. This allows subscribers to explicitly target desired target. This allows subscribers to explicitly target desired
devices. devices.
If a subscriber wishes to subscribe to a resource on the same device If a subscriber wishes to subscribe to a resource on the same device
as an established dialog, it should check whether the remote contact as an established dialog, it should check whether the remote contact
in that dialog is a GRUU (i.e., whether it contains a "gr" URI in that dialog is a GRUU (i.e., whether it contains a "gr" URI
parameter). If so, the subscriber creates a new dialog, using the parameter). If so, the subscriber creates a new dialog, using the
GRUU as the request URI for the new SUBSCRIBE request. GRUU as the Request URI for the new SUBSCRIBE request.
Because GRUUs are guaranteed to route to a a specific device, this Because GRUUs are guaranteed to route to a specific device, this
ensures that the subscription will be routed to the same place as ensures that the subscription will be routed to the same place as
the established dialog. the established dialog.
4.5.2. Sharing Dialogs 4.5.2. Sharing Dialogs
For compatibility with older clients, subscriber and notifier For compatibility with older clients, subscriber and notifier
implementations may choose to allow dialog sharing. The behavior of implementations may choose to allow dialog sharing. The behavior of
multiple usages within a dialog are described in [RFC5057]. multiple usages within a dialog are described in [RFC5057].
Subscribers MUST NOT attempt to re-use dialogs whose remote target is Subscribers MUST NOT attempt to reuse dialogs whose remote target is
a GRUU. a GRUU.
Note that the techniques described in this section are included Note that the techniques described in this section are included
for backwards compatibility purposes only. Because subscribers for backwards-compatibility purposes only. Because subscribers
cannot re-use dialogs with a GRUU for their remote target, and cannot reuse dialogs with a GRUU for their remote target, and
because notifiers must use GRUUs as their local target, any two because notifiers must use GRUUs as their local target, any two
implementations that conform to this specification will implementations that conform to this specification will
automatically use the mechanism described in Section 4.5.1. automatically use the mechanism described in Section 4.5.1.
Further note that the prohibition on re-using dialogs does not Further note that the prohibition on reusing dialogs does not
exempt implicit subscriptions created by the REFER method. This exempt implicit subscriptions created by the REFER method. This
means that implementations complying with this specification are means that implementations complying with this specification are
required to use the "Target-Dialog" mechanism described in required to use the "Target-Dialog" mechanism described in
[RFC4538] when the remote target is a GRUU. [RFC4538] when the remote target is a GRUU.
If a subscriber wishes to subscribe to a resource on the same device If a subscriber wishes to subscribe to a resource on the same device
as an established dialog and the remote contact is not a GRUU, it MAY as an established dialog and the remote contact is not a GRUU, it MAY
revert to dialog sharing behavior. Alternately, it MAY choose to revert to dialog-sharing behavior. Alternately, it MAY choose to
treat the remote party as incapable of servicing the subscription treat the remote party as incapable of servicing the subscription
(i.e., the same way it would behave if the remote party did not (i.e., the same way it would behave if the remote party did not
support SIP events at all). support SIP events at all).
If a notifier receives a SUBSCRIBE request for a new subscription on If a notifier receives a SUBSCRIBE request for a new subscription on
an existing dialog, it MAY choose to implement dialog sharing an existing dialog, it MAY choose to implement dialog sharing
behavior. Alternately, it may choose to fail the SUBSCRIBE request behavior. Alternately, it may choose to fail the SUBSCRIBE request
with a 403 response. The error text of such 403 responses SHOULD with a 403 (Forbidden) response. The error text of such 403
indicate that dialog sharing is not supported. responses SHOULD indicate that dialog sharing is not supported.
To implement dialog sharing, subscribers and notifiers perform the To implement dialog sharing, subscribers and notifiers perform the
following additional processing: following additional processing:
o When subscriptions exist in dialogs associated with INVITE-created o When subscriptions exist in dialogs associated with INVITE-created
application state and/or other subscriptions, these sets of application state and/or other subscriptions, these sets of
application state do not interact beyond the behavior described application state do not interact beyond the behavior described
for a dialog (e.g., route set handling). In particular, multiple for a dialog (e.g., route set handling). In particular, multiple
subscriptions within a dialog are expire independently, and subscriptions within a dialog expire independently and require
require independent subscription refreshes. independent subscription refreshes.
o If a subscription's destruction leaves no other application state o If a subscription's destruction leaves no other application state
associated with the dialog, the dialog terminates. The associated with the dialog, the dialog terminates. The
destruction of other application state (such as that created by an destruction of other application state (such as that created by an
INVITE) will not terminate the dialog if a subscription is still INVITE) will not terminate the dialog if a subscription is still
associated with that dialog. This means that, when dialog are re- associated with that dialog. This means that, when dialogs are
used, then a dialog created with an INVITE does not necessarily reused, a dialog created with an INVITE does not necessarily
terminate upon receipt of a BYE. Similarly, in the case that terminate upon receipt of a BYE. Similarly, in the case that
several subscriptions are associated with a single dialog, the several subscriptions are associated with a single dialog, the
dialog does not terminate until all the subscriptions in it are dialog does not terminate until all the subscriptions in it are
destroyed. destroyed.
o Subscribers MAY include an "id" parameter in SUBSCRIBE request o Subscribers MAY include an "id" parameter in a SUBSCRIBE request's
"Event" header field to allow differentiation between multiple "Event" header field to allow differentiation between multiple
subscriptions in the same dialog. This "id" parameter, if subscriptions in the same dialog. This "id" parameter, if
present, contains an opaque token which identifies the specific present, contains an opaque token that identifies the specific
subscription within a dialog. An "id" parameter is only valid subscription within a dialog. An "id" parameter is only valid
within the scope of a single dialog. within the scope of a single dialog.
o If an "id" parameter is present in the SUBSCRIBE request used to o If an "id" parameter is present in the SUBSCRIBE request used to
establish a subscription, that "id" parameter MUST also be present establish a subscription, that "id" parameter MUST also be present
in all corresponding NOTIFY requests. in all corresponding NOTIFY requests.
o When a subscriber refreshes a the subscription timer, the o When a subscriber refreshes the subscription timer, the SUBSCRIBE
SUBSCRIBE request MUST contain the same "Event" header field "id" request MUST contain the same "Event" header field "id" parameter
parameter as was present in the SUBSCRIBE request that created the as was present in the SUBSCRIBE request that created the
subscription. (Otherwise, the notifier will interpret the subscription. (Otherwise, the notifier will interpret the
SUBSCRIBE request as a request for a new subscription in the same SUBSCRIBE request as a request for a new subscription in the same
dialog). dialog.)
o When a subscription is created in the notifier, it stores any o When a subscription is created in the notifier, it stores any
"Event" header field "id" parameter as part of the subscription "Event" header field "id" parameter as part of the subscription
information (along with the event package name). information (along with the event package name).
o If an initial SUBSCRIBE request is sent on a pre-existing dialog, o If an initial SUBSCRIBE request is sent on a pre-existing dialog,
a matching NOTIFY request merely creates a new subscription a matching NOTIFY request merely creates a new subscription
associated with that dialog. associated with that dialog.
4.6. CANCEL Requests for SUBSCRIBE and NOTIFY Transactions 4.6. CANCEL Requests for SUBSCRIBE and NOTIFY Transactions
Neither SUBSCRIBE nor NOTIFY requests can be canceled. If a UAS Neither SUBSCRIBE nor NOTIFY requests can be canceled. If a User
receives a CANCEL request that matches a known SUBSCRIBE or NOTIFY Agent Server (UAS) receives a CANCEL request that matches a known
transaction, it MUST respond to the CANCEL request, but otherwise SUBSCRIBE or NOTIFY transaction, it MUST respond to the CANCEL
ignore it. In particular, the CANCEL request MUST NOT affect request, but otherwise ignore it. In particular, the CANCEL request
processing of the SUBSCRIBE or NOTIFY request in any way. MUST NOT affect processing of the SUBSCRIBE or NOTIFY request in any
way.
UACs SHOULD NOT send CANCEL requests for SUBSCRIBE or NOTIFY UACs SHOULD NOT send CANCEL requests for SUBSCRIBE or NOTIFY
transactions. transactions.
5. Event Packages 5. Event Packages
This section covers several issues which should be taken into This section covers several issues that should be taken into
consideration when event packages based on the SUBSCRIBE and NOTIFY consideration when event packages based on the SUBSCRIBE and NOTIFY
methods are proposed. methods are proposed.
5.1. Appropriateness of Usage 5.1. Appropriateness of Usage
When designing an event package using the methods described in this When designing an event package using the methods described in this
document for event notification, it is important to consider: is SIP document for event notification, it is important to consider: is SIP
an appropriate mechanism for the problem set? Is SIP being selected an appropriate mechanism for the problem set? Is SIP being selected
because of some unique feature provided by the protocol (e.g., user because of some unique feature provided by the protocol (e.g., user
mobility), or merely because "it can be done?" If you find yourself mobility) or merely because "it can be done"? If you find yourself
defining event packages for notifications related to, for example, defining event packages for notifications related to, for example,
network management or the temperature inside your car's engine, you network management or the temperature inside your car's engine, you
may want to reconsider your selection of protocols. may want to reconsider your selection of protocols.
Those interested in extending the mechanism defined in this Those interested in extending the mechanism defined in this
document are urged to follow the development of "Guidelines for document are urged to follow the development of "Guidelines for
Authors of SIP Extensions" [RFC4485] for further guidance Authors of SIP Extensions" [RFC4485] for further guidance
regarding appropriate uses of SIP. regarding appropriate uses of SIP.
