draft-ietf-spring-ipv6-use-cases-07.txt   draft-ietf-spring-ipv6-use-cases-08.txt 
Spring J. Brzozowski Spring J. Brzozowski
Internet-Draft J. Leddy Internet-Draft J. Leddy
Intended status: Informational Comcast Intended status: Informational Comcast
Expires: January 23, 2017 M. Townsley Expires: August 3, 2017 M. Townsley
C. Filsfils C. Filsfils
R. Maglione, Ed. R. Maglione, Ed.
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
July 22, 2016 January 30, 2017
IPv6 SPRING Use Cases IPv6 SPRING Use Cases
draft-ietf-spring-ipv6-use-cases-07 draft-ietf-spring-ipv6-use-cases-08
Abstract Abstract
Source Packet Routing in Networking (SPRING) architecture leverages Source Packet Routing in Networking (SPRING) architecture leverages
the source routing paradigm. A node steers a packet through a the source routing paradigm. A node steers a packet through a
controlled set of instructions, called segments, by prepending the controlled set of instructions, called segments, by prepending the
packet with SPRING header. A segment can represent any instruction, packet with SPRING header. A segment can represent any instruction,
topological or service-based. A segment can have a local semantic to topological or service-based. A segment can have a local semantic to
the SPRING node or global within the SPRING domain. SPRING allows to the SPRING node or global within the SPRING domain. SPRING allows to
enforce a flow through any topological path and service chain while enforce a flow through any topological path while maintaining per-
maintaining per-flow state only at the ingress node to the SPRING flow state only at the ingress node to the SPRING domain.
domain.
The objective of this document is to illustrate some use cases that The objective of this document is to illustrate some use cases that
need to be taken into account by the Source Packet Routing in need to be taken into account by the Source Packet Routing in
Networking (SPRING) architecture. Networking (SPRING) architecture.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on January 23, 2017. This Internet-Draft will expire on August 3, 2017.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. IPv6 SPRING use cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. IPv6 SPRING use cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1. SPRING in the Home Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1. SPRING in the Home Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2. SPRING in the Access Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.2. SPRING in the Access Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.3. SPRING in the Data Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.3. SPRING in the Data Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.3.1. VM isolation in a Data Center . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.4. SPRING in the Content Delivery Networks . . . . . . . . . 7
2.4. SPRING in the Content Delivery Networks . . . . . . . . . 8 2.5. SPRING in the Core networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.5. SPRING in the Core networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 7. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Source Packet Routing in Networking (SPRING) architecture leverages Source Packet Routing in Networking (SPRING) architecture leverages
the source routing paradigm. An ingress node steers a packet through the source routing paradigm. An ingress node steers a packet through
a controlled set of instructions, called segments, by prepending the a controlled set of instructions, called segments, by prepending the
packet with SPRING header. A segment can represent any instruction, packet with SPRING header. A segment can represent any instruction,
topological or service-based. A segment can represent a local topological or service-based. A segment can represent a local
semantic on the SPRING node, or a global semantic within the SPRING semantic on the SPRING node, or a global semantic within the SPRING
domain. SPRING allows one to enforce a flow through any topological domain. SPRING allows one to enforce a flow through any topological
path and service chain while maintaining per-flow state only at the path while maintaining per-flow state only at the ingress node to the
ingress node to the SPRING domain. SPRING domain.
The SPRING architecture is described in The SPRING architecture is described in
[I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing]. The SPRING control plane is [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing]. The SPRING control plane is
agnostic to the dataplane, thus it can be applied to both MPLS and agnostic to the dataplane, thus it can be applied to both MPLS and
IPv6. In case of MPLS the (list of) segment identifiers are carried IPv6. In case of MPLS the (list of) segment identifiers are carried
in the MPLS label stack, while for the IPv6 dataplane, a new type of in the MPLS label stack, while for the IPv6 dataplane, a new type of
routing extension header is required. routing extension header is required.
The details of the new routing extension header are described in The details of the new routing extension header are described in
[I-D.previdi-6man-segment-routing-header] which also covers the [I-D.ietf-6man-segment-routing-header] which also covers the security
security considerations and the aspects related to the deprecation of considerations and the aspects related to the deprecation of the IPv6
the IPv6 Type 0 Routing Header described in [RFC5095]. Type 0 Routing Header described in [RFC5095].
