draft-ietf-tcpm-newcwv-13.txt   rfc7661.txt 
TCPM Working Group G. Fairhurst Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) G. Fairhurst
Internet-Draft A. Sathiaseelan Request for Comments: 7661 A. Sathiaseelan
Obsoletes: 2861 (if approved) R. Secchi Obsoletes: 2861 R. Secchi
Intended status: Experimental University of Aberdeen Category: Experimental University of Aberdeen
Expires: December 27, 2015 June 25, 2015 ISSN: 2070-1721 October 2015
Updating TCP to support Rate-Limited Traffic Updating TCP to Support Rate-Limited Traffic
draft-ietf-tcpm-newcwv-13
Abstract Abstract
This document provides a mechanism to address issues that arise when This document provides a mechanism to address issues that arise when
TCP is used for traffic that exhibits periods where the sending rate TCP is used for traffic that exhibits periods where the sending rate
is limited by the application rather than the congestion window. It is limited by the application rather than the congestion window. It
provides an experimental update to TCP that allows a TCP sender to provides an experimental update to TCP that allows a TCP sender to
restart quickly following a rate-limited interval. This method is restart quickly following a rate-limited interval. This method is
expected to benefit applications that send rate-limited traffic using expected to benefit applications that send rate-limited traffic using
TCP, while also providing an appropriate response if congestion is TCP while also providing an appropriate response if congestion is
experienced. experienced.
It also evaluates the Experimental specification of TCP Congestion This document also evaluates the Experimental specification of TCP
Window Validation, CWV, defined in RFC 2861, and concludes that RFC Congestion Window Validation (CWV) defined in RFC 2861 and concludes
2861 sought to address important issues, but failed to deliver a that RFC 2861 sought to address important issues but failed to
widely used solution. This document therefore recommends that the deliver a widely used solution. This document therefore reclassifies
status of RFC 2861 is moved from Experimental to Historic, and that the status of RFC 2861 from Experimental to Historic. This document
it is replaced by the current specification. obsoletes RFC 2861.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. published for examination, experimental implementation, and
evaluation.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months This document defines an Experimental Protocol for the Internet
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any community. This document is a product of the Internet Engineering
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference Task Force (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." community. It has received public review and has been approved for
publication by the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Not
all documents approved by the IESG are a candidate for any level of
Internet Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 5741.
This Internet-Draft will expire on December 27, 2015. Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7661.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction ....................................................3
1.1. Implementation of new CWV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.1. Implementation of New CWV ..................................5
1.2. Standards Status of this Document . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2. Standards Status of This Document ..........................5
2. Reviewing experience with TCP-CWV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Reviewing Experience with TCP-CWV ...............................5
3. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3. Terminology .....................................................7
4.1. Initialisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4. A New Congestion Window Validation Method .......................8
4.2. Estimating the validated capacity supported by a path . . 8 4.1. Initialisation .............................................8
4.3. Preserving cwnd during a rate-limited period. . . . . . . 10 4.2. Estimating the Validated Capacity Supported by a Path ......8
4.4. TCP congestion control during the non-validated phase . . 11 4.3. Preserving cwnd during a Rate-Limited Period ..............10
4.4.1. Response to congestion in the non-validated phase . . 12 4.4. TCP Congestion Control during the Non-validated Phase .....11
4.4.2. Sender burst control during the non-validated phase . 13 4.4.1. Response to Congestion in the Non-validated Phase ..12
4.4.3. Adjustment at the end of the Non-Validated Period 4.4.2. Sender Burst Control during the
(NVP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Non-validated Phase ................................14
4.5. Examples of Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.4.3. Adjustment at the End of the Non-validated
4.5.1. Implementing the pipeACK measurement . . . . . . . . 15 Period (NVP) .......................................14
4.5.2. Measurement of the NVP and pipeACK samples . . . . . 16 4.5. Examples of Implementation ................................15
4.5.3. Implementing detection of the cwnd-limited condition 16 4.5.1. Implementing the pipeACK Measurement ...............15
5. Determining a safe period to preserve cwnd . . . . . . . . . 17 4.5.2. Measurement of the NVP and pipeACK Samples .........16
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 4.5.3. Implementing Detection of the cwnd-Limited
7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Condition ..........................................17
8. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5. Determining a Safe Period to Preserve cwnd .....................17
9. Author Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 6. Security Considerations ........................................18
9.1. Other related work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 7. References .....................................................18
10. Revision notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 7.1. Normative References ......................................18
11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 7.2. Informative References ....................................19
11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Acknowledgments ...................................................21
11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Authors' Addresses ................................................21
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
TCP is used for traffic with a range of application behaviours. The TCP is used for traffic with a range of application behaviours. The
TCP congestion window (cwnd) controls the maximum number of TCP congestion window (cwnd) controls the maximum number of
unacknowledged packets/bytes that a TCP flow may have in the network unacknowledged packets/bytes that a TCP flow may have in the network
at any time, a value known as the FlightSize [RFC5681]. FlightSize at any time, a value known as the FlightSize [RFC5681]. FlightSize
is a measure of the volume of data that is unacknowledged at a is a measure of the volume of data that is unacknowledged at a
specific time. A bulk application will always have data available to specific time. A bulk application will always have data available to
transmit. The rate at which it sends is therefore limited by the transmit. The rate at which it sends is therefore limited by the
maximum permitted by the receiver advertised window and the sender maximum permitted by the receiver advertised window and the sender
congestion window (cwnd). The FlightSize of a bulk flow increases congestion window (cwnd). The FlightSize of a bulk flow increases
with the cwnd, and tracks the volume of data acknowledged in the last with the cwnd and tracks the volume of data acknowledged in the last
Round Trip Time (RTT). Round-Trip Time (RTT).
In contrast, a rate-limited application will experience periods when In contrast, a rate-limited application will experience periods when
the sender is either idle or is unable to send at the maximum rate the sender is either idle or unable to send at the maximum rate
permitted by the cwnd. In this case, the volume of data sent permitted by the cwnd. In this case, the volume of data sent
(FlightSize) can change significantly from one RTT to another, and (FlightSize) can change significantly from one RTT to another and can
can be much less than the cwnd. Hence, it is possible that the be much less than the cwnd. Hence, it is possible that the
FlightSize could significantly exceed the recently used capacity. FlightSize could significantly exceed the recently used capacity.
The update in this document targets the operation of TCP in such The update in this document targets the operation of TCP in such
rate-limited cases. rate-limited cases.
Standard TCP [RFC5681] states that a TCP sender SHOULD set cwnd to no Standard TCP states that a TCP sender SHOULD set cwnd to no more than
more than the Restart Window (RW) before beginning transmission, if the Restart Window (RW) before beginning transmission if the TCP
the TCP sender has not sent data in an interval exceeding the sender has not sent data in an interval exceeding the retransmission
retransmission timeout, i.e., when an application becomes idle. timeout, i.e., when an application becomes idle [RFC5681]. [RFC2861]
[RFC2861] noted that this TCP behaviour was not always observed in notes that this TCP behaviour was not always observed in current
current implementations. Experiments [Bis08] confirm this to still implementations. Experiments confirm this to still be the case (see
be the case. [Bis08]).
Congestion Window Validation, CWV, introduced the terminology of Congestion Window Validation (CWV) [RFC2861] introduced the term
"application limited periods". RFC2861 describes any time that an "application-limited period" for the time when the sender sends less
application limits the sending rate, rather than being limited by the than is allowed by the congestion or receiver windows. [RFC2861]
transport, as "rate-limited". This update improves support for described a method that improved support for applications that vary
applications that vary their transmission rate, either with (short) their transmission rate, i.e., applications that either have (short)
idle periods between transmission or by changing the rate at which idle periods between transmissions or change the rate at which they
the application sends. These applications are characterised by the send. These applications are characterised by the TCP FlightSize
TCP FlightSize often being less than cwnd. Many Internet often being less than the cwnd. Many Internet applications exhibit
applications exhibit this behaviour, including web browsing, http- this behaviour, including web browsing, HTTP-based adaptive
based adaptive streaming, applications that support query/response streaming, applications that support query/response type protocols,
type protocols, network file sharing, and live video transmission. network file sharing, and live video transmission. Many such
Many such applications currently avoid using long-lived (persistent) applications currently avoid using long-lived (persistent) TCP
TCP connections (e.g., [RFC7230] servers typically support persistent connections (e.g., servers that use HTTP/1.1 [RFC7230] typically
HTTP connections, but do not enable this by default). Such support persistent HTTP connections but do not enable this by
applications often instead either use a succession of short TCP default). Instead, such applications often either use a succession
transfers or use UDP. of short TCP transfers or use UDP.
