draft-ietf-softwire-dslite-yang-11.txt   draft-ietf-softwire-dslite-yang-12.txt 
Network Working Group M. Boucadair Network Working Group M. Boucadair
Internet-Draft C. Jacquenet Internet-Draft C. Jacquenet
Intended status: Standards Track Orange Intended status: Standards Track Orange
Expires: May 23, 2018 S. Sivakumar Expires: June 14, 2018 S. Sivakumar
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
November 19, 2017 December 11, 2017
A YANG Data Module for Dual-Stack Lite (DS-Lite) A YANG Data Module for Dual-Stack Lite (DS-Lite)
draft-ietf-softwire-dslite-yang-11 draft-ietf-softwire-dslite-yang-12
Abstract Abstract
This document defines a YANG module for the DS-Lite Address Family This document defines a YANG module for the DS-Lite Address Family
Transition Router (AFTR) and Basic Bridging BroadBand (B4) elements. Transition Router (AFTR) and Basic Bridging BroadBand (B4) elements.
Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor) Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)
Please update these statements with the RFC number to be assigned to Please update these statements with the RFC number to be assigned to
this document: this document:
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on May 23, 2018. This Internet-Draft will expire on June 14, 2018.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
skipping to change at page 2, line 29 skipping to change at page 2, line 29
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.1. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. DS-Lite YANG Module: An Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. DS-Lite YANG Module: An Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. DS-Lite YANG Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. DS-Lite YANG Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 6. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
7. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 7. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
7.1. Normative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 7.1. Normative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
7.2. Informative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 7.2. Informative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Appendix A. B4 Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Appendix A. B4 Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Appendix B. AFTR Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Appendix B. AFTR Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document defines a data model for DS-Lite [RFC6333], using the This document defines a data model for DS-Lite [RFC6333], using the
YANG data modeling language [RFC7950]. Both the Address Family YANG data modeling language [RFC7950]. Both the Address Family
Transition Router (AFTR) and Basic Bridging BroadBand (B4) elements Transition Router (AFTR) and Basic Bridging BroadBand (B4) elements
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Access Control List (ACL) and Quality of Service (QoS) policies Access Control List (ACL) and Quality of Service (QoS) policies
discussed in Section 2.5 of [RFC6908] are out of scope. A YANG discussed in Section 2.5 of [RFC6908] are out of scope. A YANG
module for ACLs is documented in [I-D.ietf-netmod-acl-model]. module for ACLs is documented in [I-D.ietf-netmod-acl-model].
Likewise, PCP-related considerations discussed in Section 8.5 of Likewise, PCP-related considerations discussed in Section 8.5 of
[RFC6333] are out of scope. A YANG module for PCP is documented in [RFC6333] are out of scope. A YANG module for PCP is documented in
[I-D.boucadair-pcp-yang]. [I-D.boucadair-pcp-yang].
module: ietf-dslite module: ietf-dslite
augment /if:interfaces/if:interface: augment /if:interfaces/if:interface:
+--rw ipv6-address? inet:ipv6-address {aftr or b4}? +--rw ipv6-address? inet:ipv6-address
+--rw ipv4-address? inet:ipv4-address {aftr or b4}? +--rw ipv4-address? inet:ipv4-address
+--rw aftr-ipv6-addr? inet:ipv6-address {b4}? +--rw aftr-ipv6-addr? inet:ipv6-address {b4}?
+--rw tunnel-mtu? uint16 {aftr or b4}? +--rw tunnel-mtu? uint16
+--rw v6-v4-dscp-preservation? boolean {aftr or b4}? +--rw v6-v4-dscp-preservation? boolean
augment /nat:nat/nat:instances/nat:instance/nat:policy: augment /nat:nat/nat:instances/nat:instance/nat:policy:
+--rw max-softwires-per-subscriber? uint8 {aftr}? +--rw max-softwires-per-subscriber? uint8 {aftr}?
+--rw state-migrate? boolean {aftr}? +--rw state-migrate? boolean {aftr}?
+--rw b4-address-change-limit? uint32 {aftr}? +--rw b4-address-change-limit? uint32 {aftr}?
+--rw mss-clamping {aftr}? +--rw mss-clamping {aftr}?
