Network Working Group                                         N. Khademi
Internet-Draft                                                  M. Welzl
Intended status: Experimental                         University of Oslo
Expires: August 6, November 5, 2017                                    G. Armitage
                                      Swinburne University of Technology
                                                            G. Fairhurst
                                                  University of Aberdeen
                                                        February 2,
                                                             May 4, 2017

                 TCP Alternative Backoff with ECN (ABE)
               draft-ietf-tcpm-alternativebackoff-ecn-00
               draft-ietf-tcpm-alternativebackoff-ecn-01

Abstract

   This memo updates

   Recent Active Queue Management (AQM) mechanisms instantiate shallow
   buffers with burst tolerance to minimise the time that packets spend
   enqueued at a bottleneck.  However, shallow buffering can cause
   noticeable performance degradation when TCP sender-side reaction to is used over a network
   path with a large bandwidth-delay-product.  Traditional methods rely
   on detecting network congestion
   notification received via through reported loss of transport
   packets.  Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN).
   The updated method reduces FlightSize in Congestion Avoidance by (ECN) instead allows a
   smaller amount than the TCP reaction
   router to loss.  The intention is to
   achieve good throughput directly signal incipient congestion.  A sending endpoint
   can distinguish when the queue at the bottleneck congestion is smaller signalled via ECN, rather than by
   packet loss.  An ECN signal indicates that an AQM mechanism has done
   its job, and therefore the bandwidth-delay-product of the connection.  This bottleneck network queue is more likely when to be
   shallow.  This document therefore proposes an Active Queue Management (AQM) mechanism has used update to the TCP
   sender-side ECN reaction in congestion avoidance to CE-mark reduce the
   FlightSize by a packet, smaller amount than when a packet was lost. the congestion control
   algorithm's reaction to loss.  Future versions of this document will
   also describe a corresponding method for SCTP. the Stream Control
   Transmission Protocol (SCTP).

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 6, November 5, 2017.

Copyright Notice

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Table of Contents

   1.  Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   3.  Discussion  .  Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.1.  Why Use ECN to Vary the Degree of Backoff?
   4.  Discussion  . . . . . . .   4
     3.2.  Focus on ECN as Defined in RFC3168 . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.3.  Discussion: Choice of ABE Multiplier . . . . . . .   4
     4.1.  Why Use ECN to Vary the Degree of Backoff?  . . . .   4
   4.  Specification . . .   4
     4.2.  Focus on ECN as Defined in RFC3168  . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.3.  Discussion: Choice of ABE Multiplier  . . . . . . . . . .   6   5
   5.  Status of the Update  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   6.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6   7
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7   8
   8.  Implementation Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7   8
   9.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7   8
   10. Revision Information  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7   8
   11. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8   9
     11.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8   9
     11.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8   9
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9  11

1.  Definitions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

2.  Introduction

   Complementing [I-D.AQM-ECN-benefits], [I-D.ECN-exp] enables wider ECN
   deployment by updating rules in

   Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) [RFC3168] that prohibited certain
   experiments.  Specifically, [I-D.ECN-exp] allows makes it possible
   for experiments an Active Queue Management (AQM) mechanism to
   specify a signal the presence
   of incipient congestion control response to a CE-marked without incurring packet that
   differs from loss.  This lets the response
   network deliver some packets to a an application that would have been
   dropped packet. if the application or transport did not support ECN.  This memo defines
   such a different congestion control response, called "ABE"
   (Alternative Backoff with ECN).  ABE
   packet loss reduction is thus an Experiment in
   accordance with [I-D.ECN-exp].

   [RFC5681] stipulates that TCP the most obvious benefit of ECN, but it is
   often relatively modest.  There are also significant other benefits
   from deploying ECN [RFC8087], including reduced end-to-end network
   latency.

   The rules for ECN were originally written to be very conservative,
   and required the congestion control sets "ssthresh" to
   max(FlightSize / 2, 2*SMSS) in response algorithms of ECN-capable
   transport protocols to treat ECN congestion signals exactly the same
   as they would treat a packet loss.  This
   corresponds loss [RFC3168].

   Research has demonstrated the benefits of reducing network delays due
   to a backoff multiplier excessive buffering [BUFFERBLOAT]; this has led to the creation of 0.5 (halving cwnd
   new AQM mechanisms like PIE [RFC8033] and
   sshthresh after CoDel [CODEL2012]
   [I-D.CoDel], which avoid causing the bloated queues that are common
   with a simple tail-drop behaviour (also known as a First-In First-
   Out, FIFO, queue).