Standard TCP does not impose additional restrictions on the growth of Standard TCP does not impose additional restrictions on the growth of
the congestion window when a TCP sender is unable to send at the the congestion window when a TCP sender is unable to send at the
maximum rate allowed by the cwnd. In this case, the rate-limited maximum rate allowed by the cwnd. In this case, the rate-limited
sender may grow a cwnd far beyond that corresponding to the current sender may grow a cwnd far beyond that corresponding to the current
transmit rate, resulting in a value that does not reflect current transmit rate, resulting in a value that does not reflect current
information about the state of the network path the flow is using. information about the state of the network path the flow is using.
Use of such an invalid cwnd may result in reduced application Use of such an invalid cwnd may result in reduced application
performance and/or could significantly contribute to network performance and/or could significantly contribute to network
congestion. congestion.
[RFC2861] proposed a solution to these issues in an experimental [RFC2861] proposed a solution to these issues in an experimental
method known as CWV. CWV was intended to help reduce cases where TCP method known as CWV. CWV was intended to help reduce cases where TCP
accumulated an invalid (inappropriately large) cwnd. The use and accumulated an invalid (inappropriately large) cwnd. The use and
drawbacks of using the CWV algorithm in RFC 2861 with an application drawbacks of using the CWV algorithm described in RFC 2861 with an
are discussed in Section 2. application are discussed in Section 2.
Section 3 defines relevant terminology. Section 3 defines relevant terminology.
Section 4 specifies an alternative to CWV that seeks to address the Section 4 specifies an alternative to CWV that seeks to address the
same issues, but does so in a way that is expected to mitigate the same issues but does so in a way that is expected to mitigate the
impact on an application that varies its sending rate. The updated impact on an application that varies its sending rate. The updated
method applies to the rate-limited conditions (including both method applies to the rate-limited conditions (including both
application-limited and idle senders). application-limited and idle senders).
The goals of this update are: The goals of this update are:
o To not change the behaviour of a TCP sender that performs bulk o To not change the behaviour of a TCP sender that performs bulk
transfers that fully use the cwnd. transfers that fully use the cwnd.
o To provide a method that co-exists with Standard TCP and other o To provide a method that co-exists with standard TCP and other
flows that use this updated method. flows that use this updated method.
o To reduce transfer latency for applications that change their rate o To reduce transfer latency for applications that change their rate
over short intervals of time. over short intervals of time.
o To avoid a TCP sender growing a large "non-validated" cwnd, when o To avoid a TCP sender growing a large "non-validated" cwnd, when
it has not recently sent using this cwnd. it has not recently sent using this cwnd.
o To remove the incentive for ad-hoc application or network stack o To remove the incentive for ad hoc application or network stack
methods (such as "padding") solely to maintain a large cwnd for methods (such as "padding") solely to maintain a large cwnd for
future transmission. future transmission.
o To provide an incentive for the use of long-lived connections, o To provide an incentive for the use of long-lived connections
rather than a succession of short-lived flows, benefiting both the rather than a succession of short-lived flows, benefiting both the
flows and other flows sharing the network path when actual long-lived flows and other flows sharing capacity with these flows
congestion is encountered. when congestion is encountered.
Section 5 describes the rationale for selecting the safe period to Section 5 describes the rationale for selecting the safe period to
preserve the cwnd. preserve the cwnd.
1.1. Implementation of new CWV 1.1. Implementation of New CWV
The method specified in Section 4 of this document is a sender-side The method specified in Section 4 of this document is a sender-side-
only change to the the TCP congestion control behaviour of TCP. only change to the TCP congestion control behaviour of TCP.
The method creates a new protocol state, and requires a sender to The method creates a new protocol state and requires a sender to
determine when the cwnd is validated or non-validated to control the determine when the cwnd is validated or non-validated to control the
entry and exit from this state Section 4.3. It defines how a TCP entry and exit from this state (see Section 4.3). It defines how a
sender manages the growth of the cwnd using the set of rules defined TCP sender manages the growth of the cwnd using the set of rules
in Section 4. defined in Section 4.
Implementation of this specification requires an implementor to Implementation of this specification requires an implementor to
define a method to measure the available capacity using the pipeACK define a method to measure the available capacity using a set of
samples. The details of this measurement are implementation- pipeACK samples. The details of this measurement are implementation-
specific. An example is provided in Section 4.5.1, but other methods specific. An example is provided in Section 4.5.1, but other methods
are permitted. A sender also needs to provide a method to determine are permitted. A sender also needs to provide a method to determine
when it becomes cwnd-limited. Implementation of this may require when it becomes cwnd-limited. Implementation of this may require
consideration of other TCP methods (see Section 4.5.3). consideration of other TCP methods (see Section 4.5.3).
A sender is also recommended to provide a method that controls the A sender is also recommended to provide a method that controls the
maximum burst size, Section 4.4.2. However, implementors are allowed maximum burst size (see Section 4.4.2). However, implementors are
flexibility in how this method is implemented and the choice of an allowed flexibility in how this method is implemented, and the choice
appropriate method is expected to depend on the way in which the of an appropriate method is expected to depend on the way in which
sender stack implements other TCP methods (such as TCP Segment the sender stack implements other TCP methods (such as TCP Segment
Offload, TSO). Offload (TSO)).
1.2. Standards Status of this Document 1.2. Standards Status of This Document
The document obsoletes the methods described in [RFC2861]. It The document obsoletes the methods described in [RFC2861]. It
recommends a set of mechanisms, including the use of pacing during a recommends a set of mechanisms, including the use of pacing during a
non-validated period. The updated mechanisms are intended to have a non-validated period. The updated mechanisms are intended to have a
less aggressive congestion impact than would be exhibited by a less aggressive congestion impact than would be exhibited by a
standard TCP sender. standard TCP sender.
The specification in this draft is classified as "Experimental" The specification in this document is classified as "Experimental"
pending experience with deployed implementations of the methods. pending experience with deployed implementations of the methods.
2. Reviewing experience with TCP-CWV 2. Reviewing Experience with TCP-CWV
[RFC2861] described a simple modification to the TCP congestion [RFC2861] described a simple modification to the TCP congestion
control algorithm that decayed the cwnd after the transition to a control algorithm that decayed the cwnd after the transition to a
"sufficiently-long" idle period. This used the slow-start threshold "sufficiently-long" idle period. This used the slow-start threshold
(ssthresh) to save information about the previous value of the (ssthresh) to save information about the previous value of the
congestion window. The approach relaxed the standard TCP behaviour congestion window. The approach relaxed the standard TCP behaviour
[RFC5681] for an idle session, intended to improve application for an idle session [RFC5681], which was intended to improve
performance. CWV also modified the behaviour when a sender application performance. CWV also modified the behaviour when a
transmitted at a rate less than allowed by cwnd. sender transmitted at a rate less than allowed by cwnd.
[RFC2861] proposed two set of responses, one after an "application- [RFC2861] proposed two sets of responses: one after an "application-
limited" and one after an "idle period". Although this distinction limited period" and one after an "idle period". Although this
was argued, in practice differentiating the two conditions was found distinction was argued, in practice, differentiating the two
problematic in actual networks (e.g., [Bis10]). While this offers conditions was found problematic in actual networks (see, e.g.,
predictable performance for long on-off periods (>>1 RTT), or slowly [Bis10]). While this offered predictable performance for long on-off
varying rate-based traffic, the performance could be unpredictable periods (>>1 RTT) or slowly varying rate-based traffic, the
for variable-rate traffic and depended both upon whether an accurate performance could be unpredictable for variable-rate traffic and
RTT had been obtained and the pattern of application traffic relative depended both upon whether an accurate RTT had been obtained and the
to the measured RTT. pattern of application traffic relative to the measured RTT.
Many applications can and often do vary their transmission over a Many applications can and often do vary their transmission over a
wide range of rates. Using [RFC2861] such applications often wide range of rates. Using [RFC2861], such applications often
experienced varying performance, which made it hard for application experienced varying performance, which made it hard for application
developers to predict the TCP latency even when using a path with developers to predict the TCP latency even when using a path with
stable network characteristics. We argue that an attempt to classify stable network characteristics. We argue that an attempt to classify
application behaviour as application-limited or idle is problematic application behaviour as application-limited or idle is problematic
and also inappropriate. This document therefore explicitly avoids and also inappropriate. This document therefore explicitly avoids
trying to differentiate these two cases, instead treating all rate- trying to differentiate these two cases, instead treating all rate-
limited traffic uniformly. limited traffic uniformly.
