draft-ietf-sipping-cc-framework-06.txt   draft-ietf-sipping-cc-framework-07.txt 
SIPPING WG R. Mahy SIPPING WG R. Mahy
Internet-Draft Plantronics Internet-Draft Plantronics
Expires: September 6, 2006 B. Campbell Intended status: Informational B. Campbell
R. Sparks Expires: September 5, 2007 R. Sparks
Estacado Systems Estacado Systems
J. Rosenberg J. Rosenberg
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
D. Petrie D. Petrie
SIP EZ SIP EZ
A. Johnston A. Johnston, Ed.
MCI Avaya
March 5, 2006 March 4, 2007
A Call Control and Multi-party usage framework for the Session A Call Control and Multi-party usage framework for the Session
Initiation Protocol (SIP) Initiation Protocol (SIP)
draft-ietf-sipping-cc-framework-06.txt draft-ietf-sipping-cc-framework-07
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79. aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
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and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
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The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt. http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.
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http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html. http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.
This Internet-Draft will expire on September 6, 2006. This Internet-Draft will expire on September 5, 2007.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006). Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).
Abstract Abstract
This document defines a framework and requirements for multi-party This document defines a framework and requirements for multi-party
usage of SIP. To enable discussion of multi-party features and usage of SIP. To enable discussion of multi-party features and
applications we define an abstract call model for describing the applications we define an abstract call model for describing the
media relationships required by many of these. The model and actions media relationships required by many of these. The model and actions
described here are specifically chosen to be independent of the SIP described here are specifically chosen to be independent of the SIP
signaling and/or mixing approach chosen to actually setup the media signaling and/or mixing approach chosen to actually setup the media
relationships. In addition to its dialog manipulation aspect, this relationships. In addition to its dialog manipulation aspect, this
framework includes requirements for communicating related information framework includes requirements for communicating related information
and events such as conference and session state, and session history. and events such as conference and session state, and session history.
This framework also describes other goals which embody the spirit of This framework also describes other goals that embody the spirit of
SIP applications as used on the Internet. SIP applications as used on the Internet.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Motivation and Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Motivation and Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Key Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3. Key Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.1. "Conversation Space" Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.1 "Conversation Space" Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.2. Comparison with Related Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.2 Comparison with Related Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.3. Signaling Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.3 Signaling Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.4. Mixing Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.4 Mixing Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.4.1. Tightly Coupled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.4.1 Tightly Coupled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.4.2. Loosely Coupled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.4.2 Loosely Coupled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.5. Conveying Information and Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.5 Conveying Information and Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.6. Componentization and Decomposition . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.6 Componentization and Decomposition . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.6.1. Media Intermediaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.6.1 Media Intermediaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.6.2. Mixer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.6.2 Mixer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.6.3. Transcoder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.6.3 Transcoder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.6.4. Media Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.6.4 Media Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.6.5. Queue Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.6.5 Queue Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.6.6. Parking Place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.6.6 Parking Place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.6.7. Announcements and Voice Dialogs . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.6.7 Announcements and Voice Dialogs . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.7. Use of URIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.7 Use of URIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.7.1. Naming Users in SIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.7.1 Naming Users in SIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.7.2. Naming Services with SIP URIs . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.7.2 Naming Services with SIP URIs . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.8. Invoker Independence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3.8 Invoker Independence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.9. Billing issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.9 Billing issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 3. Catalog of call control actions and sample features . . . . . 21
4. Catalog of call control actions and sample features . . . . 23 3.1. Early Dialog Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.1 Early Dialog Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3.1.1. Remote Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.1.1 Remote Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3.1.2. Remote Forward or Put . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.1.2 Remote Forward or Put . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3.1.3. Remote Busy or Error Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.1.3 Remote Busy or Error Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3.2. Single Dialog Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.2 Single Dialog Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3.2.1. Remote Dial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.2.1 Remote Dial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3.2.2. Remote On and Off Hold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.2.2 Remote On and Off Hold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 3.2.3. Remote Hangup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.2.3 Remote Hangup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 3.3. Multi-dialog actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.3 Multi-dialog actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 3.3.1. Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.3.1 Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 3.3.2. Take . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.3.2 Take . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 3.3.3. Add . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.3.3 Add . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 3.3.4. Local Join . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.3.4 Local Join . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 3.3.5. Insert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.3.5 Insert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 3.3.6. Split . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.3.6 Split . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 3.3.7. Near-fork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.3.7 Near-fork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 3.3.8. Far fork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4.3.8 Far fork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 6. Appendix A: Example Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
7. Appendix A: Example Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 6.1. Implementation of these features . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
7.1 Implementation of these features . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 6.1.1. Call Park . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
7.1.1 Call Park . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 6.1.2. Call Pickup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
7.1.2 Call Pickup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 6.1.3. Music on Hold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
7.1.3 Music on Hold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 6.1.4. Call Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
7.1.4 Call Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 6.1.5. Barge-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
7.1.5 Barge-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 6.1.6. Intercom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
7.1.6 Intercom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 6.1.7. Speakerphone paging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
7.1.7 Speakerphone paging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 6.1.8. Distinctive ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
7.1.8 Distinctive ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 6.1.9. Voice message screening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
7.1.9 Voice message screening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 6.1.10. Single Line Extension/Multiple Line Appearance . . . . 34
7.1.10 Single Line Extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 6.1.11. Click-to-dial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
7.1.11 Click-to-dial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 6.1.12. Pre-paid calling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
7.1.12 Pre-paid calling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 6.1.13. Voice Portal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
7.1.13 Voice Portal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 7. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
8.1 Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 40
8.2 Informational References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . 41
1. Conventions
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119 [2].
2. Motivation and Background 1. Motivation and Background
The Session Initiation Protocol [1] (SIP) was defined for the The Session Initiation Protocol [1] (SIP) was defined for the
initiation, maintenance, and termination of sessions or calls between initiation, maintenance, and termination of sessions or calls between
one or more users. However, despite its origins as a large-scale one or more users. However, despite its origins as a large-scale
multiparty conferencing protocol, SIP is used today primarily for multiparty conferencing protocol, SIP is used today primarily for
point to point calls. This two-party configuration is the focus of point to point calls. This two-party configuration is the focus of
the SIP specification and most of its extensions. the SIP specification and most of its extensions.
This document defines a framework and requirements for multi-party This document defines a framework and requirements for multi-party
usage of SIP. Most multi-party operations manipulate SIP session usage of SIP. Most multi-party operations manipulate SIP session
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calls, this manipulation is known as call control. In addition to calls, this manipulation is known as call control. In addition to
its dialog or policy manipulation aspect, "call control" also its dialog or policy manipulation aspect, "call control" also
includes communicating information and events related to manipulating includes communicating information and events related to manipulating
calls, including information and events dealing with session state calls, including information and events dealing with session state
and history, conference state, user state, and even message state. and history, conference state, user state, and even message state.
Based on input from the SIP community, the authors compiled the Based on input from the SIP community, the authors compiled the
following set of goals for SIP call control and multiparty following set of goals for SIP call control and multiparty
applications: applications:
o Define Primitives, Not Services. Allow for a handful of robust o Define Primitives, Not Services. Allow for a handful of robust
yet simple mechanisms which can be combined to deliver features yet simple mechanisms that can be combined to deliver features and
and services. Throughout this document we refer to these simple services. Throughout this document we refer to these simple
mechanisms as "primitives". Primitives should be sufficiently mechanisms as "primitives". Primitives should be sufficiently
robust that when they are combined they can be used to build lots robust that when they are combined they can be used to build lots
of services. However, the goal is not to define a provably of services. However, the goal is not to define a provably
complete set of primitives. Note that while the IETF will NOT complete set of primitives. Note that while the IETF will NOT
standardize behavior or services, it may define example services standardize behavior or services, it may define example services
for informational purposes, as in service examples [6]. for informational purposes, as in service examples [6].
o Participant oriented. The primitives should be designed to o Participant oriented. The primitives should be designed to
provide services which are oriented around the experience of the provide services that are oriented around the experience of the
participants. The authors observe that end users of features and participants. The authors observe that end users of features and
services usually don't care how a media relationship is setup. services usually don't care how a media relationship is setup.
Their ultimate experience is based only on the resulting media and Their ultimate experience is based only on the resulting media and
other externally visible characteristics. other externally visible characteristics.
o Signaling Model independent: Support both a central control and a o Signaling Model independent: Support both a central control and a
peer-to-peer feature invocation model (and combinations of the peer-to-peer feature invocation model (and combinations of the
two). Baseline SIP already supports a centralized control model two). Baseline SIP already supports a centralized control model
described in [3pcc], and the SIP community has expressed a great described in 3pcc [7], and the SIP community has expressed a great
deal of interest in peer-to-peer or distributed call control using deal of interest in peer-to-peer or distributed call control using
primitives such as those defined in REFER [8], Replaces [9], and primitives such as those defined in REFER [8], Replaces [9], and
Join [10]. Join [10].
o Mixing Model independent: The bulk of interesting multiparty o Mixing Model independent: The bulk of interesting multiparty
applications involve mixing or combining media from multiple applications involve mixing or combining media from multiple
participants. This mixing can be performed by one or more of the participants. This mixing can be performed by one or more of the
participants, or by a centralized mixing resource. The experience participants, or by a centralized mixing resource. The experience
of the participants should not depend on the mixing model used. of the participants should not depend on the mixing model used.
While most examples in this document refer to audio mixing, the While most examples in this document refer to audio mixing, the
framework applies to any media type. In this context a "mixer" framework applies to any media type. In this context a "mixer"
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requiring new primitives from all the participants; and it allows requiring new primitives from all the participants; and it allows
for much simpler feature authorization policies, for example, when for much simpler feature authorization policies, for example, when
participation spans organizational boundaries. As discussed in participation spans organizational boundaries. As discussed in
section 3.8, this also avoids exponential state explosion when section 3.8, this also avoids exponential state explosion when
combining features. The invoker only has to manage a user combining features. The invoker only has to manage a user
interface or API to prevent local feature interactions. All the interface or API to prevent local feature interactions. All the
other participants simply need to manage the feature interactions other participants simply need to manage the feature interactions
of a much smaller number of primitives. of a much smaller number of primitives.
o Primitives make full use of URIs. URIs are a very powerful o Primitives make full use of URIs. URIs are a very powerful
mechanism for describing users and services. They represent a mechanism for describing users and services. They represent a
plentiful resource which can be extremely expressive and easily plentiful resource that can be extremely expressive and easily
routed, translated, and manipulated--even across organizational routed, translated, and manipulated--even across organizational
boundaries. URIs can contain special parameters and informational boundaries. URIs can contain special parameters and informational
headers which need only be relevant to the owner of the namespace headers that need only be relevant to the owner of the namespace
(domain) of the URI. Just as a user who selects an http: URL need (domain) of the URI. Just as a user who selects an http: URL need
not understand the significance and organization of the web site not understand the significance and organization of the web site
it references, a user may encounter a SIP URL which translates it references, a user may encounter a SIP URL that translates into
into an email-style group alias, which plays a pre-recorded an email-style group alias, that plays a pre-recorded message, or
message, or runs some complex call-handling logic. Note that runs some complex call-handling logic. Note that while this may
while this may seem paradoxical to the previous goal, both goals seem paradoxical to the previous goal, both goals can be satisfied
can be satisfied by the same model. by the same model.
o Make use of SIP headers and SIP event packages to provide SIP o Make use of SIP headers and SIP event packages to provide SIP
entities with information about their environment. These should entities with information about their environment. These should
include information about the status / handling of dialogs on include information about the status / handling of dialogs on
other user agents, information about the history of other contacts other user agents, information about the history of other contacts
attempted prior to the current contact, the status of attempted prior to the current contact, the status of
participants, the status of conferences, user presence participants, the status of conferences, user presence
information, and the status of messages. information, and the status of messages.
o Encourage service decomposition, and design to make use of o Encourage service decomposition, and design to make use of
standard components using well-defined, simple interfaces. Sample standard components using well-defined, simple interfaces. Sample
components include a SIP mixer, recording service, announcement components include a SIP mixer, recording service, announcement
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o Encourage service decomposition, and design to make use of o Encourage service decomposition, and design to make use of
standard components using well-defined, simple interfaces. Sample standard components using well-defined, simple interfaces. Sample
components include a SIP mixer, recording service, announcement components include a SIP mixer, recording service, announcement
server, and voice dialog server. (This is not an exhaustive server, and voice dialog server. (This is not an exhaustive
list). list).
o Include authentication, authorization, policy, logging, and o Include authentication, authorization, policy, logging, and
accounting mechanisms to allow these primitives to be used safely accounting mechanisms to allow these primitives to be used safely
among mutually untrusted participants. Some of these mechanisms among mutually untrusted participants. Some of these mechanisms
may be used to assist in billing, but no specific billing system may be used to assist in billing, but no specific billing system
will be endorsed. will be endorsed.
o Permit graceful fallback to baseline SIP. Definitions for new SIP o Permit graceful fallback to baseline SIP. Definitions for new SIP
call control extensions/primitives MUST describe a graceful way to call control extensions/primitives must describe a graceful way to
fallback to baseline SIP behavior. Support for one primitive MUST fallback to baseline SIP behavior. Support for one primitive must
NOT imply support for another primitive. not imply support for another primitive.
o There is no desire or goal to reinvent traditional models, such as o There is no desire or goal to reinvent traditional models, such as
the model used the [H.450] family of protocols, [JTAPI], or the the model used the [H.450] family of protocols, [JTAPI], or the
[CSTA] call model, as these other models do not share the design [CSTA] call model, as these other models do not share the design
goals presented in this document. goals presented in this document.
3. Key Concepts 2. Key Concepts
3.1 "Conversation Space" Model 2.1. "Conversation Space" Model
This document introduces the concept of an abstract "conversation This document introduces the concept of an abstract "conversation
space" (essentially as a set of participants who believe they are all space" (essentially as a set of participants who believe they are all
communicating among one another). Each conversation space contains communicating among one another). Each conversation space contains
one or more participants. one or more participants.
Participants are SIP User Agents which send original media to or Participants are SIP User Agents that send original media to or
terminate and receive media from other members of the conversation terminate and receive media from other members of the conversation
space. Logically, every participant in the conversation space has space. Logically, every participant in the conversation space has
access to all the media generated in that space (this is strictly access to all the media generated in that space (this is strictly
true if all participants share a common media type). A SIP User true if all participants share a common media type). A SIP User
Agent which does not contribute or consume any media is NOT a Agent that does not contribute or consume any media is NOT a
participant; nor is a user agent which merely forwards, transcodes, participant; nor is a user agent that merely forwards, transcoders,
mixes, or selects media originating elsewhere in the conversation mixes, or selects media originating elsewhere in the conversation
space. [Note that a conversation space consists of zero or more SIP space. [Note that a conversation space consists of zero or more SIP
calls or SIP conferences. A conversation space is similar to the calls or SIP conferences. A conversation space is similar to the
definition of a "call" in some other call models.] definition of a "call" in some other call models.]
Participants may represent human users or non-human users (referred Participants may represent human users or non-human users (referred
to as robots or automatons in this document). Some participants may to as robots or automatons in this document). Some participants may
be hidden within a conversation space. Some examples of hidden be hidden within a conversation space. Some examples of hidden
participants include: robots which generate tones, images, or participants include: robots that generate tones, images, or
announcements during a conference to announce users arriving and announcements during a conference to announce users arriving and
departing, a human call center supervisor monitoring a conversation departing, a human call center supervisor monitoring a conversation
between a trainee and a customer, and robots which record media for between a trainee and a customer, and robots that record media for
training or archival purposes. training or archival purposes.