2. IPv6 SPRING use cases 2. IPv6 SPRING use cases
In today's networks, source routing is typically accomplished by In today's networks, source routing is typically accomplished by
encapsulating IP packets in MPLS LSPs that are signaled via RSVP-TE. encapsulating IP packets in MPLS LSPs that are signaled via RSVP-TE.
Therefore, there are scenarios where it may be possible to run IPv6 Therefore, there are scenarios where it may be possible to run IPv6
on top of MPLS, and as such, the MPLS Segment Routing architecture on top of MPLS, and as such, the MPLS Segment Routing architecture
described in [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing-mpls] could be described in [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing-mpls] could be
leveraged to provide SPRING capabilities in an IPv6/MPLS environment. leveraged to provide SPRING capabilities in an IPv6/MPLS environment.
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because they do not possess enough IPv4 addresses resources to number because they do not possess enough IPv4 addresses resources to number
all the endpoints and other network elements on which they desire to all the endpoints and other network elements on which they desire to
run MPLS. run MPLS.
In such scenario the support for MPLS operations on an IPv6-only In such scenario the support for MPLS operations on an IPv6-only
network would be required. However today's IPv6-only networks are network would be required. However today's IPv6-only networks are
not fully capable of supporting MPLS. There is ongoing work in the not fully capable of supporting MPLS. There is ongoing work in the
MPLS Working Group, described in [RFC7439] to identify gaps that must MPLS Working Group, described in [RFC7439] to identify gaps that must
be addressed in order to allow MPLS-related protocols and be addressed in order to allow MPLS-related protocols and
applications to be used with IPv6-only networks. This is an another applications to be used with IPv6-only networks. This is an another
example of scenario where an IPv6-only solution could represent a example of scenario where a solution relaying on IPv6 without
valid option to solve the problem and meet operators' requirements. requiring the use of MPLS could represent a valid option to solve the
problem and meet operators' requirements.
It is important to clarify that today, it is possible to run IPv6 on It is important to clarify that today, it is possible to run IPv6 on
top of an IPv4 MPLS network by using the mechanism called 6PE, top of an IPv4 MPLS network by using the mechanism called 6PE,
described in [RFC4798]. However this approach does not fulfill the described in [RFC4798]. However this approach does not fulfill the
requirement of removing the need of IPv4 addresses in the network, as requirement of removing the need of IPv4 addresses in the network, as
requested in the above use case. requested in the above use case. Another way to run IPv6 on top of
an MPLS network is to use Segment Routing MPLS which provides the
support for the IPv6 FEC. Obviously such approach is applicable only
for scenarios and network segments where MPLS is present.
In addition it is worth to note that in today's MPLS dual-stack In addition it is worth to note that in today's MPLS dual-stack
networks IPv4 traffic is labeled while IPv6 traffic is usually networks IPv4 traffic is labeled while IPv6 traffic is usually
natively routed, not label-switched. Therefore in order to be able natively routed, not label-switched. Therefore in order to be able
to provide Traffic Engineering "like" capabilities for IPv6 traffic to provide Traffic Engineering "like" capabilities for IPv6 traffic
additional/alternative encapsulation mechanisms would be required. additional/alternative encapsulation mechanisms would be required.
In summary there is a class of use cases that motivate an IPv6 data In summary there is a class of use cases that motivate an IPv6 data
plane. The authors identify some fundamental scenarios that, when plane. The authors identify some fundamental scenarios that, when
recognized in conjunction, strongly indicate an IPv6 data plane: recognized in conjunction, strongly indicate an IPv6 data plane:
1. There is a need or desire to impose source-routing semantics 1. There is a need or desire to impose source-routing semantics
within an application or at the edge of a network (for example, a within an application or at the edge of a network (for example, a
CPE or home gateway) CPE or home gateway)
2. There is a strict lack of an MPLS dataplane 2. There is a strict lack of an MPLS dataplane in a portion of the
end to end path
3. There is a need or desire to remove routing state from any node 3. There is a need or desire to remove routing state from any node
other than the source, such that the source is the only node that other than the source, such that the source is the only node that
knows and will know the path a packet will take, a priori knows and will know the path a packet will take, a priori
4. There is a need to connect millions of addressable segment 4. There is a need to connect millions of addressable segment
endpoints, thus high routing scalability is a requirement. IPv6 endpoints, thus high routing scalability is a requirement. IPv6
addresses are inherently summarizable: a very large operator addresses are inherently summarizable: a very large operator
could scale by summarizing IPv6 subnets at various internal could scale by summarizing IPv6 subnets at various internal
boundaries. This is very simple and is a basic property of IP boundaries. This is very simple and is a basic property of IP
routing. MPLS node segments are not summarizable. To reach the routing. MPLS node segments are not summarizable. To reach the
same scale, an operator would need to introduce additional same scale, an operator would need to introduce additional
complexity, such as mechanisms known with the industry term complexity, such as mechanisms known with the industry term
Seamless MPLS. Seamless MPLS.
