draft-ietf-spring-ipv6-use-cases-10.txt   draft-ietf-spring-ipv6-use-cases-11.txt 
Spring J. Brzozowski Spring J. Brzozowski
Internet-Draft J. Leddy Internet-Draft J. Leddy
Intended status: Informational Comcast Intended status: Informational Comcast
Expires: October 15, 2017 C. Filsfils Expires: December 15, 2017 C. Filsfils
R. Maglione, Ed. R. Maglione, Ed.
M. Townsley M. Townsley
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
April 13, 2017 June 13, 2017
IPv6 SPRING Use Cases IPv6 SPRING Use Cases
draft-ietf-spring-ipv6-use-cases-10 draft-ietf-spring-ipv6-use-cases-11
Abstract Abstract
The objective of this document is to illustrate some use cases that The Source Packet Routing in Networking (SPRING) architecture
need to be taken into account by the Source Packet Routing in describes how Segment Routing can be used to steer packets through an
Networking (SPRING) architecture in the context of an IPv6 IPv6 or MPLS network using the source routing paradigm. This
environment. document illustrates some use cases for Segment Routing in an IPv6
only environment.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on October 15, 2017. This Internet-Draft will expire on December 15, 2017.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. IPv6 SPRING use cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. IPv6 SPRING use cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.1. SPRING in the Home Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1. SPRING in the Home Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.2. SPRING in the Access Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2. SPRING in the Access Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.3. SPRING in the Data Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.3. SPRING in Data Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.4. SPRING in the Content Delivery Networks . . . . . . . . . 6 2.4. SPRING in Content Delivery Networks . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.5. SPRING in the Core networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.5. SPRING in Core networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
7. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 7. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
7.1. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 7.1. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
7.2. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7.2. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Source Packet Routing in Networking (SPRING) architecture leverages Source Packet Routing in Networking (SPRING) architecture leverages
the source routing paradigm. An ingress node steers a packet through the source routing paradigm. An ingress node steers a packet through
a controlled set of instructions, called segments, by prepending the a controlled set of instructions, called segments, by prepending the
packet with SPRING header. The SPRING architecture is described in packet with SPRING header. The SPRING architecture is described in
[I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing]. [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing]. This document illustrates some
use cases for SPRING/Segment Routing in an IPv6 only environment.
In today's networks, source routing is typically accomplished by
encapsulating IP packets in MPLS LSPs that are signaled via RSVP-TE.
Therefore, there are scenarios where it may be possible to run IPv6
on top of MPLS, and as such, the MPLS Segment Routing architecture
described in [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing-mpls] could be
leveraged to provide spring capabilities in an IPv6/MPLS environment.
However, there are other cases and/or specific network segments (such
as for example the Home Network, the Data Center, etc.) where MPLS
may not be available or deployable for lack of support on network
elements or for an operator's design choice. In such scenarios a
non-MPLS based solution would be preferred by the network operators
of such infrastructures.
In addition there are cases where the operators could have made the
design choice to disable IPv4, for ease of management and scale
(return to single-stack) or due to an address constraint, for example
because they do not possess enough IPv4 addresses resources to number
all the endpoints and other network elements on which they desire to
run MPLS.
In such scenario the support for MPLS operations on an IPv6-only
network would be required. However today's IPv6-only networks are
not fully capable of supporting MPLS. There is ongoing work in the
MPLS Working Group, described in [RFC7439] to identify gaps that must
be addressed in order to allow MPLS-related protocols and
applications to be used with IPv6-only networks. This is an another
example of scenario where a solution relying on IPv6 without
requiring the use of MPLS could represent a valid option to solve the
problem and meet operators' requirements.
It is important to clarify that today, it is possible to run IPv6 on
top of an IPv4 MPLS network by using the mechanism called 6PE,
described in [RFC4798]. However this approach does not fulfill the
requirement of removing the need of IPv4 addresses in the network, as
requested in the above use case.