Further, it is expected that this mechanism is not to be used in Further, it is expected that this mechanism is not to be used in
applications where the frequency of reportable events is excessively applications where the frequency of reportable events is excessively
rapid (e.g., more than about once per second). A SIP network is rapid (e.g., more than about once per second). A SIP network is
generally going to be provisioned for a reasonable signaling volume; generally going to be provisioned for a reasonable signaling volume;
sending a notification every time a user's GPS position changes by sending a notification every time a user's GPS position changes by
one hundredth of a second could easily overload such a network. one hundredth of a second could easily overload such a network.
5.2. Event Template-packages 5.2. Event Template-Packages
Normal event packages define a set of state applied to a specific Normal event packages define a set of state applied to a specific
type of resource, such as user presence, call state, and messaging type of resource, such as user presence, call state, and messaging
mailbox state. mailbox state.
Event template-packages are a special type of package which define a Event template-packages are a special type of package that define a
set of state applied to other packages, such as statistics, access set of state applied to other packages, such as statistics, access
policy, and subscriber lists. Event template-packages may even be policy, and subscriber lists. Event template-packages may even be
applied to other event template-packages. applied to other event template-packages.
To extend the object-oriented analogy made earlier, event template- To extend the object-oriented analogy made earlier, event template-
packages can be thought of as templatized C++ packages which must be packages can be thought of as templatized C++ packages that must be
applied to other packages to be useful. applied to other packages to be useful.
The name of an event template-package as applied to a package is The name of an event template-package as applied to a package is
formed by appending a period followed by the event template-package formed by appending a period followed by the event template-package
name to the end of the package. For example, if a template-package name to the end of the package. For example, if a template-package
called "winfo" were being applied to a package called "presence", the called "winfo" were being applied to a package called "presence", the
event token used in the "Event" header field would be event token used in the "Event" header field would be
"presence.winfo". "presence.winfo".
This scheme may be arbitrarily extended. For example, application This scheme may be arbitrarily extended. For example, application
of the "winfo" package to the the "presence.winfo" state of a of the "winfo" package to the "presence.winfo" state of a resource
resource would be represented by the name "presence.winfo.winfo". would be represented by the name "presence.winfo.winfo". It
It naturally follows from this syntax that the order in which naturally follows from this syntax that the order in which
templates are specified is significant. templates are specified is significant.
For example: consider a theoretical event template-package called For example: consider a theoretical event template-package called
"list". The event "presence.winfo.list" would be the application "list". The event "presence.winfo.list" would be the application
of the "list" template to "presence.winfo", which would presumably of the "list" template to "presence.winfo", which would presumably
be a list of winfo state associated with presence. On the other be a list of winfo state associated with presence. On the other
hand, the event "presence.list.winfo" would represent the hand, the event "presence.list.winfo" would represent the
application of winfo to "presence.list", which would be represent application of winfo to "presence.list", which would be represent
the winfo state of a list of presence information. the winfo state of a list of presence information.
Event template-packages must be defined so that they can be applied Event template-packages must be defined so that they can be applied
to any arbitrary package. In other words, event template-packages to any arbitrary package. In other words, event template-packages
cannot be specifically tied to one or a few "parent" packages in such cannot be specifically tied to one or a few "parent" packages in such
a way that they will not work with other packages. a way that they will not work with other packages.
5.3. Amount of State to be Conveyed 5.3. Amount of State to Be Conveyed
When designing event packages, it is important to consider the type When designing event packages, it is important to consider the type
of information which will be conveyed during a notification. of information that will be conveyed during a notification.
A natural temptation is to convey merely the event (e.g., "a new A natural temptation is to convey merely the event (e.g., "a new
voice message just arrived") without accompanying state (e.g., "7 voice message just arrived") without accompanying state (e.g., "7
total voice messages"). This complicates implementation of total voice messages"). This complicates implementation of
subscribing entities (since they have to maintain complete state for subscribing entities (since they have to maintain complete state for
the entity to which they have subscribed), and also is particularly the entity to which they have subscribed), and also is particularly
susceptible to synchronization problems. susceptible to synchronization problems.
There are two possible solutions to this problem that event packages This problem has two possible solutions that event packages may
may choose to implement. choose to implement.
5.3.1. Complete State Information 5.3.1. Complete State Information
In general, event packages need to be able to convey a well-defined In general, event packages need to be able to convey a well-defined
and complete state, rather than just a stream of events. If it is and complete state, rather than just a stream of events. If it is
not possible to describe complete system state for transmission in not possible to describe complete system state for transmission in
NOTIFY requests, then the problem set is not a good candidate for an NOTIFY requests, then the problem set is not a good candidate for an
event package. event package.
For packages which typically convey state information that is For packages that typically convey state information that is
reasonably small (on the order of 1 KB or so), it is suggested that reasonably small (on the order of 1 KB or so), it is suggested that
event packages are designed so as to send complete state information event packages are designed so as to send complete state information
whenever an event occurs. whenever an event occurs.
In some circumstances, conveying the current state alone may be In some circumstances, conveying the current state alone may be
insufficient for a particular class of events. In these cases, the insufficient for a particular class of events. In these cases, the
event packages should include complete state information along with event packages should include complete state information along with
the event that occurred. For example, conveying "no customer service the event that occurred. For example, conveying "no customer service
representatives available" may not be as useful as conveying "no representatives available" may not be as useful as conveying "no
customer service representatives available; representative customer service representatives available; representative
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Event packages are not required to reiterate any of the behavior Event packages are not required to reiterate any of the behavior
described in this document, although they may choose to do so for described in this document, although they may choose to do so for
clarity or emphasis. In general, though, such packages are expected clarity or emphasis. In general, though, such packages are expected
to describe only the behavior that extends or modifies the behavior to describe only the behavior that extends or modifies the behavior
described in this document. described in this document.
Note that any behavior designated with "SHOULD" or "MUST" in this Note that any behavior designated with "SHOULD" or "MUST" in this
document is not allowed to be weakened by extension documents; document is not allowed to be weakened by extension documents;
however, such documents may elect to strengthen "SHOULD" requirements however, such documents may elect to strengthen "SHOULD" requirements
to "MUST" strength if required by their application. to "MUST" requirements if required by their application.
In addition to the normal sections expected in standards-track RFCs In addition to the normal sections expected in Standards Track RFCs
and SIP extension documents, authors of event packages need to and SIP extension documents, authors of event packages need to
address each of the issues detailed in the following subsections. address each of the issues detailed in the following subsections.
For clarity: well-formed event package definitions contain sections For clarity: well-formed event package definitions contain sections
addressing each of these issues, ideally in the same order and with addressing each of these issues, ideally in the same order and with
the same titles as these subsections. the same titles as these subsections.
5.4.1. Event Package Name 5.4.1. Event Package Name
This section, which MUST be present, defines the token name to be This section, which MUST be present, defines the token name to be
used to designate the event package. It MUST include the information used to designate the event package. It MUST include the information
which appears in the IANA registration of the token. For information that appears in the IANA registration of the token. For information
on registering such types, see Section 7. on registering such types, see Section 7.
5.4.2. Event Package Parameters 5.4.2. Event Package Parameters
If parameters are to be used on the "Event" header field to modify If parameters are to be used on the "Event" header field to modify
the behavior of the event package, the syntax and semantics of such the behavior of the event package, the syntax and semantics of such
header fields MUST be clearly defined. header fields MUST be clearly defined.
Any "Event" header field parameters defined by an event package MUST Any "Event" header field parameters defined by an event package MUST
be registered in the "Header Field Parameters and Parameter Values" be registered in the "Header Field Parameters and Parameter Values"
registry defined by [RFC3968]. An "Event" header field parameter, registry defined by [RFC3968]. An "Event" header field parameter,
once registered in conjunction with an event package, MUST NOT be re- once registered in conjunction with an event package, MUST NOT be
used with any other event package. Non-event-package specifications reused with any other event package. Non-event-package
MAY define "Event" header field parameters that apply across all specifications MAY define "Event" header field parameters that apply
event packages (with emphasis on "all", as opposed to "several"), across all event packages (with emphasis on "all", as opposed to
such as the "id" parameter defined in this document. The restriction "several"), such as the "id" parameter defined in this document. The
of a parameter to use with a single event package only applies to restriction of a parameter to use with a single event package only
parameters that are defined in conjunction with an event package. applies to parameters that are defined in conjunction with an event
package.
5.4.3. SUBSCRIBE Request Bodies 5.4.3. SUBSCRIBE Request Bodies
It is expected that most, but not all, event packages will define It is expected that most, but not all, event packages will define
syntax and semantics for SUBSCRIBE request bodies; these bodies will syntax and semantics for SUBSCRIBE request bodies; these bodies will
typically modify, expand, filter, throttle, and/or set thresholds for typically modify, expand, filter, throttle, and/or set thresholds for
the class of events being requested. Designers of event packages are the class of events being requested. Designers of event packages are
strongly encouraged to re-use existing media types for message bodies strongly encouraged to reuse existing media types for message bodies
where practical. See [RFC4288] for information on media type where practical. See [RFC4288] for information on media type
specification and registration. specification and registration.
This mandatory section of an event package defines what type or types This mandatory section of an event package defines what type or types
of event bodies are expected in SUBSCRIBE requests (or specify that of event bodies are expected in SUBSCRIBE requests (or specify that
no event bodies are expected). It should point to detailed no event bodies are expected). It should point to detailed
definitions of syntax and semantics for all referenced body types. definitions of syntax and semantics for all referenced body types.
5.4.4. Subscription Duration 5.4.4. Subscription Duration
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considered reasonable for the duration of a subscription. Such considered reasonable for the duration of a subscription. Such
packages MUST also define a default "Expires" value to be used if packages MUST also define a default "Expires" value to be used if
none is specified. none is specified.