   These AQM mechanisms instantiate short queues that are designed to
   tolerate packet loss).  Consequently, bursts.  However, congestion control mechanisms
   cannot always utilise a standard bottleneck link well where there are short
   queues.  For example, to allow a single TCP flow
   using this reaction needs significant network queue space: it can
   only connection to fully
   utilise a bottleneck when the length of network path, the link queue (or
   the AQM dropping threshold) is at least the bandwidth-delay product
   (BDP) of the flow.

   A backoff multiplier of 0.5 is not the only available strategy.  As
   defined in [I-D.CUBIC], CUBIC multiplies bottleneck link must be able
   to compensate for TCP halving the current cwnd by 0.7 "FlightSize" and "ssthresh"
   variables in response to loss (the Linux implementation of CUBIC has used a
   multiplier of 0.7 since kernel version 2.6.25 released in 2008).
   Consequently, CUBIC utilises paths well even when lost packet [RFC5681].  This requires the
   bottleneck queue is shorter than the to be able to store at least an end-to-end
   bandwidth-delay product (BDP) of data, which effectively doubles both
   the flow.
   However, amount of data that can be in flight and the case round-trip time
   (RTT) experience using the network path.

   Modern AQM mechanisms can use ECN to signal the early signs of
   impending queue buildup long before a DropTail (FIFO) tail-drop queue without AQM, such
   less-aggressive backoff increases would be forced
   to resort to dropping packets.  It is therefore appropriate for the risk of creating
   transport protocol congestion control algorithm to have a standing
   queue [CODEL2012].

   The standard TCP backoff behaviour defined more
   measured response when an early-warning signal of congestion is
   received in [RFC5681] entails
   reduced link utilisation the form of an ECN CE-marked packet.  Recognizing these
   changes in situations with short queues and low
   statistical multiplexing.  This memo proposes modern AQM practices, more recent rules have relaxed the
   strict requirement that ECN signals be treated identically to packet
   loss [I-D.ECN-exp].  Following these newer, more flexible rules, this
   document defines a concrete sender-side-
   only new sender-side-only congestion control response that remedies this problem.

   Devices implementing response,
   called "ABE" (Alternative Backoff with ECN).  ABE improves the
   performance when routers use shallow buffered AQM are likely mechanisms.

3.  Specification

   This specification describes an update to be the dominant (and possibly
   only) source congestion control
   algorithm of ECN CE-marking for packets from an ECN-capable senders.
   AQM mechanisms typically strive to maintain TCP transport protocol.  It allows a small average queue
   length, regardless of TCP
   stack to update the bandwidth-delay product of flows passing
   through them.  Receipt TCP sender response when it receives feedback
   indicating reception of an ECN CE-mark might therefore reasonably
   be taken to indicate a CE-marked packet.  It RECOMMENDS that a small bottleneck queue exists in TCP
   sender multiplies the
   path, FlightSize by 0.8 and hence reduces the TCP flow would benefit from using slow start
   threshold (ssthresh) in congestion avoidance following reception of a less
   aggressive backoff multiplier.
   TCP segment that sets the ECN-Echo flag (defined in [RFC3168]).

4.  Discussion

   Much of the technical background to this proposal congestion control response
   can be found in [ABE2015].
   Using a research paper [ABE2017].  This paper used a mix of
   experiments, theory and simulations with standard NewReno and CUBIC, [ABE2015] recommends CUBIC
   to evaluate the technique.  It examined the impact of enabling ECN
   and letting individual TCP senders use a larger multiplicative decrease factor as back off by a reduced amount in
   reaction to the receiver reporting that reports ECN CE-marks from AQM-enabled
   bottlenecks.  Such a change is noted  The technique was shown to result in present "...significant
   performance gains in lightly-multiplexed scenarios, without losing
   the delay-reduction benefits of deploying CoDel or PIE" [I-D.CoDel]
   [I-D.PIE].  This PIE".  The
   performance improvement is achieved when reacting to ECN-Echo in Congestion
   Avoidance
   congestion avoidance by multiplying cwnd FlightSize and sstthresh with a
   value in the range [0.7..0.85].

3.  Discussion

3.1.

