draft-ietf-spring-ipv6-use-cases-09.txt   draft-ietf-spring-ipv6-use-cases-10.txt 
Spring J. Brzozowski Spring J. Brzozowski
Internet-Draft J. Leddy Internet-Draft J. Leddy
Intended status: Informational Comcast Intended status: Informational Comcast
Expires: August 14, 2017 C. Filsfils Expires: October 15, 2017 C. Filsfils
R. Maglione, Ed. R. Maglione, Ed.
M. Townsley M. Townsley
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
February 10, 2017 April 13, 2017
IPv6 SPRING Use Cases IPv6 SPRING Use Cases
draft-ietf-spring-ipv6-use-cases-09 draft-ietf-spring-ipv6-use-cases-10
Abstract Abstract
Source Packet Routing in Networking (SPRING) architecture leverages
the source routing paradigm. A node steers a packet through a
controlled set of instructions, called segments, by prepending the
packet with SPRING header. A segment can represent any instruction,
topological or service-based. A segment can have a local semantic to
the SPRING node or global within the SPRING domain. SPRING allows to
enforce a flow through any topological path and service chain while
maintaining per-flow state only at the ingress node to the SPRING
domain.
The objective of this document is to illustrate some use cases that The objective of this document is to illustrate some use cases that
need to be taken into account by the Source Packet Routing in need to be taken into account by the Source Packet Routing in
Networking (SPRING) architecture. Networking (SPRING) architecture in the context of an IPv6
environment.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on August 14, 2017. This Internet-Draft will expire on October 15, 2017.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. IPv6 SPRING use cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. IPv6 SPRING use cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1. SPRING in the Home Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1. SPRING in the Home Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.2. SPRING in the Access Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.2. SPRING in the Access Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.3. SPRING in the Data Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.3. SPRING in the Data Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.4. SPRING in the Content Delivery Networks . . . . . . . . . 7 2.4. SPRING in the Content Delivery Networks . . . . . . . . . 6
2.5. SPRING in the Core networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.5. SPRING in the Core networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
7. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 7.1. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
7.2. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Source Packet Routing in Networking (SPRING) architecture leverages Source Packet Routing in Networking (SPRING) architecture leverages
the source routing paradigm. An ingress node steers a packet through the source routing paradigm. An ingress node steers a packet through
a controlled set of instructions, called segments, by prepending the a controlled set of instructions, called segments, by prepending the
packet with SPRING header. A segment can represent any instruction, packet with SPRING header. The SPRING architecture is described in
topological or service-based. A segment can represent a local [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing].
semantic on the SPRING node, or a global semantic within the SPRING
domain. SPRING allows one to enforce a flow through any topological
path and service chain while maintaining per-flow state only at the
ingress node to the SPRING domain.
The SPRING architecture is described in
[I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing]. The SPRING control plane is
agnostic to the dataplane, thus it can be applied to both MPLS and
IPv6. In case of MPLS the (list of) segment identifiers are carried
in the MPLS label stack, while for the IPv6 dataplane, a new type of
routing extension header is required.
The details of the new routing extension header are described in
[I-D.ietf-6man-segment-routing-header] which also covers the security
considerations and the aspects related to the deprecation of the IPv6
Type 0 Routing Header described in [RFC5095].
2. IPv6 SPRING use cases
In today's networks, source routing is typically accomplished by In today's networks, source routing is typically accomplished by
encapsulating IP packets in MPLS LSPs that are signaled via RSVP-TE. encapsulating IP packets in MPLS LSPs that are signaled via RSVP-TE.
Therefore, there are scenarios where it may be possible to run IPv6 Therefore, there are scenarios where it may be possible to run IPv6
on top of MPLS, and as such, the MPLS Segment Routing architecture on top of MPLS, and as such, the MPLS Segment Routing architecture
described in [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing-mpls] could be described in [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing-mpls] could be
leveraged to provide SPRING capabilities in an IPv6/MPLS environment. leveraged to provide spring capabilities in an IPv6/MPLS environment.