+--rw enable? boolean +--rw enable? boolean
+--rw mss-value? uint16 +--rw mss-value? uint16
augment /nat:nat/nat:instances/nat:instance/nat:mapping-table/nat:mapping-entry: augment /nat:nat/nat:instances/nat:instance/nat:mapping-table/nat:mapping-entry:
+--rw b4-ipv6-address {aftr}? +--rw b4-ipv6-address {aftr}?
| +--rw address? inet:ipv6-address | +--rw address? inet:ipv6-address
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+--ro policy-id -> /nat:nat/instances/instance/policy/id +--ro policy-id -> /nat:nat/instances/instance/policy/id
+--ro address inet:ipv6-address +--ro address inet:ipv6-address
Figure 2: YANG Module for DS-Lite Figure 2: YANG Module for DS-Lite
Examples to illustrate the use of this module are provided in Examples to illustrate the use of this module are provided in
Appendix A and Appendix B. Appendix A and Appendix B.
3. DS-Lite YANG Module 3. DS-Lite YANG Module
<CODE BEGINS> file "ietf-dslite@2017-11-20.yang" <CODE BEGINS> file "ietf-dslite@2017-12-12.yang"
module ietf-dslite { module ietf-dslite {
yang-version 1.1; yang-version 1.1;
namespace "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-dslite"; namespace "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-dslite";
prefix dslite; prefix dslite;
import ietf-inet-types { prefix inet; } import ietf-inet-types { prefix inet; }
import ietf-interfaces { prefix if; } import ietf-interfaces { prefix if; }
import iana-if-type { prefix ianaift; } import iana-if-type { prefix ianaift; }
import ietf-nat {prefix nat;} import ietf-nat {prefix nat;}
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Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject
to the license terms contained in, the Simplified BSD License to the license terms contained in, the Simplified BSD License
set forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions set forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions
Relating to IETF Documents Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info). (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).
This version of this YANG module is part of RFC XXXX; see This version of this YANG module is part of RFC XXXX; see
the RFC itself for full legal notices."; the RFC itself for full legal notices.";
revision 2017-11-20 { revision 2017-12-12 {
description description
"Initial revision."; "Initial revision.";
reference reference
"RFC XXXX: A YANG Data Module for Dual-Stack Lite (DS-Lite)"; "RFC XXXX: A YANG Data Module for Dual-Stack Lite (DS-Lite)";
} }
/* /*
* Features * Features
*/ */
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"Section 6 of RFC 6333."; "Section 6 of RFC 6333.";
} }
/* /*
* Augments * Augments
*/ */
augment "/if:interfaces/if:interface" { augment "/if:interfaces/if:interface" {
when "if:type = 'ianaift:tunnel'"; when "if:type = 'ianaift:tunnel'";
description description
"Augments Interface module with AFTR parameters. "Augments Interface module with DS-Lite parameters.
IANA interface types are maintained at this registry: IANA interface types are maintained at this registry:
https://www.iana.org/assignments/ianaiftype-mib/ianaiftype-mib. https://www.iana.org/assignments/ianaiftype-mib/ianaiftype-mib.
tunnel (131), -- Encapsulation interface"; tunnel (131), -- Encapsulation interface";
leaf ipv6-address { leaf ipv6-address {
if-feature "aftr or b4";
type inet:ipv6-address; type inet:ipv6-address;
description description
"IPv6 address of the local DS-Lite endpoint (AFTR or B4)."; "IPv6 address of the local DS-Lite endpoint (AFTR or B4).";
reference reference
"RFC 6333: Dual-Stack Lite Broadband Deployments Following "RFC 6333: Dual-Stack Lite Broadband Deployments Following
IPv4 Exhaustion"; IPv4 Exhaustion";
} }
leaf ipv4-address { leaf ipv4-address {
if-feature "aftr or b4";
type inet:ipv4-address; type inet:ipv4-address;
description description
"IPv4 address of the local DS-Lite AFTR or B4. "IPv4 address of the local DS-Lite AFTR or B4.
192.0.0.1 is reserved for the AFTR element, while 192.0.0.1 is reserved for the AFTR element, while
192.0.0.0/29 is reserved for the B4 element. 192.0.0.0/29 is reserved for the B4 element.