In summary there is a class of use cases that motivates an IPv6 data
plane. This document identifies some fundamental scenarios that,
when recognized in conjunction, strongly indicate an IPv6 data plane:
1. There is a need or desire to impose source-routing semantics
within an application or at the edge of a network (for example, a
CPE or home gateway)
2. There is a strict lack of an MPLS dataplane in a portion of the
end to end path
3. There is a need or desire to remove routing state from any node
other than the source, such that the source is the only node that
knows and will know the path a packet will take, a priori
4. There is a need to connect millions of addressable segment
endpoints, thus high routing scalability is a requirement. IPv6
addresses are inherently summarizable: a very large operator
could scale by summarizing IPv6 subnets at various internal
boundaries. This is very simple and is a basic property of IP
routing. MPLS node segments are not summarizable. To reach the
same scale, an operator would need to introduce additional
complexity, such as mechanisms known with the industry term
Seamless MPLS [I-D.ietf-mpls-seamless-mpls].
In any environment with requirements such as those listed above, an
IPv6 data plane provides a powerful combination of capabilities for a
network operator to realize benefits in explicit routing, protection
and restoration, high routing scalability, traffic engineering,
service chaining, service differentiation and application flexibility
via programmability.
2. IPv6 SPRING use cases 2. IPv6 SPRING use cases
This section will describe some scenarios where MPLS may not be
present and it will highlight the need for the spring architecture to
take them into account.
The use cases described in the section do not constitute an The use cases described in the section do not constitute an
exhaustive list of all the possible scenarios; this section only exhaustive list of all the possible scenarios: this section only
includes some of the most common envisioned deployment models for includes some of the most common envisioned deployment models for
IPv6 Segment Routing. In addition to the use cases described in this IPv6 Segment Routing.
document the spring architecture should be able to be applied to all
the use cases described in [RFC7855] for the spring MPLS data plane, In addition to the use cases described in this document, all the
when an IPv6 data plane is present. SPRING use cases [RFC7855] are also applicable to the SRv6 data
plane.
2.1. SPRING in the Home Network 2.1. SPRING in the Home Network
An IPv6-enabled home network provides ample globally routed IP An IPv6-enabled home network provides ample globally routed IP
addresses for all devices in the home. An IPv6 home network with addresses for all devices in the home. An IPv6 home network with
multiple egress points and associated provider-assigned prefixes multiple egress points and associated provider-assigned prefixes
will, in turn, provide multiple IPv6 addresses to hosts. A homenet will, in turn, provide multiple IPv6 addresses to hosts. A homenet
performing Source and Destination Routing performing Source and Destination Routing
([I-D.ietf-rtgwg-enterprise-pa-multihoming]) will ensure that packets ([I-D.ietf-rtgwg-enterprise-pa-multihoming]) will ensure that packets
exit the home at the appropriate egress based on the associated exit the home at the appropriate egress based on the associated
delegated prefix for that link. delegated prefix for that link.
A spring enabled home provides the ability to steer traffic into a A SPRING enabled home provides the ability to steer traffic into a
specific path from end-hosts in the home, or from a customer edge specific path from end-hosts in the home, or from a customer edge
router in the home. If the selection of the source routed path is router in the home. If the selection of the source routed path is
enabled at the customer edge router, that router is responsible for enabled at the customer edge router, that router is responsible for
classifying traffic and steering it into the correct path. If hosts classifying traffic and steering it into the correct path. If hosts
in the home have explicit source selection rules, classification can in the home have explicit source selection rules, classification can
be based on source address or associated network egress point, be based on source address or associated network egress point,
avoiding the need for DPI-based implicit classification techniques. avoiding the need for DPI-based implicit classification techniques.
If the traffic is steered into a specific path by the host itself, it If the traffic is steered into a specific path by the host itself, it
is important to know which networks can interpret the spring header. is important to know which networks can interpret the SPRING header.
This information can be provided as part of host configuration as a This information can be provided as part of host configuration as a
property of the configured IP address. property of the configured IP address.