However, there are other cases and/or specific network segments (such However, there are other cases and/or specific network segments (such
as for example the Home Network, the Data Center, etc.) where MPLS as for example the Home Network, the Data Center, etc.) where MPLS
may not be available or deployable for lack of support on network may not be available or deployable for lack of support on network
elements or for an operator's design choice. In such scenarios a elements or for an operator's design choice. In such scenarios a
non-MPLS based solution would be preferred by the network operators non-MPLS based solution would be preferred by the network operators
of such infrastructures. of such infrastructures.
In addition there are cases where the operators could have made the In addition there are cases where the operators could have made the
design choice to disable IPv4, for ease of management and scale design choice to disable IPv4, for ease of management and scale
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be addressed in order to allow MPLS-related protocols and be addressed in order to allow MPLS-related protocols and
applications to be used with IPv6-only networks. This is an another applications to be used with IPv6-only networks. This is an another
example of scenario where a solution relying on IPv6 without example of scenario where a solution relying on IPv6 without
requiring the use of MPLS could represent a valid option to solve the requiring the use of MPLS could represent a valid option to solve the
problem and meet operators' requirements. problem and meet operators' requirements.
It is important to clarify that today, it is possible to run IPv6 on It is important to clarify that today, it is possible to run IPv6 on
top of an IPv4 MPLS network by using the mechanism called 6PE, top of an IPv4 MPLS network by using the mechanism called 6PE,
described in [RFC4798]. However this approach does not fulfill the described in [RFC4798]. However this approach does not fulfill the
requirement of removing the need of IPv4 addresses in the network, as requirement of removing the need of IPv4 addresses in the network, as
requested in the above use case. Another way to run IPv6 on top of requested in the above use case.
an MPLS network is to use Segment Routing MPLS which provides the
support for the IPv6 FEC. Obviously such approach is applicable only
for scenarios and network segments where MPLS is present.
In addition it is worth to note that in today's MPLS dual-stack
networks IPv4 traffic is labeled while IPv6 traffic is usually
natively routed, not label-switched. Therefore in order to be able
to provide Traffic Engineering "like" capabilities for IPv6 traffic
additional/alternative encapsulation mechanisms would be required.
In summary there is a class of use cases that motivate an IPv6 data In summary there is a class of use cases that motivates an IPv6 data
plane. The authors identify some fundamental scenarios that, when plane. This document identifies some fundamental scenarios that,
recognized in conjunction, strongly indicate an IPv6 data plane: when recognized in conjunction, strongly indicate an IPv6 data plane:
1. There is a need or desire to impose source-routing semantics 1. There is a need or desire to impose source-routing semantics
within an application or at the edge of a network (for example, a within an application or at the edge of a network (for example, a
CPE or home gateway) CPE or home gateway)
2. There is a strict lack of an MPLS dataplane in a portion of the 2. There is a strict lack of an MPLS dataplane in a portion of the
end to end path end to end path
3. There is a need or desire to remove routing state from any node 3. There is a need or desire to remove routing state from any node
other than the source, such that the source is the only node that other than the source, such that the source is the only node that
knows and will know the path a packet will take, a priori knows and will know the path a packet will take, a priori
4. There is a need to connect millions of addressable segment 4. There is a need to connect millions of addressable segment
endpoints, thus high routing scalability is a requirement. IPv6 endpoints, thus high routing scalability is a requirement. IPv6
addresses are inherently summarizable: a very large operator addresses are inherently summarizable: a very large operator
could scale by summarizing IPv6 subnets at various internal could scale by summarizing IPv6 subnets at various internal
boundaries. This is very simple and is a basic property of IP boundaries. This is very simple and is a basic property of IP
routing. MPLS node segments are not summarizable. To reach the routing. MPLS node segments are not summarizable. To reach the
same scale, an operator would need to introduce additional same scale, an operator would need to introduce additional
complexity, such as mechanisms known with the industry term complexity, such as mechanisms known with the industry term
Seamless MPLS. Seamless MPLS [I-D.ietf-mpls-seamless-mpls].