4.1.  Why Use ECN to Vary the Degree of Backoff?

   The classic rule-of-thumb dictates that a transport provides network path needs to
   provide a BDP of bottleneck buffering if a TCP connection wishes to
   optimise path utilisation.  A single TCP connection bulk transfer running
   through such a bottleneck will have opened cwnd increased its congestion window
   (cwnd) up to 2*BDP by the time that packet loss occurs.  [RFC5681]'s halving  When packet
   loss is detected (regarded as a notification of cwnd congestion), Standard
   TCP halves the FlightSize and ssthresh pushes [RFC5681], which causes the
   TCP
   connection congestion control to go back to allowing only a BDP of packets
   in flight -- just sufficient to maintain 100% utilisation of the
   bottleneck on the network path.

   AQM schemes like mechanisms such as CoDel [I-D.CoDel] and PIE [I-D.PIE] [RFC8033] set a
   delay target in routers and use congestion notifications to constrain
   the queuing delays experienced by packets, rather than in response to
   impending or actual bottleneck buffer exhaustion.  With current
   default delay targets, CoDel and PIE both effectively emulate a
   shallow buffered bottleneck (section II,
   [ABE2015]) [ABE2017]) while also
   allowing short traffic bursts into the queue.  This
   interacts acceptably provides
   acceptable performance for TCP connections over a path with a low BDP paths,
   BDP, or in highly multiplexed scenarios (many concurrent TCP transport
   connections).  However, it interacts badly with for a lightly-multiplexed cases
   case (few concurrent connections) over a high BDP path. path with a large BDP.
   Conventional TCP backoff in such cases leads to gaps in packet
   transmission and under-
   utilisation under-utilisation of the path.

   Instead of discarding packets, an AQM mechanism is allowed to mark
   ECN-capable packets with an ECN CE-mark.  The idea reception of a CE-mark
   not only indicates congestion on the network path, it also indicates
   that an AQM mechanism exists at the bottleneck along the path, and
   hence the CE-mark likely came from a bottleneck with a shallow queue.
   Reacting differently to an ECN CE-mark than to react packet loss can then
   yield the benefit of a reduced back-off, as with CUBIC [I-D.CUBIC],
   when queues are short, yet it can avoid generating excessive delay
   when queues are long.  Using ECN can also be advantageous for several
   other reasons [RFC8087].

   The idea of reacting differently to loss upon detecting and detection of an ECN CE-mark CE-
   mark pre-dates [ABE2015].  [ICC2002] also this document.  For example, previous research
   proposed using ECN CE-marks to modify TCP congestion control behaviour, using
   behaviour via a larger multiplicative decrease factor in conjunction
   with a smaller additive increase factor to [ICC2002].  The goal of this
   former work with RED-based was to operate across AQM bottlenecks using Random Early
   Detection (RED) that were not necessarily configured to emulate a
   shallow queue.

3.2. queue ([RFC7567] notes the current status of RED as an AQM
   method.)

4.2.  Focus on ECN as Defined in RFC3168

   Some transport protocol mechanisms rely on ECN semantics that differ
   from the
   definitions in original ECN definition [RFC3168] -- for example, Congestion
   Exposure (ConEx) [RFC7713] and DCTCP Datacenter TCP (DCTCP)
   [I-D.ietf-tcpm-dctcp] need more accurate ECN information than that
   offered by the original feedback mechanism in [RFC3168] offers (defined
   in [I-D.ietf-tcpm-accurate-ecn]).  Such method.  Other mechanisms (e.g.,
   [I-D.ietf-tcpm-accurate-ecn]) allow a sending the sender to adjust the rate adjustment
   more frequent frequently than once each path RTT.  These  Use of these mechanisms are is
   out of the scope of the current document.

3.3.

4.3.  Discussion: Choice of ABE Multiplier

   Alternative Backoff with ECN (ABE)

   ABE decouples the reaction of a TCP sender's reaction sender to loss and ECN CE-marks
   when in Congestion Avoidance. the congestion avoidance phase.  The description respectively
   uses beta_{loss} and beta_{ecn} to refer to the multiplicative
   decrease factors applied in response to packet loss, and also in response
   to a receiver indicating that an ECN CE-mark was received on an ECN-enabled ECN-
   enabled TCP connection (based on the terms used in
   [ABE2015]). connection.  For non-ECN-enabled TCP connections, no ECN
   CE-marks are received and only beta_{loss} applies.

   In other words, in response to detected loss:

      FlightSize_(n+1) = FlightSize_n * beta_{loss}

   and in response to an indication of a received ECN CE-mark:

      FlightSize_(n+1) = FlightSize_n * beta_{ecn}

   where, as in [RFC5681],

   where FlightSize is the amount of outstanding data in the network,
   upper-bounded by the sender's congestion window
   (cwnd) cwnd and the receiver's advertised
   window (rwnd). (rwnd) [RFC5681].  The higher the values of beta_{loss} and
   beta_{ecn}, the less aggressive the response of any individual
   backoff event.