5.4.5. NOTIFY Request Bodies 5.4.5. NOTIFY Request Bodies
The NOTIFY request body is used to report state on the resource being The NOTIFY request body is used to report state on the resource being
monitored. Each package MUST define what type or types of event monitored. Each package MUST define what type or types of event
bodies are expected in NOTIFY requests. Such packages MUST specify bodies are expected in NOTIFY requests. Such packages MUST specify
or cite detailed specifications for the syntax and semantics or cite detailed specifications for the syntax and semantics
associated with such event body. associated with such event bodies.
Event packages also MUST define which media type is to be assumed if Event packages also MUST define which media type is to be assumed if
none are specified in the "Accept" header field of the SUBSCRIBE none are specified in the "Accept" header field of the SUBSCRIBE
request. request.
5.4.6. Notifier processing of SUBSCRIBE requests 5.4.6. Notifier Processing of SUBSCRIBE Requests
This section describes the processing to be performed by the notifier This section describes the processing to be performed by the notifier
upon receipt of a SUBSCRIBE request. Such a section is required. upon receipt of a SUBSCRIBE request. Such a section is required.
Information in this section includes details of how to authenticate Information in this section includes details of how to authenticate
subscribers and authorization issues for the package. subscribers and authorization issues for the package.
5.4.7. Notifier generation of NOTIFY requests 5.4.7. Notifier generation of NOTIFY requests
This section of an event package describes the process by which the This section of an event package describes the process by which the
notifier generates and sends a NOTIFY request. This includes notifier generates and sends a NOTIFY request. This includes
detailed information about what events cause a NOTIFY request to be detailed information about what events cause a NOTIFY request to be
sent, how to compute the state information in the NOTIFY, how to sent, how to compute the state information in the NOTIFY, how to
generate neutral or fake state information to hide authorization generate neutral or fake state information to hide authorization
delays and decisions from users, and whether state information is delays and decisions from users, and whether state information is
complete or deltas for notifications; see Section 5.3. Such a complete or what the deltas are for notifications; see Section 5.3.
section is required. Such a section is required.
This section may optionally describe the behavior used to process the This section may optionally describe the behavior used to process the
subsequent response. subsequent response.
5.4.8. Subscriber processing of NOTIFY requests 5.4.8. Subscriber Processing of NOTIFY Requests
This section of an event package describes the process followed by This section of an event package describes the process followed by
the subscriber upon receipt of a NOTIFY request, including any logic the subscriber upon receipt of a NOTIFY request, including any logic
required to form a coherent resource state (if applicable). required to form a coherent resource state (if applicable).
5.4.9. Handling of forked requests 5.4.9. Handling of Forked Requests
Each event package MUST specify whether forked SUBSCRIBE requests are Each event package MUST specify whether forked SUBSCRIBE requests are
allowed to install multiple subscriptions. allowed to install multiple subscriptions.
If such behavior is not allowed, the first potential dialog- If such behavior is not allowed, the first potential dialog-
establishing message will create a dialog. All subsequent NOTIFY establishing message will create a dialog. All subsequent NOTIFY
requests which correspond to the SUBSCRIBE request (i.e., match "To", requests that correspond to the SUBSCRIBE request (i.e., have
"From", "From" header field "tag" parameter, "Call-ID", "Event", and matching "To", "From", "Call-ID", and "Event" header fields, as well
"Event" header field "id" parameter) but which do not match the as "From" header field "tag" parameter and "Event" header field "id"
dialog would be rejected with a 481 response. Note that the 200- parameter) but that do not match the dialog would be rejected with a
class response to the SUBSCRIBE request can arrive after a matching 481 response. Note that the 200-class response to the SUBSCRIBE
NOTIFY request has been received; such responses might not correlate request can arrive after a matching NOTIFY request has been received;
to the same dialog established by the NOTIFY request. Except as such responses might not correlate to the same dialog established by
required to complete the SUBSCRIBE transaction, such non-matching the NOTIFY request. Except as required to complete the SUBSCRIBE
200-class responses are ignored. transaction, such non-matching 200-class responses are ignored.
If installing of multiple subscriptions by way of a single forked If installing of multiple subscriptions by way of a single forked
SUBSCRIBE request is allowed, the subscriber establishes a new dialog SUBSCRIBE request is allowed, the subscriber establishes a new dialog
towards each notifier by returning a 200-class response to each towards each notifier by returning a 200-class response to each
NOTIFY request. Each dialog is then handled as its own entity, and NOTIFY request. Each dialog is then handled as its own entity and is
is refreshed independent of the other dialogs. refreshed independently of the other dialogs.
In the case that multiple subscriptions are allowed, the event In the case that multiple subscriptions are allowed, the event
package MUST specify whether merging of the notifications to form a package MUST specify whether merging of the notifications to form a
single state is required, and how such merging is to be performed. single state is required, and how such merging is to be performed.
Note that it is possible that some event packages may be defined in Note that it is possible that some event packages may be defined in
such a way that each dialog is tied to a mutually exclusive state such a way that each dialog is tied to a mutually exclusive state
which is unaffected by the other dialogs; this MUST be clearly stated that is unaffected by the other dialogs; this MUST be clearly stated
if it is the case. if it is the case.
5.4.10. Rate of notifications 5.4.10. Rate of Notifications
Each event package is expected to define a requirement (SHOULD or Each event package is expected to define a requirement ("SHOULD" or
MUST strength) which defines an absolute maximum on the rate at which "MUST" strength) that defines an absolute maximum on the rate at
notifications are allowed to be generated by a single notifier. which notifications are allowed to be generated by a single notifier.
Each package MAY further define a throttle mechanism which allows Each package MAY further define a throttle mechanism that allows
subscribers to further limit the rate of notification. subscribers to further limit the rate of notification.
5.4.11. State Aggregation 5.4.11. State Aggregation
Many event packages inherently work by collecting information about a Many event packages inherently work by collecting information about a
resource from a number of other sources -- either through the use of resource from a number of other sources -- either through the use of
PUBLISH [RFC3903], by subscribing to state information, or through PUBLISH [RFC3903], by subscribing to state information, or through
other state gathering mechanisms. other state-gathering mechanisms.
Event packages that involve retrieval of state information for a Event packages that involve retrieval of state information for a
single resource from more than one source need to consider how single resource from more than one source need to consider how
notifiers aggregate information into a single, coherent state. Such notifiers aggregate information into a single, coherent state. Such
packages MUST specify how notifiers aggregate information and how packages MUST specify how notifiers aggregate information and how
they provide authentication and authorization. they provide authentication and authorization.
5.4.12. Examples 5.4.12. Examples
Event packages SHOULD include several demonstrative message flow Event packages SHOULD include several demonstrative message flow
diagrams paired with several typical, syntactically correct, and diagrams paired with several typical, syntactically correct, and
complete messages. complete messages.
It is RECOMMENDED that documents describing event packages clearly It is RECOMMENDED that documents describing event packages clearly
indicate that such examples are informative and not normative, with indicate that such examples are informative and not normative, with
instructions that implementors refer to the main text of the document instructions that implementors refer to the main text of the document
for exact protocol details. for exact protocol details.
5.4.13. Use of URIs to Retrieve State 5.4.13. Use of URIs to Retrieve State
Some types of event packages may define state information which is Some types of event packages may define state information that is
potentially too large to reasonably send in a SIP message. To potentially too large to reasonably send in a SIP message. To
alleviate this problem, event packages may include the ability to alleviate this problem, event packages may include the ability to
convey a URI instead of state information; this URI will then be used convey a URI instead of state information; this URI will then be used
to retrieve the actual state information. to retrieve the actual state information.
[RFC4483] defines a mechanism that can be used by event packages to [RFC4483] defines a mechanism that can be used by event packages to
convey information in such a fashion. convey information in such a fashion.
6. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
6.1. Access Control 6.1. Access Control
The ability to accept subscriptions should be under the direct The ability to accept subscriptions should be under the direct
control of the notifier's user, since many types of events may be control of the notifier's user, since many types of events may be
considered sensitive for the purposes of privacy. Similarly, the considered private. Similarly, the notifier should have the ability
notifier should have the ability to selectively reject subscriptions to selectively reject subscriptions based on the subscriber identity
based on the subscriber identity (based on access control lists), (based on access control lists), using standard SIP authentication
using standard SIP authentication mechanisms. The methods for mechanisms. The methods for creation and distribution of such access
creation and distribution of such access control lists is outside the control lists are outside the scope of this document.
scope of this document.
6.2. Notifier Privacy Mechanism 6.2. Notifier Privacy Mechanism
The mere act of returning certain 4xx and 6xx responses to SUBSCRIBE The mere act of returning certain 400- and 600-class responses to
requests may, under certain circumstances, create privacy concerns by SUBSCRIBE requests may, under certain circumstances, create privacy
revealing sensitive policy information. In these cases, the notifier concerns by revealing sensitive policy information. In these cases,
SHOULD always return a 200 (OK) response. While the subsequent the notifier SHOULD always return a 200 (OK) response. While the
NOTIFY request may not convey true state, it MUST appear to contain a subsequent NOTIFY request may not convey true state, it MUST appear
potentially correct piece of data from the point of view of the to contain a potentially correct piece of data from the point of view
subscriber, indistinguishable from a valid response. Information of the subscriber, indistinguishable from a valid response.
about whether a user is authorized to subscribe to the requested Information about whether a user is authorized to subscribe to the
state is never conveyed back to the original user under these requested state is never conveyed back to the original user under
circumstances. these circumstances.