[RFC2861] has been implemented in some mainstream operating systems [RFC2861] has been implemented in some mainstream operating systems
as the default behaviour [Bis08]. Analysis (e.g., [Bis10] [Fai12]) as the default behaviour [Bis08]. Analysis (e.g., [Bis10] and
has shown that a TCP sender using CWV is able to use available [Fai12]) has shown that a TCP sender using CWV is able to use
capacity on a shared path after an idle period. This can benefit available capacity on a shared path after an idle period. This can
variable-rate applications, especially over long delay paths, when benefit variable-rate applications, especially over long delay paths,
compared to the slow-start restart specified by standard TCP. when compared to the slow-start restart specified by standard TCP.
However, CWV would only benefit an application if the idle period However, CWV would only benefit an application if the idle period
were less than several Retransmission Time Out (RTO) intervals were less than several Retransmission Timeout (RTO) intervals
[RFC6298], since the behaviour would otherwise be the same as for [RFC6298], since the behaviour would otherwise be the same as for
standard TCP, which resets the cwnd to the TCP Restart Window after standard TCP, which resets the cwnd to the TCP Restart Window after
this period. this period.
To enable better performance for variable-rate applications with TCP, To enable better performance for variable-rate applications with TCP,
some operating systems have chosen to support non-standard methods, some operating systems have chosen to support non-standard methods,
or applications have resorted to "padding" streams by sending dummy or applications have resorted to "padding" streams by sending dummy
data to maintain their sending rate when they have no data to data to maintain their sending rate when they have no data to
transmit. Although transmitting redundant data across a network path transmit. Although transmitting redundant data across a network path
provides good evidence that the path can sustain data at the offered provides good evidence that the path can sustain data at the offered
rate, padding also consumes network capacity and reduces the rate, padding also consumes network capacity and reduces the
opportunity for congestion-free statistical multiplexing. For opportunity for congestion-free statistical multiplexing. For
variable-rate flows, the benefits of statistical multiplexing can be variable-rate flows, the benefits of statistical multiplexing can be
significant and it is therefore a goal to find a viable alternative significant, and it is therefore a goal to find a viable alternative
to padding streams. to padding streams.
Experience with [RFC2861] suggests that although the CWV method Experience with [RFC2861] suggests that although the CWV method
benefited the network in a rate-limited scenario (reducing the benefited the network in a rate-limited scenario (reducing the
probability of network congestion), the behaviour was too probability of network congestion), the behaviour was too
conservative for many common rate-limited applications. This conservative for many common rate-limited applications. This
mechanism did not therefore offer the desirable increase in mechanism did not therefore offer the desirable increase in
application performance for rate-limited applications and it is application performance for rate-limited applications, and it is
unclear whether applications actually use this mechanism in the unclear whether applications actually use this mechanism in the
general Internet. general Internet.
It is therefore concluded that CWV, as defined in [RFC2861], was Therefore, it was concluded that CWV, as defined in [RFC2861], was
often a poor solution for many rate-limited applications. It had the often a poor solution for many rate-limited applications. It had the
correct motivation, but had the wrong approach to solving this correct motivation but the wrong approach to solving this problem.
problem.
3. Terminology 3. Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
The document assumes familiarity with the terminology of TCP The document assumes familiarity with the terminology of TCP
congestion control [RFC5681]. congestion control [RFC5681].
The following additional terminology is introduced in this document: The following additional terminology is introduced in this document:
cwnd-limited: A TCP flow that has sent the maximum number of segments o cwnd-limited: A TCP flow that has sent the maximum number of
permitted by the cwnd, where the application utilises the allowed segments permitted by the cwnd, where the application utilises the
sending rate (see Section 4.5.3). allowed sending rate (see Section 4.5.3).
pipeACK sample: A measure of the volume of data acknowledged by the o pipeACK sample: A measure of the volume of data acknowledged by
network within an RTT. the network within an RTT.
pipeACK variable: A variable that measures the available capacity o pipeACK variable: A variable that measures the available capacity
using the set of pipeACK samples. using the set of pipeACK samples (see Section 4.2).
pipeACK Sampling Period: The maximum period that a measured pipeACK o pipeACK Sampling Period: The maximum period that a measured
sample may influence the pipeACK variable. pipeACK sample may influence the pipeACK variable.
Non-validated phase: The phase where the cwnd reflects a previous o Non-validated phase: The phase where the cwnd reflects a previous
measurement of the available path capacity. measurement of the available path capacity.
Non-validated period, NVP: The maximum period for which cwnd is o Non-validated period (NVP): The maximum period for which cwnd is
preserved in the non-validated phase. preserved in the non-validated phase.
Rate-limited: A TCP flow that does not consume more than one half of o Rate-limited: A TCP flow that does not consume more than one half
cwnd, and hence operates in the non-validated phase. This includes of cwnd and hence operates in the non-validated phase. This
periods when an application is either idle or chooses to send at a includes periods when an application is either idle or chooses to
rate less than the maximum permitted by the cwnd. send at a rate less than the maximum permitted by the cwnd.
Validated phase: The phase where the cwnd reflects a current estimate o Validated phase: The phase where the cwnd reflects a current
of the available path capacity. estimate of the available path capacity.
4. A New Congestion Window Validation method 4. A New Congestion Window Validation Method
This section proposes an update to the TCP congestion control This section proposes an update to the TCP congestion control
behaviour during a rate-limited interval. This new method behaviour during a rate-limited interval. This new method
intentionally does not differentiate between times when the sender intentionally does not differentiate between times when the sender
has become idle or chooses to send at a rate less than the maximum has become idle or chooses to send at a rate less than the maximum
allowed by the cwnd. allowed by the cwnd.
The period where actual usage is less than allowed by cwnd, is named In the non-validated phase, the capacity used by an application can
the non-validated phase. The update allows an application in the be less than that allowed by the TCP cwnd. This update allows an
non-validated phase to resume transmission at a previous rate without application to preserve a recently used cwnd while in the non-
incurring the delay of slow-start. However, if the TCP sender validated phase and then to resume transmission at a previous rate
experiences congestion using the preserved cwnd, it is required to without incurring the delay of slow-start. However, if the TCP
immediately reset the cwnd to an appropriate value specified by the sender experiences congestion using the preserved cwnd, it is
method. If a sender does not take advantage of the preserved cwnd required to immediately reset the cwnd to an appropriate value
within the Non-validated period, NVP, the value of cwnd is reduced, specified by the method. If a sender does not take advantage of the
ensuring the value better reflects the capacity that was recently preserved cwnd within the non-validated period (NVP), the value of
actually used. cwnd is reduced, ensuring the value better reflects the capacity that
was recently actually used.
It is expected that this update will satisfy the requirements of many It is expected that this update will satisfy the requirements of many
rate-limited applications and at the same time provide an appropriate rate-limited applications and at the same time provide an appropriate
method for use in the Internet. New-CWV reduces this incentive for method for use in the Internet. New CWV reduces this incentive for
an application to send "padding" data simply to keep transport an application to send "padding" data simply to keep transport
congestion state. congestion state.
The method is specified in following subsections and is expected to The method is specified in the following subsections and is expected
encourage applications and TCP stacks to use standards-based to encourage applications and TCP stacks to use standards-based
congestion control methods. It may also encourage the use of long- congestion control methods. It may also encourage the use of long-
lived connections where this offers benefit (such as persistent lived connections where this offers benefit (such as persistent
http). HTTP).
4.1. Initialisation 4.1. Initialisation
A sender starts a TCP connection in the validated phase and A sender starts a TCP connection in the validated phase and
initialises the pipeACK variable to the "undefined" value. This initialises the pipeACK variable to the "undefined" value. This
value inhibits use of the value in cwnd calculations. value inhibits use of the value in cwnd calculations.
4.2. Estimating the validated capacity supported by a path 4.2. Estimating the Validated Capacity Supported by a Path
[RFC6675] defines a variable, FlightSize, that indicates the [RFC6675] defines "FlightSize", a variable that indicates the
instantaneous amount of data that has been sent, but not cumulatively instantaneous amount of data that has been sent but not cumulatively
acknowledged. In this method a new variable "pipeACK" is introduced acknowledged. In this method, a new variable "pipeACK" is introduced
to measure the acknowledged size of the network pipe. This is used to measure the acknowledged size of the network pipe. This is used
to determine if the sender has validated the cwnd. pipeACK differs to determine if the sender has validated the cwnd. pipeACK differs
from FlightSize in that it is evaluated over a window of acknowledged from FlightSize in that it is evaluated over a window of acknowledged
data, rather than reflecting the amount of data outstanding. data, rather than reflecting the amount of data outstanding.