   The appropriate choice for beta_{loss} and beta_{ecn} values is a
   balancing act between path utilisation and draining the bottleneck
   queue.  More aggressive backoff (smaller beta_*) risks underutilising
   the path, while less aggressive backoff (larger beta_*) can result in
   slower draining of the bottleneck queue.

   The Internet has already been running with at least two different
   beta_{loss} values for several years: the standard value in [RFC5681] is 0.5, 0.5
   [RFC5681], and the Linux implementation of CUBIC uses 0.7. [I-D.CUBIC] has used
   a multiplier of 0.7 since kernel version 2.6.25 released in 2008.
   ABE proposes no change to beta_{loss} used by any current TCP
   implementations.

   beta_{ecn} depends on how the response of a TCP connection to shallow
   AQM marking thresholds is optimised. beta_{loss} reflects the
   preferred response of each TCP congestion control algorithm when faced
   with exhaustion of buffers (of unknown depth) signalled by packet
   loss.  Consequently, for any given TCP congestion control algorithm
   the choice of beta_{ecn} is likely to be algorithm-specific, rather
   than a constant multiple of the algorithm's existing beta_{loss}.

   A range of experiments tests (section IV, [ABE2015]) [ABE2017]) with NewReno and CUBIC over
   CoDel and PIE in lightly-multiplexed scenarios have explored this
   choice of parameter.  These experiments  The results of these tests indicate that CUBIC
   connections benefit from beta_{ecn} of 0.85 (cf.  beta_{loss} = 0.7),
   and NewReno connections see improvements with beta_{ecn} in the range
   0.7 to 0.85 (cf. beta_{loss} = 0.5).

4.  Specification

   This document RECOMMENDS that experimental deployments multiply the
   FlightSize by 0.8 and reduce the slow start threshold 'ssthresh' in
   Congestion Avoidance in response to reception of a TCP segment that
   sets the ECN-Echo flag.

5.  Status of the Update

   This update is a sender-side only change.  Like other changes to
   congestion-control algorithms algorithms, it does not require any change to the
   TCP receiver or to network devices devices.  It does not require any ABE-
   specific changes in routers or the use of Accurate ECN feedback
   [I-D.ietf-tcpm-accurate-ecn] by a receiver.

   The currently published ECN specification requires that the
   congestion control response to a CE-marked packet is the same as the
   response to a dropped packet [RFC3168].  The specification is
   currently being updated to allow for specifications that do not
   follow this rule [I-D.ECN-exp].  The present specification defines
   such an experiment and has thus been assigned an Experimental status
   before being proposed as a Standards-Track update.

   The purpose of the Internet experiment is to collect experience with
   deployment of ABE, and confirm the safety in deployed networks using
   this update to TCP congestion control.

   When used with bottlenecks that do not support ECN-marking the
   specification does not modify the transport protocol.

   To evaluate the benefit, this experiment therefore requires support
   in AQM routers (except to enable an ECN-marking
   algorithm mechanism [RFC3168] [RFC7567]).
   [RFC7567]) for ECN-marking of packets carrying the ECN Capable
   Transport, ECT(0), codepoint [RFC3168].

   If the method is only deployed by some TCP senders, and not by others,
   the senders that use this method can gain some advantage, possibly at
   the expense of other flows that do not use this updated method.  This
   Because this advantage applies only to ECN-
   marked ECN-marked packets and not to
   loss indications.  Hence, indications, the new method
   can not method cannot lead to congestion collapse.

   The present specification has been assigned an Experimental status,
   to provide result of this Internet deployment experience before being proposed as a
   Standards-Track update.

   This experiment will evaluate the impact of ABE on the Internet.  The
   result will be reported by
   presentation to the TCPM WG (or IESG) or an implementation report at
   the end of the experiment.  Progressing
   the experiment requires support of ECN-marking packets carrying the
   ECT(0) codepoint by routers [I-D.ECN-exp], but does not require any
   ABE-specific changes in routers or Accurate ECN feedback
   [I-D.ietf-tcpm-accurate-ecn] from receivers.

6.  Acknowledgements

   Authors N.  Khademi, M.  Welzl and G.  Fairhurst were part-funded by
   the European Community under its Seventh Framework Programme through
   the Reducing Internet Transport Latency (RITE) project (ICT-317700).
   The views expressed are solely those of the authors.