Individual packages and their related documents for which such a mode Individual packages and their related documents for which such a mode
of operation makes sense can further describe how and why to generate of operation makes sense can further describe how and why to generate
such potentially correct data. For example, such a mode of operation such potentially correct data. For example, such a mode of operation
is mandated by [RFC2779] for user presence information. is mandated by [RFC2779] for user presence information.
6.3. Denial-of-Service attacks 6.3. Denial-of-Service Attacks
The current model (one SUBSCRIBE request triggers a SUBSCRIBE The current model (one SUBSCRIBE request triggers a SUBSCRIBE
response and one or more NOTIFY requests) is a classic setup for an response and one or more NOTIFY requests) is a classic setup for an
amplifier node to be used in a smurf attack. amplifier node to be used in a smurf attack [CERT1998a].
Also, the creation of state upon receipt of a SUBSCRIBE request can Also, the creation of state upon receipt of a SUBSCRIBE request can
be used by attackers to consume resources on a victim's machine, be used by attackers to consume resources on a victim's machine,
rendering it unusable. rendering it unusable.
To reduce the chances of such an attack, implementations of notifiers To reduce the chances of such an attack, implementations of notifiers
SHOULD require authentication. Authentication issues are discussed SHOULD require authentication. Authentication issues are discussed
in [RFC3261]. in [RFC3261].
6.4. Replay Attacks 6.4. Replay Attacks
Replaying of either SUBSCRIBE or NOTIFY requests can have detrimental Replaying of either SUBSCRIBE or NOTIFY requests can have detrimental
effects. effects.
In the case of SUBSCRIBE requests, attackers may be able to install In the case of SUBSCRIBE requests, an attacker may be able to install
any arbitrary subscription which it witnessed being installed at some any arbitrary subscription that it witnessed being installed at some
point in the past. Replaying of NOTIFY requests may be used to spoof point in the past. Replaying of NOTIFY requests may be used to spoof
old state information (although a good versioning mechanism in the old state information (although a good versioning mechanism in the
body of the NOTIFY requests may help mitigate such an attack). Note body of the NOTIFY requests may help mitigate such an attack). Note
that the prohibition on sending NOTIFY requests to nodes which have that the prohibition on sending NOTIFY requests to nodes that have
not subscribed to an event also aids in mitigating the effects of not subscribed to an event also aids in mitigating the effects of
such an attack. such an attack.
To prevent such attacks, implementations SHOULD require To prevent such attacks, implementations SHOULD require
authentication with anti-replay protection. Authentication issues authentication with anti-replay protection. Authentication issues
are discussed in [RFC3261]. are discussed in [RFC3261].
6.5. Man-in-the middle attacks 6.5. Man-in-the-Middle Attacks
Even with authentication, man-in-the-middle attacks using SUBSCRIBE Even with authentication, man-in-the-middle attacks using SUBSCRIBE
requests may be used to install arbitrary subscriptions, hijack requests may be used to install arbitrary subscriptions, hijack
existing subscriptions, terminate outstanding subscriptions, or existing subscriptions, terminate outstanding subscriptions, or
modify the resource to which a subscription is being made. To modify the resource to which a subscription is being made. To
prevent such attacks, implementations SHOULD provide integrity prevent such attacks, implementations SHOULD provide integrity
protection across "Contact", "Route", "Expires", "Event", and "To" protection across "Contact", "Route", "Expires", "Event", and "To"
header fields of SUBSCRIBE requests, at a minimum. If SUBSCRIBE header fields (at a minimum) of SUBSCRIBE requests. If SUBSCRIBE
request bodies are used to define further information about the state request bodies are used to define further information about the state
of the call, they SHOULD be included in the integrity protection of the call, they SHOULD be included in the integrity protection
scheme. scheme.
Man-in-the-middle attacks may also attempt to use NOTIFY requests to Man-in-the-middle attacks may also attempt to use NOTIFY requests to
spoof arbitrary state information and/or terminate outstanding spoof arbitrary state information and/or terminate outstanding
subscriptions. To prevent such attacks, implementations SHOULD subscriptions. To prevent such attacks, implementations SHOULD
provide integrity protection across the "Call-ID", "CSeq", and provide integrity protection across the "Call-ID", "CSeq", and
"Subscription-State" header fields and the bodies of NOTIFY requests. "Subscription-State" header fields and the bodies of NOTIFY requests.
skipping to change at page 38, line 35 skipping to change at page 38, line 37
To allow the remote party to hide information it considers sensitive, To allow the remote party to hide information it considers sensitive,
all implementations SHOULD be able to handle encrypted SUBSCRIBE and all implementations SHOULD be able to handle encrypted SUBSCRIBE and
NOTIFY requests. NOTIFY requests.
The mechanisms for providing confidentiality are detailed in The mechanisms for providing confidentiality are detailed in
[RFC3261]. [RFC3261].
7. IANA Considerations 7. IANA Considerations
(This section is not applicable until this document is published as
an RFC.)
With the exception of Section 7.2, the subsections here are for With the exception of Section 7.2, the subsections here are for
current reference, carried over from the original specification. The current reference, carried over from the original specification (RFC
only IANA actions requested here are updating all registry references 3265). IANA has updated all registry references that pointed to RFC
that point to RFC 3265 to instead indicate this document, and 3265 to instead indicate this document and created the new "reason
creating the new "reason code" registry described in Section 7.2. code" registry described in Section 7.2.
7.1. Event Packages 7.1. Event Packages
This document defines an event-type namespace which requires a This document defines an event-type namespace that requires a central
central coordinating body. The body chosen for this coordination is coordinating body. The body chosen for this coordination is the
the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).
There are two different types of event-types: normal event packages, There are two different types of event-types: normal event packages
and event template-packages; see Section 5.2. To avoid confusion, and event template-packages; see Section 5.2. To avoid confusion,
template-package names and package names share the same namespace; in template-package names and package names share the same namespace; in
other words, an event template-package are forbidden from sharing a other words, an event template-package is forbidden from sharing a
name with a package. name with a package.
Policies for registration of SIP event packages and SIP event package Policies for registration of SIP event packages and SIP event package
templates are defined in section 4.1 of [RFC5727]. templates are defined in Section 4.1 of [RFC5727].
Registrations with the IANA are required to include the token being Registrations with the IANA are required to include the token being
registered and whether the token is a package or a template-package. registered and whether the token is a package or a template-package.
Further, packages must include contact information for the party Further, packages must include contact information for the party
responsible for the registration and/or a published document which responsible for the registration and/or a published document that
describes the event package. Event template-package token describes the event package. Event template-package token
registrations are also required to include a pointer to the published registrations are also required to include a pointer to the published
RFC which defines the event template-package. RFC that defines the event template-package.
Registered tokens to designate packages and template-packages are Registered tokens to designate packages and template-packages are
disallowed from containing the character ".", which is used to disallowed from containing the character ".", which is used to
separate template-packages from packages. separate template-packages from packages.
7.1.1. Registration Information 7.1.1. Registration Information
As this document specifies no package or template-package names, the This document specifies no package or template-package names. All
initial IANA registry for event types will be empty. The remainder entries in this table are added by other documents. The remainder of
of the text in this section gives an example of the type of the text in this section gives an example of the type of information
information to be maintained by the IANA; it also demonstrates all to be maintained by the IANA; it also demonstrates all four possible
five possible permutations of package type, contact, and reference. permutations of package type, contact, and reference.
The table below lists the event packages and template-packages The table below lists the event packages and template-packages
defined in "SIP-Specific Event Notification" [RFC xxxx]. Each name defined for use with the "SIP-Specific Event Notification" mechanism
is designated as a package or a template-package under "Type". [RFC 6665]. Each name is designated as a package or a template-
package under "Type".
Package Name Type Contact Reference Package Name Type Contact Reference
------------ ---- ------- --------- ------------ ---- ------- ---------
example1 package [Roach] example1 package [Doe] [RFCnnnn]
example2 package [Roach] [RFC xxxx] example2 package [RFCnnnn]
example3 package [RFC xxxx] example3 template [Doe] [RFCnnnn]
example4 template [Roach] [RFC xxxx] example4 template [RFCnnnn]
example5 template [RFC xxxx]
PEOPLE PEOPLE
------ ------
[Roach] Adam Roach <adam.roach@tekelec.com> [Doe] John Doe <john.doe@example.com>
REFERENCES REFERENCES
---------- ----------
[RFC xxxx] A.B. Roach, "SIP-Specific Event Notification", RFC XXXX, [RFCnnnn] Doe, J., "Sample Document", RFC nnnn, Month YYYY.
Monthname 20XX
7.1.2. Registration Template 7.1.2. Registration Template
To: ietf-sip-events@iana.org To: ietf-sip-events@iana.org
Subject: Registration of new SIP event package Subject: Registration of new SIP event package
Package Name: Package name:
(Package names must conform to the syntax described in (Package names must conform to the syntax described in
Section 8.2.1.) Section 8.2.1.)
Is this registration for a Template Package: Is this registration for a Template-Package:
(indicate yes or no) (indicate yes or no)
Published Specification(s): Published specification(s):
(Template packages require a published RFC. Other packages may (Template-packages require a published RFC. Other packages may
reference a specification when appropriate). reference a specification when appropriate.)
Person & email address to contact for further information: Person & email address to contact for further information:
(self-explanatory)
7.2. Reason Codes 7.2. Reason Codes
This document further defines "reason" codes for use in the This document further defines "reason" codes for use in the
"Subscription-State" header field (see Section 4.1.3). "Subscription-State" header field (see Section 4.1.3).