A sender determines a pipeACK sample by measuring the volume of data A sender determines a pipeACK sample by measuring the volume of data
that was acknowledged by the network over the period of a measured that was acknowledged by the network over the period of a measured
Round Trip Time (RTT). Using the variables defined in [RFC6675], a Round-Trip Time (RTT). Using the variables defined in [RFC6675], a
value could be measured by caching the value of HighACK and after one value could be measured by caching the value of HighACK and, after
RTT measuring the difference between the cached HighACK value and the one RTT, measuring the difference between the cached HighACK value
current HighACK value. A sender MAY count TCP DupACKs that and the current HighACK value. A sender MAY count TCP DupACKs that
acknowledge new data when collecting the pipeACK sample. Other acknowledge new data when collecting the pipeACK sample. Other
equivalent methods may be used. equivalent methods may be used.
A sender is not required to continuously update the pipeACK variable A sender is not required to continuously update the pipeACK variable
after each received ACK, but SHOULD perform a pipeACK sample at least after each received ACK but SHOULD perform a pipeACK sample at least
once per RTT when it has sent unacknowledged segments. once per RTT when it has sent unacknowledged segments.
The pipeACK variable MAY consider multiple pipeACK samples over the The pipeACK variable MAY consider multiple pipeACK samples over the
pipeACK Sampling Period. The value of the pipeACK variable MUST NOT pipeACK Sampling Period. The value of the pipeACK variable MUST NOT
exceed the maximum (highest value) within the sampling period. This exceed the maximum (highest value) within the pipeACK Sampling
specification defines the pipeACK Sampling Period as Max(3*RTT, 1 Period. This specification defines the pipeACK Sampling Period as
second). This period enables a sender to compensate for large Max(3*RTT, 1 second). This period enables a sender to compensate for
fluctuations in the sending rate, where there may be pauses in large fluctuations in the sending rate, where there may be pauses in
transmission, and allows the pipeACK variable to reflect the largest transmission, and allows the pipeACK variable to reflect the largest
recently measured pipeACK sample. recently measured pipeACK sample.
When no measurements are available (e.g., a sender that has just When no measurements are available (e.g., a sender that has just
started transmission or immediately after loss recovery), the pipeACK started transmission or immediately after loss recovery), the pipeACK
variable is set to the "undefined value". This value is used to variable is set to the "undefined value". This value is used to
inhibit entering the non-validated phase until the first new inhibit entering the non-validated phase until the first new
measurement of a pipeACK sample. (Section 4.5 provides examples of measurement of a pipeACK sample. (Section 4.5 provides examples of
implementation.) implementation.)
The pipeACK variable MUST NOT be updated during TCP Fast Recovery. The pipeACK variable MUST NOT be updated during TCP Fast Recovery.
That is, the sender stops collecting pipeACK samples during loss That is, the sender stops collecting pipeACK samples during loss
recovery. The method RECOMMENDS enabling the TCP SACK option recovery. The method RECOMMENDS enabling the TCP SACK option
[RFC2018] and RECOMMENDS the method defined in [RFC6675] to recover [RFC2018] and RECOMMENDS the method defined in [RFC6675] to recover
missing segments. This allows the sender to more accurately missing segments. This allows the sender to more accurately
determine the number of missing bytes during the loss recovery phase, determine the number of missing bytes during the loss recovery phase,
and using this method will result in a more appropriate cwnd and using this method will result in a more appropriate cwnd
following loss. following loss.
NOTE: The use of pipeACK rather than FlightSize can change the Note: The use of pipeACK rather than FlightSize can change the
behaviour of a TCP when a sender does not always have data available behaviour of a TCP flow when a sender does not always have data
to send. One example arises when there is a pause in transmission available to send. One example arises when there is a pause in
after sending a sequence of many packets, and the sender experiences transmission after sending a sequence of many packets, and the sender
loss at or near the end of its transmission sequence. In this case, experiences loss at or near the end of its transmission sequence. In
the TCP flow may have used a significant amount of capacity just this case, the TCP flow may have used a significant amount of
prior to the loss (which would be reflected in the volume of data capacity just prior to the loss (which would be reflected in the
acknowledged, recorded in the pipeACK variable), but at the actual volume of data acknowledged, recorded in the pipeACK variable), but
time of loss the number of unacknowledged packets in flight (at the at the actual time of loss, the number of unacknowledged packets in
end of the sequence) may be small, i.e., there is a small FlightSize. flight (at the end of the sequence) may be small, i.e., there is a
After loss recovery, the sender resets its congestion control state. small FlightSize. After loss recovery, the sender resets its
congestion control state.
[Fai12] explored the benefits of different responses to congestion [Fai12] explored the benefits of different responses to congestion
for application-limited streams. If the response is based only on for application-limited streams. If the response is based only on
the Loss FlightSize, the sender would assign a small cwnd and the Loss FlightSize, the sender would assign a small cwnd and
ssthresh, based only on the volume of data sent after the loss. When ssthresh, based only on the volume of data sent after the loss. When
the sender next starts to transmit it can incur may RTTs of delay in the sender next starts to transmit, it can incur many RTTs of delay
slow start before it reacquires its previous rate. When the pipeACK in slow-start before it reacquires its previous rate. When the
value is also usedto calculate the cwnd and ssthresh (as specified in pipeACK value is also used to calculate the cwnd and ssthresh (as
this update in Section 4.4.1), the sender can use a value that also specified in Section 4.4.1), the sender can use a value that also
reflects the recently used capacity before the loss. This prevents a reflects the recently used capacity before the loss. This prevents a
variable-rate application from being unduly penalised. When the variable-rate application from being unduly penalised. When the
sender resumes, it starts at one half its previous rate, similar to sender resumes, it starts at one-half its previous rate, similar to
the behaviour of a bulk TCP flow [Hos15]. To ensure an appropriate the behaviour of a bulk TCP flow [Hos15]. To ensure an appropriate
reaction to on-going congestion, this method requires that the reaction to ongoing congestion, this method requires that the pipeACK
pipeACK variable is reset after it is used in this way. variable is reset after it is used in this way.
4.3. Preserving cwnd during a rate-limited period. 4.3. Preserving cwnd during a Rate-Limited Period
The updated method creates a new TCP sender phase that captures The updated method creates a new TCP sender phase that captures
whether the cwnd reflects a validated or non-validated value. The whether the cwnd reflects a validated or non-validated value. The
phases are defined as: phases are defined as:
o Validated phase: pipeACK >=(1/2)*cwnd, or pipeACK is undefined o Validated phase: pipeACK >=(1/2)*cwnd, or pipeACK is undefined
(i.e., at the start or directly after loss recovery). This is the (i.e., at the start or directly after loss recovery). This is the
normal phase, where cwnd is expected to be an approximate normal phase, where cwnd is expected to be an approximate
indication of the capacity currently available along the network indication of the capacity currently available along the network
path, and the standard methods are used to increase cwnd path, and the standard methods are used to increase cwnd
(currently [RFC5681]). (currently, the standard methods are described in [RFC5681]).
o Non-validated phase: pipeACK <(1/2)*cwnd. This is the phase where o Non-validated phase: pipeACK <(1/2)*cwnd. This is the phase where
the cwnd has a value based on a previous measurement of the the cwnd has a value based on a previous measurement of the
available capacity, and the usage of this capacity has not been available capacity, and the usage of this capacity has not been
validated in the pipeACK Sampling Period. That is, when it is not validated in the pipeACK Sampling Period, that is, when it is not
known whether the cwnd reflects the currently available capacity known whether the cwnd reflects the currently available capacity
along the network path. The mechanisms to be used in this phase along the network path. The mechanisms to be used in this phase
seek to determine a safe value for cwnd and an appropriate seek to determine a safe value for cwnd and an appropriate
reaction to congestion. reaction to congestion.
Note: A threshold is needed to determine whether a sender is in the Note: A threshold is needed to determine whether a sender is in the
validated or non-validated phase. A standard TCP sender in slow- validated or non-validated phase. A standard TCP sender in slow-
start is permitted to double its FlightSize from one RTT to the next. start is permitted to double its FlightSize from one RTT to the next.
This motivated the choice of a threshold value of 1/2. This This motivated the choice of a threshold value of 1/2. This
threshold ensures a sender does not further increase the cwnd as long threshold ensures a sender does not further increase the cwnd as long
as the FlightSize is less than (1/2*cwnd). Furthermore, a sender as the FlightSize is less than (1/2*cwnd). Furthermore, a sender
with a FlightSize less than (1/2*cwnd) may in the next RTT be with a FlightSize less than (1/2*cwnd) may, in the next RTT, be
permitted by the cwnd to send at a rate that more than doubles the permitted by the cwnd to send at a rate that more than doubles the
FlightSize, and hence this case needs to be regarded as non-validated FlightSize; hence, this case needs to be regarded as non-validated,
and a sender therefore needs to employ additional mechanisms while in and a sender therefore needs to employ additional mechanisms while in
this phase. this phase.