In any environment with requirements such as those listed above, an In any environment with requirements such as those listed above, an
IPv6 data plane provides a powerful combination of capabilities for a IPv6 data plane provides a powerful combination of capabilities for a
network operator to realize benefits in explicit routing, protection network operator to realize benefits in explicit routing, protection
and restoration, high routing scalability, traffic engineering, and restoration, high routing scalability, traffic engineering,
service chaining, service differentiation and application flexibility service chaining, service differentiation and application flexibility
via programmability. via programmability.
2. IPv6 SPRING use cases
This section will describe some scenarios where MPLS may not be This section will describe some scenarios where MPLS may not be
present and it will highlight how the SPRING architecture could be present and it will highlight the need for the spring architecture to
used to address such use cases. take them into account.
The use cases described in the section do not constitute an The use cases described in the section do not constitute an
exhaustive list of all the possible scenarios; this section only exhaustive list of all the possible scenarios; this section only
includes some of the most common envisioned deployment models for includes some of the most common envisioned deployment models for
IPv6 Segment Routing. In addition to the use cases described in this IPv6 Segment Routing. In addition to the use cases described in this
document the SPRING architecture can be applied to all the use cases document the spring architecture should be able to be applied to all
described in [RFC7855] for the SPRING MPLS data plane, when an IPv6 the use cases described in [RFC7855] for the spring MPLS data plane,
data plane is present. when an IPv6 data plane is present.
2.1. SPRING in the Home Network 2.1. SPRING in the Home Network
An IPv6-enabled home network provides ample globally routed IP An IPv6-enabled home network provides ample globally routed IP
addresses for all devices in the home. An IPv6 home network with addresses for all devices in the home. An IPv6 home network with
multiple egress points and associated provider-assigned prefixes multiple egress points and associated provider-assigned prefixes
will, in turn, provide multiple IPv6 addresses to hosts. A homenet will, in turn, provide multiple IPv6 addresses to hosts. A homenet
performing Source and Destination Routing performing Source and Destination Routing
([I-D.ietf-rtgwg-dst-src-routing]) will ensure that packets exit the ([I-D.ietf-rtgwg-enterprise-pa-multihoming]) will ensure that packets
home at the appropriate egress based on the associated delegated exit the home at the appropriate egress based on the associated
prefix for that link. delegated prefix for that link.
A SPRING enabled home provides the possibility for imposition of a A spring enabled home provides the ability to steer traffic into a
Segment List by end-hosts in the home, or a customer edge router in specific path from end-hosts in the home, or from a customer edge
the home. If the Segment List is enabled at the customer edge router in the home. If the selection of the source routed path is
router, that router is responsible for classifying traffic and enabled at the customer edge router, that router is responsible for
inserting the appropriate Segment List. If hosts in the home have classifying traffic and steering it into the correct path. If hosts
explicit source selection rules, classification can be based on in the home have explicit source selection rules, classification can
source address or associated network egress point, avoiding the need be based on source address or associated network egress point,
for DPI-based implicit classification techniques. If the Segment avoiding the need for DPI-based implicit classification techniques.
List is inserted by the host itself, it is important to know which If the traffic is steered into a specific path by the host itself, it
networks can interpret the SPRING header. This information can be is important to know which networks can interpret the spring header.
provided as part of host configuration as a property of the This information can be provided as part of host configuration as a
configured IP address. property of the configured IP address.