In any environment with requirements such as those listed above, an In any environment with requirements such as those listed above, an
IPv6 data plane provides a powerful combination of capabilities for a IPv6 data plane provides a powerful combination of capabilities for a
network operator to realize benefits in explicit routing, protection network operator to realize benefits in explicit routing, protection
and restoration, high routing scalability, traffic engineering, and restoration, high routing scalability, traffic engineering,
service chaining, service differentiation and application flexibility service differentiation and application flexibility via
via programmability. programmability.
This section will describe some scenarios where MPLS may not be This section will describe some scenarios where MPLS may not be
present and it will highlight how the SPRING architecture could be present and it will highlight how the SPRING architecture could be
used to address such use cases, particularly, when an MPLS data plane used to address such use cases.
is neither present nor desired.
The use cases described in the section do not constitute an The use cases described in the section do not constitute an
exhaustive list of all the possible scenarios; this section only exhaustive list of all the possible scenarios; this section only
includes some of the most common envisioned deployment models for includes some of the most common envisioned deployment models for
IPv6 Segment Routing. IPv6 Segment Routing. In addition to the use cases described in this
document the SPRING architecture can be applied to all the use cases
In addition to the use cases described in this document the SPRING described in [RFC7855] for the SPRING MPLS data plane, when an IPv6
architecture can be applied to all the use cases described in data plane is present.
[RFC7855] for the SPRING MPLS data plane, when an IPv6 data plane is
present. Here there is a summary of those use cases:
1. Traffic Engineering
2. Disjoint paths in dual-plane networks
3. Fast Reroute: Protecting node and adjacency segments
4. OAM/monitoring
5. Egress Peering Engineering
2.1. SPRING in the Home Network 2.1. SPRING in the Home Network
An IPv6-enabled home network provides ample globally routed IP An IPv6-enabled home network provides ample globally routed IP
addresses for all devices in the home. An IPv6 home network with addresses for all devices in the home. An IPv6 home network with
multiple egress points and associated provider-assigned prefixes multiple egress points and associated provider-assigned prefixes
will, in turn, provide multiple IPv6 addresses to hosts. A homenet will, in turn, provide multiple IPv6 addresses to hosts. A homenet
performing Source and Destination Routing performing Source and Destination Routing
([I-D.ietf-rtgwg-dst-src-routing]) will ensure that packets exit the ([I-D.ietf-rtgwg-dst-src-routing]) will ensure that packets exit the
home at the appropriate egress based on the associated delegated home at the appropriate egress based on the associated delegated
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Segment List by end-hosts in the home, or a customer edge router in Segment List by end-hosts in the home, or a customer edge router in
the home. If the Segment List is enabled at the customer edge the home. If the Segment List is enabled at the customer edge
router, that router is responsible for classifying traffic and router, that router is responsible for classifying traffic and
inserting the appropriate Segment List. If hosts in the home have inserting the appropriate Segment List. If hosts in the home have
explicit source selection rules, classification can be based on explicit source selection rules, classification can be based on
source address or associated network egress point, avoiding the need source address or associated network egress point, avoiding the need
for DPI-based implicit classification techniques. If the Segment for DPI-based implicit classification techniques. If the Segment
List is inserted by the host itself, it is important to know which List is inserted by the host itself, it is important to know which
networks can interpret the SPRING header. This information can be networks can interpret the SPRING header. This information can be
provided as part of host configuration as a property of the provided as part of host configuration as a property of the
configured IP address (see [I-D.ietf-mif-mpvd-dhcp-support]). configured IP address.
The ability to steer traffic to an appropriate egress or utilize a The ability to steer traffic to an appropriate egress or utilize a
specific type of media (e.g., low-power, WIFI, wired, femto-cell, specific type of media (e.g., low-power, WIFI, wired, femto-cell,
bluetooth, MOCA, HomePlug, etc.) within the home itself are obvious bluetooth, MOCA, HomePlug, etc.) within the home itself are obvious
cases which may be of interest to an application running within a cases which may be of interest to an application running within a
home network. home network.