Participants may also be active or passive. Active participants are Participants may also be active or passive. Active participants are
expected to be intelligent enough to leave a conversation space when expected to be intelligent enough to leave a conversation space when
they no longer desire to participate. (An attentive human they no longer desire to participate. (An attentive human
participant is obviously active.) Some robotic participants (such as participant is obviously active.) Some robotic participants (such as
a voice messaging system, an instant messaging agent, or a voice a voice messaging system, an instant messaging agent, or a voice
dialog system) may be active participants if they can leave the dialog system) may be active participants if they can leave the
conversation space when there is no human interaction. Other robots conversation space when there is no human interaction. Other robots
(for example our tone generating robot from the previous example) are (for example our tone generating robot from the previous example) are
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{ A , B } [ A , B ] { A , B } [ A , B ]
.-. .---. .-. .---.
/ \ / \ / \ / \
/ A \ / A b \ / A \ / A b \
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
\ B / \ C D / \ B / \ C D /
\ / \ / \ / \ /
'-' '---' '-' '---'
3.2 Comparison with Related Definitions 2.2. Comparison with Related Definitions
In SIP, a call is "an informal term that refers to some communication In SIP, a call is "an informal term that refers to some communication
between peers, generally set up for the purposes of a multimedia between peers, generally set up for the purposes of a multimedia
conversation." Obviously we cannot discuss normative behavior based conversation." Obviously we cannot discuss normative behavior based
on such an intentionally vague definition. The concept of a on such an intentionally vague definition. The concept of a
conversation space is needed because the SIP definition of call is conversation space is needed because the SIP definition of call is
not sufficiently precise for the purpose of describing the user not sufficiently precise for the purpose of describing the user
experience of multiparty features. experience of multiparty features.
Do any other definitions convey the correct meaning? SIP, and SDP Do any other definitions convey the correct meaning? SIP, and SDP
[5] both define a conference as "a multimedia session identified by a [5] both define a conference as "a multimedia session identified by a
common session description." A session is defined as "a set of common session description." A session is defined as "a set of
multimedia senders and receivers and the data streams flowing from multimedia senders and receivers and the data streams flowing from
senders to receivers." Both of these definitions are heavily senders to receivers." Both of these definitions are heavily
oriented toward multicast sessions with little differenciation among oriented toward multicast sessions with little differentiation among
participants. As such, neither is particularly useful for our participants. As such, neither is particularly useful for our
purposes. In fact, the definition of "call" in some call models is purposes. In fact, the definition of "call" in some call models is
more similar to our definition of a conversation space. more similar to our definition of a conversation space.
Some examples of the relationship between conversation spaces, SIP Some examples of the relationship between conversation spaces, SIP
call legs, and SIP sessions are listed below. In each example, a dialogs, and SIP sessions are listed below. In each example, a human
human user will perceive that there is a single call. user will perceive that there is a single call.
o A simple two-party call is a single conversation space, a single o A simple two-party call is a single conversation space, a single
session, and a single call-leg. session, and a single dialog.
o A locally mixed three-way call is two sessions and two call-legs. o A locally mixed three-way call is two sessions and two dialogs.
It is also a single conversation space. It is also a single conversation space.
o A simple dial-in audio conference is a single conversation space, o A simple dial-in audio conference is a single conversation space,
but is represented by as many call-legs and sessions as there are but is represented by as many dialogs and sessions as there are
human participants. human participants.
o A multicast conference is a single conversation space, a single o A multicast conference is a single conversation space, a single
session, and as many call-legs as participants. session, and as many dialogs as participants.
3.3 Signaling Models 2.3. Signaling Models
Obviously to make changes to a conversation space, you must be able Obviously to make changes to a conversation space, you must be able
to use SIP signaling to cause these changes. Specifically there must to use SIP signaling to cause these changes. Specifically there must
be a way to manipulate SIP dialogs (call legs) to move participants be a way to manipulate SIP dialogs (call legs) to move participants
into and out of conversation spaces. Although this is not as into and out of conversation spaces. Although this is not as
obvious, there also must be a way to manipulate SIP dialogs to obvious, there also must be a way to manipulate SIP dialogs to
include non-participant user agents which are otherwise involved in a include non-participant user agents that are otherwise involved in a
conversation space (ex: B2BUAs, 3pcc controllers, mixers, conversation space (ex: B2BUAs, 3pcc controllers, mixers,
transcoders, translators, or relays). transcoders, translators, or relays).
Implementations may setup the media relationships described in the Implementations may setup the media relationships described in the
conversation space model using the approach described in 3pcc [7]. conversation space model using the approach described in 3pcc [7].
The 3pcc approach relies on only the following 3 primitive The 3pcc approach relies on only the following 3 primitive
operations: operations:
o Create a new call-leg (INVITE) o Create a new dialog (INVITE)
o Modify a call-leg (reINVITE) o Modify a dialog (reINVITE)
o Destroy a call-leg (BYE) o Destroy a dialog (BYE)
The main advantage of the 3pcc approach is that it only requires very The main advantage of the 3pcc approach is that it only requires very
basic SIP support from end systems to support call control features. basic SIP support from end systems to support call control features.
As such, third-party call control is a natural way to handle protocol As such, third-party call control is a natural way to handle protocol
conversion and mid-call features. It also has the advantage and conversion and mid-call features. It also has the advantage and
disadvantage that new features can/must be implemented in one place disadvantage that new features can/must be implemented in one place
only (the controller), and neither requires enhanced client only (the controller), and neither requires enhanced client
functionality, nor takes advantage of it. functionality, nor takes advantage of it.
In addition, a peer-to-peer approach is discussed at length in this In addition, a peer-to-peer approach is discussed at length in this
draft. The primary drawback of the peer-to-peer model is additional draft. The primary drawback of the peer-to-peer model is additional
end system complexity. The benefits of the peer-to-peer model complexity in the end system and authentication and management
include: models. The benefits of the peer-to-peer model include:
o state remains at the edges o state remains at the edges
o call signaling need only go through participants involved (there o call signaling need only go through participants involved (there
are no additional points of failure) are no additional points of failure)
o peers can take advantage of end-to-end message integrity or o peers can take advantage of end-to-end message integrity or
encryption encryption
o setup time is shorter (fewer messages and round trips are o setup time is shorter (fewer messages and round trips are
required) required)
The peer-to-peer approach relies on additional "primitive" The peer-to-peer approach relies on additional "primitive"
operations, some of which are identified here. operations, some of which are identified here.
o Replace an existing dialog o Replace an existing dialog
o Join a new dialog with an existing dialog o Join a new dialog with an existing dialog
o Support SIP conference policy control o Support SIP conference policy control
o Locally perform media forking (multi-unicast) o Locally perform media forking (multi-unicast)
o Ask another UA to send a request on your behalf o Ask another UA to send a request on your behalf
Many of the features, primitives, and actions described in this Many of the features, primitives, and actions described in this
document also require some type of media mixing, combining, or document also require some type of media mixing, combining, or
selection as described in the next section. selection as described in the next section.
3.4 Mixing Models 2.4. Mixing Models
SIP permits a variety of mixing models, which are discussed here SIP permits a variety of mixing models, which are discussed here
briefly. This topic is discussed more thoroughly in the SIP briefly. This topic is discussed more thoroughly in the SIP
conferencing framework [15] and cc-conferencing [19]. SIP supports conferencing framework [15] and cc-conferencing [19]. SIP supports
both tightly-coupled and loosely-coupled conferencing, although more both tightly-coupled and loosely-coupled conferencing, although more
sophisticated behavior is available in tightly-coupled conferences. sophisticated behavior is available in tightly-coupled conferences.
In a tightly-coupled conference, a single SIP user agent (called the In a tightly-coupled conference, a single SIP user agent (called the
focus) has a direct dialog relationship with each participant (and focus) has a direct dialog relationship with each participant (and
may control non participant user agents as well). In a loosely- may control non participant user agents as well). In a loosely-
coupled conference there is no coordinated signaling relationships coupled conference there is no coordinated signaling relationships
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Call control features should be designed to allow a mixer (local or Call control features should be designed to allow a mixer (local or
centralized) to decide when to reduce a conference back to a 2-party centralized) to decide when to reduce a conference back to a 2-party
call, or drop all the participants (for example if only two call, or drop all the participants (for example if only two
automatons are communicating). The actual heuristics used to release automatons are communicating). The actual heuristics used to release
calls are beyond the scope of this document, but may depend on calls are beyond the scope of this document, but may depend on
properties in the conversation space, such as the number of active, properties in the conversation space, such as the number of active,
passive, or hidden participants; and the send-only, receive-only, or passive, or hidden participants; and the send-only, receive-only, or
send-and-receive orientation of various participants. send-and-receive orientation of various participants.
3.4.1 Tightly Coupled 2.4.1. Tightly Coupled
3.4.1.1 (Single) End System Mixing Tightly coupled conferences utilize a central point for signaling and
authentication known as a focus [15]. The actual media can be
centrally mixed or distributed.
2.4.1.1. (Single) End System Mixing
The first model we call "end system mixing". In this model, user A The first model we call "end system mixing". In this model, user A
calls user B, and they have a conversation. At some point later, A calls user B, and they have a conversation. At some point later, A
decides to conference in user C. To do this, A calls C, using a decides to conference in user C. To do this, A calls C, using a
completely separate SIP call. This call uses a different Call-ID, completely separate SIP call. This call uses a different Call-ID,
different tags, etc. There is no call set up directly between B and different tags, etc. There is no call set up directly between B and
C. No SIP extension or external signaling is needed. A merely C. No SIP extension or external signaling is needed. A merely
decides to locally join two call-legs. decides to locally join two dialogs.
B C B C
\ / \ /
\ / \ /
A A
A receives media streams from both B and C, and mixes them. A sends A receives media streams from both B and C, and mixes them. A sends
a stream containing A's and C's streams to B, and a stream containing a stream containing A's and C's streams to B, and a stream containing
A's and B's streams to C. Basically, user A handles both signaling A's and B's streams to C. Basically, user A handles both signaling
and media mixing. and media mixing.
3.4.1.2 Centralized Mixing 2.4.1.2. Centralized Mixing
In a centralized mixing model, all participants have a pairwise SIP In a centralized mixing model, all participants have a pairwise SIP
and media relationship with the mixer. Common applications of and media relationship with the mixer. Common applications of
centralized mixing include ad-hoc conferences and scheduled dial-in centralized mixing include ad-hoc conferences and scheduled dial-in
or dial-out conferences. [need diagram] or dial-out conferences. In the figure below, the mixer M receives
and sends media to participants A, B, C, D, and E.
3.4.1.3 Centralized Signaling, Distributed Media B C
\ /
\ /
M --- A
/ \
/ \
D E
2.4.1.3. Centralized Signaling, Distributed Media
In this conferencing model, there is a centralized controller, as in In this conferencing model, there is a centralized controller, as in
the dial-in and dial-out cases. However, the centralized server the dial-in and dial-out cases. However, the centralized server
handles signaling only. The media is still sent directly between handles signaling only. The media is still sent directly between
participants, using either multicast or multi-unicast. Multi-unicast participants, using either multicast or multi-unicast. Multi-unicast
is when a user sends multiple packets (one for each recipient, is when a user sends multiple packets (one for each recipient,
addressed to that recipient). This is referred to as a addressed to that recipient). This is referred to as a
"Decentralized Multipoint Conference" in [H.323]. "Decentralized Multipoint Conference" in [H.323]. Full mesh media
with centralized mixing is another approach.
3.4.2 Loosely Coupled 2.4.2. Loosely Coupled
In these models, there is no point of central control of SIP In these models, there is no point of central control of SIP
signaling. As in the "Centralized Signaling, Distributed Media" case signaling. As in the "Centralized Signaling, Distributed Media" case
above, all endpoints send media to all other endpoints. Consequently above, all endpoints send media to all other endpoints. Consequently
every endpoint mixes their own media from all the other sources, and every endpoint mixes their own media from all the other sources, and
sends their own media to every other participant. [add diagrams] sends their own media to every other participant.
3.4.2.1 Large-Scale Multicast Conferences 2.4.2.1. Large-Scale Multicast Conferences
Large-scale multicast conferences were the original motivation for Large-scale multicast conferences were the original motivation for
both the Session Description Protocol [SDP] and SIP. In a large- both the Session Description Protocol SDP [5] and SIP. In a large-
scale multicast conference, one or more multicast addresses are scale multicast conference, one or more multicast addresses are
allocated to the conference. Each participant joins that multicast allocated to the conference. Each participant joins that multicast
groups, and sends their media to those groups. Signaling is not sent groups, and sends their media to those groups. Signaling is not sent
to the multicast groups. The sole purpose of the signaling is to to the multicast groups. The sole purpose of the signaling is to
inform participants of which multicast groups to join. Large-scale inform participants of which multicast groups to join. Large-scale
multicast conferences are usually pre-arranged, with specific start multicast conferences are usually pre-arranged, with specific start
and stop times. However, multicast conferences do not need to be and stop times. However, multicast conferences do not need to be
pre-arranged, so long as a mechanism exists to dynamically obtain a pre-arranged, so long as a mechanism exists to dynamically obtain a
multicast address. multicast address.
3.4.2.2 Full Distributed Unicast Conferencing 2.4.2.2. Full Distributed Unicast Conferencing
In this conferencing model, each participant has both a pairwise In this conferencing model, each participant has both a pairwise
media relationship and a pairwise SIP relationship with every other media relationship and a pairwise SIP relationship with every other
participant (a full mesh). This model requires a mechanism to participant (a full mesh). This model requires a mechanism to
maintain a consistent view of distributed state across the group. maintain a consistent view of distributed state across the group.
This is a classic hard problem in computer science. Also, this model This is a classic hard problem in computer science. Also, this model
does not scale well for large numbers of participants. because for does not scale well for large numbers of participants. because for
<n> participants the number of media and SIP relationships is <n> participants the number of media and SIP relationships is
approximately n-squared. As a result, this model is not generally approximately n-squared. As a result, this model is not generally
available in commercial implementations; to the contrary it is available in commercial implementations; to the contrary it is
primarily the topic of research or experimental implementations. primarily the topic of research or experimental implementations.
Note that this model assumes peer-to-peer signaling. Note that this model assumes peer-to-peer signaling.
3.5 Conveying Information and Events 2.5. Conveying Information and Events
Participants should have access to information about the other Participants should have access to information about the other
participants in a conversation space, so that this information can be participants in a conversation space, so that this information can be
rendered to a human user or processed by an automaton. Although some rendered to a human user or processed by an automaton. Although some
of this information may be available from the Request-URI or To, of this information may be available from the Request-URI or To,
From, Contact, or other SIP headers, another mechanism of reporting From, Contact, or other SIP headers, another mechanism of reporting
this information is necessary. this information is necessary.