4.4. TCP congestion control during the non-validated phase 4.4. TCP Congestion Control during the Non-validated Phase
A TCP sender implementing this specification MUST enter the non- A TCP sender implementing this specification MUST enter the non-
validated phase when the pipeACK is less than (1/2)*cwnd. (The note validated phase when the pipeACK is less than (1/2)*cwnd. (The note
at the end of section 4.4.1 describes why pipeACK<=(1/2)*cwnd is at the end of Section 4.4.1 describes why pipeACK<=(1/2)*cwnd is
expected to be a safe value.) expected to be a safe value.)
A TCP sender that enters the non-validated phase preserves the cwnd A TCP sender that enters the non-validated phase preserves the cwnd
(i.e., the cwnd only increases after a sender fully uses the cwnd in (i.e., the cwnd only increases after a sender fully uses the cwnd in
this phase, otherwise the cwnd neither grows nor reduces). The phase this phase; otherwise, the cwnd neither grows nor reduces). The
is concluded when the sender transmits sufficient data so that phase is concluded when the sender transmits sufficient data so that
pipeACK > (1/2)*cwnd (i.e., the sender is no longer rate-limited), or pipeACK > (1/2)*cwnd (i.e., the sender is no longer rate-limited) or
when the sender receives an indication of congestion. when the sender receives an indication of congestion.
After a fixed period of time (the non-validated period, NVP), the After a fixed period of time (the non-validated period (NVP)), the
sender adjusts the cwnd Section 4.4.3). The NVP SHOULD NOT exceed 5 sender adjusts the cwnd (Section 4.4.3). The NVP SHOULD NOT exceed
minutes.Section 5 discusses the rationale for choosing a safe value five minutes. Section 5 discusses the rationale for choosing a safe
for this period. value for this period.
The behaviour in the non-validated phase is specified as: The behaviour in the non-validated phase is specified as:
o A sender determines whether to increase the cwnd based upon o A sender determines whether to increase the cwnd based upon
whether it is cwnd-limited (see Section 4.5.3): whether it is cwnd-limited (see Section 4.5.3):
* A sender that is cwnd-limited MAY use the standard TCP method * A sender that is cwnd-limited MAY use the standard TCP method
to increase cwnd (i.e., a TCP sender that fully utilises the to increase cwnd (i.e., the standard method permits a TCP
cwnd is permitted to increase cwnd each received ACK using sender that fully utilises the cwnd to increase the cwnd each
standard methods). time it receives an ACK).
* A sender that is not cwnd-limited MUST NOT increase the cwnd * A sender that is not cwnd-limited MUST NOT increase the cwnd
when ACK packets are received in this phase (i.e., needs to when ACK packets are received in this phase (i.e., needs to
avoid growing the cwnd when it has not recently sent using the avoid growing the cwnd when it has not recently sent using the
current size of cwnd). current size of cwnd).
o If the sender receives an indication of congestion while in the o If the sender receives an indication of congestion while in the
non-validated phase (i.e., detects loss), the sender MUST exit the non-validated phase (i.e., detects loss), the sender MUST exit the
non-validated phase (reducing the cwnd as defined in non-validated phase (reducing the cwnd as defined in
Section 4.4.1). Section 4.4.1).
o If the Retransmission Time Out (RTO) expires while in the non- o If the Retransmission Timeout (RTO) expires while in the non-
validated phase, the sender MUST exit the non-validated phase. It validated phase, the sender MUST exit the non-validated phase. It
then resumes using the standard TCP RTO mechanism [RFC5681]. then resumes using the standard TCP RTO mechanism [RFC5681].
o A sender with a pipeACK variable greater than (1/2)*cwnd SHOULD o A sender with a pipeACK variable greater than (1/2)*cwnd SHOULD
enter the validated phase. (A rate-limited sender will not enter the validated phase. (A rate-limited sender will not
normally be impacted by whether it is in a validated or non- normally be impacted by whether it is in a validated or non-
validated phase, since it will normally not increase FlightSize to validated phase, since it will normally not increase FlightSize to
use the entire cwnd. However, a change to the validated phase use the entire cwnd. However, a change to the validated phase
will release the sender from constraints on the growth of cwnd, will release the sender from constraints on the growth of cwnd and
and result in using the standard congestion response.) result in using the standard congestion response.)
The cwnd-limited behaviour may be triggered during a transient The cwnd-limited behaviour may be triggered during a transient
condition that occurs when a sender is in the non-validated phase and condition that occurs when a sender is in the non-validated phase and
receives an ACK that acknowledges received data, the cwnd was fully receives an ACK that acknowledges received data, the cwnd was fully
utilised, and more data is awaiting transmission than may be sent utilised, and more data is awaiting transmission than may be sent
with the current cwnd. The sender MAY then use the standard method with the current cwnd. The sender MAY then use the standard method
to increase the cwnd. (Note, if the sender succeeds in sending these to increase the cwnd. (Note that if the sender succeeds in sending
new segments, the updated cwnd and pipeACK variables will eventually these new segments, the updated cwnd and pipeACK variables will
result in a transition to the validated phase.) eventually result in a transition to the validated phase.)
4.4.1. Response to congestion in the non-validated phase 4.4.1. Response to Congestion in the Non-validated Phase
Reception of congestion feedback while in the non-validated phase is Reception of congestion feedback while in the non-validated phase is
interpreted as an indication that it was inappropriate for the sender interpreted as an indication that it was inappropriate for the sender
to use the preserved cwnd. The sender is therefore required to to use the preserved cwnd. The sender is therefore required to
quickly reduce the rate to avoid further congestion. Since the cwnd quickly reduce the rate to avoid further congestion. Since the cwnd
does not have a validated value, a new cwnd value needs to be does not have a validated value, a new cwnd value needs to be
selected based on the utilised rate. selected based on the utilised rate.
A sender that detects a packet-drop MUST record the current A sender that detects a packet drop MUST record the current
FlightSize in the variable LossFlightSize and MUST calculate a safe FlightSize in the variable LossFlightSize and MUST calculate a safe
cwnd for loss recovery using the method below: cwnd for loss recovery using the method below:
cwnd = (Max(pipeACK,LossFlightSize))/2. cwnd = (Max(pipeACK,LossFlightSize))/2.
The pipeACK value is not updated during loss recovery (see The pipeACK value is not updated during loss recovery (see
Section 4.2). If there is a valid pipeACK value, the new cwnd is Section 4.2). If there is a valid pipeACK value, the new cwnd is
adjusted to reflect that a non-validated cwnd may be larger than the adjusted to reflect that a non-validated cwnd may be larger than the
actual FlightSize, or recently used FlightSize (recorded in pipeACK). actual FlightSize or recently used FlightSize (recorded in pipeACK).
The updated cwnd therefore prevents overshoot by a sender The updated cwnd therefore prevents overshoot by a sender,
significantly increasing its transmission rate during the recovery significantly increasing its transmission rate during the recovery
period. period.
At the end of the recovery phase, the TCP sender MUST reset the cwnd At the end of the recovery phase, the TCP sender MUST reset the cwnd
using the method below: using the method below:
cwnd = (Max(pipeACK,LossFlightSize) - R)/2. cwnd = (Max(pipeACK,LossFlightSize) - R)/2.
Where R is the volume of data that was successfully retransmitted Where R is the volume of data that was successfully retransmitted
during the recovery phase. This corresponds to segments during the recovery phase. This corresponds to segments
retransmitted and considered lost by the pipe estimation algorithm at retransmitted and considered lost by the pipe estimation algorithm at
the end of recovery. It does not include the additional cost of the end of recovery. It does not include the additional cost of
multiple retransmission of the same data. The loss of segments multiple retransmission of the same data. The loss of segments
indicates that the path capacity was exceeded by at least R, and indicates that the path capacity was exceeded by at least R; hence,
hence the calculated cwnd is reduced by at least R before the window the calculated cwnd is reduced by at least R before the window is
is halved. halved.
The calculated cwnd value MUST NOT be reduced below 1 TCP Maximum The calculated cwnd value MUST NOT be reduced below 1 TCP Maximum
Segment Size (MSS). Segment Size (MSS).
After completing the loss recovery phase, the sender MUST re- After completing the loss recovery phase, the sender MUST
initialise the pipeACK variable to the "undefined" value. This re-initialise the pipeACK variable to the "undefined" value. This
ensures that standard TCP methods are used immediately after ensures that standard TCP methods are used immediately after
completing loss recovery until a new pipeACK value can be determined. completing loss recovery until a new pipeACK value can be determined.