The ability to steer traffic to an appropriate egress or utilize a The ability to steer traffic to an appropriate egress or utilize a
specific type of media (e.g., low-power, WIFI, wired, femto-cell, specific type of media (e.g., low-power, WIFI, wired, femto-cell,
bluetooth, MOCA, HomePlug, etc.) within the home itself are obvious bluetooth, MOCA, HomePlug, etc.) within the home itself are obvious
cases which may be of interest to an application running within a cases which may be of interest to an application running within a
home network. home network.
Steering to a specific egress point may be useful for a number of Steering to a specific egress point may be useful for a number of
reasons, including: reasons, including:
o Regulatory o Regulatory
o Performance of a particular service associated with a particular o Performance of a particular service associated with a particular
link link
o Cost imposed due to data-caps or per-byte charges o Cost imposed due to data-caps or per-byte charges
o Home vs. work traffic in homes with one or more teleworkers, etc. o Home vs. work traffic in homes with one or more teleworkers, etc.
o Specific services provided by one ISP vs. another o Specific services provided by one ISP vs. another
Information included in the Segment List, whether imposed by the end-
host itself, a customer edge router, or within the access network of Information included in the spring header, whether imposed by the
the ISP, may be of use at the far ends of the data communication as end-host itself, a customer edge router, or within the access network
well. For example, an application running on an end-host with of the ISP, may be of use at the far ends of the data communication
application-support in a data center can utilize the Segment List as as well. For example, an application running on an end-host with
application-support in a data center can utilize the spring header as
a channel to include information that affects its treatment within a channel to include information that affects its treatment within
the data center itself, allowing for application-level steering and the data center itself, allowing for application-level steering and
load-balancing without relying upon implicit application load-balancing without relying upon implicit application
classification techniques at the data-center edge. Further, as more classification techniques at the data-center edge. Further, as more
and more application traffic is encrypted, the ability to extract and more application traffic is encrypted, the ability to extract
(and include in the Segment List) just enough information to enable (and include in the spring header) just enough information to enable
the network and data center to load-balance and steer traffic the network and data center to load-balance and steer traffic
appropriately becomes more and more important. appropriately becomes more and more important.
2.2. SPRING in the Access Network 2.2. SPRING in the Access Network
Access networks deliver a variety of types of traffic from the Access networks deliver a variety of types of traffic from the
service provider's network to the home environment and from the home service provider's network to the home environment and from the home
towards the service provider's network. towards the service provider's network.
For bandwidth management or related purposes, the service provider For bandwidth management or related purposes, the service provider
may want to associate certain types of traffic to specific physical may want to associate certain types of traffic to specific physical
or logical downstream capacity pipes. or logical downstream capacity pipes.
This mapping is not the same thing as classification and scheduling. This mapping is not the same thing as classification and scheduling.
In the Cable access network, each of these pipes are represented at In the Cable access network, each of these pipes are represented at
the DOCSIS layer as different service flows, which are better the DOCSIS [DOCSIS] layer as different service flows, which are
identified as differing data links. As such, creating this better identified as differing data links. As such, creating this
separation allows an operator to differentiate between different separation allows an operator to differentiate between different
types of content and perform a variety of differing functions on types of content and perform a variety of differing functions on
these pipes, such as byte capping, regulatory compliance functions, these pipes, such as byte capping, regulatory compliance functions,
and billing. and billing.
In a cable operator's environment, these downstream pipes could be a In a cable operator's environment, these downstream pipes could be a
specific QAM, a DOCSIS service flow or a service group. specific QAM [QAM], a DOCSIS [DOCSIS] service flow or a service
group.
Similarly, the operator may want to map traffic from the home sent Similarly, the operator may want to map traffic from the home sent
towards the service provider's network to specific upstream capacity towards the service provider's network to specific upstream capacity
pipes. Information carried in a packet's SPRING header could provide pipes. Information carried in a packet's spring header could provide
the target pipe for this specific packet. The access device would the target pipe for this specific packet. The access device would
not need to know specific details about the packet to perform this not need to know specific details about the packet to perform this
mapping; instead the access device would only need to know how to map mapping; instead the access device would only need to know the
the SR SID value to the target pipe. interpretation of the spring header and how to map it to the target
pipe.