Steering to a specific egress point may be useful for a number of Steering to a specific egress point may be useful for a number of
reasons, including: reasons, including:
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For bandwidth management or related purposes, the service provider For bandwidth management or related purposes, the service provider
may want to associate certain types of traffic to specific physical may want to associate certain types of traffic to specific physical
or logical downstream capacity pipes. or logical downstream capacity pipes.
This mapping is not the same thing as classification and scheduling. This mapping is not the same thing as classification and scheduling.
In the Cable access network, each of these pipes are represented at In the Cable access network, each of these pipes are represented at
the DOCSIS layer as different service flows, which are better the DOCSIS layer as different service flows, which are better
identified as differing data links. As such, creating this identified as differing data links. As such, creating this
separation allows an operator to differentiate between different separation allows an operator to differentiate between different
types of content and perform a variety of differing functions on types of content and perform a variety of differing functions on
these pipes, such as egress vectoring, byte capping, regulatory these pipes, such as byte capping, regulatory compliance functions,
compliance functions, and billing. and billing.
In a cable operator's environment, these downstream pipes could be a In a cable operator's environment, these downstream pipes could be a
specific QAM, a DOCSIS service flow or a service group. specific QAM, a DOCSIS service flow or a service group.
Similarly, the operator may want to map traffic from the home sent Similarly, the operator may want to map traffic from the home sent
towards the service provider's network to specific upstream capacity towards the service provider's network to specific upstream capacity
pipes. Information carried in a packet's SPRING header could provide pipes. Information carried in a packet's SPRING header could provide
the target pipe for this specific packet. The access device would the target pipe for this specific packet. The access device would
not need to know specific details about the packet to perform this not need to know specific details about the packet to perform this
mapping; instead the access device would only need to know how to map mapping; instead the access device would only need to know how to map
the SR SID value to the target pipe. the SR SID value to the target pipe.
2.3. SPRING in the Data Center 2.3. SPRING in the Data Center
A key use case for SPRING is to cause a packet to follow a specific Some Data Center operators are transitioning their Data Center
path through the network. One can think of the service function infrastructure from IPv4 to native IPv6 only, in order to cope with
performed at each SPRING node to be forwarding. More complex service IPv4 address depletion and the achieve larger scale. In such
functions could be applied to the packet by a SPRING node including environment, Segment Routing IPv6 can be used to steer traffic across
accounting, IDS, load balancing, and fire walling. specific paths.
The term "Service Function Chain", as defined in [RFC7498], it is
used to describe an ordered set of service functions that must be
applied to packets.
A service provider may choose to have these service functions
performed external to the routing infrastructure, specifically on
either dedicated physical servers or within VMs running on a
virtualization platform.
[I-D.ietf-sfc-dc-use-cases] describes use cases that demonstrate the
applicability of Service Function Chaining (SFC) within a data center
environment and provides SFC requirements for data center centric use
cases.
2.3.1. VM isolation in a Data Center
One of the fundamental requirements for Data Center architecture is
to provide scalable, isolated tenant networks. Today with OpenStack
Networking (Neutron) this can be achieved via L2 segmentation using
either a) standard 802.1Q VLANs or b) an overlay approach based on
one of several L2 over L3 encapsulation techniques available today
such as 802.1ad, VXLAN, NVGRE. However, these approaches still
struggle to provide scalable, transparent, manageable, high
performance, isolated tenant networks.
The 128-bit PE Ingress ID in the Segment Router Header (SRH) policy
list defined in [I-D.previdi-6man-segment-routing-header] provides a
natural place to encode origin information of VM to VM traffic within
the Data Center. The Segment List provides a method to direct
traffic to a specific enforcement point based on traffic destination.
Together, these allow for a simple tagging and permit/deny comparison
performed between twin SR-capable nodes (e.g., the Neutron Virtual
Router) among VMs in a Data Center.