Many applications are driven by knowledge about the progress of calls Many applications are driven by knowledge about the progress of calls
and conferences. In general these types of events allow for the and conferences. In general these types of events allow for the
construction of distributed applications, where the application construction of distributed applications, where the application
requires information on session dialog and conference state, but is requires information on session dialog and conference state, but is
not necessarily co-resident with an endpoint user agent or conference not necessarily co-resident with an endpoint user agent or conference
server. For example, a focus involved in a conversation space may server. For example, a focus involved in a conversation space may
wish to provide URLs for conference status, and/or conference/floor wish to provide URLs for conference status, and/or conference/floor
control. control.
The SIP Events [4] architecture defines general mechanisms for The SIP Events [4] architecture defines general mechanisms for
subscription to and notification of events within SIP networks. It subscription to and notification of events within SIP networks. It
introduces the notion of a package which is a specific introduces the notion of a package that is a specific "instantiation"
"instantiation" of the events mechanism for a well-defined set of of the events mechanism for a well-defined set of events.
events.
Event packages are needed to provide the status of a user's session Event packages are needed to provide the status of a user's session
dialogs, provide the status of conferences and its participants, dialogs, provide the status of conferences and its participants,
provide user presence information, provide the status of provide user presence information, provide the status of
registrations, and provide the status of user's messages. While this registrations, and provide the status of user's messages. While this
is not an exhaustive list, these are sufficient to enable the sample is not an exhaustive list, these are sufficient to enable the sample
features described in this document. features described in this document.
The conference event package [12] allows users to subscribe to The conference event package [12] allows users to subscribe to
information about an entire tightly-coupled SIP conference. information about an entire tightly-coupled SIP conference.
Notifications convey information about the pariticipants such as: the Notifications convey information about the participants such as: the
SIP URL identifying each user, their status in the space (active, SIP URL identifying each user, their status in the space (active,
declined, departed), URLs to invoke other features (such as sidebar declined, departed), URLs to invoke other features (such as sidebar
conversations), links to other relevant information (such as floor conversations), links to other relevant information (such as floor
control policies), and if floor control policies are in place, the control policies), and if floor control policies are in place, the
user's floor control status. For conversation spaces created from user's floor control status. For conversation spaces created from
cascaded conferences, converstation state can be gathered from cascaded conferences, conversation state can be gathered from
relevant foci and merged into a cohesive set of state. relevant foci and merged into a cohesive set of state.
The session dialog package [11] provides information about all the The session dialog package [11] provides information about all the
dialogs the target user is maintaining, what conversations the user dialogs the target user is maintaining, what conversations the user
in participating in, and how these are correlated. Likewise the in participating in, and how these are correlated. Likewise the
registration package [13] provides notifications when contacts have registration package [13] provides notifications when contacts have
changed for a specific address-of-record. The combination of these changed for a specific address-of-record. The combination of these
allows a user agent to learn about all conversations occurring for allows a user agent to learn about all conversations occurring for
the entire registered contact set for an address-of-record. the entire registered contact set for an address-of-record.
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mechanism that allows a presence agent to determine the presence mechanism that allows a presence agent to determine the presence
state of the user. Specifically, a user presence server can act as a state of the user. Specifically, a user presence server can act as a
subscriber for the session dialog and registration packages to obtain subscriber for the session dialog and registration packages to obtain
additional information that can be used to construct a presence additional information that can be used to construct a presence
document. document.
The multi-party architecture may also need to provide a mechanism to The multi-party architecture may also need to provide a mechanism to
get information about the status /handling of a dialog (for example, get information about the status /handling of a dialog (for example,
information about the history of other contacts attempted prior to information about the history of other contacts attempted prior to
the current contact). Finally, the architecture should provide ample the current contact). Finally, the architecture should provide ample
opportunities to present informational URIs which relate to calls, opportunities to present informational URIs that relate to calls,
conversations, or dialogs in some way. For example, consider the SIP conversations, or dialogs in some way. For example, consider the SIP
Call-Info header, or Contact headers returned in a 300-class Call-Info header, or Contact headers returned in a 300-class
response. Frequently additional information about a call or dialog response. Frequently additional information about a call or dialog
can be fetched via non-SIP URIs. For example, consider a web page can be fetched via non-SIP URIs. For example, consider a web page
for package tracking when calling a delivery company, or a web page for package tracking when calling a delivery company, or a web page
with related documentation when joining a dial-in conference. The with related documentation when joining a dial-in conference. The
use of URIs in the multiparty framework is discussed in more detail use of URIs in the multiparty framework is discussed in more detail
in Section 3.7. in Section 3.7.
Finally the interaction of SIP with stimulus-signaling-based Finally the interaction of SIP with stimulus-signaling-based
applications, which allow a user agent to interact with an applications, that allow a user agent to interact with an application
application without knowledge of the semantics of that application, without knowledge of the semantics of that application, is discussed
is discussed in the SIP application interaction framework [16]. in the SIP application interaction framework [16]. Stimulus
Stimulus signaling can occur to a user interface running locally with signaling can occur to a user interface running locally with the
the client, or to a remote user interface, through media streams. client, or to a remote user interface, through media streams.
Stimulus signaling encompasses a wide range of mechanisms, ranging Stimulus signaling encompasses a wide range of mechanisms, ranging
from clicking on hyperlinks, to pressing buttons, to traditional Dual from clicking on hyperlinks, to pressing buttons, to traditional Dual
Tone Multi Frequency (DTMF) input. In all cases, stimulus signaling Tone Multi Frequency (DTMF) input. In all cases, stimulus signaling
is supported through the use of markup languages, which play a key is supported through the use of markup languages, which play a key
role in that framework. role in that framework.
3.6 Componentization and Decomposition 2.6. Componentization and Decomposition
This framework proposes a decomposed component architecture with a This framework proposes a decomposed component architecture with a
very loose coupling of services and components. This means that a very loose coupling of services and components. This means that a
service (such as a conferencing server or an auto-attendant) need not service (such as a conferencing server or an auto-attendant) need not
be implemented as an actual server. Rather, these services can be be implemented as an actual server. Rather, these services can be
built by combining a few basic components in straightforward or built by combining a few basic components in straightforward or
arbitrarily complex ways. arbitrarily complex ways.
Since the components are easily deployed on separate boxes, by Since the components are easily deployed on separate boxes, by
separate vendors, or even with separate providers, we achieve a separate vendors, or even with separate providers, we achieve a
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capabilities, for example querying the ability of a mixer to host a capabilities, for example querying the ability of a mixer to host a
10 dialog conference, or to reserve resources for a specific time. 10 dialog conference, or to reserve resources for a specific time.
These actions could be provided in the form of URLs, provided there These actions could be provided in the form of URLs, provided there
is an a priori means of understanding their semantics. For example is an a priori means of understanding their semantics. For example
if there is a published dictionary of operations, a way to query the if there is a published dictionary of operations, a way to query the
service for the available operations and the associated URLs, the URL service for the available operations and the associated URLs, the URL
can be the interface for providing these service operations. This can be the interface for providing these service operations. This
concept is described in more detail in the context of dialog concept is described in more detail in the context of dialog
operations in section operations in section
3.6.1 Media Intermediaries 2.6.1. Media Intermediaries
Media Intermediaries are not participants in any conversation space, Media Intermediaries are not participants in any conversation space,
although an entity which is also a media translator may also have a although an entity that is also a media translator may also have a
colocated participant component (for example a mixer which also co-located participant component (for example a mixer that also
announces the arrival of a new participant; the announcement portion announces the arrival of a new participant; the announcement portion
is a participant, but the mixer itself is not). Media intermediaries is a participant, but the mixer itself is not). Media intermediaries
should be as transparent as possible to the end users--offering a should be as transparent as possible to the end users--offering a
useful, fundamental service; without getting in the way of new useful, fundamental service; without getting in the way of new
features implemented by participants. Some common media features implemented by participants. Some common media
intermediaries are desribed below. intermediaries are described below.
3.6.2 Mixer 2.6.2. Mixer
A SIP mixer is a component that combines media from all dialogs in A SIP mixer is a component that combines media from all dialogs in
the same conversation in a media specific way. For example, the the same conversation in a media specific way. For example, the
default combining for an audio conference might be an N-1 default combining for an audio conference might be an N-1
configuration, while a text mixer might interleave text messages on a configuration, while a text mixer might interleave text messages on a
per-line basis. More details about how to manipulate the media per-line basis. More details about how to manipulate the media
policy used by mixers is being discussed in the XCON Working Group. policy used by mixers is being discussed in the XCON Working Group.
3.6.3 Transcoder 2.6.3. Transcoder
A transcoder translates media from one encoding or format to another A transcoder translates media from one encoding or format to another
(for example, GSM voice to G.711, MPEG2 to H.261, or text/html to (for example, GSM voice to G.711, MPEG2 to H.261, or text/html to
text/plain), or from one media type to another (for example text to text/plain), or from one media type to another (for example text to
speech). A more thorough discussion of transcoding is described in speech). A more thorough discussion of transcoding is described in
SIP transcoding services invocation [17]. SIP transcoding services invocation [17].
3.6.4 Media Relay 2.6.4. Media Relay
A media relay terminates media and simply forwards it to a new A media relay terminates media and simply forwards it to a new
destination without changing the content in any way. Sometimes media destination without changing the content in any way. Sometimes media
relays are used to provide source IP address anonymity, to facilitate relays are used to provide source IP address anonymity, to facilitate
middlebox traversal, or to provide a trusted entity where media can middlebox traversal, or to provide a trusted entity where media can
be forcefully disconnected. be forcefully disconnected.
3.6.5 Queue Server 2.6.5. Queue Server
A queue server is a location where calls can be entered into one of A queue server is a location where calls can be entered into one of
several FIFO (first-in, first-out) queues. A queue server would several FIFO (first-in, first-out) queues. A queue server would
subscribe to the presence of groups or individuals who are interested subscribe to the presence of groups or individuals who are interested
in its queues. When detecting that a user is available to service a in its queues. When detecting that a user is available to service a
queue, the server redirects or transfers the last call in the queue, the server redirects or transfers the last call in the
relevant queue to the available user. On a queue-by-queue basis, relevant queue to the available user. On a queue-by-queue basis,
authorized users could also subscribe to the call state (dialog authorized users could also subscribe to the call state (dialog
information) of calls within a queue. Authorized users could use information) of calls within a queue. Authorized users could use
this information to effectively pluck (take) a call out of the queue this information to effectively pluck (take) a call out of the queue
(for example by sending an INVITE with a Replaces header to one of (for example by sending an INVITE with a Replaces header to one of
the user agents in the queue). the user agents in the queue).
3.6.6 Parking Place 2.6.6. Parking Place
A parking place is a location where calls can be terminated A parking place is a location where calls can be terminated
temporarily and then retrieved later. While a call is "parked", it temporarily and then retrieved later. While a call is "parked", it
can receive media "on-hold" such as music, announcements, or can receive media "on-hold" such as music, announcements, or
advertisements. Such a service could be further decomposed such that advertisements. Such a service could be further decomposed such that
announcements or music are handled by a separate component. announcements or music are handled by a separate component.
3.6.7 Announcements and Voice Dialogs 2.6.7. Announcements and Voice Dialogs
An announcement server is a server which can play digitized media An announcement server is a server that can play digitized media
(frequently audio), such as music or recorded speech. These servers (frequently audio), such as music or recorded speech. These servers
are typically accessible via SIP, HTTP, or RTSP. An analogous are typically accessible via SIP, HTTP, or RTSP. An analogous
service is a recording service which stores digitized media. A service is a recording service that stores digitized media. A
convention for specifying announcements in SIP URIs is described in convention for specifying announcements in SIP URIs is described in
[netann]. Likewise the same server could easily provide a service [24]. Likewise the same server could easily provide a service that
which records digitized media. records digitized media.
A "voice dialog" is a model of spoken interactive behavior between a A "voice dialog" is a model of spoken interactive behavior between a
human and an automaton which can include synthesized speech, human and an automaton that can include synthesized speech, digitized
digitized audio, recognition of spoken and DTMF key input, recording audio, recognition of spoken and DTMF key input, recording of spoken
of spoken input, and interaction with call control. Voice dialogs input, and interaction with call control. Voice dialogs frequently
frequently consist of forms or menus. Forms present information and consist of forms or menus. Forms present information and gather
gather input; menus offer choices of what to do next. input; menus offer choices of what to do next.
Spoken dialogs are a basic building block of applications which use Spoken dialogs are a basic building block of applications that use
voice. Consider for example that a voice mail system, the voice. Consider for example that a voice mail system, the
conference-id and passcode collection system for a conferencing conference-id and passcode collection system for a conferencing
system, and complicated voice portal applications all require a voice system, and complicated voice portal applications all require a voice
dialog component. dialog component.
3.6.7.1 Text-to-Speech and Automatic Speech Recognition 2.6.7.1. Text-to-Speech and Automatic Speech Recognition
Text-to-Speech (TTS) is a service which converts text into digitized Text-to-Speech (TTS) is a service that converts text into digitized
audio. TTS is frequently integrated into other applications, but audio. TTS is frequently integrated into other applications, but
when separated as a component, it provides greater opportunity for when separated as a component, it provides greater opportunity for
broad reuse. Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) is a service which broad reuse. Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) is a service that
attempts to decipher digitized speech based on a proposed grammar. attempts to decipher digitized speech based on a proposed grammar.
Like TTS, ASR services can be embedded, or exposed so that many Like TTS, ASR services can be embedded, or exposed so that many
applications can take advantage of such services. A standardized applications can take advantage of such services. A standardized
(decomposed) interface to access standalone TTS and ASR services is (decomposed) interface to access standalone TTS and ASR services is
currently being developed in the SPEECHSC Working Group. currently being developed in the SPEECHSC Working Group.
3.6.7.2 VoiceXML 2.6.7.2. VoiceXML
[VoiceXML] is a W3C recommendation that was designed to give authors [VoiceXML] is a W3C recommendation that was designed to give authors
control over the spoken dialog between users and applications. The control over the spoken dialog between users and applications. The
application and user take turns speaking: the application prompts the application and user take turns speaking: the application prompts the
user, and the user in turn responds. Its major goal is to bring the user, and the user in turn responds. Its major goal is to bring the
advantages of web-based development and content delivery to advantages of web-based development and content delivery to
interactive voice response applications. We believe that VoiceXML interactive voice response applications. We believe that VoiceXML
represents the ideal partner for SIP in the development of represents the ideal partner for SIP in the development of
distributed IVR servers. VoiceXML is an XML based scripting language distributed IVR servers. VoiceXML is an XML based scripting language
for describing IVR services at an abstract level. VoiceXML supports for describing IVR services at an abstract level. VoiceXML supports
DTMF recognition, speech recognition, text-to-speech, and playing out DTMF recognition, speech recognition, text-to-speech, and playing out
of recorded media files. The results of the data collected from the of recorded media files. The results of the data collected from the
user are passed to a controlling entity through an HTTP POST user are passed to a controlling entity through an HTTP POST
operation. The controller can then return another script, or operation. The controller can then return another script, or
terminate the interaction with the IVR server. terminate the interaction with the IVR server.
A VoiceXML server also need not be implemented as a monolithic A VoiceXML server also need not be implemented as a monolithic
server. Below is a diagram of a VoiceXML browser which is split into server. Below is a diagram of a VoiceXML browser that is split into
media and non-media handling parts. The VoiceXML interpreter handles media and non-media handling parts. The VoiceXML interpreter handles
SIP dialog state and state within a VoiceXML document, and sends SIP dialog state and state within a VoiceXML document, and sends
requests to the media component over another protocol. requests to the media component over another protocol.