This address can be used to report ICMP problems and will This address can be used to report ICMP problems and will
appear in traceroute outputs."; appear in traceroute outputs.";
reference reference
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if-feature b4; if-feature b4;
type inet:ipv6-address; type inet:ipv6-address;
description description
"Indicates the AFTR's IPv6 address to be used by a B4 element."; "Indicates the AFTR's IPv6 address to be used by a B4 element.";
reference reference
"RFC 6333: Dual-Stack Lite Broadband Deployments Following "RFC 6333: Dual-Stack Lite Broadband Deployments Following
IPv4 Exhaustion"; IPv4 Exhaustion";
} }
leaf tunnel-mtu { leaf tunnel-mtu {
if-feature "aftr or b4";
type uint16; type uint16;
description description
"Configures a tunnel MTU. "Configures a tunnel MTU.
[RFC6908] specifies that since fragmentation and reassembly [RFC6908] specifies that since fragmentation and reassembly
is not optimal, the operator should do everything possible is not optimal, the operator should do everything possible
to eliminate the need for it. If the operator uses simple to eliminate the need for it. If the operator uses simple
IPv4-in-IPv6 softwire, it is recommended that the MTU size IPv4-in-IPv6 softwire, it is recommended that the MTU size
of the IPv6 network between the B4 and the AFTR accounts for of the IPv6 network between the B4 and the AFTR accounts for
the additional overhead (40 bytes)."; the additional overhead (40 bytes).";
reference reference
"RFC 6908: Deployment Considerations for Dual-Stack Lite"; "RFC 6908: Deployment Considerations for Dual-Stack Lite";
} }
leaf v6-v4-dscp-preservation { leaf v6-v4-dscp-preservation {
if-feature "aftr or b4";
type boolean; type boolean;
description description
"Copies the DSCP value from the IPv6 header and vice versa. "Copies the DSCP value from the IPv6 header and vice versa.
According to Section 2.10 of [RFC6908], operators should According to Section 2.10 of [RFC6908], operators should
use this model by provisioning the network such that the use this model by provisioning the network such that the
AFTR/B4 copies the DSCP value in the IPv4 header to AFTR/B4 copies the DSCP value in the IPv4 header to
the Traffic Class field in the IPv6 header, after the the Traffic Class field in the IPv6 header, after the
encapsulation for the downstream traffic."; encapsulation for the downstream traffic.";
reference reference
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of a subscriber mask (subscriber-mask-v6). of a subscriber mask (subscriber-mask-v6).
This policy aims to prevent a misbehaving subscriber from This policy aims to prevent a misbehaving subscriber from
mounting several DS-Lite softwires that would consume mounting several DS-Lite softwires that would consume
additional AFTR resources (e.g., get more external ports additional AFTR resources (e.g., get more external ports
if the quota were enforced on a per-softwire basis, if the quota were enforced on a per-softwire basis,
consume extra processing due to a large number of active consume extra processing due to a large number of active
softwires)."; softwires).";
reference reference
"Section 4 of RFC 7785."; "Section 4 of RFC 7785.";
} }
leaf state-migrate { leaf state-migrate {
type boolean; type boolean;
default true; default true;
description description
"State migration is enabled by default. "State migration is enabled by default.
In the event a new IPv6 address is assigned to the B4 element, In the event a new IPv6 address is assigned to the B4 element,
the AFTR should migrate existing state to be bound to the new the AFTR should migrate existing state to be bound to the new
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} }
leaf mss-value { leaf mss-value {
type uint16; type uint16;
units "octets"; units "octets";
description description
"Sets the MSS value to be used for MSS rewriting."; "Sets the MSS value to be used for MSS rewriting.";
} }
} }
} }
augment "/nat:nat/nat:instances/nat:instance/"+ augment "/nat:nat/nat:instances/nat:instance/"+
"nat:mapping-table/nat:mapping-entry"{ "nat:mapping-table/nat:mapping-entry" {
when "/nat:nat/nat:instances/nat:instance/nat:type='nat:napt44'" + when "/nat:nat/nat:instances/nat:instance/nat:type='nat:napt44'" +
" and /nat:nat/nat:instances/nat:instance/" + " and /nat:nat/nat:instances/nat:instance/" +
"nat:per-interface-binding='dslite'"; "nat:per-interface-binding='dslite'";
if-feature aftr; if-feature aftr;
description description
"Augments the NAPT44 mapping table with DS-Lite specifics."; "Augments the NAPT44 mapping table with DS-Lite specifics.";
container b4-ipv6-address { container b4-ipv6-address {
description description
"Records the IPv6 address used by the B4 element and the last "Records the IPv6 address used by a B4 element and the last
time that address changed."; time that address changed.";
leaf address { leaf address {
type inet:ipv6-address; type inet:ipv6-address;
description description
"Corresponds to the IPv6 address used by the B4 element."; "Corresponds to the IPv6 address used by a B4 element.";
reference reference
"RFC 6333: Dual-Stack Lite Broadband Deployments Following "RFC 6333: Dual-Stack Lite Broadband Deployments Following
IPv4 Exhaustion"; IPv4 Exhaustion";
} }
leaf last-address-change { leaf last-address-change {
type yang:date-and-time; type yang:date-and-time;
description description
"Records the last time when the address changed."; "Records the last time when the address changed.";
} }
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URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-dslite URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-dslite
Registrant Contact: The IESG. Registrant Contact: The IESG.