The ssthresh is adjusted using the standard TCP method (Step 6 in The ssthresh is adjusted using the standard TCP method (Step 6 in
Section 3.2 of RFC 5681 assigns the ssthresh a value equal to cwnd at Section 3.2 of RFC 5681 assigns the ssthresh a value equal to cwnd at
the end of the loss recovery). the end of the loss recovery).
Note: The adjustment by reducing cwnd by the volume of data not sent Note: The adjustment by reducing cwnd by the volume of data not sent
(R) follows the method proposed for Jump Start [Liu07]. The (R) follows the method proposed for Jump Start [Liu07]. The
inclusion of the term R makes the adjustment more conservative than inclusion of the term R makes the adjustment more conservative than
standard TCP. This is required, since a sender in the non-validated standard TCP. This is required, since a sender in the non-validated
state may increase the rate more than a standard TCP would have done phase is allowed a rate higher than a standard TCP sender would have
relative to what was sent in the last RTT (i.e., more than doubled achieved in the last RTT (i.e., to have more than doubled the number
the number of segments in flight relative to what it sent in the last of segments in flight relative to what was sent in the previous RTT).
RTT). The additional reduction after congestion is beneficial when The additional reduction after congestion is beneficial when the
the LossFlightSize has significantly overshot the available path LossFlightSize has significantly overshot the available path
capacity incurring significant loss (e.g., following a change of path capacity, incurring significant loss (e.g., following a change of
characteristics or when additional traffic has taken a larger share path characteristics or when additional traffic has taken a larger
of the network bottleneck during a period when the sender transmits share of the network bottleneck during a period when the sender
less). transmits less).
Note: The pipeACK value is only valid during a non-validated phase, Note: The pipeACK value is only valid during a non-validated phase;
and therefore this does not exceed cwnd/2. If LossFlightSize and R therefore, this does not exceed cwnd/2. If LossFlightSize and R were
were small, then this can result in the final cwnd after loss small, then this can result in the final cwnd after loss recovery
recovery being at most one quarter of the cwnd on detection of being at most one-quarter of the cwnd on detection of congestion.
congestion. This reduction is conservative, and pipeACK is then This reduction is conservative, and pipeACK is then reset to
reset to undefined, hence cwnd updates after a congestion event do undefined; hence, cwnd updates after a congestion event do not depend
not depend upon the pipeACK history before congestion was detected. upon the pipeACK history before congestion was detected.
4.4.2. Sender burst control during the non-validated phase 4.4.2. Sender Burst Control during the Non-validated Phase
TCP congestion control allows a sender to accumulate a cwnd that TCP congestion control allows a sender to accumulate a cwnd that
would allow it to send a burst of segments with a total size up to would allow it to send a burst of segments with a total size up to
the difference between the FlightsSize and cwnd. Such bursts can the difference between the FlightSize and cwnd. Such bursts can
impact other flows that share a network bottleneck and/or may induce impact other flows that share a network bottleneck and/or may induce
congestion when buffering is limited. congestion when buffering is limited.
Various methods have been proposed to control the sender burstiness Various methods have been proposed to control the sender burstiness
[Hug01], [All05]. For example, TCP can limit the number of new [Hug01] [All05]. For example, TCP can limit the number of new
segments it sends per received ACK. This is effective when a flow of segments it sends per received ACK. This is effective when a flow of
ACKs is received, but can not be used to control a sender that has ACKs is received but cannot be used to control a sender that has not
not send appreciable data in the previous RTT [All05]. sent appreciable data in the previous RTT [All05].
This document recommends using a method to avoid line-rate bursts This document recommends using a method to avoid line-rate bursts
after an idle or rate-limited interval when there is less reliable after an idle or rate-limited interval when there is less reliable
information about the capacity of the network path: A TCP sender in information about the capacity of the network path. A TCP sender in
the non-validated phase SHOULD control the maximum burst size, e.g., the non-validated phase SHOULD control the maximum burst size, e.g.,
using a rate-based pacing algorithm in which a sender paces out the using a rate-based pacing algorithm in which a sender paces out the
cwnd over its estimate of the RTT, or some other method, to prevent cwnd over its estimate of the RTT, or some other method, to prevent
many segments being transmitted contiguously at line-rate. The most many segments being transmitted contiguously at line-rate. The most
appropriate method(s) to implement pacing depend on the design of the appropriate method(s) to implement pacing depend on the design of the
TCP/IP stack, speed of interface and whether hardware support (such TCP/IP stack, speed of interface, and whether hardware support (such
as TCP Segment Offload, TSO) is used. The present document does not as TSO) is used. This document does not recommend any specific
recommend any specific method. method.
4.4.3. Adjustment at the end of the Non-Validated Period (NVP) 4.4.3. Adjustment at the End of the Non-validated Period (NVP)
An application that remains in the non-validated phase for a period An application that remains in the non-validated phase for a period
greater than the NVP is required to adjust its congestion control greater than the NVP is required to adjust its congestion control
state. If the sender exits the non-validated phase after this state. If the sender exits the non-validated phase after this
period, it MUST update the ssthresh: period, it MUST update the ssthresh:
ssthresh = max(ssthresh, 3*cwnd/4). ssthresh = max(ssthresh, 3*cwnd/4).
(This adjustment of ssthresh ensures that the sender records that it (This adjustment of ssthresh ensures that the sender records that it
has safely sustained the present rate. The change is beneficial to has safely sustained the present rate. The change is beneficial to
rate-limited flows that encounter occasional congestion, and could rate-limited flows that encounter occasional congestion and could
otherwise suffer an unwanted additional delay in recovering the otherwise suffer an unwanted additional delay in recovering the
sending rate.) sending rate.)
The sender MUST then update cwnd to be not greater than: The sender MUST then update cwnd to be not greater than:
cwnd = max((1/2)*cwnd, IW). cwnd = max((1/2)*cwnd, IW).
Where IW is the appropriate TCP initial window, used by the TCP Where IW is the appropriate TCP initial window used by the TCP sender
sender (e.g., [RFC5681]). (see, e.g., [RFC5681]).
Note: These cwnd and ssthresh adjustments cause the sender to enter Note: These cwnd and ssthresh adjustments cause the sender to enter
slow-start (since ssthresh > cwnd). This adjustment ensures that the slow-start (since ssthresh > cwnd). This adjustment ensures that the
sender responds conservatively after remaining in the non-validated sender responds conservatively after remaining in the non-validated
phase for more than the non-validated period. In this case, it phase for more than the non-validated period. In this case, it
reduces the cwnd by a factor of two from the preserved value. This reduces the cwnd by a factor of two from the preserved value. This
adjustment is helpful when flows accumulate but do not use a large adjustment is helpful when flows accumulate but do not use a large
cwnd, and seeks to mitigate the impact when these flows later resume cwnd; this adjustment seeks to mitigate the impact when these flows
transmission. This could for instance mitigate the impact if later resume transmission. This could, for instance, mitigate the
multiple high-rate application flows were to become idle over an impact if multiple high-rate application flows were to become idle
extended period of time and then were simultaneously awakened by an over an extended period of time and then were simultaneously awakened
external event. by an external event.
4.5. Examples of Implementation 4.5. Examples of Implementation
This section provides informative examples of implementation methods. This section provides informative examples of implementation methods.
Implementations may choose to use other methods that comply with the Implementations may choose to use other methods that comply with the
normative requirements. normative requirements.
4.5.1. Implementing the pipeACK measurement 4.5.1. Implementing the pipeACK Measurement
A pipeACK sample may be measured once each RTT. This reduces the A pipeACK sample may be measured once each RTT. This reduces the
sender processing burden for calculating after each acknowledgement sender processing burden for calculating after each acknowledgment
and also reduces storage requirements at the sender. and also reduces storage requirements at the sender.