+-------------+ +-------------+
| | | |
| VoiceXML | | VoiceXML |
| Interpreter | | Interpreter |
| (signaling) | | (signaling) |
+-------------+ +-------------+
skipping to change at page 17, line 5 skipping to change at page 17, line 5
v v v v
+-------------+ +-------------+ +-------------+ +-------------+
| | | | | | | |
| SIP UA | RTP | RTSP Server | | SIP UA | RTP | RTSP Server |
| |<------>| (media) | | |<------>| (media) |
| | | | | | | |
+-------------+ +-------------+ +-------------+ +-------------+
Figure : Decomposed VoiceXML Server Figure : Decomposed VoiceXML Server
3.7 Use of URIs 2.7. Use of URIs
All naming in SIP uses URIs. URIs in SIP are used in a plethora of All naming in SIP uses URIs. URIs in SIP are used in a plethora of
contexts: the Request-URI; Contact, To, From, and *-Info headers; contexts: the Request-URI; Contact, To, From, and *-Info headers;
application/uri bodies; and embedded in email, web pages, instant application/uri bodies; and embedded in email, web pages, instant
messages, and ENUM records. The request-URI identifies the user or messages, and ENUM records. The request-URI identifies the user or
service that the call is destined for. service that the call is destined for.
SIP URIs embedded in informational SIP headers, SIP bodies, and non- SIP URIs embedded in informational SIP headers, SIP bodies, and non-
SIP content can also specify methods, special parameters, headers, SIP content can also specify methods, special parameters, headers,
and even bodies. For example: and even bodies. For example:
sip:bob@babylon.biloxi.com;method=BYE?Call-ID=13413098 sip:bob@b.example.com;method=REFER?Refer-To=http://example.com/~alice
&To=<sip:bob@biloxi.com>;tag=879738
&From=<sip:alice@atlanta.com>;tag=023214
sip:bob@babylon.biloxi.com;method=REFER?
Refer-To=<http://www.atlanta.com/~alice>
Throughout this draft we discuss call control primitive operations. Throughout this draft we discuss call control primitive operations.
One of the biggest problems is defining how these operations may be One of the biggest problems is defining how these operations may be
invoked. There are a number of ways to do this. One way is to invoked. There are a number of ways to do this. One way is to
define the primitives in the protocol itself such that SIP methods define the primitives in the protocol itself such that SIP methods
(for example REFER) or SIP headers (for example Replaces) indicate a (for example REFER) or SIP headers (for example Replaces) indicate a
specific call control action. Another way to invoke call control specific call control action. Another way to invoke call control
primitives is to define a specific Request-URI naming convention. primitives is to define a specific Request-URI naming convention.
Either these conventions must be shared between the client (the Either these conventions must be shared between the client (the
invoker) and the server, or published by or on behlf of the server. invoker) and the server, or published by or on behalf of the server.
The former involves defining URL construction techniques (e.g. URL The former involves defining URL construction techniques (e.g. URL
parameters and/or token conventions) as proposed in [netannc]. The parameters and/or token conventions) as proposed in [24]. The latter
latter technique usually involves discovering the URI via a SIP event technique usually involves discovering the URI via a SIP event
package, a web page, a business card, or an Instant Message. Yet package, a web page, a business card, or an Instant Message. Yet
another means to acquire the URLs is to define a dictionary of another means to acquire the URLs is to define a dictionary of
primitives with well-defined semantics and provide a means to query primitives with well-defined semantics and provide a means to query
the named primitives and corresponding URLs that may be invoked on the named primitives and corresponding URLs that may be invoked on
the service or dialogs. the service or dialogs.
3.7.1 Naming Users in SIP 2.7.1. Naming Users in SIP
An address-of-record, or public SIP address, is a SIP (or SIPS) URI An address-of-record, or public SIP address, is a SIP (or SIPS) URI
that points to a domain with a location server that can map the URI that points to a domain with a location server that can map the URI
to set of Contact URIs where the user might be available. Typically to set of Contact URIs where the user might be available. Typically
the Contact URIs are populated via registration. the Contact URIs are populated via registration.
Address of Record Contacts Address of Record Contacts
sip:bob@biloxi.com -> sip:bob@babylon.biloxi.com:5060 sip:bob@biloxi.example.com -> sip:bob@babylon.biloxi.example.com:5060
sip:bbrown@mailbox.provider.net sip:bbrown@mailbox.provider.example.net
sip:+1.408.555.6789@mobile.net sip:+1.408.555.6789@mobile.example.net
Callee Capabilities [20] defines a set of additional parameters to Callee Capabilities [20] defines a set of additional parameters to
the Contact header that define the characteristics of the user agent the Contact header that define the characteristics of the user agent
at the specified URI. For example, there is a mobility parameter at the specified URI. For example, there is a mobility parameter
which indicates whether the UA is fixed or mobile. When a user agent that indicates whether the UA is fixed or mobile. When a user agent
registers, it places these parameters in the Contact headers to registers, it places these parameters in the Contact headers to
characterize the URIs it is registering. This allows a proxy for characterize the URIs it is registering. This allows a proxy for
that domain to have information about the contact addresses for that that domain to have information about the contact addresses for that
user. user.
When a caller sends a request, it can optionally request Caller When a caller sends a request, it can optionally request Caller
Preferences [21], by including the Accept-Contact and Reject-Contact Preferences [21], by including the Accept-Contact and Reject-Contact
headers which request certain handling by the proxy in the target headers that request certain handling by the proxy in the target
domain. These headers contain preferences that describe the set of domain. These headers contain preferences that describe the set of
desired URIs to which the caller would like their request routed. desired URIs to which the caller would like their request routed.
The proxy in the target domain matches these preferences with the The proxy in the target domain matches these preferences with the
Contact characteristics originally registered by the target user. Contact characteristics originally registered by the target user.
The target user can also choose to run arbitrarily complex "Find-me" The target user can also choose to run arbitrarily complex "Find-me"
feature logic on a proxy in the target domain. feature logic on a proxy in the target domain.
There is a strong asymmetry in how preferences for callers and There is a strong asymmetry in how preferences for callers and
callees can be presented to the network. While a caller takes an callees can be presented to the network. While a caller takes an
active role by initiating the request, the callee takes a passive active role by initiating the request, the callee takes a passive
role in waiting for requests. This motivates the use of callee- role in waiting for requests. This motivates the use of callee-
supplied scripts and caller preferences included in the call supplied scripts and caller preferences included in the call request.
request. This asymmetry is also reflected in the appropriate This asymmetry is also reflected in the appropriate relationship
relationship between caller and callee preferences. A server for a between caller and callee preferences. A server for a callee should
callee should respect the wishes of the caller to avoid certain respect the wishes of the caller to avoid certain locations, while
locations, while the preferences among locations has to be the the preferences among locations has to be the callee's choice, as it
callee's choice, as it determines where, for example, the phone rings determines where, for example, the phone rings and whether the callee
and whether the callee incurs mobile telephone charges for incoming incurs mobile telephone charges for incoming calls.
calls.
SIP User Agent implementations are encouraged to make intelligent SIP User Agent implementations are encouraged to make intelligent
decisions based on the type of participants (active/passive, hidden, decisions based on the type of participants (active/passive, hidden,
human/robot) in a conversation space. This information is conveyed human/robot) in a conversation space. This information is conveyed
via the session dialog package or in a SIP header parameter via the session dialog package or in a SIP header parameter
communicated using an appropriate SIP header. For example, a music communicated using an appropriate SIP header. For example, a music
on hold service may take the sensible approach that if there are two on hold service may take the sensible approach that if there are two
or more unhidden participants, it should not provide hold music; or or more unhidden participants, it should not provide hold music; or
that it will not send hold music to robots. that it will not send hold music to robots.
Multiple participants in the same conversation space may represent Multiple participants in the same conversation space may represent
the same human user. For example, the user may use one participant the same human user. For example, the user may use one participant
for video, chat, and whiteboard media on a PC and another for audio for video, chat, and whiteboard media on a PC and another for audio
media on a SIP phone. In this case, the address-of-record is the media on a SIP phone. In this case, the address-of-record is the
same for both user agents, but the Contacts are different. In same for both user agents, but the Contacts are different. In
addition, human users may add robot participants which act on their addition, human users may add robot participants that act on their
behalf (for example a call recording service, or a calendar behalf (for example a call recording service, or a calendar
reminder). Call Control features in SIP should continue to function reminder). Call Control features in SIP should continue to function
as expected in such an environment. as expected in such an environment.
3.7.2 Naming Services with SIP URIs 2.7.2. Naming Services with SIP URIs
[Editor's Note: this section needs to be pared down considerably, and A critical piece of defining a session level service that can be
the examples replaced with example.{com|org|net} domain names.] A
critical piece of defining a session level service that can be
accessed by SIP is defining the naming of the resources within that accessed by SIP is defining the naming of the resources within that
service. This point cannot be overstated. service. This point cannot be overstated.
In the context of SIP control of application components, we take In the context of SIP control of application components, we take
advantage of the fact that the standard SIP URI has a user part. advantage of the fact that the standard SIP URI has a user part.
Most services may be thought of as user automatons that participate Most services may be thought of as user automatons that participate
in SIP sessions. It naturally follows that the user address, or the in SIP sessions. It naturally follows that the user address, or the
left-hand-side of the URI, should be utilized as a service indicator. left-hand-side of the URI, should be utilized as a service indicator.
For example, media servers commonly offer multiple services at a For example, media servers commonly offer multiple services at a
single host address. Use of the user part as a service indicator single host address. Use of the user part as a service indicator
enables service consumers to direct their requests without ambiguity. enables service consumers to direct their requests without ambiguity.
It has the added benefit of enabling media services to register their It has the added benefit of enabling media services to register their
availability with SIP Registrars just as any "real" SIP user would. availability with SIP Registrars just as any "real" SIP user would.
This maintains consistency and provides enhanced flexibility in the This maintains consistency and provides enhanced flexibility in the
deployment of media services in the network. deployment of media services in the network.
There has been much discussion about the potential for confusion if There has been much discussion about the potential for confusion if
media services URIs are not readily distinguishable from other types media services URIs are not readily distinguishable from other types
of SIP UA's. The use of a service namespace provides a mechanism to of SIP UAs. The use of a service namespace provides a mechanism to
unambiguously identify standard interfaces while not constraining unambiguously identify standard interfaces while not constraining the
the development of private or experimental services. development of private or experimental services.
In SIP, the request-URI identifies the user or service that the call In SIP, the Request-URI identifies the user or service that the call
is destined for. The great advantage of using URIs (specifically, is destined for. The great advantage of using URIs (specifically,
the SIP request URI) as a service identifier comes because of the the SIP Request-URI) as a service identifier comes because of the
combination of two facts. First, unlike in the PSTN, where the combination of two facts. First, unlike in the PSTN, where the
namespace (dialable telephone numbers) are limited, URIs come from an namespace (dialable telephone numbers) are limited, URIs come from an
infinite space. They are plentiful, and they are free. Secondly, infinite space. They are plentiful, and they are free. Secondly,
the primary function of SIP is call routing through manipulations of the primary function of SIP is call routing through manipulations of
the request URI. In the traditional SIP application, this URI the Request-URI. In the traditional SIP application, this URI
represents people. However, the URI can also represent services, as represents people. However, the URI can also represent services, as
we propose here. This means we can apply the routing services SIP we propose here. This means we can apply the routing services SIP
provides to routing of calls to services. The result - the problem provides to routing of calls to services. The result - the problem
of service invocation and service location becomes a routing problem, of service invocation and service location becomes a routing problem,
for which SIP provides a scalable and flexible solution. Since there for which SIP provides a scalable and flexible solution. Since there
is such a vast namespace of services, we can explicitly name each is such a vast namespace of services, we can explicitly name each
service in a finely granular way. This allows the distribution of service in a finely granular way. This allows the distribution of
services across the network. services across the network. For further discussion about services
and SIP URIs, see RFC 3087 [22]
Consider a conferencing service, where we have separated the names of Consider a conferencing service, where we have separated the names of
ad-hoc conferences from scheduled conferences, we can program proxies ad-hoc conferences from scheduled conferences, we can program proxies
to route calls for ad-hoc conferences to one set of servers, and to route calls for ad-hoc conferences to one set of servers, and
calls for scheduled ones to another, possibly even in a different calls for scheduled ones to another, possibly even in a different
provider. In fact, since each conference itself is given a URI, we provider. In fact, since each conference itself is given a URI, we
can distribute conferences across servers, and easily guarantee that can distribute conferences across servers, and easily guarantee that
calls for the same conference always get routed to the same server. calls for the same conference always get routed to the same server.
This is in stark contrast to conferences in the telephone network, This is in stark contrast to conferences in the telephone network,
where the equivalent of the URI - the phone number - is scarce. An where the equivalent of the URI - the phone number - is scarce. An
entire conferencing provider generally has one or two numbers. entire conferencing provider generally has one or two numbers.
Conference IDs must be obtained through IVR interactions with the Conference IDs must be obtained through IVR interactions with the
caller, or through a human attendant. This makes it difficult to caller, or through a human attendant. This makes it difficult to
distribute conferences across servers all over the network, since the distribute conferences across servers all over the network, since the
PSTN routing only knows about the dialed number. PSTN routing only knows about the dialed number.
In the case of a dialog server, the voice dialog itself is the target For more examples, consider the URI conventions of RFC 4240 [24] for
for the call. As such, the request URI should contain the identifier media servers and RFC 4458 [25] for voicemail and IVR systems.
for this spoken dialog. This is consistent with the Request-URI
service invocation model of RFC 3087. This URL can be in one of two
formats. In the first, the VoiceXML script is identified directly by
an HTTP URL. In the second, the script is not specified. Rather,
the dialog server uses its configuration to map the incoming request
to a specific script.
Since the request URI could indicate a request for a variety of
different services, of which a dialog server is only one type, this
example request URI first begins with a service identifier, that
indicates the basic service required. For VoiceXML scripts, this
identification information is a URL-encoded version of the URL which
references the script to execute, or if not present, the dialog
server uses server-specific configuration to determine which script
to execute.
Examples of URLs that invoke VoiceXML dialogs are: (line folding for
clarity only)
sip:dialog.vxml.http%3a//dialogs.server.com/script32.vxml
@vxmlservers.com
sip:dialog.vxml@vxmlservers.com
The first of these indicates that the dialog server (located at
vxmlservers.com) should invoke a VoiceXML script fetched from
http://dialogs.server.com/script32.vxml. Since the user part of the
SIP URL cannot contain the : character, this must be escaped to %3a.
These types of conventions are not limited to application component
servers. An ordinary SIP User Agent can have a special URIs as well,
for example, one which is automatically answered by a speakerphone.
Since URIs are so plentiful, using a separate URI for this service
does not exhaust a valuable resource. The requested service is clear
to the user agent receiving the request. This URI can also be
included as part of another feature (for example, the Intercom
feature described in Section 6.1.6). This feature can be specified
with a SIP user parameter, since are part of the userpart of a SIP
URI.