The ability to steer traffic to an appropriate egress or utilize a The ability to steer traffic to an appropriate egress or utilize a
specific type of media (e.g., low-power, WIFI, wired, femto-cell, specific type of media (e.g., low-power, WIFI, wired, femto-cell,
bluetooth, MOCA, HomePlug, etc.) within the home itself are obvious bluetooth, MOCA, HomePlug, etc.) within the home itself are obvious
cases which may be of interest to an application running within a cases which may be of interest to an application running within a
home network. home network.
Steering to a specific egress point may be useful for a number of Steering to a specific egress point may be useful for a number of
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o Performance of a particular service associated with a particular o Performance of a particular service associated with a particular
link link
o Cost imposed due to data-caps or per-byte charges o Cost imposed due to data-caps or per-byte charges
o Home vs. work traffic in homes with one or more teleworkers, etc. o Home vs. work traffic in homes with one or more teleworkers, etc.
o Specific services provided by one ISP vs. another o Specific services provided by one ISP vs. another
Information included in the spring header, whether imposed by the Information included in the SPRING header, whether imposed by the
end-host itself, a customer edge router, or within the access network end-host itself, a customer edge router, or within the access network
of the ISP, may be of use at the far ends of the data communication of the ISP, may be of use at the far ends of the data communication
as well. For example, an application running on an end-host with as well. For example, an application running on an end-host with
application-support in a data center can utilize the spring header as application-support in a data center can utilize the SPRING header as
a channel to include information that affects its treatment within a channel to include information that affects its treatment within
the data center itself, allowing for application-level steering and the data center itself, allowing for application-level steering and
load-balancing without relying upon implicit application load-balancing without relying upon implicit application
classification techniques at the data-center edge. Further, as more classification techniques at the data-center edge. Further, as more
and more application traffic is encrypted, the ability to extract and more application traffic is encrypted, the ability to extract
(and include in the spring header) just enough information to enable (and include in the SPRING header) just enough information to enable
the network and data center to load-balance and steer traffic the network and data center to load-balance and steer traffic
appropriately becomes more and more important. appropriately becomes more and more important.
2.2. SPRING in the Access Network 2.2. SPRING in the Access Network
Access networks deliver a variety of types of traffic from the Access networks deliver a variety of types of traffic from the
service provider's network to the home environment and from the home service provider's network to the home environment and from the home
towards the service provider's network. towards the service provider's network.
For bandwidth management or related purposes, the service provider For bandwidth management or related purposes, the service provider
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This mapping is not the same thing as classification and scheduling. This mapping is not the same thing as classification and scheduling.
In the Cable access network, each of these pipes are represented at In the Cable access network, each of these pipes are represented at
the DOCSIS [DOCSIS] layer as different service flows, which are the DOCSIS [DOCSIS] layer as different service flows, which are
better identified as differing data links. As such, creating this better identified as differing data links. As such, creating this
separation allows an operator to differentiate between different separation allows an operator to differentiate between different
types of content and perform a variety of differing functions on types of content and perform a variety of differing functions on
these pipes, such as byte capping, regulatory compliance functions, these pipes, such as byte capping, regulatory compliance functions,
and billing. and billing.
In a cable operator's environment, these downstream pipes could be a In a cable operator's environment, these downstream pipes could be a
specific QAM [QAM], a DOCSIS [DOCSIS] service flow or a service specific QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) [QAM], a DOCSIS (Data
group. Over Cable Service Interface Specification) [DOCSIS] service flow or
a service group.
Similarly, the operator may want to map traffic from the home sent Similarly, the operator may want to map traffic from the home sent
towards the service provider's network to specific upstream capacity towards the service provider's network to specific upstream capacity
pipes. Information carried in a packet's spring header could provide pipes. Information carried in a packet's SPRING header could provide
the target pipe for this specific packet. The access device would the target pipe for this specific packet. The access device would
not need to know specific details about the packet to perform this not need to know specific details about the packet to perform this
mapping; instead the access device would only need to know the mapping; instead the access device would only need to know the
interpretation of the spring header and how to map it to the target interpretation of the SPRING header and how to map it to the target
pipe. pipe.