2.3. SPRING in the Data Center 2.3. SPRING in the Data Center
Some Data Center operators are transitioning their Data Center Some Data Center operators are transitioning their Data Center
infrastructure from IPv4 to native IPv6 only, in order to cope with infrastructure from IPv4 to native IPv6 only, in order to cope with
IPv4 address depletion and to achieve larger scale. In such IPv4 address depletion and to achieve larger scale. In such
environment, source routing (through Segment Routing IPv6) can be environment, source routing (through Segment Routing IPv6) can be
used to steer traffic across specific paths. used to steer traffic across specific paths through the network. The
specific path may also include a given function one or more nodes in
Another use case for SPRING in the datacenter is to cause a packet to the path are requested to perform.
follow a specific path through the network. The specific path may
also include a given function one or more nodes in the path are
requested to perform. In such scenario Segment Routing can be used
to steer the packet across a specific list of nodes, tenants and
functions. Each node, tenant and function will be identified by a
Segment Routing Identifier (SID), thus the list of SID's will specify
how the traffic will have to traverse a specific path.
One of the fundamental requirements for Data Center architecture is In addition one of the fundamental requirements for Data Center
to provide scalable, isolated tenant networks. The transition to architecture is to provide scalable, isolated tenant networks. In
IPv6 and the introduction of Segment Routing IPv6 open up the such scenario Segment Routing can be used to identify specific nodes,
possibility to achieve tenant's isolation without additional headers. tenants, and functions and to build a construct to steer the traffic
across that specific path.
2.4. SPRING in the Content Delivery Networks 2.4. SPRING in the Content Delivery Networks
The rise of online video applications and new, video-capable IP The rise of online video applications and new, video-capable IP
devices has led to an explosion of video traffic traversing network devices has led to an explosion of video traffic traversing network
operator infrastructures. In the drive to reduce the capital and operator infrastructures. In the drive to reduce the capital and
operational impact of the massive influx of online video traffic, as operational impact of the massive influx of online video traffic, as
well as to extend traditional TV services to new devices and screens, well as to extend traditional TV services to new devices and screens,
network operators are increasingly turning to Content Delivery network operators are increasingly turning to Content Delivery
Networks (CDNs). Networks (CDNs).
skipping to change at page 7, line 47 skipping to change at page 7, line 6
Several studies showed the benefits of connecting caches in a Several studies showed the benefits of connecting caches in a
hierarchical structure following the hierarchical nature of the hierarchical structure following the hierarchical nature of the
Internet. In a cache hierarchy one cache establishes peering Internet. In a cache hierarchy one cache establishes peering
relationships with its neighbor caches. There are two types of relationships with its neighbor caches. There are two types of
relationship: parent and sibling. A parent cache is essentially one relationship: parent and sibling. A parent cache is essentially one
level up in a cache hierarchy. A sibling cache is on the same level. level up in a cache hierarchy. A sibling cache is on the same level.
Multiple levels of hierarchy are commonly used in order to build Multiple levels of hierarchy are commonly used in order to build
efficient caches architecture. efficient caches architecture.
In an environment, where each single cache system can be uniquely In an environment, where each single cache system can be uniquely
identified by its own IPv6 address, a Segment List containing a identified by its own IPv6 address, a list containing a sequence of
sequence of the caches in a hierarchy can be built. At each node the caches in a hierarchy can be built. At each node (cache) in the
(cache) present in the Segment List a TCP session to port 80 is list, the presence of the requested content if checked. If the
established and if the requested content is found at the cache (cache requested content is found at the cache (cache hits scenario) the
hits scenario) the sequence ends, even if there are more nodes in the sequence ends, even if there are more nodes in the list; otherwise
list. next element in the list (next node/cache) is examined.