XML: N/A; the requested URI is an XML namespace. XML: N/A; the requested URI is an XML namespace.
This document requests IANA to register the following YANG module in This document requests IANA to register the following YANG module in
the "YANG Module Names" registry [RFC7950]. the "YANG Module Names" registry [RFC7950].
name: ietf-dslite name: ietf-dslite
namespace: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-dslite namespace: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-dslite
prefix: dslite-aftr prefix: dslite
reference: RFC XXXX reference: RFC XXXX
6. Acknowledgements 6. Acknowledgements
Thanks to Qin Wu, Benoit Claise, and Andy Bierman who helped for Thanks to Qin Wu, Benoit Claise, and Andy Bierman who helped for
identifying compiling errors. Mahesh Jethanandani provided an early identifying compiling errors. Mahesh Jethanandani provided an early
yangdoctors review; many thanks to him. yangdoctors review; many thanks to him.
Many thanks to Ian Farrer for the review and comments. Many thanks to Ian Farrer for the review and comments.
7. References 7. References
7.1. Normative references 7.1. Normative references
[I-D.ietf-opsawg-nat-yang] [I-D.ietf-opsawg-nat-yang]
Boucadair, M., Sivakumar, S., Jacquenet, C., Vinapamula, Boucadair, M., Sivakumar, S., Jacquenet, C., Vinapamula,
S., and Q. Wu, "A YANG Data Model for Network Address S., and Q. Wu, "A YANG Data Model for Network Address
Translation (NAT) and Network Prefix Translation (NPT)", Translation (NAT) and Network Prefix Translation (NPT)",
draft-ietf-opsawg-nat-yang-08 (work in progress), November draft-ietf-opsawg-nat-yang-09 (work in progress), November
2017. 2017.
[RFC3688] Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688, [RFC3688] Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688,
DOI 10.17487/RFC3688, January 2004, DOI 10.17487/RFC3688, January 2004,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3688>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3688>.
[RFC5246] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security [RFC5246] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
(TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246,
DOI 10.17487/RFC5246, August 2008, DOI 10.17487/RFC5246, August 2008,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5246>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5246>.
skipping to change at page 18, line 11 skipping to change at page 18, line 11
Prefix Binding in the Context of Softwire Dual-Stack Prefix Binding in the Context of Softwire Dual-Stack
Lite", RFC 7785, DOI 10.17487/RFC7785, February 2016, Lite", RFC 7785, DOI 10.17487/RFC7785, February 2016,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7785>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7785>.
Appendix A. B4 Example Appendix A. B4 Example
The following example shows a B4 element (2001:db8:0:1::1) that is The following example shows a B4 element (2001:db8:0:1::1) that is
configured with an AFTR element (2001:db8:0:2::1). The B4 element is configured with an AFTR element (2001:db8:0:2::1). The B4 element is
also instructed to preserve the DSCP marking. also instructed to preserve the DSCP marking.