Following the policies outlined in "Guidelines for Writing an IANA Following the policies outlined in "Guidelines for Writing an IANA
Considerations Section in RFCs" [RFC5226], new reason codes require a Considerations Section in RFCs" [RFC5226], new reason codes require a
Standards Action. Standards Action.
Registrations with the IANA include the reason code being registered Registrations with the IANA include the reason code being registered
and a reference to a published document which describes the event and a reference to a published document that describes the event
package. Insertion of such values takes place as part of the RFC package. Insertion of such values takes place as part of the RFC
publication process or as the result of inter-SDO liaison activity, publication process or as the result of liaison activity between
the result of which will be publication of an associated RFC. New standards development organizations (SDOs), the result of which will
reason codes must conform to the syntax of the ABNF "token" element be publication of an associated RFC. New reason codes must conform
defined in [RFC3261]. to the syntax of the ABNF "token" element defined in [RFC3261].
[RFC4660] defined a new reason code prior to the establishment of an [RFC4660] defined a new reason code prior to the establishment of an
IANA registry. We include its reason code ("badfilter") in the IANA registry. We include its reason code ("badfilter") in the
initial list of reason codes to ensure a complete registry. initial list of reason codes to ensure a complete registry.
The IANA registry for reason code will be initialized with the The IANA registry for reason codes has been initialized with the
following values: following values:
Reason Code Reference Reason Code Reference
----------- --------- ----------- ---------
deactivated [RFC xxxx] deactivated [RFC6665]
probation [RFC xxxx] probation [RFC6665]
rejected [RFC xxxx] rejected [RFC6665]
timeout [RFC xxxx] timeout [RFC6665]
giveup [RFC xxxx] giveup [RFC6665]
noresource [RFC xxxx] noresource [RFC6665]
invariant [RFC xxxx] invariant [RFC6665]
badfilter [RFC 4660] badfilter [RFC4660]
REFERENCES REFERENCES
---------- ----------
[RFC xxxx] A.B. Roach, "SIP-Specific Event Notification", RFC XXXX, [RFC6665] A.B. Roach, "SIP-Specific Event Notification", RFC 6665,
Monthname 20XX July 2012.
[RFC 4660] Khartabil, H., Leppanen, E., Lonnfors, M., and [RFC4660] Khartabil, H., Leppanen, E., Lonnfors, M., and
J. Costa-Requena, "Functional Description of Event J. Costa-Requena, "Functional Description of Event
Notification Filtering", September 2006. Notification Filtering", September 2006.
7.3. Header Field Names 7.3. Header Field Names
This document registers three new header field names, described This document registers three new header field names, described
elsewhere in this document. These header fields are defined by the elsewhere in this document. These header fields are defined by the
following information, which is to be added to the header field sub- following information, which is to be added to the header field sub-
registry under http://www.iana.org/assignments/sip-parameters. registry under http://www.iana.org/assignments/sip-parameters.
skipping to change at page 42, line 10 skipping to change at page 42, line 10
Default Reason Phrase: Accepted Default Reason Phrase: Accepted
Response Code Number: 489 Response Code Number: 489
Default Reason Phrase: Bad Event Default Reason Phrase: Bad Event
8. Syntax 8. Syntax
This section describes the syntax extensions required for event This section describes the syntax extensions required for event
notification in SIP. Semantics are described in Section 4. Note notification in SIP. Semantics are described in Section 4. Note
that the formal syntax definitions described in this document are that the formal syntax definitions described in this document are
expressed in the ABNF format used in [RFC3261], and contain expressed in the ABNF format used in [RFC3261] and contain references
references to elements defined therein. to elements defined therein.
8.1. New Methods 8.1. New Methods
This document describes two new SIP methods: SUBSCRIBE and NOTIFY. This document describes two new SIP methods: SUBSCRIBE and NOTIFY.
8.1.1. SUBSCRIBE method 8.1.1. SUBSCRIBE Method
"SUBSCRIBE" is added to the definition of the element "Method" in the "SUBSCRIBE" is added to the definition of the element "Method" in the
SIP message grammar. SIP message grammar.
Like all SIP method names, the SUBSCRIBE method name is case Like all SIP method names, the SUBSCRIBE method name is case
sensitive. The SUBSCRIBE method is used to request asynchronous sensitive. The SUBSCRIBE method is used to request asynchronous
notification of an event or set of events at a later time. notification of an event or set of events at a later time.
8.1.2. NOTIFY method 8.1.2. NOTIFY Method
"NOTIFY" is added to the definition of the element "Method" in the "NOTIFY" is added to the definition of the element "Method" in the
SIP message grammar. SIP message grammar.
The NOTIFY method is used to notify a SIP node that an event which The NOTIFY method is used to notify a SIP node that an event that has
has been requested by an earlier SUBSCRIBE method has occurred. It been requested by an earlier SUBSCRIBE method has occurred. It may
may also provide further details about the event. also provide further details about the event.
8.2. New Header Fields 8.2. New Header Fields
8.2.1. "Event" Header Field 8.2.1. "Event" Header Field
Event is added to the definition of the element "message-header Event is added to the definition of the element "message-header
field" in the SIP message grammar. field" in the SIP message grammar.
For the purposes of matching NOTIFY requests with SUBSCRIBE requests, For the purposes of matching NOTIFY requests with SUBSCRIBE requests,
the event-type portion of the "Event" header field is compared byte- the event-type portion of the "Event" header field is compared byte
by-byte, and the "id" parameter token (if present) is compared byte- by byte, and the "id" parameter token (if present) is compared byte
by-byte. An "Event" header field containing an "id" parameter never by byte. An "Event" header field containing an "id" parameter never
matches an "Event" header field without an "id" parameter. No other matches an "Event" header field without an "id" parameter. No other
parameters are considered when performing a comparison. SUBSCRIBE parameters are considered when performing a comparison. SUBSCRIBE
responses are matched per the transaction handling rules in responses are matched per the transaction handling rules in
[RFC3261]. [RFC3261].
Note that the forgoing text means that "Event: foo; id=1234" would Note that the foregoing text means that "Event: foo; id=1234"
match "Event: foo; param=abcd; id=1234", but not "Event: foo" (id would match "Event: foo; param=abcd; id=1234", but not "Event:
does not match) or "Event: Foo; id=1234" (event portion does not foo" ("id" does not match) or "Event: Foo; id=1234" ("Event"
match). portion does not match).
This document does not define values for event-types. These values This document does not define values for event-types. These values
will be defined by individual event packages, and MUST be registered will be defined by individual event packages and MUST be registered
with the IANA. with the IANA.
There MUST be exactly one event type listed per event header field. There MUST be exactly one event type listed per "Event" header field.
Multiple events per message are disallowed. Multiple events per message are disallowed.
The "Event" header field is defined only for use in SUBSCRIBE and The "Event" header field is defined only for use in SUBSCRIBE and
NOTIFY requests, and other requests whose definition explicitly calls NOTIFY requests and other requests whose definition explicitly calls
for its use. It MUST NOT appear in any other SIP requests, and MUST for its use. It MUST NOT appear in any other SIP requests and MUST
NOT appear in responses. NOT appear in responses.
8.2.2. "Allow-Events" Header Field 8.2.2. "Allow-Events" Header Field
Allow-Events is added to the definition of the element "general- "Allow-Events" is added to the definition of the element "general-
header field" in the SIP message grammar. Its usage is described in header field" in the SIP message grammar. Its usage is described in
Section 4.4.4. Section 4.4.4.
User Agents MAY include the "Allow-Events" header field in any User agents MAY include the "Allow-Events" header field in any
request or response, as long as its contents comply with the behavior request or response, as long as its contents comply with the behavior
described in Section 4.4.4. described in Section 4.4.4.
8.2.3. "Subscription-State" Header Field 8.2.3. "Subscription-State" Header Field
Subscription-State is added to the definition of the element "Subscription-State" is added to the definition of the element
"request-header field" in the SIP message grammar. Its usage is "request-header" field in the SIP message grammar. Its usage is
described in Section 4.1.3. "Subscription-State" header fields are described in Section 4.1.3. "Subscription-State" header fields are
defined for use in NOTIFY requests only. They MUST NOT appear in defined for use in NOTIFY requests only. They MUST NOT appear in
other SIP requests or responses. other SIP requests or responses.
8.3. New Response Codes 8.3. New Response Codes
8.3.1. "202 Accepted" Response Code 8.3.1. 202 (Accepted) Response Code
For historical purposes, the 202 (Accepted) response code is added to For historical purposes, the 202 (Accepted) response code is added to
the "Success" header field definition. the "Success" header field definition.
This document does not specify the use of the 202 response code in This document does not specify the use of the 202 response code in
conjunction with the SUBSCRIBE or NOTIFY methods. Previous versions conjunction with the SUBSCRIBE or NOTIFY methods. Previous versions
of the SIP Events Framework assigned specific meaning to the 202 of the SIP Events Framework assigned specific meaning to the 202
response code. response code.
Due to response handling in forking cases, any 202 response to a Due to response handling in forking cases, any 202 response to a
skipping to change at page 44, line 15 skipping to change at page 44, line 17
be guaranteed to be received by the UAC. Furthermore, there is no be guaranteed to be received by the UAC. Furthermore, there is no
actual processing difference for a 202 as compared to a 200; a NOTIFY actual processing difference for a 202 as compared to a 200; a NOTIFY
request is sent after the subscription is processed, and it conveys request is sent after the subscription is processed, and it conveys
the correct state. SIP interoperability tests found that the correct state. SIP interoperability tests found that
implementations were handling 202 differently from 200, leading to implementations were handling 202 differently from 200, leading to
incompatibilities. Therefore, the 202 response is being deprecated incompatibilities. Therefore, the 202 response is being deprecated
to make it clear there is no such difference and 202 should not be to make it clear there is no such difference and 202 should not be
handled differently than 200. handled differently than 200.