Since application behaviour can be bursty using CWV, it may be Since application behaviour can be bursty using CWV, it may be
desirable to implement a maximum filter to accumulate the measured desirable to implement a maximum filter to accumulate the measured
values so that the pipeACK variable records the largest pipeACK values so that the pipeACK variable records the largest pipeACK
sample within the pipeACK Sampling Period. One simple way to sample within the pipeACK Sampling Period. One simple way to
implement this is to divide the pipeACK Sampling Period into several implement this is to divide the pipeACK Sampling Period into several
(e.g., 5) equal length measurement periods. The sender then records (e.g., five) equal-length measurement periods. The sender then
the start time for each measurement period and the highest measured records the start time for each measurement period and the highest
pipeACK sample. At the end of the measurement period, any measured pipeACK sample. At the end of the measurement period, any
measurement(s) that are older than the pipeACK Sampling Period are measurement(s) that is older than the pipeACK Sampling Period is
discarded. The pipeACK variable is then assigned the largest of the discarded. The pipeACK variable is then assigned the largest of the
set of the highest measured values. set of the highest measured values.
pipeACK sample (Bytes) pipeACK sample (Bytes)
^ ^
| +----------+----------+ +----------+---...... | +----------+----------+ +----------+---......
| | Sample A | Sample B | No | Sample C | Sample D | | Sample A | Sample B | No | Sample C | Sample D
| | | | Sample | | | | | | Sample | |
| | |\ 5 | | | | | | |\ 5 | | | |
| | | | | | | /\ 4 | | | | | | | | /\ 4 |
| | | | | |\ 3 | | | \ | | | | | | |\ 3 | | | \ |
| | | \ | | \--- | | / \ | /| 2 | | | \ | | \--- | | / \ | /| 2
| |/ \------| - | | / \------/ \... | |/ \------| - | | / \------/ \...
+//-+----------+---------\+----/ /----+/---------+-------------> Time +//-+----------+---------\+----/ /----+/---------+-------------> Time
<------------------------------------------------| <------------------------------------------------|
Sampling Period Current Time Sampling Period Current Time
Figure 1: Example of measuring pipeACK samples Figure 1: Example of Measuring pipeACK Samples
Figure 1 shows an example of how measurement samples may be Figure 1 shows an example of how measurement samples may be
collected. At the time represented by the figure new samples are collected. At the time represented by the figure, new samples are
being accumulated into sample D. Three previous samples also fall being accumulated into sample D. Three previous samples also fall
within the pipeACK Sampling Period: A, B, and C. There was also a within the pipeACK Sampling Period: A, B, and C. There was also a
period of inactivity between samples B and C during which no period of inactivity between samples B and C during which no
measurements were taken (because no new data segments were measurements were taken (because no new data segments were
acknowledged). The current value of the pipeACK variable will be 5, acknowledged). The current value of the pipeACK variable will be 5,
the maximum across all samples. During this period, the pipeACK the maximum across all samples. During this period, the pipeACK
samples may be regarded as zero, and hence do not contribute to the samples may be regarded as zero and hence do not contribute to the
calculated pipeACK value. calculated pipeACK value.
After one further measurement period, Sample A will be discarded, After one further measurement period, Sample A will be discarded,
since it then is older than the pipeACK Sampling Period and the since it then is older than the pipeACK Sampling Period, and the
pipeACK variable will be recalculated, Its value will be the larger pipeACK variable will be recalculated. Its value will be the larger
of Sample C or the final value accumulated in Sample D. of Sample C or the final value accumulated in Sample D.
4.5.2. Measurement of the NVP and pipeACK samples 4.5.2. Measurement of the NVP and pipeACK Samples
The mechanism requires a number of measurements of time. These The mechanism requires a number of measurements of time. These
measurements could be implemented using protocol timers, but do not measurements could be implemented using protocol timers but do not
necessarily require a new timer to be implemented. Avoiding the use necessarily require a new timer to be implemented. Avoiding the use
of dedicated timers can save operating system resources, especially of dedicated timers can save operating system resources, especially
when there may be large numbers of TCP flows. when there may be large numbers of TCP flows.
The NVP could be measured by recording a timestamp when the sender The NVP could be measured by recording a timestamp when the sender
enters the non-validated phase. Each time a sender transmits a new enters the non-validated phase. Each time a sender transmits a new
segment, this timestamp can be used to determine if the NVP has segment, this timestamp can be used to determine if the NVP has
expired. If the measured period exceeds the NVP, the sender can then expired. If the measured period exceeds the NVP, the sender can then
take into account how many units of the NVP have passed and make one take into account how many units of the NVP have passed and make one
reduction (defined in Section 4.4.3) for each NVP. reduction (defined in Section 4.4.3) for each NVP.
Similarly, the time measurements for collecting pipeACK samples and Similarly, the time measurements for collecting pipeACK samples and
determining the Sampling Period could be derived by using a timestamp determining the pipeACK Sampling Period could be derived by using a
to record when each sample was measured, and to use this to calculate timestamp to record when each sample was measured and using this to
how much time has passed when each new ACK is received. calculate how much time has passed when each new ACK is received.
4.5.3. Implementing detection of the cwnd-limited condition 4.5.3. Implementing Detection of the cwnd-Limited Condition
A sender needs to implement a method that detects the cwnd-limited A sender needs to implement a method that detects the cwnd-limited
condition (see Section 4.4). This detects a condition where a sender condition (see Section 4.4). This detects a condition where a sender
in the non-validated phase receives an ACK, but the size of cwnd in the non-validated phase receives an ACK, but the size of cwnd
prevents sending more new data. prevents sending more new data.
In simple terms, this condition is true only when the FlightSize of a In simple terms, this condition is true only when the FlightSize of a
TCP sender is equal to or larger than the current cwnd. However, an TCP sender is equal to or larger than the current cwnd. However, an
implementation also needs to consider constraints on the way in which implementation also needs to consider constraints on the way in which
the cwnd variable can be used, for instance implementations need to the cwnd variable can be used; for instance, implementations need to
support other TCP methods such as the Nagle Algorithm and TCP Segment support other TCP methods such as the Nagle Algorithm and TCP Segment
Offload (TSO) that also use cwnd to control transmission. These Offload (TSO) that also use cwnd to control transmission. These
other methods can result in a sender becoming cwnd-limited when the other methods can result in a sender becoming cwnd-limited when the
cwnd is nearly, rather than completely, equal to the FlightSize. cwnd is nearly, rather than completely, equal to the FlightSize.
5. Determining a safe period to preserve cwnd 5. Determining a Safe Period to Preserve cwnd
This section documents the rationale for selecting the maximum period This section documents the rationale for selecting the maximum period
that cwnd may be preserved, known as the NVP. that cwnd may be preserved, known as the NVP.
Limiting the period that cwnd may be preserved avoids undesirable Limiting the period that cwnd may be preserved avoids undesirable
side effects that would result if the cwnd were to be kept side effects that would result if the cwnd were to be kept
unnecessarily high for an arbitrary long period, which was a part of unnecessarily high for an arbitrarily long period, which was a part
the problem that CWV originally attempted to address. The period a of the problem that CWV originally attempted to address. The period
sender may safely preserve the cwnd, is a function of the period that a sender may safely preserve the cwnd is a function of the period
a network path is expected to sustain the capacity reflected by cwnd. that a network path is expected to sustain the capacity reflected by
There is no ideal choice for this time. cwnd. There is no ideal choice for this time.
A period of five minutes was chosen for this NVP. This is a A period of five minutes was chosen for this NVP. This is a
compromise that was larger than the idle intervals of common compromise that was larger than the idle intervals of common
applications, but not sufficiently larger than the period for which applications but not sufficiently larger than the period for which
the capacity of an Internet path may commonly be regarded as stable. the capacity of an Internet path may commonly be regarded as stable.
The capacity of wired networks is usually relatively stable for The capacity of wired networks is usually relatively stable for
periods of several minutes and that load stability increases with the periods of several minutes, and that load stability increases with
capacity. This suggests that cwnd may be preserved for at least a the capacity. This suggests that cwnd may be preserved for at least
few minutes. a few minutes.
There are cases where the TCP throughput exhibits significant There are cases where the TCP throughput exhibits significant
variability over a time less than five minutes. Examples could variability over a time less than five minutes. Examples could
include wireless topologies, where TCP rate variations may fluctuate include wireless topologies, where TCP rate variations may fluctuate
on the order of a few seconds as a consequence of medium access on the order of a few seconds as a consequence of medium access
protocol instabilities. Mobility changes may also impact TCP protocol instabilities. Mobility changes may also impact TCP
performance over short time scales. Senders that observe such rapid performance over short time scales. Senders that observe such rapid
changes in the path characteristic may also experience increased changes in the path characteristic may also experience increased
congestion with the new method, however such variation would likely congestion with the new method; however, such variation would likely
also impact TCP's behaviour when supporting interactive and bulk also impact TCP's behaviour when supporting interactive and bulk
applications. applications.
Routing algorithms may change the the network path that is used by a Routing algorithms may change the network path that is used by a
transport. Although a change of path can in turn disrupt the RTT transport. Although a change of path can in turn disrupt the RTT
measurement and may result in a change of the capacity available to a measurement and may result in a change of the capacity available to a
TCP connection, we assume these path changes do not usually occur TCP connection, we assume these path changes do not usually occur
frequently (compared to a time frame of a few minutes). frequently (compared to a time frame of a few minutes).