2.3. SPRING in the Data Center 2.3. SPRING in Data Center
Some Data Center operators are transitioning their Data Center Some Data Center operators are transitioning their Data Center
infrastructure from IPv4 to native IPv6 only, in order to cope with infrastructure from IPv4 to native IPv6 only, in order to cope with
IPv4 address depletion and to achieve larger scale. In such IPv4 address depletion and to achieve larger scale. In such
environment, source routing (through Segment Routing IPv6) can be environment, source routing, as enabled by Segment Routing IPv6, can
used to steer traffic across specific paths through the network. The be used to steer traffic across specific paths through the network.
specific path may also include a given function one or more nodes in The specific path may also include a given function one or more nodes
the path are requested to perform. in the path are requested to perform.
In addition one of the fundamental requirements for Data Center In addition one of the fundamental requirements for Data Center
architecture is to provide scalable, isolated tenant networks. In architecture is to provide scalable, isolated tenant networks. In
such scenario Segment Routing can be used to identify specific nodes, such scenarios, Segment Routing can be used to identify specific
tenants, and functions and to build a construct to steer the traffic nodes, tenants, and functions and to build a construct to steer the
across that specific path. traffic across that specific path.
2.4. SPRING in the Content Delivery Networks 2.4. SPRING in Content Delivery Networks
The rise of online video applications and new, video-capable IP The rise of online video applications and new, video-capable IP
devices has led to an explosion of video traffic traversing network devices has led to an explosion of video traffic traversing network
operator infrastructures. In the drive to reduce the capital and operator infrastructures. In the drive to reduce the capital and
operational impact of the massive influx of online video traffic, as operational impact of the massive influx of online video traffic, as
well as to extend traditional TV services to new devices and screens, well as to extend traditional TV services to new devices and screens,
network operators are increasingly turning to Content Delivery network operators are increasingly turning to Content Delivery
Networks (CDNs). Networks (CDNs).
Several studies showed the benefits of connecting caches in a Several studies showed the benefits of connecting caches in a
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Internet. In a cache hierarchy one cache establishes peering Internet. In a cache hierarchy one cache establishes peering
relationships with its neighbor caches. There are two types of relationships with its neighbor caches. There are two types of
relationship: parent and sibling. A parent cache is essentially one relationship: parent and sibling. A parent cache is essentially one
level up in a cache hierarchy. A sibling cache is on the same level. level up in a cache hierarchy. A sibling cache is on the same level.
Multiple levels of hierarchy are commonly used in order to build Multiple levels of hierarchy are commonly used in order to build
efficient caches architecture. efficient caches architecture.
In an environment, where each single cache system can be uniquely In an environment, where each single cache system can be uniquely
identified by its own IPv6 address, a list containing a sequence of identified by its own IPv6 address, a list containing a sequence of
the caches in a hierarchy can be built. At each node (cache) in the the caches in a hierarchy can be built. At each node (cache) in the
list, the presence of the requested content if checked. If the list, the presence of the requested content is checked. If the
requested content is found at the cache (cache hits scenario) the requested content is found at the cache (cache hits scenario) the
sequence ends, even if there are more nodes in the list; otherwise sequence ends, even if there are more nodes in the list; otherwise
next element in the list (next node/cache) is examined. next element in the list (next node/cache) is examined.
2.5. SPRING in the Core networks 2.5. SPRING in Core networks
MPLS is a well-known technology widely deployed in many IP core
networks. However there are some operators that do not run MPLS
everywhere in their core network today, thus moving forward they
would prefer to have an IPv6 native infrastructure for the core
network.
While the overall amount of traffic offered to the network continues While the overall amount of traffic offered to the network continues
to grow and considering that multiple types of traffic with different to grow and considering that multiple types of traffic with different
characteristics and requirements are quickly converging over single characteristics and requirements are quickly converging over single
network architecture, the network operators are starting to face new network architecture, the network operators are starting to face new
challenges. challenges.