<interface> <interfaces>
<name>myB4</name> <interface>
<type>ianaift:tunnel</type> <name>myB4</name>
<enabled>true</enabled> <type>ianaift:tunnel</type>
<ipv6-address>2001:db8:0:1::1</ipv6-address> <enabled>true</enabled>
<aftr-ipv6-addr>2001:db8:0:2::1</aftr-ipv6-addr> <dslite:ipv6-address>2001:db8:0:1::1</dslite:ipv6-address>
<v6-v4-dscp-preservation>true</v6-v4-dscp-preservation> <dslite:aftr-ipv6-addr>2001:db8:0:2::1</dslite:aftr-ipv6-addr>
</interface> <dslite:v6-v4-dscp-preservation>true</dslite:v6-v4-dscp-preservation>
</interface>
</interfaces>
Appendix B. AFTR Examples Appendix B. AFTR Examples
The following example shows an AFTR that is reachable at The following example shows an AFTR that is reachable at
2001:db8:0:2::1. Also, this XML snippet indicates that the AFTR is 2001:db8:0:2::1. Also, this XML snippet indicates that the AFTR is
provided with an IPv4 address (192.0.0.1) to be used for provided with an IPv4 address (192.0.0.1) to be used for
troubleshooting purposes such as reporting problems to B4s. troubleshooting purposes such as reporting problems to B4s.
Note that a subscriber is identified by a subscriber mask ([RFC7785]) Note that a subscriber is identified by a subscriber mask ([RFC7785])
that can be configured by means of [I-D.ietf-opsawg-nat-yang]. that can be configured by means of [I-D.ietf-opsawg-nat-yang].
<interface> <interfaces>
<name>myAFTR</name> <interface>
<type>ianaift:tunnel</type> <name>myAFTR</name>
<enabled>true</enabled> <type>ianaift:tunnel</type>
<ipv6-address>2001:db8:0:2::1</ipv6-address> <enabled>true</enabled>
<ipv4-address>192.0.0.1</ipv4-address> <dslite:ipv6-address>2001:db8:0:2::1</dslite:ipv6-address>
</interface> <dslite:ipv4-address>192.0.0.1</dslite:ipv4-address>
</interface>
</interfaces>
The following shows an XML excerpt depicting a dynamic UDP mapping The following shows an XML excerpt depicting a dynamic UDP mapping
entry maintained by a DS-Lite AFTR for a packet received from the B4 entry maintained by a DS-Lite AFTR for a packet received from the B4
element introduced in Appendix A. Concretely, this UDP packet element introduced in Appendix A. Concretely, this UDP packet
received with a source IPv6 address (2001:db8:0:1::1), a source IPv4 received with a source IPv6 address (2001:db8:0:1::1), a source IPv4
address (192.0.2.1), and source port number (1568) is translated into address (192.0.2.1), and source port number (1568) is translated into
a UDP packet having a source IPv4 address (198.51.100.1) and source a UDP packet having a source IPv4 address (198.51.100.1) and source
port number (15000). The remaining lifetime of this mapping is 300 port number (15000). The remaining lifetime of this mapping is 300
seconds. seconds.
<mapping-entry> <mapping-entry>
<index>15</index> <index>15</index>
<type> <type>
dynamic-explicit dynamic-explicit
</type> </type>
<transport-protocol> <transport-protocol>
17 17
</transport-protocol> </transport-protocol>
<b4-ipv6-address> <dslite:b4-ipv6-address>
<address> <dslite:address>
2001:db8:0:1::1 2001:db8:0:1::1
</address> </dslite:address>
</b4-ipv6-address> </dslite:b4-ipv6-address>
<internal-src-address> <internal-src-address>
192.0.2.1 192.0.2.1
</internal-src-address> </internal-src-address>
<internal-src-port> <internal-src-port>
<start-port-number> <start-port-number>
1568 1568
</start-port-number> </start-port-number>
</internal-src-port> </internal-src-port>
<external-src-address> <external-src-address>
198.51.100.1 198.51.100.1
</external-src-address> </external-src-address>
<external-src-port> <external-src-port>
<start-port-number> <start-port-number>
15000 15000
</start-port-number> </start-port-number>
</external-src-port> </external-src-port>
<lifetime> <lifetime>
300 300
</lifetime> </lifetime>
</mapping-entry> </mapping-entry>
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Mohamed Boucadair Mohamed Boucadair
Orange Orange
Rennes 35000 Rennes 35000
France France
EMail: mohamed.boucadair@orange.com EMail: mohamed.boucadair@orange.com
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