Implementations conformant with the current specification MUST treat Implementations conformant with the current specification MUST treat
an incoming 202 response as identical to a 200 response, and MUST NOT an incoming 202 response as identical to a 200 response and MUST NOT
generate 202 response codes to SUBSCRIBE or NOTIFY requests. generate 202 response codes to SUBSCRIBE or NOTIFY requests.
This document also updates [RFC4660], which reiterates the 202-based This document also updates [RFC4660], which reiterates the 202-based
behavior in several places. Implementations compliant with the behavior in several places. Implementations compliant with the
present document MUST NOT send a 202 response to a SUBSCRIBE request, present document MUST NOT send a 202 response to a SUBSCRIBE request
and will send an alternate success response (such as 200) in its and will send an alternate success response (such as 200) in its
stead. stead.
8.3.2. "489 Bad Event" Response Code 8.3.2. 489 (Bad Event) Response Code
The 489 event response is added to the "Client-Error" header field The 489 event response is added to the "Client-Error" header field
field definition. "489 Bad Event" is used to indicate that the server definition. 489 (Bad Event) is used to indicate that the server did
did not understand the event package specified in a "Event" header not understand the event package specified in a "Event" header field.
field.
8.4. Augmented BNF Definitions 8.4. Augmented BNF Definitions
The Augmented BNF definitions for the various new and modified syntax The Augmented BNF [RFC5234] definitions for the various new and
elements follows. The notation is as used in [RFC3261], and any modified syntax elements follows. The notation is as used in
elements not defined in this section are as defined in SIP and the [RFC3261], and any elements not defined in this section are as
documents to which it refers. defined in SIP and the documents to which it refers.
SUBSCRIBEm = %x53.55.42.53.43.52.49.42.45 ; SUBSCRIBE in caps SUBSCRIBEm = %x53.55.42.53.43.52.49.42.45 ; SUBSCRIBE in caps
NOTIFYm = %x4E.4F.54.49.46.59 ; NOTIFY in caps NOTIFYm = %x4E.4F.54.49.46.59 ; NOTIFY in caps
extension-method = SUBSCRIBEm / NOTIFYm / token extension-method = SUBSCRIBEm / NOTIFYm / token
Event = ( "Event" / "o" ) HCOLON event-type Event = ( "Event" / "o" ) HCOLON event-type
*( SEMI event-param ) *( SEMI event-param )
event-type = event-package *( "." event-template ) event-type = event-package *( "." event-template )
event-package = token-nodot event-package = token-nodot
event-template = token-nodot event-template = token-nodot
token-nodot = 1*( alphanum / "-" / "!" / "%" / "*" token-nodot = 1*( alphanum / "-" / "!" / "%" / "*"
/ "_" / "+" / "`" / "'" / "~" ) / "_" / "+" / "`" / "'" / "~" )
; The use of the "id" parameter is deprecated; it is included ; The use of the "id" parameter is deprecated; it is included
; for backwards compatibility purposes only. ; for backwards-compatibility purposes only.
event-param = generic-param / ( "id" EQUAL token )
Allow-Events = ( "Allow-Events" / "u" ) HCOLON event-type event-param = generic-param / ( "id" EQUAL token )
*(COMMA event-type)
Allow-Events = ( "Allow-Events" / "u" ) HCOLON event-type
*(COMMA event-type)
Subscription-State = "Subscription-State" HCOLON substate-value Subscription-State = "Subscription-State" HCOLON substate-value
*( SEMI subexp-params ) *( SEMI subexp-params )
substate-value = "active" / "pending" / "terminated" substate-value = "active" / "pending" / "terminated"
/ extension-substate / extension-substate
extension-substate = token extension-substate = token
subexp-params = ("reason" EQUAL event-reason-value) subexp-params = ("reason" EQUAL event-reason-value)
/ ("expires" EQUAL delta-seconds) / ("expires" EQUAL delta-seconds)
/ ("retry-after" EQUAL delta-seconds) / ("retry-after" EQUAL delta-seconds)
/ generic-param / generic-param
skipping to change at page 45, line 47 skipping to change at page 45, line 33
/ "giveup" / "giveup"
/ "noresource" / "noresource"
/ "invariant" / "invariant"
/ event-reason-extension / event-reason-extension
event-reason-extension = token event-reason-extension = token
9. References 9. References
9.1. Normative References 9.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC2848] Petrack, S. and L. Conroy, "The PINT Service Protocol: [RFC2848] Petrack, S. and L. Conroy, "The PINT Service Protocol:
Extensions to SIP and SDP for IP Access to Telephone Call Extensions to SIP and SDP for IP Access to Telephone
Services", RFC 2848, June 2000. Call Services", RFC 2848, June 2000.
[RFC3261] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston, [RFC3261] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E. A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261, Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
June 2002. June 2002.
[RFC3265] Roach, A., "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)-Specific [RFC3265] Roach, A., "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)-Specific
Event Notification", RFC 3265, June 2002. Event Notification", RFC 3265, June 2002.
[RFC3968] Camarillo, G., "The Internet Assigned Number Authority [RFC3968] Camarillo, G., "The Internet Assigned Number Authority
(IANA) Header Field Parameter Registry for the Session (IANA) Header Field Parameter Registry for the Session
Initiation Protocol (SIP)", BCP 98, RFC 3968, Initiation Protocol (SIP)", BCP 98, RFC 3968,
December 2004. December 2004.
[RFC4483] Burger, E., "A Mechanism for Content Indirection in [RFC4483] Burger, E., "A Mechanism for Content Indirection in
Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Messages", RFC 4483, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Messages", RFC 4483,
May 2006. May 2006.
[RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an [RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226, IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
May 2008. May 2008.
[RFC5627] Rosenberg, J., "Obtaining and Using Globally Routable User [RFC5234] Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
Agent URIs (GRUUs) in the Session Initiation Protocol Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234, January 2008.
(SIP)", RFC 5627, October 2009.
[RFC5727] Peterson, J., Jennings, C., and R. Sparks, "Change Process [RFC5627] Rosenberg, J., "Obtaining and Using Globally Routable
for the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and the Real- User Agent URIs (GRUUs) in the Session Initiation
time Applications and Infrastructure Area", BCP 67, Protocol (SIP)", RFC 5627, October 2009.
RFC 5727, March 2010.
[RFC5727] Peterson, J., Jennings, C., and R. Sparks, "Change
Process for the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and
the Real-time Applications and Infrastructure Area",
BCP 67, RFC 5727, March 2010.
9.2. Informative References 9.2. Informative References
[RFC2779] Day, M., Aggarwal, S., Mohr, G., and J. Vincent, "Instant [RFC2779] Day, M., Aggarwal, S., Mohr, G., and J. Vincent,
Messaging / Presence Protocol Requirements", RFC 2779, "Instant Messaging / Presence Protocol Requirements",
February 2000. RFC 2779, February 2000.
[RFC3515] Sparks, R., "The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Refer [RFC3515] Sparks, R., "The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Refer
Method", RFC 3515, April 2003. Method", RFC 3515, April 2003.
[RFC3840] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., and P. Kyzivat, [RFC3840] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., and P. Kyzivat,
"Indicating User Agent Capabilities in the Session "Indicating User Agent Capabilities in the Session
Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC 3840, August 2004. Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC 3840, August 2004.
[RFC3891] Mahy, R., Biggs, B., and R. Dean, "The Session Initiation [RFC3891] Mahy, R., Biggs, B., and R. Dean, "The Session
Protocol (SIP) "Replaces" Header", RFC 3891, Initiation Protocol (SIP) "Replaces" Header", RFC 3891,
September 2004. September 2004.
[RFC3903] Niemi, A., "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Extension [RFC3903] Niemi, A., "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Extension
for Event State Publication", RFC 3903, October 2004. for Event State Publication", RFC 3903, October 2004.
[RFC3911] Mahy, R. and D. Petrie, "The Session Initiation Protocol [RFC3911] Mahy, R. and D. Petrie, "The Session Initiation Protocol
(SIP) "Join" Header", RFC 3911, October 2004. (SIP) "Join" Header", RFC 3911, October 2004.
[RFC4235] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., and R. Mahy, "An INVITE- [RFC4235] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., and R. Mahy, "An INVITE-
Initiated Dialog Event Package for the Session Initiation Initiated Dialog Event Package for the Session
Protocol (SIP)", RFC 4235, November 2005. Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC 4235, November 2005.
[RFC4288] Freed, N. and J. Klensin, "Media Type Specifications and [RFC4288] Freed, N. and J. Klensin, "Media Type Specifications and
Registration Procedures", BCP 13, RFC 4288, December 2005. Registration Procedures", BCP 13, RFC 4288,
December 2005.
[RFC4485] Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "Guidelines for Authors [RFC4485] Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "Guidelines for
of Extensions to the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)", Authors of Extensions to the Session Initiation Protocol
RFC 4485, May 2006. (SIP)", RFC 4485, May 2006.
[RFC4538] Rosenberg, J., "Request Authorization through Dialog [RFC4538] Rosenberg, J., "Request Authorization through Dialog
Identification in the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)", Identification in the Session Initiation Protocol
RFC 4538, June 2006. (SIP)", RFC 4538, June 2006.
[RFC4660] Khartabil, H., Leppanen, E., Lonnfors, M., and J. Costa- [RFC4660] Khartabil, H., Leppanen, E., Lonnfors, M., and J. Costa-
Requena, "Functional Description of Event Notification Requena, "Functional Description of Event Notification
Filtering", RFC 4660, September 2006. Filtering", RFC 4660, September 2006.