Some operators are looking at the possibility to setup an explicit Some operators are currently building, or plan to build in the near
path based on the IPv6 source address for specific types of traffic future, an IPv6 only native infrastructure for their core network.
in order to efficiently use their network infrastructure. In case of These operators are also looking at the possibility to setup an
IPv6 some operators are currently assigning or plan to assign IPv6 explicit path based on the IPv6 source address for specific types of
prefix(es) to their IPv6 customers based on regions/geography, thus traffic in order to efficiently use their network infrastructure. In
the subscriber's IPv6 prefix could be used to identify the region case of IPv6 some operators are currently assigning or plan to assign
where the customer is located. In such environment the IPv6 source IPv6 prefix(es) to their IPv6 customers based on regions/geography,
address could be used by the Edge nodes of the network to steer thus the subscriber's IPv6 prefix could be used to identify the
traffic and forward it through a specific path other than the optimal region where the customer is located. In such environment the IPv6
path. source address could be used by the Edge nodes of the network to
steer traffic and forward it through a specific path other than the
optimal path.
The need to setup a source-based path, going through some specific The need to setup a source-based path, going through some specific
middle/intermediate points in the network may be related to different middle/intermediate points in the network may be related to different
requirements: requirements:
o The operator may want to be able to use some high bandwidth links o The operator may want to be able to use some high bandwidth links
for specific type of traffic (like video) avoiding the need for for specific type of traffic (like video) avoiding the need for
over-dimensioning all the links of the network; over-dimensioning all the links of the network;
o The operator may want to be able to setup a specific path for o The operator may want to be able to setup a specific path for
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o The operator may have the need to be able to setup a source based o The operator may have the need to be able to setup a source based
path for specific services in order to be able to reach some path for specific services in order to be able to reach some
servers hosted in some facilities not always reachable through the servers hosted in some facilities not always reachable through the
optimal path; optimal path;
o The operator may have the need to be able to provision guaranteed o The operator may have the need to be able to provision guaranteed
disjoint paths (so-called dual-plane network) for diversity disjoint paths (so-called dual-plane network) for diversity
purposes purposes
All these scenarios would require a form of traffic engineering All these scenarios would require a form of traffic engineering
capabilities in IP core networks not running MPLS and not willing to capabilities in an IPv6 only network environment.
run it.
3. Contributors 3. Contributors
Many people contributed to this document. The authors of this Many people contributed to this document. The authors of this
document would like to thank and recognize them and their document would like to thank and recognize them and their
contributions. These contributors provided invaluable concepts and contributions. These contributors provided invaluable concepts and
content for this document's creation. content for this document's creation.
Ida Leung Ida Leung
Rogers Communications Rogers Communications
skipping to change at page 9, line 8 skipping to change at page 7, line 29
Email: sprevidi@cisco.com Email: sprevidi@cisco.com
Christian Martin Christian Martin
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
Email: martincj@cisco.com Email: martincj@cisco.com
4. Acknowledgements 4. Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Brian Field, Robert Raszuk, Wes The authors would like to thank Brian Field, Robert Raszuk, Wes
George, Eric Vyncke, Fred Baker, John G. Scudder and Yakov Rekhter George, Eric Vyncke, Fred Baker, John G. Scudder, Adrian Farrel,
for their valuable comments and inputs to this document. Alvaro Retana, Bruno Decraene and Yakov Rekhter for their valuable
comments and inputs to this document.
5. IANA Considerations 5. IANA Considerations
This document does not require any action from IANA. This document does not require any action from IANA.
6. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
This document presents use cases to be considered by the spring This document presents use cases to be considered by the SPRING
architecture and potential IPv6 extensions. As such, it does not architecture and potential IPv6 extensions. As such, it does not
introduce any security considerations. However, there are a number introduce any security considerations. However, there are a number
of security concerns with source routing at the IP layer [RFC5095]. of security concerns with source routing at the IP layer [RFC5095].