2.4. SPRING in the Content Delivery Networks 2.4. SPRING in the Content Delivery Networks
The rise of online video applications and new, video-capable IP The rise of online video applications and new, video-capable IP
devices has led to an explosion of video traffic traversing network devices has led to an explosion of video traffic traversing network
operator infrastructures. In the drive to reduce the capital and operator infrastructures. In the drive to reduce the capital and
operational impact of the massive influx of online video traffic, as operational impact of the massive influx of online video traffic, as
well as to extend traditional TV services to new devices and screens, well as to extend traditional TV services to new devices and screens,
network operators are increasingly turning to Content Delivery network operators are increasingly turning to Content Delivery
Networks (CDNs). Networks (CDNs).
skipping to change at page 8, line 32 skipping to change at page 7, line 40
efficient caches architecture. efficient caches architecture.
In an environment, where each single cache system can be uniquely In an environment, where each single cache system can be uniquely
identified by its own IPv6 address, a Segment List containing a identified by its own IPv6 address, a Segment List containing a
sequence of the caches in a hierarchy can be built. At each node sequence of the caches in a hierarchy can be built. At each node
(cache) present in the Segment List a TCP session to port 80 is (cache) present in the Segment List a TCP session to port 80 is
established and if the requested content is found at the cache (cache established and if the requested content is found at the cache (cache
hits scenario) the sequence ends, even if there are more nodes in the hits scenario) the sequence ends, even if there are more nodes in the
list. list.
To achieve the behavior described above, in addition to the Segment
List, which specifies the path to be followed to explore the
hierarchic architecture, a way to instruct the node to take a
specific action is required. The function to be performed by a
service node can be carried into a new header called Network Service
Header (NSH) defined in [I-D.ietf-sfc-nsh]. A Network Service Header
(NSH) is metadata added to a packet that is used to create a service
plane. The service header is added by a service classification
function that determines which packets require servicing, and
correspondingly which service path to follow to apply the appropriate
service.
In the above example the service to be performed by the service node
was to establish a TCP session to port 80, but in other scenarios
different functions may be required. Another example of action to be
taken by the service node is the capability to perform
transformations on payload data, like real-time video transcode
option (for rate and/or resolution).
The use of SPRING together with the NSH allows building flexible
service chains where the topological information related to the path
to be followed is carried into the Segment List while the "service
plane related information" (function/action to be performed) is
encoded in the metadata, carried into the NSH. The details about
using SPRING together with NSH will be described in a separate
document.
2.5. SPRING in the Core networks 2.5. SPRING in the Core networks
MPLS is a well-known technology widely deployed in many IP core MPLS is a well-known technology widely deployed in many IP core
networks. However there are some operators that do not run MPLS networks. However there are some operators that do not run MPLS
everywhere in their core network today, thus moving forward they everywhere in their core network today, thus moving forward they
would prefer to have an IPv6 native infrastructure for the core would prefer to have an IPv6 native infrastructure for the core
network. network.
While the overall amount of traffic offered to the network continues While the overall amount of traffic offered to the network continues
to grow and considering that multiple types of traffic with different to grow and considering that multiple types of traffic with different
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5. IANA Considerations 5. IANA Considerations
This document does not require any action from IANA. This document does not require any action from IANA.
6. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
There are a number of security concerns with source routing at the IP There are a number of security concerns with source routing at the IP
layer [RFC5095]. Security mechanisms applied to Segment Routing over layer [RFC5095]. Security mechanisms applied to Segment Routing over
IPv6 networks are detailed in section 9 of IPv6 networks are detailed in section 9 of
[I-D.previdi-6man-segment-routing-header] [I-D.ietf-6man-segment-routing-header]
7. Informative References 7. Informative References
[I-D.ietf-mif-mpvd-dhcp-support] [I-D.ietf-6man-segment-routing-header]
Krishnan, S., Korhonen, J., and S. Bhandari, "Support for Previdi, S., Filsfils, C., Field, B., Leung, I., Linkova,
multiple provisioning domains in DHCPv6", draft-ietf-mif- J., Aries, E., Kosugi, T., Vyncke, E., and D. Lebrun,
mpvd-dhcp-support-02 (work in progress), October 2015. "IPv6 Segment Routing Header (SRH)", draft-ietf-6man-
segment-routing-header-04 (work in progress), January
2017.
[I-D.ietf-rtgwg-dst-src-routing] [I-D.ietf-rtgwg-dst-src-routing]
Lamparter, D. and A. Smirnov, "Destination/Source Lamparter, D. and A. Smirnov, "Destination/Source
Routing", draft-ietf-rtgwg-dst-src-routing-02 (work in Routing", draft-ietf-rtgwg-dst-src-routing-03 (work in
progress), May 2016. progress), November 2016.