2.5. SPRING in the Core networks 2.5. SPRING in the Core networks
MPLS is a well-known technology widely deployed in many IP core MPLS is a well-known technology widely deployed in many IP core
networks. However there are some operators that do not run MPLS networks. However there are some operators that do not run MPLS
everywhere in their core network today, thus moving forward they everywhere in their core network today, thus moving forward they
would prefer to have an IPv6 native infrastructure for the core would prefer to have an IPv6 native infrastructure for the core
network. network.
While the overall amount of traffic offered to the network continues While the overall amount of traffic offered to the network continues
skipping to change at page 9, line 9 skipping to change at page 8, line 18
optimal path; optimal path;
o The operator may have the need to be able to provision guaranteed o The operator may have the need to be able to provision guaranteed
disjoint paths (so-called dual-plane network) for diversity disjoint paths (so-called dual-plane network) for diversity
purposes purposes
All these scenarios would require a form of traffic engineering All these scenarios would require a form of traffic engineering
capabilities in IP core networks not running MPLS and not willing to capabilities in IP core networks not running MPLS and not willing to
run it. run it.
IPv4 protocol does not provide such functionalities today and it is
not the intent of this document to address the IPv4 scenario, both
because this may create a lot of backward compatibility issues with
currently deployed networks and for the security issues that may
raise.
The described use cases could be addressed with the SPRING
architecture by having the Edge nodes of network to impose a Segment
List on specific traffic flows, based on certain classification
criteria that would include source IPv6 address.
3. Contributors 3. Contributors
Many people contributed to this document. The authors of this Many people contributed to this document. The authors of this
document would like to thank and recognize them and their document would like to thank and recognize them and their
contributions. These contributors provided invaluable concepts and contributions. These contributors provided invaluable concepts and
content for this document's creation. content for this document's creation.
Ida Leung Ida Leung
Rogers Communications Rogers Communications
8200 Dixie Road 8200 Dixie Road
skipping to change at page 10, line 17 skipping to change at page 9, line 17
The authors would like to thank Brian Field, Robert Raszuk, Wes The authors would like to thank Brian Field, Robert Raszuk, Wes
George, Eric Vyncke, Fred Baker, John G. Scudder and Yakov Rekhter George, Eric Vyncke, Fred Baker, John G. Scudder and Yakov Rekhter
for their valuable comments and inputs to this document. for their valuable comments and inputs to this document.
5. IANA Considerations 5. IANA Considerations
This document does not require any action from IANA. This document does not require any action from IANA.
6. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
There are a number of security concerns with source routing at the IP This document presents use cases to be considered by the spring
layer [RFC5095]. Security mechanisms applied to Segment Routing over architecture and potential IPv6 extensions. As such, it does not
IPv6 networks are detailed in section 9 of introduce any security considerations. However, there are a number
[I-D.ietf-6man-segment-routing-header] of security concerns with source routing at the IP layer [RFC5095].
It is expected that any solution that addresses these use cases to
also address any security concerns.
7. Informative References 7. References
[I-D.ietf-6man-segment-routing-header] 7.1. Informative References
Previdi, S., Filsfils, C., Field, B., Leung, I., Linkova,
J., Aries, E., Kosugi, T., Vyncke, E., and D. Lebrun,
"IPv6 Segment Routing Header (SRH)", draft-ietf-6man-
segment-routing-header-05 (work in progress), February
2017.
[I-D.ietf-rtgwg-dst-src-routing] [DOCSIS] "DOCSIS Specifications Page",
Lamparter, D. and A. Smirnov, "Destination/Source <http://www.cablelabs.com/news/
Routing", draft-ietf-rtgwg-dst-src-routing-03 (work in new-generation-of-docsis-technology/>.
progress), November 2016.