Likewise a Request URI can fully describe an announcement service
through the use of the user part of the address and additional URI
parameters. In our example, the user portion of the address, "annc",
specifies the announcement service on the media server. The two URI
parameters "play=" and "early=" specify the audio resource to play
and whether early media is desired.
sip:annc@ms2.carrier.net;
play=http://audio.carrier.net/allcircuitsbusy.au;early=yes
sip:annc@ms2.carrier.net;
play=file://fileserver.carrier.net/geminii/yourHoroscope.wav
In practical applications, it is important that an invoker does not In practical applications, it is important that an invoker does not
necessarily apply semantic rules to various URIs it did not create. necessarily apply semantic rules to various URIs it did not create.
Instead, it should allow any arbitrary string to be provisioned, and Instead, it should allow any arbitrary string to be provisioned, and
map the string to the desired behavior. The administrator of a map the string to the desired behavior. The administrator of a
service may choose to provision specific conventions or mnemonic service may choose to provision specific conventions or mnemonic
strings, but the application should not require it. In any large strings, but the application should not require it. In any large
installation, the system owner is likely to have pre-existing rules installation, the system owner is likely to have pre-existing rules
for mnemonic URIs, and any attempt by an application to define its for mnemonic URIs, and any attempt by an application to define its
own rules may create a conflict. Implementations should allow an own rules may create a conflict. Implementations should allow an
arbitrary mix of URLs from these schemes, or any other scheme that arbitrary mix of URLs from these schemes, or any other scheme that
renders valid SIP URIs to be provisioned, rather than enforce only renders valid SIP URIs to be provisioned, rather than enforce only
one particular scheme. one particular scheme.
For example, a voicemail application can be built using very As we have shown, SIP URIs represent an ideal, flexible mechanism for
different sets of URI conventions, as illustrated below:
URI Identity Example Scheme 1
Example Scheme 2
Example Scheme 3
Deposit with sip:sub-rjs-deposit@vm.wcom.com
standard greeting sip:677283@vm.wcom.com
sip:rjs@vm.wcom.com;mode=deposit
Deposit with on sip:sub-rjs-deposit-busy.vm.wcom.com
phone greeting sip:677372@vm.wcom.com
sip:rjs@vm.wcom.com;mode=3991243
Deposit with sip:sub-rjs-deposit-sg@vm.wcom.com
special greeting sip:677384@vm.wcom.com
sip:rjs@vm.wcom.com;mode=sg
Retrieve - SIP sip:sub-rjs-retrieve@vm.wcom.com
authentication sip:677405@vm.wcom.com
sip:rjs@vm.wcom.com;mode=retrieve
Retrieve - prompt sip:sub-rjs-retrieve-inpin.vm.wcom.com
for PIN in-band sip:677415@vm.wcom.com
sip:rjs@vm.wcom.com;mode=inpin
As we have shown, SIP URIs represent an ideal, flexbile mechanism for
describing and naming service resources, be they queues, conferences, describing and naming service resources, be they queues, conferences,
voice dialogs, announcements, voicemail treatments, or phone voice dialogs, announcements, voicemail treatments, or phone
features. features.
3.8 Invoker Independence 2.8. Invoker Independence
With functional signaling, only the invoker of features in SIP need With functional signaling, only the invoker of features in SIP need
to know exactly which feature they are invoking. One of the primary to know exactly which feature they are invoking. One of the primary
benefits of this approach is that combinations of functional features benefits of this approach is that combinations of functional features
work in SIP call control without requiring complex feature work in SIP call control without requiring complex feature
interaction matrices. For example, let us examine the combination of interaction matrices. For example, let us examine the combination of
a "transfer" of a call which is "conferenced". a "transfer" of a call that is "conferenced".
Alice calls Bob. Alice silently "conferences in" her robotic Alice calls Bob. Alice silently "conferences in" her robotic
assistant Albert as a hidden party. Bob transfers Alice to Carol. assistant Albert as a hidden party. Bob transfers Alice to Carol.
If Bob asks Alice to Replace her leg with a new one to Carol then If Bob asks Alice to Replace her leg with a new one to Carol then
both Alice and Albert should be communicating with Carol both Alice and Albert should be communicating with Carol
(transparently). (transparently).
Using the peer-to-peer model, this combination of features works fine Using the peer-to-peer model, this combination of features works fine
if A is doing local mixing (Alice replaces Bob's call-leg with if A is doing local mixing (Alice replaces Bob's dialog with
Carol's), or if A is using a central mixer (the mixer replaces Bob's Carol's), or if A is using a central mixer (the mixer replaces Bob's
call leg with Carol's). A clever implementation using the 3pcc model dialog with Carol's). A clever implementation using the 3pcc model
can generate similar results. can generate similar results.
New extensions to the SIP Call Control Framework should attempt to New extensions to the SIP Call Control Framework should attempt to
preserve this property. preserve this property.
3.9 Billing issues 2.9. Billing issues
Billing in the PSTN is typically based on who initiated a call. At Billing in the PSTN is typically based on who initiated a call. At
the moment billing in a SIP network is neither consistent with the moment billing in a SIP network is neither consistent with
itself, nor with the PSTN. (A billing model for SIP should allow for itself, nor with the PSTN. (A billing model for SIP should allow for
both PSTN-style billing, and non-PSTN billing.) The example below both PSTN-style billing, and non-PSTN billing.) The example below
demonstrates one such inconsistency. demonstrates one such inconsistency.
Alice places a call to Bob. Alice then blind transfers Bob to Carol Alice places a call to Bob. Alice then blind transfers Bob to Carol
through a PSTN gateway. In current usage of REFER, Bob may be billed through a PSTN gateway. In current usage of REFER, Bob may be billed
for a call he did not initiate (his UA originated the outgoing call for a call he did not initiate (his UA originated the outgoing dialog
leg however). This is not necessarily a terrible thing, but it however). This is not necessarily a terrible thing, but it
demonstrates a security concern (Bob must have appropriate local demonstrates a security concern (Bob must have appropriate local
policy to prevent fraud). Also, Alice may wish to pay for Bob's policy to prevent fraud). Also, Alice may wish to pay for Bob's
session with Carol. There should be a way to signal this in SIP. session with Carol. There should be a way to signal this in SIP.
Likewise a Replacement call may maintain the same billing Likewise a Replacement call may maintain the same billing
relationship as a Replaced call, so if Alice first calls Carol, then relationship as a Replaced call, so if Alice first calls Carol, then
asks Bob to Replace this call, Alice may continue to receive a bill. asks Bob to Replace this call, Alice may continue to receive a bill.
Further work in SIP billing should define a way to set or discover Further work in SIP billing should define a way to set or discover
the direction of billing. the direction of billing.
4. Catalog of call control actions and sample features 3. Catalog of call control actions and sample features
Call control actions can be categorized by the dialogs upon which Call control actions can be categorized by the dialogs upon which
they operate. The actions may involve a single or multiple dialogs. they operate. The actions may involve a single or multiple dialogs.
These dialogs can be early or established. Multiple dialogs may be These dialogs can be early or established. Multiple dialogs may be
related in a conversation space to form a conference or other related in a conversation space to form a conference or other
interesting media topologies. interesting media topologies.
It should be noted that it is desirable to provide a means by which a It should be noted that it is desirable to provide a means by which a
party can discover the actions which may be performed on a dialog. party can discover the actions that may be performed on a dialog.
The interested party may be independent or related to the dialogs. The interested party may be independent or related to the dialogs.
One means of accomplishing this is through the ability to define and One means of accomplishing this is through the ability to define and
obtain URLs for these actions as described in section . obtain URLs for these actions as described in section .
Below are listed several call control "actions" which establish or Below are listed several call control "actions" that establish or
modify dialogs and relate the participants in a conversation space. modify dialogs and relate the participants in a conversation space.
The names of the actions listed are for descriptive purposes only The names of the actions listed are for descriptive purposes only
(they are not normative). This list of actions is not meant to be (they are not normative). This list of actions is not meant to be
exhaustive. exhaustive.
In the examples, all actions are initiated by the user "Alice" In the examples, all actions are initiated by the user "Alice"
represented by UA "A". represented by UA "A".
4.1 Early Dialog Actions 3.1. Early Dialog Actions
The following are a set of actions that may be performed on a single The following are a set of actions that may be performed on a single
early dialog. These actions can be thought of as a set of remote early dialog. These actions can be thought of as a set of remote
control operations. For example an automaton might perform the control operations. For example an automaton might perform the
operation on behalf of a user. Alternatively a user might use the operation on behalf of a user. Alternatively a user might use the
remote control in the form of an application to perform the action on remote control in the form of an application to perform the action on
the early dialog of a UA which may be out of reach. All of these the early dialog of a UA that may be out of reach. All of these
actions correspond to telling the UA how to respond to a request to actions correspond to telling the UA how to respond to a request to
establish an early dialog. These actions provide useful establish an early dialog. These actions provide useful
functionality for PDA, PC and server based applications which desire functionality for PDA, PC and server based applications that desire
the ability to control a UA. A proposed mechanism for this type of the ability to control a UA. A proposed mechanism for this type of
functionality is described in Remote Call Control [23]. functionality is described in Remote Call Control [23].
4.1.1 Remote Answer 3.1.1. Remote Answer
A dialog is in some early dialog state such as 180 Ringing. It may A dialog is in some early dialog state such as 180 Ringing. It may
be desirable to tell the UA to answer the dialog. That is tell it to be desirable to tell the UA to answer the dialog. That is tell it to
send a 200 Ok response to establish the dialog. send a 200 Ok response to establish the dialog.
4.1.2 Remote Forward or Put 3.1.2. Remote Forward or Put
It may be desirable to tell the UA to respond with a 3xx class It may be desirable to tell the UA to respond with a 3xx class
response to forward an early dialog to another UA. response to forward an early dialog to another UA.
4.1.3 Remote Busy or Error Out 3.1.3. Remote Busy or Error Out
It may be desirable to instruct the UA to send an error response such It may be desirable to instruct the UA to send an error response such
as 486 Busy Here. as 486 Busy Here.
4.2 Single Dialog Actions 3.2. Single Dialog Actions
There is another useful set of actions which operate on a single There is another useful set of actions that operate on a single
established dialog. These operations are useful in building established dialog. These operations are useful in building
productivity applications for aiding users to control their phone. productivity applications for aiding users to control their phone.
For example a CRM application which sets up calls for a user For example a CRM application that sets up calls for a user
eliminating the need for the user to actually enter an address. eliminating the need for the user to actually enter an address.
These operations can also be thought of a remote control actions. A These operations can also be thought of a remote control actions. A
proposed mechanism for this type of functionality is described in proposed mechanism for this type of functionality is described in
Remote Call Control [23]. Remote Call Control [23].
4.2.1 Remote Dial 3.2.1. Remote Dial
This action instructs the UA to initiate a dialog. This action can This action instructs the UA to initiate a dialog. This action can
be performed using the REFER method. be performed using the REFER method.
4.2.2 Remote On and Off Hold 3.2.2. Remote On and Off Hold
This action instructs the UA to put an established dialog on hold. This action instructs the UA to put an established dialog on hold.
Though this operation can be conceptually be performed with the REFER Though this operation can be conceptually be performed with the REFER
method, there is no semantics defined as to what the referred party method, there is no semantics defined as to what the referred party
should do with the SDP. There is no way to distinguish between the should do with the SDP. There is no way to distinguish between the
desire to go on or off hold. desire to go on or off hold.
4.2.3 Remote Hangup 3.2.3. Remote Hangup
This action instructs the UA to terminate an early or established This action instructs the UA to terminate an early or established
dialog. A REFER request with the following Refer-To URI performs dialog. A REFER request with the following Refer-To URI and Target-
this action. Note: this URL is not properly escaped. Dialog header field [26] performs this action. Note: this example
does not show the full set of header fields.
sip:bob@babylon.biloxi.example.com;method=BYE?Call-ID=13413098 REFER sip:carol@client.chicago.net SIP/2.0
&To=<sip:bob@biloxi.com>;tag=879738 Refer-To: sip:bob@babylon.biloxi.example.com;method=BYE
&From=<sip:alice@atlanta.example.com>;tag=023214 Target-Dialog: 13413098;local-tag=879738;remote-tag=023214
4.3 Multi-dialog actions 3.3. Multi-dialog actions
These actions apply to a set of related dialogs. These actions apply to a set of related dialogs.
4.3.1 Transfer 3.3.1. Transfer
The conversation space changes as follows: The conversation space changes as follows:
before after before after
{ A , B } --> { C , B } { A , B } --> { C , B }
A replaces itself with C. A replaces itself with C.
To make this happen using the peer-to-peer approach, "A" would send To make this happen using the peer-to-peer approach, "A" would send
two SIP requests. A shorthand for those requests is shown below: two SIP requests. A shorthand for those requests is shown below:
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Features enabled by this action: - blind transfer - transfer to a Features enabled by this action: - blind transfer - transfer to a
central mixer (some type of conference or forking) - transfer to park central mixer (some type of conference or forking) - transfer to park
server (park) - transfer to music on hold or announcement server - server (park) - transfer to music on hold or announcement server -
transfer to a "queue" - transfer to a service (such as Voice Dialogs transfer to a "queue" - transfer to a service (such as Voice Dialogs
service) - transition from local mixer to central mixer service) - transition from local mixer to central mixer
This action is frequently referred to as "completing an attended This action is frequently referred to as "completing an attended
transfer". It is described in more detail in cc-transfer [18]. transfer". It is described in more detail in cc-transfer [18].
4.3.2 Take 3.3.2. Take
The conversation space changes as follows: { B , C } --> { B , A } The conversation space changes as follows: { B , C } --> { B , A } A
A forcibly replaces C with itself. In most uses of this primitive, A forcibly replaces C with itself. In most uses of this primitive, A
is just "un-replacing" itself. Using the peer-to-peer approach, "A" is just "un-replacing" itself. Using the peer-to-peer approach, "A"
sends: INVITE B Replaces: <call leg between B and C> sends: INVITE B Replaces: <dialog between B and C>
Using the 3pcc approach (all requests sent from controller) INVITE A Using the 3pcc approach (all requests sent from controller) INVITE A
(w/SDP of B) reINVITE B (w/SDP of A) BYE C (w/SDP of B) reINVITE B (w/SDP of A) BYE C
Features enabled by this action: - transferee completes an attended Features enabled by this action: - transferee completes an attended
transfer - retrieve from central mixer (not recommended) - retrieve transfer - retrieve from central mixer (not recommended) - retrieve
from music on hold or park - retrieve from queue - call center take - from music on hold or park - retrieve from queue - call center take -
voice portal resuming ownership of a call it originated - answering- voice portal resuming ownership of a call it originated - answering-
machine style screening (pickup) - pickup of a ringing call (i.e. machine style screening (pickup) - pickup of a ringing call (i.e.
early dialog) early dialog)
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additional requirements. First of all it is an early dialog as additional requirements. First of all it is an early dialog as
opposed to an established dialog. Secondly the party which is to opposed to an established dialog. Secondly the party which is to
pickup the call may only wish to do so only while it is an early pickup the call may only wish to do so only while it is an early
dialog. That is in the race condition where the ringing UA accepts dialog. That is in the race condition where the ringing UA accepts
just before it receives signaling from the party wishing to take the just before it receives signaling from the party wishing to take the
call, the taking party wishes to yield or cancel the take. The goal call, the taking party wishes to yield or cancel the take. The goal
is to avoid yanking an answered call from the called party. is to avoid yanking an answered call from the called party.
This action is described in Replaces [9] and in cc-transfer [18]. This action is described in Replaces [9] and in cc-transfer [18].