[RFC5057] Sparks, R., "Multiple Dialog Usages in the Session [RFC5057] Sparks, R., "Multiple Dialog Usages in the Session
Initiation Protocol", RFC 5057, November 2007. Initiation Protocol", RFC 5057, November 2007.
[RFC5839] Niemi, A. and D. Willis, "An Extension to Session [RFC5839] Niemi, A. and D. Willis, "An Extension to Session
Initiation Protocol (SIP) Events for Conditional Event Initiation Protocol (SIP) Events for Conditional Event
Notification", RFC 5839, May 2010. Notification", RFC 5839, May 2010.
[CERT1998a] CERT, "CERT Advisory CA-1998-01: Smurf IP Denial-of-
Service Attacks", 1998,
<http://www.cert.org/advisories/CA-1998-01.html>.
Appendix A. Acknowledgements Appendix A. Acknowledgements
Thanks to the participants in the Events BOF at the 48th IETF meeting Thanks to the participants in the Events BOF at the 48th IETF meeting
in Pittsburgh, as well as those who gave ideas and suggestions on the in Pittsburgh, as well as those who gave ideas and suggestions on the
SIP Events mailing list. In particular, I wish to thank Henning SIP Events mailing list. In particular, I wish to thank Henning
Schulzrinne of Columbia University for coming up with the final Schulzrinne of Columbia University for coming up with the final
three-tiered event identification scheme, Sean Olson for three-tiered event identification scheme, Sean Olson for
miscellaneous guidance, Jonathan Rosenberg for a thorough scrubbing miscellaneous guidance, Jonathan Rosenberg for a thorough scrubbing
of the -00 draft, and the authors of the "SIP Extensions for of the first draft version, and the authors of the "SIP Extensions
Presence" document for their input to SUBSCRIBE and NOTIFY request for Presence" document for their input to SUBSCRIBE and NOTIFY
semantics. request semantics.
I also owe a debt of gratitude to all the implementors who have I also owe a debt of gratitude to all the implementors who have
provided feedback on areas of confusion or difficulty in the original provided feedback on areas of confusion or difficulty in the original
specification. In particular, Robert Sparks' Herculean efforts specification. In particular, Robert Sparks' Herculean efforts
organizing, running, and collecting data from the SIPit events have organizing, running, and collecting data from the SIPit events have
proven invaluable in shaking out specification bugs. Robert Sparks proven invaluable in shaking out specification bugs. Robert Sparks
is also responsible for untangling the dialog usage mess, in the form is also responsible for untangling the dialog usage mess, in the form
of RFC 5057 [RFC5057]. of RFC 5057 [RFC5057].
Appendix B. Changes from RFC 3265 Appendix B. Changes from RFC 3265
This document represents several changes from the mechanism This document represents several changes from the mechanism
originally described in RFC 3265. This section summarizes those originally described in RFC 3265. This section summarizes those
changes. Bug numbers refer to the identifiers for the bug reports changes. Bug numbers refer to the identifiers for the bug reports
kept on file at http://bugs.sipit.net/. kept on file at http://bugs.sipit.net/.
B.1. Bug 666: Clarify use of expires=xxx with terminated B.1. Bug 666: Clarify use of "expires=xxx" with "terminated"
Strengthened language in Section 4.1.3 to clarify that expires should Strengthened language in Section 4.1.3 to clarify that "expires"
not be sent with terminated, and must be ignored if received. should not be sent with "terminated", and must be ignored if
received.
B.2. Bug 667: Reason code for unsub/poll not clearly spelled out B.2. Bug 667: Reason code for unsub/poll not clearly spelled out
Clarified description of "timeout" in Section 4.1.3. (n.b., the text Clarified description of "timeout" in Section 4.1.3. (n.b., the text
in Section 4.4.3 is actually pretty clear about this). in Section 4.4.3 is actually pretty clear about this).
B.3. Bug 669: Clarify: SUBSCRIBE for a duration might be answered with B.3. Bug 669: Clarify: SUBSCRIBE for a duration might be answered with
a NOTIFY/expires=0 a NOTIFY/expires=0
Added clarifying text to Section 4.2.2 explaining that shortening a Added clarifying text to Section 4.2.2 explaining that shortening a
skipping to change at page 48, line 45 skipping to change at page 49, line 17
The issues associated with the bug deal exclusively with the handling The issues associated with the bug deal exclusively with the handling
of multiple usages with a dialog. This behavior has been deprecated of multiple usages with a dialog. This behavior has been deprecated
and moved to Section 4.5.2. This section, in turn, cites [RFC5057], and moved to Section 4.5.2. This section, in turn, cites [RFC5057],
which addresses all of the issues in Bug 670. which addresses all of the issues in Bug 670.
B.5. Bug 671: Clarify timeout-based removal of subscriptions B.5. Bug 671: Clarify timeout-based removal of subscriptions
Changed Section 4.2.2 to specifically cite Timer F (so as to avoid Changed Section 4.2.2 to specifically cite Timer F (so as to avoid
ambiguity between transaction timeouts and retransmission timeouts). ambiguity between transaction timeouts and retransmission timeouts).
B.6. Bug 672: Mandate expires= in NOTIFY B.6. Bug 672: Mandate "expires" in NOTIFY
Changed strength of including of "expires" in a NOTIFY from SHOULD to Changed strength of including of "expires" in a NOTIFY from "SHOULD"
MUST in Section 4.2.2. to "MUST" in Section 4.2.2.
B.7. Bug 673: INVITE 481 response effect clarification B.7. Bug 673: INVITE 481 response effect clarification
This bug was addressed in [RFC5057]. This bug was addressed in [RFC5057].
B.8. Bug 677: SUBSCRIBE response matching text in error B.8. Bug 677: SUBSCRIBE response matching text in error
Fixed Section 8.2.1 to remove incorrect "...responses and..." -- Fixed Section 8.2.1 to remove incorrect "...responses and..." --
explicitly pointed to SIP for transaction response handling. explicitly pointed to SIP for transaction response handling.
B.9. Bug 695: Document is not explicit about response to NOTIFY at B.9. Bug 695: Document is not explicit about response to NOTIFY at
subscription termination subscription termination
Added text to Section 4.4.1 indicating that the typical response to a Added text to Section 4.4.1 indicating that the typical response to a
terminal NOTIFY is a "200 OK". terminal NOTIFY is a 200 (OK).
B.10. Bug 696: Subscription state machine needs clarification B.10. Bug 696: Subscription state machine needs clarification
Added state machine diagram to Section 4.1.2 with explicit handling Added state machine diagram to Section 4.1.2 with explicit handling
of what to do when a SUBSCRIBE never shows up. Added definition of of what to do when a SUBSCRIBE never shows up. Added definition of
and handling for new Timer N to Section 4.1.2.4. Added state machine and handling for new Timer N to Section 4.1.2.4. Added state machine
to Section 4.2.2 to reinforce text. to Section 4.2.2 to reinforce text.
B.11. Bug 697: Unsubscription behavior could be clarified B.11. Bug 697: Unsubscription behavior could be clarified
Added text to Section 4.2.1.4 encouraging (but not requiring) full Added text to Section 4.2.1.4 encouraging (but not requiring) full
state in final NOTIFY request. Also added text to Section 4.1.2.3 state in final NOTIFY request. Also added text to Section 4.1.2.3
warning subscribers that full state may or may not be present in the warning subscribers that full state may or may not be present in the
final NOTIFY. final NOTIFY.
B.12. Bug 699: NOTIFY and SUBSCRIBE are target refresh requests B.12. Bug 699: NOTIFY and SUBSCRIBE are target refresh requests
Added text to both Section 3.1 and Section 3.2 explicitly indicating Added text to both Sections 3.1 and 3.2 explicitly indicating that
that SUBSCRIBE and NOTIFY are target refresh methods. SUBSCRIBE and NOTIFY are target refresh methods.
B.13. Bug 722: Inconsistent 423 reason phrase text B.13. Bug 722: Inconsistent 423 reason phrase text
Changed reason code to "Interval Too Brief" in Section 4.2.1.1 and Changed reason phrase to "Interval Too Brief" in Sections 4.2.1.1 and
Section 4.2.1.4, to match 423 reason code in SIP [RFC3261]. 4.2.1.4, to match 423 reason phrase in SIP [RFC3261].
B.14. Bug 741: guidance needed on when to not include Allow-Events B.14. Bug 741: Guidance needed on when to not include "Allow-Events"
Added non-normative clarification to Section 4.4.4 regarding Added non-normative clarification to Section 4.4.4 regarding
inclusion of Allow-Events in a NOTIFY for the one-and-only package inclusion of "Allow-Events" in a NOTIFY for the one-and-only package
supported by the notifier. supported by the notifier.
B.15. Bug 744: 5xx to NOTIFY terminates a subscription, but should not B.15. Bug 744: 5xx to NOTIFY terminates a subscription, but should not
Issue of subscription (usage) termination versus dialog termination Issue of subscription (usage) termination versus dialog termination
is handled in [RFC5057]. The text in Section 4.2.2 has been updated is handled in [RFC5057]. The text in Section 4.2.2 has been updated
to summarize the behavior described by 5057, and cites it for to summarize the behavior described by RFC 5057, and cites it for
additional detail and rationale. additional detail and rationale.
B.16. Bug 752: Detection of forked requests is incorrect B.16. Bug 752: Detection of forked requests is incorrect
Removed erroneous "CSeq" from list of matching criteria in Removed erroneous "CSeq" from list of matching criteria in
Section 5.4.9. Section 5.4.9.
B.17. Bug 773: Reason code needs IANA registry B.17. Bug 773: Reason code needs IANA registry
Added Section 7.2 to create and populate IANA registry. Added Section 7.2 to create and populate IANA registry.