[I-D.ietf-sfc-dc-use-cases]
Surendra, S., Tufail, M., Majee, S., Captari, C., and S.
Homma, "Service Function Chaining Use Cases In Data
Centers", draft-ietf-sfc-dc-use-cases-04 (work in
progress), January 2016.
[I-D.ietf-sfc-nsh]
Quinn, P. and U. Elzur, "Network Service Header", draft-
ietf-sfc-nsh-05 (work in progress), May 2016.
[I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing] [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing]
Filsfils, C., Previdi, S., Decraene, B., Litkowski, S., Filsfils, C., Previdi, S., Decraene, B., Litkowski, S.,
and R. Shakir, "Segment Routing Architecture", draft-ietf- and R. Shakir, "Segment Routing Architecture", draft-ietf-
spring-segment-routing-09 (work in progress), July 2016. spring-segment-routing-10 (work in progress), November
2016.
[I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing-mpls] [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing-mpls]
Filsfils, C., Previdi, S., Bashandy, A., Decraene, B., Filsfils, C., Previdi, S., Bashandy, A., Decraene, B.,
Litkowski, S., Horneffer, M., Shakir, R., Litkowski, S., Horneffer, M., Shakir, R.,
jefftant@gmail.com, j., and E. Crabbe, "Segment Routing jefftant@gmail.com, j., and E. Crabbe, "Segment Routing
with MPLS data plane", draft-ietf-spring-segment-routing- with MPLS data plane", draft-ietf-spring-segment-routing-
mpls-05 (work in progress), July 2016. mpls-06 (work in progress), January 2017.
[I-D.previdi-6man-segment-routing-header]
Previdi, S., Filsfils, C., Field, B., Leung, I., Linkova,
J., Kosugi, T., Vyncke, E., and D. Lebrun, "IPv6 Segment
Routing Header (SRH)", draft-previdi-6man-segment-routing-
header-08 (work in progress), October 2015.
[RFC4798] De Clercq, J., Ooms, D., Prevost, S., and F. Le Faucheur, [RFC4798] De Clercq, J., Ooms, D., Prevost, S., and F. Le Faucheur,
"Connecting IPv6 Islands over IPv4 MPLS Using IPv6 "Connecting IPv6 Islands over IPv4 MPLS Using IPv6
Provider Edge Routers (6PE)", RFC 4798, Provider Edge Routers (6PE)", RFC 4798,
DOI 10.17487/RFC4798, February 2007, DOI 10.17487/RFC4798, February 2007,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4798>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4798>.
[RFC5095] Abley, J., Savola, P., and G. Neville-Neil, "Deprecation [RFC5095] Abley, J., Savola, P., and G. Neville-Neil, "Deprecation
of Type 0 Routing Headers in IPv6", RFC 5095, of Type 0 Routing Headers in IPv6", RFC 5095,
DOI 10.17487/RFC5095, December 2007, DOI 10.17487/RFC5095, December 2007,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5095>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5095>.
[RFC7439] George, W., Ed. and C. Pignataro, Ed., "Gap Analysis for [RFC7439] George, W., Ed. and C. Pignataro, Ed., "Gap Analysis for
Operating IPv6-Only MPLS Networks", RFC 7439, Operating IPv6-Only MPLS Networks", RFC 7439,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7439, January 2015, DOI 10.17487/RFC7439, January 2015,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7439>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7439>.
[RFC7498] Quinn, P., Ed. and T. Nadeau, Ed., "Problem Statement for
Service Function Chaining", RFC 7498,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7498, April 2015,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7498>.
[RFC7855] Previdi, S., Ed., Filsfils, C., Ed., Decraene, B., [RFC7855] Previdi, S., Ed., Filsfils, C., Ed., Decraene, B.,
Litkowski, S., Horneffer, M., and R. Shakir, "Source Litkowski, S., Horneffer, M., and R. Shakir, "Source
Packet Routing in Networking (SPRING) Problem Statement Packet Routing in Networking (SPRING) Problem Statement
and Requirements", RFC 7855, DOI 10.17487/RFC7855, May and Requirements", RFC 7855, DOI 10.17487/RFC7855, May
2016, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7855>. 2016, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7855>.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
John Brzozowski John Brzozowski
Comcast Comcast
 End of changes. 25 change blocks. 
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