4.3.3 Add 3.3.3. Add
Note that the following 4 actions are described in cc-conferencing Note that the following 4 actions are described in cc-conferencing
[19]. [19].
This is merely adding a participant to a SIP conference. The This is merely adding a participant to a SIP conference. The
conversation space changes as follows: { A , B } --> { A, B, C } A conversation space changes as follows: { A , B } --> { A, B, C } A
adds C to the conversation. Using the peer-to-peer approach, adding adds C to the conversation. Using the peer-to-peer approach, adding
a party using local mixing requires no signaling. To transition from a party using local mixing requires no signaling. To transition from
a 2-party call or a locally mixed conference to centrally mixing A a 2-party call or a locally mixed conference to centrally mixing A
could send the following requests: REFER B Refer-To: conference-URI could send the following requests: REFER B Refer-To: conference-URI
INVITE conference-URI BYE B To add a party to a conference: REFER C INVITE conference-URI BYE B To add a party to a conference: REFER C
Refer-To: conference-URI or REFER conference-URI Refer-To: C Using Refer-To: conference-URI or REFER conference-URI Refer-To: C Using
the 3pcc approach to transition to centrally mixed, the controller the 3pcc approach to transition to centrally mixed, the controller
would send: INVITE mixer leg 1 (w/SDP of A) INVITE mixer leg 2 (w/SDP would send: INVITE mixer leg 1 (w/SDP of A) INVITE mixer leg 2 (w/SDP
of B) INVITE C (late SDP) reINVITE A (w/SDP of mixer leg 1) reINVITE of B) INVITE C (late SDP) reINVITE A (w/SDP of mixer leg 1) reINVITE
B (w/SDP of mixer leg 2) INVITE mixer leg3 (w/SDP of C) To add a B (w/SDP of mixer leg 2) INVITE mixer leg3 (w/SDP of C) To add a
party to a SIP conference: INVITE C (late SDP) INVITE conference-URI party to a SIP conference: INVITE C (late SDP) INVITE conference-URI
(w/SDP of C) Features enabled: - standard conference feature - call (w/SDP of C) Features enabled: - standard conference feature - call
recording - answering-machine style screening (screening) recording - answering-machine style screening (screening)
4.3.4 Local Join 3.3.4. Local Join
The conversation space changes like this: { A, B} , {A, C} --> {A, The conversation space changes like this: { A, B} , {A, C} --> {A, B,
B, C} or like this { A, B} , {C, D} --> {A, B, C, D} A takes two C} or like this { A, B} , {C, D} --> {A, B, C, D} A takes two
conversation spaces and joins them together into a single space. conversation spaces and joins them together into a single space.
Using the peer-to-peer approach, A can mix locally, or REFER the Using the peer-to-peer approach, A can mix locally, or REFER the
participants of both conversation spaces to the same central mixer participants of both conversation spaces to the same central mixer
(as in 5.3) For the 3pcc approach, the call flows for inserting (as in 5.3) For the 3pcc approach, the call flows for inserting
participants, and joining and splitting conversation spaces are participants, and joining and splitting conversation spaces are
tedious yet straightforward, so these are left as an exercise for the tedious yet straightforward, so these are left as an exercise for the
reader. Features enabled: - standard conference feature - leaving a reader. Features enabled: - standard conference feature - leaving a
sidebar to rejoin a larger conference sidebar to rejoin a larger conference
4.3.5 Insert 3.3.5. Insert
The conversation space changes like this: { B , C } --> {A, B, C } The conversation space changes like this: { B , C } --> {A, B, C } A
A inserts itself into a conversation space. A proposed mechanism for inserts itself into a conversation space. A proposed mechanism for
signaling this using the peer-to-peer approach is to send a new signaling this using the peer-to-peer approach is to send a new
header in an INVITE with "joining" semantics. For example: INVITE B header in an INVITE with "joining" semantics. For example: INVITE B
Join: <call id of B and C> If B accepted the INVITE, B would accept Join: <dialog id of B and C> If B accepted the INVITE, B would accept
responsibility to setup the call legs and mixing necessary (for responsibility to setup the dialogs and mixing necessary (for
example: to mix locally or to transfer the participants to a central example: to mix locally or to transfer the participants to a central
mixer) Features enabled: - barge-in - call center monitoring - call mixer) Features enabled: - barge-in - call center monitoring - call
recording recording
4.3.6 Split 3.3.6. Split
{ A, B, C, D } --> { A, B } , { C, D } If using a central conference { A, B, C, D } --> { A, B } , { C, D } If using a central conference
with peer-to-peer REFER C Refer-To: conference-URI (new URI) REFER D with peer-to-peer REFER C Refer-To: conference-URI (new URI) REFER D
Refer-To: conference-URI (new URI) BYE C BYE D Features enabled: - Refer-To: conference-URI (new URI) BYE C BYE D Features enabled: -
sidebar conversations during a larger conference sidebar conversations during a larger conference
4.3.7 Near-fork 3.3.7. Near-fork
A participates in two conversation spaces simultaneously: { A, B } A participates in two conversation spaces simultaneously: { A, B }
--> { B , A } & { A , C } A is a participant in two conversation --> { B , A } & { A , C } A is a participant in two conversation
spaces such that A sends the same media to both spaces, and renders spaces such that A sends the same media to both spaces, and renders
media from both spaces, presumably by mixing or rendering the media media from both spaces, presumably by mixing or rendering the media
from both. We can define that A is the "anchor" point for both from both. We can define that A is the "anchor" point for both
forks, each of which is a separate conversation space. This action forks, each of which is a separate conversation space. This action
is purely local implementation (it requires no special signaling). is purely local implementation (it requires no special signaling).
Local features such as switching calls between the background and Local features such as switching calls between the background and
foreground are possible using this media relationship. foreground are possible using this media relationship.
4.3.8 Far fork 3.3.8. Far fork
The conversation space diagram... { A, B } --> { A , B } & { B , C } The conversation space diagram... { A, B } --> { A , B } & { B , C }
A requests B to be the "anchor" of two conversation spaces. This is A requests B to be the "anchor" of two conversation spaces. This is
easily setup by creating a conference with two subconferences and easily setup by creating a conference with two sub-conferences and
setting the media policy appopriately such that B is a participant in setting the media policy appropriately such that B is a participant
both. Media forking can also be setup using 3pcc as described in in both. Media forking can also be setup using 3pcc as described in
Section 5.1 of RFC3264 [3] (an offer/answer model for SDP). The Section 5.1 of RFC3264 [3] (an offer/answer model for SDP). The
session descriptions for forking are quite complex. Controllers session descriptions for forking are quite complex. Controllers
should verify that endpoints can handle forked-media, for example should verify that endpoints can handle forked-media, for example
using prior configuration. using prior configuration.
Features enabled: Features enabled:
o barge-in o barge-in
o voice portal services o voice portal services
o whisper o whisper
o hotword detection o hotword detection
o sending DTMF somewhere else o sending DTMF somewhere else
5. Security Considerations 4. Security Considerations
Call Control primitives provide a powerful set of features that can Call Control primitives provide a powerful set of features that can
be dangerous in the hands of an attacker. To complicate matters, be dangerous in the hands of an attacker. To complicate matters,
call control primitives are likely to be automatically authorized call control primitives are likely to be automatically authorized
without direct human oversight. without direct human oversight.
The class of attacks which are possible using these tools include the The class of attacks that are possible using these tools include the
ability to eavesdrop on calls, disconnect calls, redirect calls, ability to eavesdrop on calls, disconnect calls, redirect calls,
render irritating content (including ringing) at a user agent, cause render irritating content (including ringing) at a user agent, cause
an action that has billing consequences, subvert billing (theft-of- an action that has billing consequences, subvert billing (theft-of-
service), and obtain private information. Call control extensions service), and obtain private information. Call control extensions
must take extra care to describe how these attacks will be prevented. must take extra care to describe how these attacks will be prevented.
We can also make some general observations about authorization and We can also make some general observations about authorization and
trust with respect to call control. The security model is trust with respect to call control. The security model is
dramatically dependent on the signaling model chosen (see section dramatically dependent on the signaling model chosen (see section
3.2) 3.2)
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an action that has billing consequences, subvert billing (theft-of- an action that has billing consequences, subvert billing (theft-of-
service), and obtain private information. Call control extensions service), and obtain private information. Call control extensions
must take extra care to describe how these attacks will be prevented. must take extra care to describe how these attacks will be prevented.
We can also make some general observations about authorization and We can also make some general observations about authorization and
trust with respect to call control. The security model is trust with respect to call control. The security model is
dramatically dependent on the signaling model chosen (see section dramatically dependent on the signaling model chosen (see section
3.2) 3.2)
Let us first examine the security model used in the 3pcc approach. Let us first examine the security model used in the 3pcc approach.
All signaling goes through the controller, which is a trusted entity. All signaling goes through the controller, which is a trusted entity.
Traditional SIP authentication and hop-by-hop encrpytion and message Traditional SIP authentication and hop-by-hop encryption and message
integrity work fine in this environment, but end-to-end encrpytion integrity work fine in this environment, but end-to-end encryption
and message integrity may not be possible. and message integrity may not be possible.
When using the peer-to-peer approach, call control actions and When using the peer-to-peer approach, call control actions and
primitives can be legitimately initiated by a) an existing primitives can be legitimately initiated by a) an existing
participant in the conversation space, b) a former participant in the participant in the conversation space, b) a former participant in the
conversation space, or c) an entity trusted by one of the conversation space, or c) an entity trusted by one of the
participants. For example, a participant always initiates a participants. For example, a participant always initiates a
transfer; a retrieve from Park (a take) is initiated on behalf of a transfer; a retrieve from Park (a take) is initiated on behalf of a
former participant; and a barge-in (insert or far-fork) is initiated former participant; and a barge-in (insert or far-fork) is initiated
by a trusted entity (an operator for example). by a trusted entity (an operator for example).
Authenticating requests by an existing participant or a trusted Authenticating requests by an existing participant or a trusted
entity can be done with baseline SIP mechanisms. In the case of entity can be done with baseline SIP mechanisms. In the case of
features initiated by a former participant, these should be protected features initiated by a former participant, these should be protected
against replay attacks by using a unique name or identifier per against replay attacks by using a unique name or identifier per
invocation. The Replaces header exhibits this behavior as a by- invocation. The Replaces header exhibits this behavior as a by-
product of its operation (once a Replaces operation is successful, product of its operation (once a Replaces operation is successful,
the call-leg being Replaced no longer exists). For other requests, a the dialog being Replaced no longer exists). For other requests, a
"one-time" Request-URI may be provided to the feature invoker. "one-time" Request-URI may be provided to the feature invoker.
To authorize call control primitives that trigger special behavior To authorize call control primitives that trigger special behavior
(such as an INVITE with Replaces or Join semantics), the receiving (such as an INVITE with Replaces or Join semantics), the receiving
user agent may have trouble finding appropriate credentials with user agent may have trouble finding appropriate credentials with
which to challenge or authorize the request, as the sender may be which to challenge or authorize the request, as the sender may be
completely unknown to the receiver, except through the introduction completely unknown to the receiver, except through the introduction
of a third party. These credentials need to be passed transitively of a third party. These credentials need to be passed transitively
in some way or fetched in an event body, for example. in some way or fetched in an event body, for example.
6. IANA Considerations 5. IANA Considerations
This document required no action by IANA. This document required no action by IANA.
7. Appendix A: Example Features 6. Appendix A: Example Features
Primitives are defined in terms of their ability to provide features. Primitives are defined in terms of their ability to provide features.
These example features should require an amply robust set of services These example features should require an amply robust set of services
to demonstrate a useful set of primitives. They are described here to demonstrate a useful set of primitives. They are described here
briefly. Note that the descriptions of these features are non- briefly. Note that the descriptions of these features are non-
normative. Some of these features are used as examples in section 6 normative. Some of these features are used as examples in section 6
to demonstrate how some features may require certain media to demonstrate how some features may require certain media
relationships. Note also that this document describes a mixture of relationships. Note also that this document describes a mixture of
both features originating in the world of telephones, and features both features originating in the world of telephones, and features
which are clearly Internet oriented. that are clearly Internet oriented.
Example Feature Definitions: Example Feature Definitions:
Call Waiting - Alice is in a call, then receives another call. Alice Call Waiting - Alice is in a call, then receives another call. Alice
can place the first call on hold, and talk with the other caller. can place the first call on hold, and talk with the other caller.
She can typically switch back and forth between the callers. She can typically switch back and forth between the callers.
Blind Transfer - Alice is in a conversation with Bob. Alice asks Bob Blind Transfer - Alice is in a conversation with Bob. Alice asks Bob
to contact Carol, but makes no attempt to contact Craol to contact Carol, but makes no attempt to contact Carol
independently. In many implementations, Alice does not verify Bob's independently. In many implementations, Alice does not verify Bob's
success or failure in contacting Carol. success or failure in contacting Carol.
Attended Transfer - The transferring party establishes a session with Attended Transfer - The transferring party establishes a session with
the transfer target before completing the transfer. the transfer target before completing the transfer.
Consultative transfer - the transferring party establishes a session Consultative transfer - the transferring party establishes a session
with the target and mixes both sessions together so that all three with the target and mixes both sessions together so that all three
parties can participate, then disconnects leaving the transferee and parties can participate, then disconnects leaving the transferee and
transfer target with an active session. transfer target with an active session.
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for monitoring purposes. for monitoring purposes.
Barge-in - Carol interrupts Alice who has a call in-progress call Barge-in - Carol interrupts Alice who has a call in-progress call
with Bob. In some variations, Alice forcibly joins a new conversation with Bob. In some variations, Alice forcibly joins a new conversation
with Carol, in other variations, all three parties are placed in the with Carol, in other variations, all three parties are placed in the
same conversation (basically a 3-way conference). same conversation (basically a 3-way conference).
Hotline - Alice picks up a phone and is immediately connected to the Hotline - Alice picks up a phone and is immediately connected to the
technical support hotline, for example. technical support hotline, for example.
Autoanswer - Calls to a certain address or location answer Auto Answer - Calls to a certain address or location answer
immediately via a speakerphone. immediately via a speakerphone.
Intercom - Alice typically presses a button on a phone which Intercom - Alice typically presses a button on a phone that
immediately connects to another user or phone and casues that phone immediately connects to another user or phone and causes that phone
to play her voice over its speaker. Some variations immediately to play her voice over its speaker. Some variations immediately
setup two-way communications, other variations require another button setup two-way communications, other variations require another button
to be pressed to enable a two-way conversation. to be pressed to enable a two-way conversation.
Speakerphone paging - Alice calls the paging address and speaks. Her Speakerphone paging - Alice calls the paging address and speaks. Her
voice is played on the speaker of every idle phone in a preconfigured voice is played on the speaker of every idle phone in a preconfigured
group of phones. group of phones.
Speed dial - Alice dials an abbreviated number, or enters an alias, Speed dial - Alice dials an abbreviated number, or enters an alias,
or presses a special speed dial button representing Bob. Her action or presses a special speed dial button representing Bob. Her action
is interpreted as if she specified the full address of Bob. is interpreted as if she specified the full address of Bob.