[I-D.ietf-mpls-seamless-mpls]
Leymann, N., Decraene, B., Filsfils, C., Konstantynowicz,
M., and D. Steinberg, "Seamless MPLS Architecture", draft-
ietf-mpls-seamless-mpls-07 (work in progress), June 2014.
[I-D.ietf-rtgwg-enterprise-pa-multihoming]
Baker, F., Bowers, C., and J. Linkova, "Enterprise
Multihoming using Provider-Assigned Addresses without
Network Prefix Translation: Requirements and Solution",
draft-ietf-rtgwg-enterprise-pa-multihoming-00 (work in
progress), March 2017.
[I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing] [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing]
Filsfils, C., Previdi, S., Decraene, B., Litkowski, S., Filsfils, C., Previdi, S., Decraene, B., Litkowski, S.,
and R. Shakir, "Segment Routing Architecture", draft-ietf- and R. Shakir, "Segment Routing Architecture", draft-ietf-
spring-segment-routing-10 (work in progress), November spring-segment-routing-11 (work in progress), February
2016. 2017.
[I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing-mpls] [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing-mpls]
Filsfils, C., Previdi, S., Bashandy, A., Decraene, B., Filsfils, C., Previdi, S., Bashandy, A., Decraene, B.,
Litkowski, S., Horneffer, M., Shakir, R., Litkowski, S., and R. Shakir, "Segment Routing with MPLS
jefftant@gmail.com, j., and E. Crabbe, "Segment Routing data plane", draft-ietf-spring-segment-routing-mpls-08
with MPLS data plane", draft-ietf-spring-segment-routing- (work in progress), March 2017.
mpls-07 (work in progress), February 2017.
[QAM] "QAM specification", <ITU-T Recommendation J.83 Annex B
(J.83b)>.
[RFC4798] De Clercq, J., Ooms, D., Prevost, S., and F. Le Faucheur, [RFC4798] De Clercq, J., Ooms, D., Prevost, S., and F. Le Faucheur,
"Connecting IPv6 Islands over IPv4 MPLS Using IPv6 "Connecting IPv6 Islands over IPv4 MPLS Using IPv6
Provider Edge Routers (6PE)", RFC 4798, Provider Edge Routers (6PE)", RFC 4798,
DOI 10.17487/RFC4798, February 2007, DOI 10.17487/RFC4798, February 2007,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4798>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4798>.
[RFC5095] Abley, J., Savola, P., and G. Neville-Neil, "Deprecation [RFC5095] Abley, J., Savola, P., and G. Neville-Neil, "Deprecation
of Type 0 Routing Headers in IPv6", RFC 5095, of Type 0 Routing Headers in IPv6", RFC 5095,
DOI 10.17487/RFC5095, December 2007, DOI 10.17487/RFC5095, December 2007,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5095>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5095>.
[RFC7439] George, W., Ed. and C. Pignataro, Ed., "Gap Analysis for [RFC7439] George, W., Ed. and C. Pignataro, Ed., "Gap Analysis for
Operating IPv6-Only MPLS Networks", RFC 7439, Operating IPv6-Only MPLS Networks", RFC 7439,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7439, January 2015, DOI 10.17487/RFC7439, January 2015,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7439>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7439>.
7.2. Normative References
[RFC7855] Previdi, S., Ed., Filsfils, C., Ed., Decraene, B., [RFC7855] Previdi, S., Ed., Filsfils, C., Ed., Decraene, B.,
Litkowski, S., Horneffer, M., and R. Shakir, "Source Litkowski, S., Horneffer, M., and R. Shakir, "Source
Packet Routing in Networking (SPRING) Problem Statement Packet Routing in Networking (SPRING) Problem Statement
and Requirements", RFC 7855, DOI 10.17487/RFC7855, May and Requirements", RFC 7855, DOI 10.17487/RFC7855, May
2016, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7855>. 2016, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7855>.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
John Brzozowski John Brzozowski
Comcast Comcast
 End of changes. 34 change blocks. 
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