   The authors would like to thank Stuart Cheshire for many suggestions
   when revising the draft, and the following people for their
   contributions to [ABE2015]: [ABE2017]: Chamil Kulatunga, David Ros, Stein
   Gjessing, Sebastian Zander.  Thanks also to (in alphabetical order)
   Bob Briscoe, Markku Kojo, John Leslie, Dave Taht and the TCPM WG working
   group for providing valuable feedback on this document.

   The authors would finally like to thank everyone who provided
   feedback on the congestion control behaviour specified in this update
   received from the IRTF Internet Congestion Control Research Group
   (ICCRG).

7.  IANA Considerations

   XX RFC ED - PLEASE REMOVE THIS SECTION XXX

   This memo document includes no request to IANA.

8.  Implementation Status

   ABE is implemented as a patch for Linux and FreeBSD.  It is meant for
   research and available for download from
   http://heim.ifi.uio.no/naeemk/research/ABE/ This code was used to
   produce the test results that are reported in [ABE2015]. [ABE2017].

9.  Security Considerations

   The described method is a sender-side only transport change, and does
   not change the protocol messages exchanged.  The security
   considerations of for ECN [RFC3168] therefore still apply.

   This document describes is a change to TCP congestion control with ECN that will
   typically lead to a change in the capacity achieved when flows share
   a network bottleneck.  This could result in some flows receiving more
   than their fair share of capacity.  Similar unfairness in the way
   that capacity is shared is also exhibited by other congestion control
   mechanisms that have been in use in the Internet for many years
   (e.g., CUBIC [I-D.CUBIC]).  Unfairness may also be a result of other
   factors, including the round trip time experienced by a flow.  This
   advantage  ABE
   applies only to when ECN-marked packets and not to loss
   indications, and will therefore are received, not when packets
   are lost, hence use of ABE cannot lead to congestion collapse.

10.  Revision Information

   XX RFC ED - PLEASE REMOVE THIS SECTION XXX

   -01.  Text improved, mainly incorporating comments from Stuart
   Cheshire.  The reference to a technical report has been updated to a
   published version of the tests [ABE2017].  Used "AQM Mechanism"
   throughout in place of other alternatives, and more consistent use of
   technical language and clarification on the intended purpose of the
   experiments required by EXP status.  There was no change to the
   technical content.

   -00. draft-ietf-tcpm-alternativebackoff-ecn-00 replaces draft-
   khademi-tcpm-alternativebackoff-ecn-01.  Text describing the nature
   of the experiment was added.

   Individual draft -01.  This I-D now refers to draft-black-tsvwg-ecn-experimentation-
   02, draft-black-tsvwg-ecn-
   experimentation-02, which replaces draft-khademi-tsvwg-ecn-response-00 draft-khademi-tsvwg-ecn-
   response-00 to make a broader update to RFC3168 for the sake of
   allowing experiments.  As a result, some of the motivating and
   discussing text that was moved from draft-khademi-alternativebackoff-ecn-03 draft-khademi-alternativebackoff-
   ecn-03 to draft-khademi-tsvwg-
   ecn-response-00 draft-khademi-tsvwg-ecn-response-00 has now been re-inserted re-
   inserted here.

   Individual draft -00. draft-khademi-tsvwg-ecn-response-00 and draft-khademi-tcpm-
   alternativebackoff-ecn-00 draft-
   khademi-tcpm-alternativebackoff-ecn-00 replace draft-khademi-alternativebackoff-
   ecn-03, draft-khademi-
   alternativebackoff-ecn-03, following discussion in the TSVWG and TCPM
   working groups.

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.ECN-exp]
              Black, D., "Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN)
              Experimentation", Internet-draft, IETF work-in-progress
              draft-black-tsvwg-ecn-experimentation-02, October 2016.
              draft-ietf-tsvwg-ecn-experimentation-02, April 2017.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC3168]  Ramakrishnan, K., Floyd, S., and D. Black, "The Addition
              of Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) to IP",
              RFC 3168, DOI 10.17487/RFC3168, September 2001,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3168>.

   [RFC5681]  Allman, M., Paxson, V., and E. Blanton, "TCP Congestion
              Control", RFC 5681, DOI 10.17487/RFC5681, September 2009,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5681>.

   [RFC7567]  Baker, F., Ed. and G. Fairhurst, Ed., "IETF
              Recommendations Regarding Active Queue Management",
              BCP 197, RFC 7567, DOI 10.17487/RFC7567, July 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7567>.