Call Return - Alice calls Bob. Bob misses the call or is disconnected Call Return - Alice calls Bob. Bob misses the call or is disconnected
before he is finished talking to Alice. Bob invokes Call return before he is finished talking to Alice. Bob invokes Call return that
which calls Alice, even if Alice did not provide her real identity or calls Alice, even if Alice did not provide her real identity or
location to Bob. location to Bob.
Inbound Call Screening - Alice doesn't want to receive calls from Inbound Call Screening - Alice doesn't want to receive calls from
Matt. Inbound Screening prevents Matt from disturbing Alice. In Matt. Inbound Screening prevents Matt from disturbing Alice. In
some variations this works even if Matt hides his identity. some variations this works even if Matt hides his identity.
Outbound Call Screening - Alice is paged and unknowingly calls a PSTN Outbound Call Screening - Alice is paged and unknowingly calls a PSTN
pay-service telephone number in the Carribean, but local policy pay-service telephone number in the Caribbean, but local policy
blocks her call, and possibly informs her why. blocks her call, and possibly informs her why.
Call Forwarding - Before a call-leg is accepted it is redirected to Call Forwarding - Before a dialog is accepted it is redirected to
another location, for example, because the originally intended another location, for example, because the originally intended
recipient is busy, does not answer, is disconnected from the network, recipient is busy, does not answer, is disconnected from the network,
configured all requests to go soemwhere else. configured all requests to go somewhere else.
Message Waiting - Bob calls Alice when she steps away from her phone, Message Waiting - Bob calls Alice when she steps away from her phone,
when she returns a visible or audible indicator conveys that someone when she returns a visible or audible indicator conveys that someone
has left her a voicemail message. The message waiting indication may has left her a voicemail message. The message waiting indication may
also convey how many messages are waiting, from whom, what time, and also convey how many messages are waiting, from whom, what time, and
other useful pieces of information. other useful pieces of information.
Do Not Disturb - Alice selects the Do Not Disturb option. Calls to Do Not Disturb - Alice selects the Do Not Disturb option. Calls to
her either ring briefly or not at all and are forwarded elsewhere. her either ring briefly or not at all and are forwarded elsewhere.
Some variations allow specially authorized callers to override this Some variations allow specially authorized callers to override this
feature and ring Alice anyway. feature and ring Alice anyway.
Distinctive ring - Incoming calls have different ring cadences or Distinctive ring - Incoming calls have different ring cadences or
sample sounds depending on the From party, the To party, or other sample sounds depending on the From party, the To party, or other
factors. factors.
Automatic Callback: Alice calls Bob, but Bob is busy. Alice would Automatic Callback: Alice calls Bob, but Bob is busy. Alice would
like Bob to call her automatically when he is available. When Bob like Bob to call her automatically when he is available. When Bob
hangs up, alice's phone rings. When Alice answers, Bob's phone hangs up, Alice's phone rings. When Alice answers, Bob's phone
rings. Bob answers and they talk. rings. Bob answers and they talk.
Find-Me - Alice sets up complicated rules for how she can be reached Find-Me - Alice sets up complicated rules for how she can be reached
(possibly using [CPL], [presence] or other factors). When Bob calls (possibly using CPL [27], presence [14], or other factors). When Bob
Alice, his call is eventually routed to a temporary Contact where calls Alice, his call is eventually routed to a temporary Contact
Alice happens to be available. where Alice happens to be available.
Whispered call waiting - Alice is in a conversation with Bob. Carol Whispered call waiting - Alice is in a conversation with Bob. Carol
calls Alice. Either Carol can "whisper" to Alice directly ("Can you calls Alice. Either Carol can "whisper" to Alice directly ("Can you
get lunch in 15 minutes?"), or an automaton whispers to Alice get lunch in 15 minutes?"), or an automaton whispers to Alice
informing her that Carol is trying to reach her. informing her that Carol is trying to reach her.
Voice message screening - Bob calls Alice. Alice is screening her Voice message screening - Bob calls Alice. Alice is screening her
calls, so Bob hears Alice's voicemail greeting. Alice can hear Bob calls, so Bob hears Alice's voicemail greeting. Alice can hear Bob
leave his message. If she decides to talk to Bob, she can take the leave his message. If she decides to talk to Bob, she can take the
call back from the voicemail system, otherwise she can let Bob leave call back from the voicemail system, otherwise she can let Bob leave
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Presence-Enabled Conferencing: Alice wants to set up a conference Presence-Enabled Conferencing: Alice wants to set up a conference
call with Bob and Cathy when they all happen to be available (rather call with Bob and Cathy when they all happen to be available (rather
than scheduling a predefined time). The server providing the than scheduling a predefined time). The server providing the
application monitors their status, and calls all three when they are application monitors their status, and calls all three when they are
all "online", not idle, and not in another call. all "online", not idle, and not in another call.
IM Conference Alerts: A user receives an notification as an Instant IM Conference Alerts: A user receives an notification as an Instant
Message whenever someone joins a conference they are also in. Message whenever someone joins a conference they are also in.
Single Line Extension -- A group of phones are all treated as Single Line Extension/Multiple Line Appearance -- A group of phones
"extensions" of a single line. A call for one rings them all. As are all treated as "extensions" of a single line. A call for one
soon as one answers, the others stop ringing. If any extension is rings them all. As soon as one answers, the others stop ringing. If
actively in a coversation, another extension can "pick up" and any extension is actively in a conversation, another extension can
immediately join the conversation. This emulates the behavior of a "pick up" and immediately join the conversation. This emulates the
home telephone line with multiple phones. behavior of a home telephone line with multiple phones.
Click-to-dial - Alice looks in her company directory for Bob. When Click-to-dial - Alice looks in her company directory for Bob. When
she finds Bob, she clicks on a URL to call him. Her phone rings (or she finds Bob, she clicks on a URL to call him. Her phone rings (or
possibly answers automatically), and when she answers, Bob's phone possibly answers automatically), and when she answers, Bob's phone
rings. rings.
Pre-paid calling - Alice pays for a certain currency or unit amount Pre-paid calling - Alice pays for a certain currency or unit amount
of calling value. When she places a call, she provides her account of calling value. When she places a call, she provides her account
number somehow. If her account runs out of calling value during a number somehow. If her account runs out of calling value during a
call her call is disconnected or redirected to a service where she call her call is disconnected or redirected to a service where she
can purchase more calling value. can purchase more calling value.
Voice Portal - A service that allows users to access a portal site Voice Portal - A service that allows users to access a portal site
using spoken dialog interaction. For example, Alice needs to using spoken dialog interaction. For example, Alice needs to
schedule a working dinner with her co-worker Carol. Alice uses a schedule a working dinner with her co-worker Carol. Alice uses a
voice portal to check Carol's flight schedule, find a restauraunt voice portal to check Carol's flight schedule, find a restaurant near
near her hotel, make a reservation, get directions there, and page her hotel, make a reservation, get directions there, and page Carol
Carol with this information. with this information.
7.1 Implementation of these features 6.1. Implementation of these features
Example Features: Example Features:
Call Hold [Offer/Answer] for SIP Call Hold [service-examples]
Call Waiting Local Implementation Call Waiting Local Implementation
Blind Transfer [cc-transfer] Blind Transfer [cc-transfer]
Attended Transfer [cc-transfer] Attended Transfer [cc-transfer]
Consultative transfer [cc-transfer] Consultative transfer [cc-transfer]
Conference Call [conf-models] Conference Call [conf-models]
Call Park *[examples] Call Park [cc-framework]/[service-examples]
Call Pickup *[examples] Call Pickup [cc-framework]/[service-examples]
Music on Hold *[examples] Music on Hold [cc-framework]/[service-examples]
Call Monitoring *Insert Call Monitoring [cc-framework]
Barge-in *Insert or Far-Fork Barge-in [cc-framework]/[Insert or Far-Fork
Hotline Local Implementation Hotline Local Implementation
Autoanswer Local URI convention Auto Answer [sip-answermode]
Speed dial Local Implementation Speed dial Local Implementation
Intercom *Speed dial + autoanswer Intercom [cc-framework]/[sip-answermode]
Speakerphone paging *Speed dial + autoanswer Speakerphone paging [cc-framework]/Speed dial + Auto Answer
Call Return Proxy feature Call Return Proxy feature
Inbound Call Screening Proxy or Local implementation Inbound Call Screening Proxy or Local implementation
Outbound Call Screening Proxy feature Outbound Call Screening Proxy feature
Call Forwarding Proxy or Local implementation Call Forwarding Proxy or Local implementation
Message Waiting [msg-waiting] Message Waiting [msg-waiting]
Do Not Disturb [presence] Do Not Disturb [presence]
Distinctive ring *Proxy or Local implementation Distinctive ring [cc-framework]/Proxy or Local implementation
Automatic Callback 2 person presence-based conference Automatic Callback two person presence-based conference
Find-Me Proxy service based on presence Find-Me Proxy service based on presence
Whispered call waiting Local implementation Whispered call waiting Local implementation
Voice message screening * Voice Message Screening [cc-framework]
Presence-based Conferencing*call when presence = available Presence-based
Conferencing call when presence = available
IM Conference Alerts subscribe to conference status IM Conference Alerts subscribe to conference status
Single Line Extension * Single Line Extension [cc-framework]
Click-to-dial * Multiple Appearances [cc-framework]
Pre-paid calling * Click-to-dial [service-examples]
Voice Portal * Pre-Paid Calling [cc-framework]
Voice Portal [cc-framework]
7.1.1 Call Park 6.1.1. Call Park
Call park requires the ability to: put a dialog some place, advertise Call park requires the ability to: put a dialog some place, advertise
it to users in a pickup group and to uniquely identify it in a means it to users in a pickup group and to uniquely identify it in a means
that can be communicated (including human voice). The dialog can be that can be communicated (including human voice). The dialog can be
held locally on the UA parking the dialog or alternatively held locally on the UA parking the dialog or alternatively
transferred to the park service for the pickup group. The parked transferred to the park service for the pickup group. The parked
dialog then needs to be labeled (e.g. orbit 12) in a way that can be dialog then needs to be labeled (e.g. orbit 12) in a way that can be
communicated to the party that is to pick up the call. The UAs in communicated to the party that is to pick up the call. The UAs in
the pick up group discovers the parked dialog(s) via the dialog the pick up group discovers the parked dialog(s) via the dialog
package from the park service. If the dialog is parked locally the package from the park service. If the dialog is parked locally the
park service merely aggregates the parked call states from the set of park service merely aggregates the parked call states from the set of
UAs in the pickup up group. UAs in the pickup up group.
7.1.2 Call Pickup 6.1.2. Call Pickup
There are two different features which are called call pickup. The There are two different features that are called call pickup. The
first is the pickup of a parked dialog. The UA from which the dialog first is the pickup of a parked dialog. The UA from which the dialog
is to be picked up subscribes to the session dialog state of the park is to be picked up subscribes to the session dialog state of the park
service or the UA which has locally parked the dialog. Dialogs which service or the UA that has locally parked the dialog. Dialogs that
are parked should be labeled with an identifier. The labels are used are parked should be labeled with an identifier. The labels are used
by the UA to allow the user to indicate which dialog is to be picked by the UA to allow the user to indicate which dialog is to be picked
up. The UA picking up the call invoked the URL in the call state up. The UA picking up the call invoked the URL in the call state
which is labeled as replace-remote. that is labeled as replace-remote.
The other call pickup feature involves picking up an early dialog The other call pickup feature involves picking up an early dialog
(typically ringing). This feature uses some of the same primitives (typically ringing). This feature uses some of the same primitives
as the pick up of a parked call. The call state of the UA ringing as the pick up of a parked call. The call state of the UA ringing
phone is advertised using the dialog package. The UA which is to phone is advertised using the dialog package. The UA that is to
pickup the early dialog subscribes either directly to the ringing UA pickup the early dialog subscribes either directly to the ringing UA
or to a service aggregating the states for UAs in the pickup group. or to a service aggregating the states for UAs in the pickup group.
The call state identifies early dialogs. The UA uses the call The call state identifies early dialogs. The UA uses the call
state(s) to help the user choose which early dialog that is to be state(s) to help the user choose which early dialog that is to be
picked up. The UA then invokes the URL in the call state labeled as picked up. The UA then invokes the URL in the call state labeled as
replace-remote. replace-remote.
7.1.3 Music on Hold 6.1.3. Music on Hold
Music on hold can be implemented a number of ways. One way is to Music on hold can be implemented a number of ways. One way is to
transfer the held call to a holding service. When the UA wishes to transfer the held call to a holding service. When the UA wishes to
take the call off hold it basically performs a take on the call from take the call off hold it basically performs a take on the call from
the holding service. This involves subscribing to call state on the the holding service. This involves subscribing to call state on the
holding service and then invoking the URL in the call state labeled holding service and then invoking the URL in the call state labeled
as replace-remote. as replace-remote.
Alternatively music on hold can be performed as a local mixing Alternatively music on hold can be performed as a local mixing
operation. The UA holding the call can mix in the music from the operation. The UA holding the call can mix in the music from the
music service via RTP (i.e. an additional dialog) or RTSP or other music service via RTP (i.e. an additional dialog) or RTSP or other
streaming media source. This approach is simpler (i.e. the held streaming media source. This approach is simpler (i.e. the held
dialog does not move so there is less chance of loosing them) from a dialog does not move so there is less chance of loosing them) from a
protocol perspective, however it does use more LAN bandwidth and protocol perspective, however it does use more LAN bandwidth and
resources on the UA. resources on the UA.
7.1.4 Call Monitoring 6.1.4. Call Monitoring
Call monitoring is a Join operation. The monitoring UA sends a Join Call monitoring is a Join operation. The monitoring UA sends a Join
to the dialog it wants to listen to. It is able to discover the to the dialog it wants to listen to. It is able to discover the
dialog via the dialog state on the monitored UA. The monitoring UA dialog via the dialog state on the monitored UA. The monitoring UA
sends SDP in the INVITE which indicates receive only media. As the sends SDP in the INVITE that indicates receive only media. As the UA
UA is monitoring only it does not matter whether the UA indicates it is monitoring only it does not matter whether the UA indicates it
wishes the send stream be mix or point to point. wishes the send stream be mix or point to point.
7.1.5 Barge-in 6.1.5. Barge-in
Barge-in works the same as call monitoring except that it must Barge-in works the same as call monitoring except that it must
indicate that the send media stream to be mixed so that all of the indicate that the send media stream to be mixed so that all of the
other parties can hear the stream from UA barging in. other parties can hear the stream from UA barging in.
7.1.6 Intercom 6.1.6. Intercom
The UA initiates a dialog using INVITE in the ordinary way. The The UA initiates a dialog using INVITE and the Answer-Mode: Auto
calling UA then signals the paged UA to answer the call. The calling header field as described in [28]. The called UA accepts the INVITE
UA may discover the URL to answer the call via the session dialog with a 200 OK and automatically enables the speakerphone.
package of the called UA. The called UA accepts the INVITE with a
200 Ok and automatically enables the speakerphone.
Alternatively this can be a local decision for the UA to answer based Alternatively this can be a local decision for the UA to answer based
upon called party identification. upon called party identification.