B.18. Bug 774: Need new reason for terminating subscriptions to B.18. Bug 774: Need new reason for terminating subscriptions to
resources that never change resources that never change
Added new "invariant" reason code to Section 4.1.3, ABNF syntax. Added new "invariant" reason code to Section 4.1.3 and to ABNF syntax
in Section 8.4.
B.19. Clarify handling of Route/Record-Route in NOTIFY B.19. Clarify Handling of "Route"/"Record-Route" in NOTIFY
Changed text in Section 4.3 mandating Record-Route in initial Changed text in Section 4.3 in order to mandate "Record-Route" in
SUBSCRIBE and all NOTIFY requests, and adding "MAY" level statements initial SUBSCRIBE and all NOTIFY requests, and add "MAY"-level
for subsequent SUBSCRIBE requests. statements for subsequent SUBSCRIBE requests.
B.20. Eliminate implicit subscriptions B.20. Eliminate Implicit Subscriptions
Added text to Section 4.2.1 explaining some of the problems Added text to Section 4.2.1 explaining some of the problems
associated with implicit subscriptions, normative language associated with implicit subscriptions, and added normative language
prohibiting them. Removed language from Section 3.2 describing "non- prohibiting them. Removed language from Section 3.2 describing "non-
SUBSCRIBE" mechanisms for creating subscriptions. Simplified SUBSCRIBE" mechanisms for creating subscriptions. Simplified
language in Section 4.2.2, now that the soft-state/non-soft-state language in Section 4.2.2, now that the soft-state/non-soft-state
distinction is unnecessary. distinction is unnecessary.
B.21. Deprecate dialog re-use B.21. Deprecate Dialog Reuse
Moved handling of dialog re-use and "id" handling to Section 4.5.2. Moved handling of dialog reuse and "id" handling to Section 4.5.2.
It is documented only for backwards-compatibility purposes. It is documented only for backwards-compatibility purposes.
B.22. Rationalize dialog creation B.22. Rationalize Dialog Creation
Section 4.4.1 has been updated to specify that dialogs should be Section 4.4.1 has been updated to specify that dialogs should be
created when the NOTIFY arrives. Previously, the dialog was created when the NOTIFY arrives. Previously, the dialog was
established by the SUBSCRIBE 200, or by the NOTIFY transaction. This established by the SUBSCRIBE 200 or by the NOTIFY transaction. This
was unnecessarily complicated; the newer rules are easier to was unnecessarily complicated; the newer rules are easier to
implement (and result in effectively the same behavior on the wire). implement (and result in effectively the same behavior on the wire).
B.23. Refactor behavior sections B.23. Refactor Behavior Sections
Reorganized Section 4 to consolidate behavior along role lines Reorganized Section 4 to consolidate behavior along role lines
(subscriber/notifier/proxy) instead of method lines. (subscriber/notifier/proxy) instead of method lines.
B.24. Clarify sections that need to be present in event packages B.24. Clarify Sections That Need to Be Present in Event Packages
Added sentence to Section 5 clarifying that event packages are Added sentence to Section 5 clarifying that event packages are
expected to include explicit sections covering the issues discussed expected to include explicit sections covering the issues discussed
in this section. in this section.
B.25. Make CANCEL handling more explicit B.25. Make CANCEL Handling More Explicit
Text in Section 4.6 now clearly calls out behavior upon receipt of a Text in Section 4.6 now clearly calls out behavior upon receipt of a
CANCEL. We also echo the "...SHOULD NOT send..." requirement from CANCEL. We also echo the "...SHOULD NOT send..." requirement from
[RFC3261]. [RFC3261].
B.26. Remove State Agent Terminology B.26. Remove "State Agent" Terminology
As originally planned, we anticipated a fairly large number of event As originally planned, we anticipated a fairly large number of event
packages that would move back and forth between end-user devices and packages that would move back and forth between end-user devices and
servers in the network. In practice, this has ended up not being the servers in the network. In practice, this has ended up not being the
case. Certain events, like dialog state, are inherently hosted at case. Certain events, like dialog state, are inherently hosted at
end-user devices; others, like presence, are almost always hosted in end-user devices; others, like presence, are almost always hosted in
the network (due to issues like composition, and the ability to the network (due to issues like composition, and the ability to
deliver information when user devices are offline). Further, the deliver information when user devices are offline). Further, the
concept of State Agents is the most misunderstood by event package concept of State Agents is the most misunderstood by event package
authors. In my expert review of event packages, I have yet to find authors. In my expert review of event packages, I have yet to find
one that got the concept of State Agents completely correct -- and one that got the concept of State Agents completely correct -- and
most of them start out with the concept being 100% backwards from the most of them start out with the concept being 100% backwards from the
way RFC 3265 described it. way RFC 3265 described it.
Rather than remove the ability to perform the actions previously Rather than remove the ability to perform the actions previously
attributed to the widely misunderstood term "State Agent," we have attributed to the widely misunderstood term "State Agent", we have
simply eliminated this term. Instead, we talk about the behaviors simply eliminated this term. Instead, we talk about the behaviors
required to create state agents (state aggregation, subscription required to create state agents (state aggregation, subscription
notification) without defining a formal term to describe the servers notification) without defining a formal term to describe the servers
that exhibit these behaviors. In effect, this is an editorial change that exhibit these behaviors. In effect, this is an editorial change
to make life easier for event package authors; the actual protocol to make life easier for event package authors; the actual protocol
does not change as a result. does not change as a result.
The definition of "State Agent" has been removed from Section 2. The definition of "State Agent" has been removed from Section 2.
Section 4.4.2 has been retooled to discuss migration of subscription Section 4.4.2 has been retooled to discuss migration of subscription
in general, without calling out the specific example of state agents. in general, without calling out the specific example of state agents.
Section 5.4.11 has been focused on state aggregation in particular, Section 5.4.11 has been focused on state aggregation in particular,
instead of state aggregation as an aspect of state agents. instead of state aggregation as an aspect of state agents.
B.27. Miscellanous Changes B.27. Miscellaneous Changes
The following changes are relatively minor revisions to the document The following changes are relatively minor revisions to the document
that resulted primarily from review of this document in the working that resulted primarily from review of this document in the working
group and IESG, rather than implementation reports. group and IESG, rather than implementation reports.
o Clarified scope of Event header field parameters. In RFC3265, the o Clarified scope of "Event" header field parameters. In RFC 3265,
scope is ambiguous, which causes problems with the RFC3968 the scope is ambiguous, which causes problems with the registry in
registry. The new text ensures that Event header field parameters RFC 3968. The new text ensures that "Event" header field
are unique across all event packages. parameters are unique across all event packages.
o Removed obsoleted language around IANA registration policies for o Removed obsoleted language around IANA registration policies for
event packages. Instead, we now cite RFC5727, which supersedes event packages. Instead, we now cite RFC 5727, which updates RFC
RFC3265, and is authoritative on event package registration 3265, and is authoritative on event package registration policy.
policy.
o Several editorial updates after input from working group, o Several editorial updates after input from working group,
including proper designation of "dialog usage" rather than including proper designation of "dialog usage" rather than
"dialog" where appropriate. "dialog" where needed.
o Clarified two normative statements about subscription termination o Clarified two normative statements about subscription termination
by changing from plain English prose to RFC2119 language. by changing from plain English prose to RFC2119 language.
o Removed "Table 2" expansions, per WG consensus on how SIP table 2 o Removed "Table 2" expansions, per WG consensus on how SIP Table 2
is to be handled. is to be handled.
o Removed 202 response code. o Removed 202 response code.
o Clarified that "Allow-Events" does not list event template o Clarified that "Allow-Events" does not list event template-
packages. packages.
o Added clarification about proper response when the SUBSCRIBE o Added clarification about proper response when the SUBSCRIBE
indicates an unknown media type in its Accept header field. indicates an unknown media type in its "Accept" header field.
o Minor clarifications to Route and Record-Route behavior. o Minor clarifications to "Route" and "Record-Route" behavior.
o Added non-normative warning about the limitations of state o Added non-normative warning about the limitations of state
polling. polling.
o Added information about targeting subscriptions at specific o Added information about targeting subscriptions at specific
dialogs. dialogs.
o Added RFC 3261 to list of documents updated by this one (rather o Added RFC 3261 to list of documents updated by this one (rather
than the "2543" indicated by RFC3265). than the "2543" indicated by RFC 3265).
o Clarified text in Section 3.1.1 explaining the meaning of o Clarified text in Section 3.1.1 explaining the meaning of
"Expires: 0". "Expires: 0".
o Changed text in definition of "probation" reason code to indicate o Changed text in definition of "probation" reason code to indicate
that subscribers don't need to re-subscribe if the associated that subscribers don't need to re-subscribe if the associated
state is no longer of use to them. state is no longer of use to them.
o Specified that the termination of a subscription due to a NOTIFY o Specified that the termination of a subscription due to a NOTIFY
transaction failure does not require sending another NOTIFY transaction failure does not require sending another NOTIFY
message. message.
o Clarified how order of template application affects the meaning of o Clarified how order of template application affects the meaning of
an Event header field value. (e.g., "foo.bar.baz" is different an "Event" header field value (e.g., "foo.bar.baz" is different
than "foo.baz.bar"). than "foo.baz.bar").
Author's Address Author's Address
Adam Roach Adam Roach
Tekelec Tekelec
17210 Campbell Rd. 17210 Campbell Rd.
Suite 250 Suite 250
Dallas, TX 75252 Dallas, TX 75252
US US
Email: adam@nostrum.com EMail: adam@nostrum.com
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