11.2.  Informative References

   [ABE2015]

   [ABE2017]  Khademi, N., Welzl, M., Armitage, G., Kulatunga, C., Ros,
              D., Welzl, M., Fairhurst, G., Gjessing,
              Zander, S., and S. Zander, D. Ros, "Alternative Backoff: Achieving
              Low Latency and High Throughput with ECN and AQM", CAIA Technical Report CAIA-
              TR-150710A, Swinburne University of Technology, July 2015,
              <http://caia.swin.edu.au/reports/150710A/
              CAIA-TR-150710A.pdf>. IFIP
              NETWORKING 2017, Stockholm, Sweden, June 2017.

   [BUFFERBLOAT]
              "Bufferbloat project",
              <https://www.bufferbloat.net/projects/bloat/wiki/
              Introduction/>.

   [CODEL2012]
              Nichols, K. and V. Jacobson, "Controlling Queue Delay",
              July 2012, <http://queue.acm.org/detail.cfm?id=2209336>.

   [I-D.AQM-ECN-benefits]
              Fairhurst, G. and M. Welzl, "The Benefits of using
              Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN)", Internet-draft,
              IETF work-in-progress draft-ietf-aqm-ecn-benefits-08,
              November 2015.

   [I-D.CoDel]
              Nichols, K., Jacobson, V., McGregor, V., and J. Iyengar,
              "Controlled Delay Active Queue Management", Internet-
              draft, IETF work-in-progress draft-ietf-aqm-codel-04, June
              2016. draft-ietf-aqm-codel-07,
              March 2017.

   [I-D.CUBIC]
              Rhee, I., Xu, L., Ha, S., Zimmermann, A., Eggert, L., and
              R. Scheffenegger, "CUBIC for Fast Long-Distance Networks",
              Internet-draft, IETF work-in-progress draft-ietf-tcpm-
              cubic-02, August 2016.
              cubic-04, February 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-tcpm-accurate-ecn]
              Briscoe, B., Kuehlewind, M., and R. Scheffenegger, "More
              Accurate ECN Feedback in TCP", draft-ietf-tcpm-accurate-
              ecn-01 (work in progress), June 2016.

   [I-D.ietf-tcpm-dctcp]
              Bensley, S., Eggert, L., Thaler, D., Balasubramanian, P.,
              and G. Judd, "Datacenter TCP (DCTCP): TCP Congestion
              Control for Datacenters", draft-ietf-tcpm-dctcp-02 (work
              in progress), July 2016.

   [I-D.PIE]  Pan, R., Natarajan, P., Baker, F., and G. White, "PIE: A
              Lightweight Control Scheme To Address the Bufferbloat
              Problem", Internet-draft, IETF work-in-progress draft-
              ietf-aqm-pie-10, September 2016.

   [ICC2002]  Kwon, M. and S. Fahmy, "TCP Increase/Decrease Behavior
              with Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN)", IEEE
              ICC 2002, New York, New York, USA, May 2002,
              <http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICC.2002.997262>.

   [RFC7713]  Mathis, M. and B. Briscoe, "Congestion Exposure (ConEx)
              Concepts, Abstract Mechanism, and Requirements", RFC 7713,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7713, December 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7713>.

   [RFC8033]  Pan, R., Natarajan, P., Baker, F., and G. White,
              "Proportional Integral Controller Enhanced (PIE): A
              Lightweight Control Scheme to Address the Bufferbloat
              Problem", RFC 8033, DOI 10.17487/RFC8033, February 2017,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8033>.

   [RFC8087]  Fairhurst, G. and M. Welzl, "The Benefits of Using
              Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN)", RFC 8087,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8087, March 2017,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8087>.

Authors' Addresses

   Naeem Khademi
   University of Oslo
   PO Box 1080 Blindern
   Oslo  N-0316
   Norway

   Email: naeemk@ifi.uio.no

   Michael Welzl
   University of Oslo
   PO Box 1080 Blindern
   Oslo  N-0316
   Norway

   Email: michawe@ifi.uio.no

   Grenville Armitage
   Centre for Advanced Internet Architectures
   Swinburne University of Technology
   PO Box 218
   John Street, Hawthorn
   Victoria  3122
   Australia

   Email: garmitage@swin.edu.au

   Godred Fairhurst
   University of Aberdeen
   School of Engineering, Fraser Noble Building
   Aberdeen  AB24 3UE
   UK

   Email: gorry@erg.abdn.ac.uk