7.1.7 Speakerphone paging 6.1.7. Speakerphone paging
Speakerphone paging can be implemented using either multicast or Speakerphone paging can be implemented using either multicast or
through a simple multipoint mixer. In the multicast solution the through a simple multipoint mixer. In the multicast solution the
paging UA sends a multicast INVITE with send only media in the SDP paging UA sends a multicast INVITE with send only media in the SDP
(see also RFC3264). The automatic answer and enabling of the (see also RFC3264). The automatic answer and enabling of the
speakerphone is a locally configured decision on the paged UAs. The speakerphone is a locally configured decision on the paged UAs. The
paging UA sends RTP via the multicast address indicated in the SDP. paging UA sends RTP via the multicast address indicated in the SDP.
The multipoint solution is accomplished by sending an INVITE to the The multipoint solution is accomplished by sending an INVITE to the
multipoint mixer. The mixer is configured to automatically answer multipoint mixer. The mixer is configured to automatically answer
the dialog. The paging UA then sends REFER requests for each of the the dialog. The paging UA then sends REFER requests for each of the
UAs that are to become paging speakers (The UA is likely to send out UAs that are to become paging speakers (The UA is likely to send out
a single REFER which is parallel forked by the proxy server). The a single REFER that is parallel forked by the proxy server). The UAs
UAs performing as paging speakers are configured to automatically performing as paging speakers are configured to automatically answer
answer based upon caller identification (e.g. To field, URI or based upon caller identification (e.g. To field, URI or Referred-To
Referred-To headers). headers).
Finally as a third option, the user agent can send a mass-invitation Finally as a third option, the user agent can send a mass-invitation
request to a conference server, which would create a conference and request to a conference server, which would create a conference and
send invitations to the conference to all user agents in the paging send INVITEs containing the Answer-Mode: Auto header field to all
group. user agents in the paging group.
7.1.8 Distinctive ring 6.1.8. Distinctive ring
The target UA either makes a local decision based on information in The target UA either makes a local decision based on information in
an incoming INVITE (To, From, Contact, Request-URI) or trusts an an incoming INVITE (To, From, Contact, Request-URI) or trusts an
Alert-Info header provded by the caller or inserted by a trusted Alert-Info header provided by the caller or inserted by a trusted
proxy. In the latter case, the UA fetches the content described in proxy. In the latter case, the UA fetches the content described in
the URI (typically via http) and renders it to the user. the URI (typically via http) and renders it to the user.
7.1.9 Voice message screening 6.1.9. Voice message screening
At first, this is the same as call monitoring. In this case the At first, this is the same as call monitoring. In this case the
voicemail service is one of the UAs. The UA screening the message voicemail service is one of the UAs. The UA screening the message
monitors the call on the voicemail service, and also subscribes to monitors the call on the voicemail service, and also subscribes to
call-leg information. If the user screening their messages decides dialog information. If the user screening their messages decides to
to answer, they perform a Take from the voicemail system (for answer, they perform a Take from the voicemail system (for example,
example, send an INVITE with Replaces to the UA leaving the message) send an INVITE with Replaces to the UA leaving the message)
7.1.10 Single Line Extension 6.1.10. Single Line Extension/Multiple Line Appearance
Incoming calls ring all the extensions through basic parallel forking Incoming calls ring all the extensions through basic parallel
[bis]. Each extension subscribes to call-leg events from each other forking. Each extension subscribes to dialog events from each other
extension. While one user has an active call, any other UA extension extension. While one user has an active call, any other UA extension
can insert itself into that conversation (it already knows the call- can insert itself into that conversation (it already knows the dialog
leg information)in the same way as barge-in. information) in the same way as barge-in.
7.1.11 Click-to-dial Standardization work to allow line appearance numbers to be
coordinated across a group of UAs is currently underway.
The application or server which hosts the click-to-dial application 6.1.11. Click-to-dial
The application or server that hosts the click-to-dial application
captures the URL to be dialed and can setup the call using 3pcc or captures the URL to be dialed and can setup the call using 3pcc or
can send a REFER request to the UA which is to dial the address. As can send a REFER request to the UA that is to dial the address. As
users sometimes change their mind or wish to give up listing to a users sometimes change their mind or wish to give up listing to a
ringing or voicemail answered phone, this application illustrates the ringing or voicemail answered phone, this application illustrates the
need to also have the ability to remotely hangup a call. need to also have the ability to remotely hangup a call.
7.1.12 Pre-paid calling 6.1.12. Pre-paid calling
For prepaid calling, the user's media always passes through a device For prepaid calling, the user's media always passes through a device
which is trusted by the pre-paid provider. This may be the other that is trusted by the pre-paid provider. This may be the other
endpoint (for example a PSTN gateway). In either case, an endpoint (for example a PSTN gateway). In either case, an
intermediary proxy or B2BUA can periodically verify the amount of intermediary proxy or B2BUA can periodically verify the amount of
time available on the pre-paid account, and use the session-timer time available on the pre-paid account, and use the session-timer
extension to cause the trusted endpoint (gateway) or intermediary extension to cause the trusted endpoint (gateway) or intermediary
(media relay) to send a reINVITE before that time runs out. During (media relay) to send a reINVITE before that time runs out. During
the reINVITE, the SIP intermediary can reverify the account and the reINVITE, the SIP intermediary can re-verify the account and
insert another session-timer header. insert another session-timer header.
Note that while most pre-paid systems on the PSTN use an IVR to Note that while most pre-paid systems on the PSTN use an IVR to
collect the account number and destination, this isn't strictly collect the account number and destination, this isn't strictly
necessary for a SIP-originated prepaid call. SIP requests and SIP necessary for a SIP-originated prepaid call. SIP requests and SIP
URIs are sufficiently expressive to convey the final destination, the URIs are sufficiently expressive to convey the final destination, the
provider of the prepaid service, the location from which the user is provider of the prepaid service, the location from which the user is
calling, and the prepaid account they want to use. If a pre-paid IVR calling, and the prepaid account they want to use. If a pre-paid IVR
is used, the mechanism described below (Voice Portals) can be is used, the mechanism described below (Voice Portals) can be
combined as well. combined as well.
7.1.13 Voice Portal 6.1.13. Voice Portal
A voice portal is essentially a complex collection of voice dialogs A voice portal is essentially a complex collection of voice dialogs
used to access interesting content. One of the most desirable call used to access interesting content. One of the most desirable call
control features of a Voice Portal is the ability to start a new control features of a Voice Portal is the ability to start a new
outgoing call from within the context of the Portal (to make a outgoing call from within the context of the Portal (to make a
restauraunt reservation, or return a voicemail message for example). restaurant reservation, or return a voicemail message for example).
Once the new call is over, the user should be able to return to the Once the new call is over, the user should be able to return to the
Portal by pressing a special key, using some DTMF sequence (ex: a Portal by pressing a special key, using some DTMF sequence (ex: a
very long pound or hash tone), or by speaking a hotword (ex: "Main very long pound or hash tone), or by speaking a hotword (ex: "Main
Menu"). Menu").
In order to accomplish this, the Voice Portal starts with the In order to accomplish this, the Voice Portal starts with the
following media relationship: following media relationship:
{ User , Voice Portal } { User , Voice Portal }
skipping to change at page 37, line 37 skipping to change at page 35, line 48
{ Target , User } & { User , Voice Portal } { Target , User } & { User , Voice Portal }
The Voice Portal is now just listening for a hotword or the The Voice Portal is now just listening for a hotword or the
appropriate DTMF. As soon as the user indicates they are done, the appropriate DTMF. As soon as the user indicates they are done, the
Voice Portal Takes the call from the old Target, and we are back to Voice Portal Takes the call from the old Target, and we are back to
the original media relationship. the original media relationship.
This feature can also be used by the account number and phone number This feature can also be used by the account number and phone number
collection menu in a pre-paid calling service. A user can press a collection menu in a pre-paid calling service. A user can press a
DTMF sequence which presents them with the appropriate menu again. DTMF sequence that presents them with the appropriate menu again.
8. References
8.1 Normative References 7. Informative References
[1] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston, A., [1] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston, A.,
Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E. Schooler, "SIP: Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E. Schooler, "SIP:
Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261, June 2002. Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261, June 2002.
[2] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement [2] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[3] Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "An Offer/Answer Model with [3] Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "An Offer/Answer Model with
Session Description Protocol (SDP)", RFC 3264, June 2002. Session Description Protocol (SDP)", RFC 3264, June 2002.
[4] Roach, A., "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)-Specific Event [4] Roach, A., "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)-Specific Event
Notification", RFC 3265, June 2002. Notification", RFC 3265, June 2002.
[5] Handley, M. and V. Jacobson, "SDP: Session Description [5] Handley, M., Jacobson, V., and C. Perkins, "SDP: Session
Protocol", RFC 2327, April 1998. Description Protocol", RFC 4566, July 2006.
[6] "Session Initiation Protocol Service Examples", [6] Johnston, A., "Session Initiation Protocol Service Examples",
draft-ietf-sipping-service-examples-09 (work in progress), draft-ietf-sipping-service-examples-12 (work in progress),
July 2005. January 2007.
[7] Rosenberg, J., Peterson, J., Schulzrinne, H., and G. Camarillo, [7] Rosenberg, J., Peterson, J., Schulzrinne, H., and G. Camarillo,
"Best Current Practices for Third Party Call Control (3pcc) in "Best Current Practices for Third Party Call Control (3pcc) in
the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)", BCP 85, RFC 3725, the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)", BCP 85, RFC 3725,
April 2004. April 2004.
[8] Sparks, R., "The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Refer [8] Sparks, R., "The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Refer
Method", RFC 3515, April 2003. Method", RFC 3515, April 2003.
[9] Mahy, R., Biggs, B., and R. Dean, "The Session Initiation [9] Mahy, R., Biggs, B., and R. Dean, "The Session Initiation
Protocol (SIP) "Replaces" Header", RFC 3891, September 2004. Protocol (SIP) "Replaces" Header", RFC 3891, September 2004.
[10] Mahy, R. and D. Petrie, "The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) [10] Mahy, R. and D. Petrie, "The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
"Join" Header", RFC 3911, October 2004. "Join" Header", RFC 3911, October 2004.
[11] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., and R. Mahy, "An INVITE- [11] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., and R. Mahy, "An INVITE-
Initiated Dialog Event Package for the Session Initiation Initiated Dialog Event Package for the Session Initiation
Protocol (SIP)", RFC 4235, November 2005. Protocol (SIP)", RFC 4235, November 2005.
[12] Rosenberg, J., "A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Event [12] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., and O. Levin, "A Session
Package for Conference State", Initiation Protocol (SIP) Event Package for Conference State",
draft-ietf-sipping-conference-package-12 (work in progress), RFC 4575, August 2006.
July 2005.
[13] Rosenberg, J., "A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Event [13] Rosenberg, J., "A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Event
Package for Registrations", RFC 3680, March 2004. Package for Registrations", RFC 3680, March 2004.
[14] Rosenberg, J., "A Presence Event Package for the Session [14] Rosenberg, J., "A Presence Event Package for the Session
Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC 3856, August 2004. Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC 3856, August 2004.
[15] Rosenberg, J., "A Framework for Conferencing with the Session [15] Rosenberg, J., "A Framework for Conferencing with the Session
Initiation Protocol", Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC 4353, February 2006.
draft-ietf-sipping-conferencing-framework-05 (work in
progress), May 2005.
[16] Rosenberg, J., "A Framework for Application Interaction in the [16] Rosenberg, J., "A Framework for Application Interaction in the
Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)", Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)",
draft-ietf-sipping-app-interaction-framework-05 (work in draft-ietf-sipping-app-interaction-framework-05 (work in
progress), July 2005. progress), July 2005.
[17] Camarillo, G., "Framework for Transcoding with the Session [17] Camarillo, G., "Framework for Transcoding with the Session
Initiation Protocol (SIP)", Initiation Protocol (SIP)",
draft-ietf-sipping-transc-framework-03 (work in progress), draft-ietf-sipping-transc-framework-05 (work in progress),
November 2005. December 2006.
[18] Sparks, R., "Session Initiation Protocol Call Control - [18] Sparks, R., "Session Initiation Protocol Call Control -
Transfer", draft-ietf-sipping-cc-transfer-05 (work in Transfer", draft-ietf-sipping-cc-transfer-07 (work in
progress), July 2005. progress), October 2006.
[19] Levin, O., "Session Initiation Protocol Call Control - [19] Johnston, A. and O. Levin, "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
Conferencing for User Agents", Call Control - Conferencing for User Agents", BCP 119,
draft-ietf-sipping-cc-conferencing-07 (work in progress), RFC 4579, August 2006.
June 2005.
[20] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., and P. Kyzivat, "Indicating [20] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., and P. Kyzivat, "Indicating
User Agent Capabilities in the Session Initiation Protocol User Agent Capabilities in the Session Initiation Protocol
(SIP)", RFC 3840, August 2004. (SIP)", RFC 3840, August 2004.
[21] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., and P. Kyzivat, "Caller [21] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., and P. Kyzivat, "Caller
Preferences for the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)", Preferences for the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)",
RFC 3841, August 2004. RFC 3841, August 2004.
8.2 Informational References
[22] Campbell, B. and R. Sparks, "Control of Service Context using [22] Campbell, B. and R. Sparks, "Control of Service Context using
SIP Request-URI", RFC 3087, April 2001. SIP Request-URI", RFC 3087, April 2001.
[23] Jennings, C. and R. Mahy, "Remote Call Control in SIP using the [23] Jennings, C. and R. Mahy, "Remote Call Control in the Session
REFER method and the session-oriented dialog package", Initiation Protocol (SIP) using the REFER method and the
draft-mahy-sip-remote-cc-02 (work in progress), October 2005. session-oriented dialog package", draft-mahy-sip-remote-cc-04
(work in progress), October 2006.
[24] Burger, E., "Basic Network Media Services with SIP", [24] Burger, E., Van Dyke, J., and A. Spitzer, "Basic Network Media
draft-burger-sipping-netann-11 (work in progress), Services with SIP", RFC 4240, December 2005.
February 2005.
[25] Jennings, C., Audet, F., and J. Elwell, "Session Initiation
Protocol (SIP) URIs for Applications such as Voicemail and
Interactive Voice Response (IVR)", RFC 4458, April 2006.
[26] Rosenberg, J., "Request Authorization through Dialog
Identification in the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)",
RFC 4538, June 2006.
[27] Lennox, J., Wu, X., and H. Schulzrinne, "Call Processing
Language (CPL): A Language for User Control of Internet
Telephony Services", RFC 3880, October 2004.
[28] Willis, D. and A. Allen, "Requesting Answering Modes for the
Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)",
draft-ietf-sip-answermode-01 (work in progress), May 2006.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Rohan Mahy Rohan Mahy
Plantronics Plantronics
345 Encincal Street 345 Encincal Street
Santa Cruz, CA Santa Cruz, CA
USA USA
Email: rohan@ekabal.com Email: rohan@ekabal.com
skipping to change at page 40, line 23 skipping to change at page 39, line 4
Jonathan Rosenberg Jonathan Rosenberg
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
Email: jdrosen@cisco.com Email: jdrosen@cisco.com
Dan Petrie Dan Petrie
SIP EZ SIP EZ
Email: dpetrie@sipez.com Email: dpetrie@sipez.com
Alan Johnston (editor)
Avaya
Alan Johnston Email: alan@sipstation.com
MCI
Email: alan.johnston@mci.com Full Copyright Statement
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This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
retain all their rights.
This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
"AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
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OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF
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The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
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skipping to change at page 41, line 29 skipping to change at page 40, line 45
such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this
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