It is expected that any solution that addresses these use cases to It is expected that any solution that addresses these use cases to
also address any security concerns. also address any security concerns.
7. References 7. References
7.1. Informative References 7.1. Informative References
[DOCSIS] "DOCSIS Specifications Page", [DOCSIS] "DOCSIS Specifications Page",
<http://www.cablelabs.com/news/ <http://www.cablelabs.com/news/
new-generation-of-docsis-technology/>. new-generation-of-docsis-technology/>.
[I-D.ietf-mpls-seamless-mpls]
Leymann, N., Decraene, B., Filsfils, C., Konstantynowicz,
M., and D. Steinberg, "Seamless MPLS Architecture", draft-
ietf-mpls-seamless-mpls-07 (work in progress), June 2014.
[I-D.ietf-rtgwg-enterprise-pa-multihoming] [I-D.ietf-rtgwg-enterprise-pa-multihoming]
Baker, F., Bowers, C., and J. Linkova, "Enterprise Baker, F., Bowers, C., and J. Linkova, "Enterprise
Multihoming using Provider-Assigned Addresses without Multihoming using Provider-Assigned Addresses without
Network Prefix Translation: Requirements and Solution", Network Prefix Translation: Requirements and Solution",
draft-ietf-rtgwg-enterprise-pa-multihoming-00 (work in draft-ietf-rtgwg-enterprise-pa-multihoming-00 (work in
progress), March 2017. progress), March 2017.
[I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing] [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing]
Filsfils, C., Previdi, S., Decraene, B., Litkowski, S., Filsfils, C., Previdi, S., Decraene, B., Litkowski, S.,
and R. Shakir, "Segment Routing Architecture", draft-ietf- and R. Shakir, "Segment Routing Architecture", draft-ietf-
spring-segment-routing-11 (work in progress), February spring-segment-routing-11 (work in progress), February
2017. 2017.
[I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing-mpls]
Filsfils, C., Previdi, S., Bashandy, A., Decraene, B.,
Litkowski, S., and R. Shakir, "Segment Routing with MPLS
data plane", draft-ietf-spring-segment-routing-mpls-08
(work in progress), March 2017.
[QAM] "QAM specification", <ITU-T Recommendation J.83 Annex B [QAM] "QAM specification", <ITU-T Recommendation J.83 Annex B
(J.83b)>. (J.83b)>.
[RFC4798] De Clercq, J., Ooms, D., Prevost, S., and F. Le Faucheur,
"Connecting IPv6 Islands over IPv4 MPLS Using IPv6
Provider Edge Routers (6PE)", RFC 4798,
DOI 10.17487/RFC4798, February 2007,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4798>.
[RFC5095] Abley, J., Savola, P., and G. Neville-Neil, "Deprecation [RFC5095] Abley, J., Savola, P., and G. Neville-Neil, "Deprecation
of Type 0 Routing Headers in IPv6", RFC 5095, of Type 0 Routing Headers in IPv6", RFC 5095,
DOI 10.17487/RFC5095, December 2007, DOI 10.17487/RFC5095, December 2007,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5095>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5095>.
[RFC7439] George, W., Ed. and C. Pignataro, Ed., "Gap Analysis for
Operating IPv6-Only MPLS Networks", RFC 7439,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7439, January 2015,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7439>.
7.2. Normative References 7.2. Normative References
[RFC7855] Previdi, S., Ed., Filsfils, C., Ed., Decraene, B., [RFC7855] Previdi, S., Ed., Filsfils, C., Ed., Decraene, B.,
Litkowski, S., Horneffer, M., and R. Shakir, "Source Litkowski, S., Horneffer, M., and R. Shakir, "Source
Packet Routing in Networking (SPRING) Problem Statement Packet Routing in Networking (SPRING) Problem Statement
and Requirements", RFC 7855, DOI 10.17487/RFC7855, May and Requirements", RFC 7855, DOI 10.17487/RFC7855, May
2016, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7855>. 2016, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7855>.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
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