The value of five minutes is therefore expected to be sufficient for The value of five minutes is therefore expected to be sufficient for
most current applications. Simulation studies (e.g., [Bis11]) also most current applications. Simulation studies (e.g., [Bis11]) also
suggest that for many practical applications, the performance using suggest that for many practical applications, the performance using
this value will not be significantly different to that observed using this value will not be significantly different from that observed
a non-standard method that does not reset the cwnd after idle. using a non-standard method that does not reset the cwnd after idle.
Finally, other TCP sender mechanisms have used a 5 minute timer, and Finally, other TCP sender mechanisms have used a five-minute timer,
there could be simplifications in some implementations by reusing the and there could be simplifications in some implementations by reusing
same interval. TCP defines a default user timeout of 5 minutes the same interval. TCP defines a default user timeout of five
[RFC0793] i.e., how long transmitted data may remain unacknowledged minutes [RFC793], which is how long transmitted data may remain
before a connection is forcefully closed. unacknowledged before a connection is forcefully closed.
6. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
General security considerations concerning TCP congestion control are General security considerations concerning TCP congestion control are
discussed in [RFC5681]. This document describes an algorithm that discussed in [RFC5681]. This document describes an algorithm that
updates one aspect of the congestion control procedures, and so the updates one aspect of the congestion control procedures, so the
considerations described in RFC 5681 also apply to this algorithm. considerations described in [RFC5681] also apply to this algorithm.
7. IANA Considerations
There are no IANA considerations.
8. Acknowledgments
This document was produced by the TCP Maintenance and Minor
Extensions (tcpm) working group.
The authors acknowledge the contributions of Dr I Biswas, Dr Ziaul
Hossain in supporting the evaluation of CWV and for their help in
developing the mechanisms proposed in this draft. We also
acknowledge comments received from the Internet Congestion Control
Research Group, in particular Yuchung Cheng, Mirja Kuehlewind, Joe
Touch, and Mark Allman. This work was part-funded by the European
Community under its Seventh Framework Programme through the Reducing
Internet Transport Latency (RITE) project (ICT-317700).
9. Author Notes
RFC-Editor note: please remove this section prior to publication.
9.1. Other related work
RFC-Editor note: please remove this section prior to publication.
There are several issues to be discussed more widely:
o There are potential interactions with the Experimental update in
RFC 6928 that raises the TCP initial Window to ten segments, do
these cases need to be elaborated?
This relates to the Experimental specification for increasing
the TCP IW defined in RFC 6928.
The two methods have different functions and different response
to loss/congestion.
RFC 6928 proposes an experimental update to TCP that would
increase the IW to ten segments. This would allow faster
opening of the cwnd, and also a large (same size) restart
window. This approach is based on the assumption that many
forward paths can sustain bursts of up to ten segments without
(appreciable) loss. Such a significant increase in cwnd must
be matched with an equally large reduction of cwnd if loss/
congestion is detected, and such a congestion indication is
likely to require future use of IW=10 to be disabled for this
path for some time. This guards against the unwanted behaviour
of a series of short flows continuously flooding a network path
without network congestion feedback.
In contrast, this document proposes an update with a rationale
that relies on recent previous path history to select an
appropriate cwnd after restart.
The behaviour differs in three ways:
1) For applications that send little initially, new-cwv may
constrain more than RFC 6928, but would not require the
connection to reset any path information when a restart
incurred loss. In contrast, new-cwv would allow the TCP
connection to preserve the cached cwnd, any loss, would impact
cwnd, but not impact other flows.
2) For applications that utilise more capacity than provided by
a cwnd of 10 segments, this method would permit a larger
restart window compared to a restart using the method in RFC
6928. This is justified by the recent path history.
3) new-CWV is attended to also be used for rate-limited
applications, where the application sends, but does not seek to
fully utilise the cwnd. In this case, new-cwv constrains the
cwnd to that justified by the recent path history. The
performance trade-offs are hence different, and it would be
possible to enable new-cwv when also using the method in RFC
6928, and yield benefits.
o There is potential overlap with the Laminar proposal (draft-
mathis-tcpm-tcp-laminar)
The current draft was intended as a standards-track update to
TCP, rather than a new transport variant. At least, it would
be good to understand how the two interact and whether there is
a possibility of a single method.
o There is potential performance loss in loss of a short burst
(off list with M Allman)
A sender can transmit several segments then become idle. If
the first set of segments are all Acknowledged, the ssthresh
collapses to a small value (no new data is sent by the idle
sender). Loss of the later data results in congestion (e.g.,
maybe a RED drop or some other cause, rather than the maximum
rate of this flow). When the sender performs loss recovery it
may have an appreciable pipeACK and cwnd, but a very low
FlightSize - the Standard algorithm therefore results in an
unusually low cwnd ((1/2)* FlightSize).
A constant rate flow would have maintained a FlightSize
appropriate to pipeACK (cwnd, if it is a bulk flow).
This could be fixed by adding a new state variable? It could
also be argued this is a corner case (e.g., loss of only the
last segments would have resulted in RTO), the impact could be
significant.
o There is potential interaction with TCP Control Block Sharing(M
Welzl)
An application that is non-validated can accumulate a cwnd that
is larger than the actual capacity. Is this a fair value to
use in TCB sharing?
We propose that TCB sharing should use the pipeACK in place of
cwnd when a TCP sender is in the Non-validated phase. This
value better reflects the capacity that the flow has utilised
in the network path.
10. Revision notes
RFC-Editor note: please remove this section prior to publication.
Draft 03 was submitted to ICCRG to receive comments and feedback.
Draft 04 contained the first set of clarifications after feedback:
o Changed name to application limited and used the term rate-limited
in all places.
o Added justification and many minor changes suggested on the list.
o Added text to tie-in with more accurate ECN marking.
o Added ref to Hug01
Draft 05 contained various updates:
o New text to redefine how to measure the acknowledged pipe,
differentiating this from the FlightSize, and hence avoiding
previous issues with infrequent large bursts of data not being
validated. A key point new feature is that pipeACK only triggers
leaving the NVP after the size of the pipe has been acknowledged.
This removed the need for hysteresis.
o Reduction values were changed to 1/2, following analysis of
suggestions from ICCRG. This also sets the "target" cwnd as twice
the used rate for non-validated case.
o Introduced a symbolic name (NVP) to denote the 5 minute period.
Draft 06 contained various updates:
o Required reset of pipeACK after congestion.
o Added comment on the effect of congestion after a short burst (M.
Allman).
o Correction of minor Typos.
WG draft 00 contained various updates:
o Updated initialisation of pipeACK to maximum value.
o Added note on intended status still to be determined.
WG draft 01 contained:
o Added corrections from Richard Scheffenegger.
o Raffaello Secchi added to the mechanism, based on implementation
experience.
o Removed that the requirement for the method to use TCP SACK option
o Although it may be desirable to use SACK, this is not essential to
the algorithm.
o Added the notion of the sampling period to accommodate large rate
variations and ensure that the method is stable. This algorithm
to be validated through implementation.
WG draft 02 contained:
o Clarified language around pipeACK variable and pipeACK sample -
Feedback from Aris Angelogiannopoulos.
WG draft 03 contained:
o Editorial corrections - Feedback from Anna Brunstrom.
o An adjustment to the procedure at the start and end of Reoloss
recovery to align the two equations.
o Further clarification of the "undefined" value of the pipeACK
variable.
WG draft 04 contained:
o Editorial corrections.
o Introduced the "cwnd-limited" term.
o An adjustment to the procedure at the start of a cwnd-limited
phase - the new text is intended to ensure that new-cwv is not
unnecessarily more conservative than standard TCP when the flow is
cwnd-limited. This resolves two issues: first it prevents
pathologies in which pipeACK increases slowly and erratically. It
also ensures that performance of bulk applications is not
significantly impacted when using the method.
o Clearly identifies that pacing (or equivalent) is requiring during
the NVP to control burstiness. New section added.
WG draft 05 contained:
o Clarification to first two bullets in Section 4.4 describing cwnd-
limited, to explain these are really alternates to the same case.
o Section giving implementation examples was restructured to clarify
there are two methods described.
o Cross References to sections updated - thanks to comments from
Martin Winbjoerk and Tim Wicinski.
WG draft 06 contained:
o The section giving implementation examples was restructured to
clarify there are two methods described.
o Justification of design decisions.
o Re-organised text to improve clarity of argument.
WG draft 07 contained:
o Updated publication date.
o Text on noting that cwnd shouldn't ever be made negative.
o Updated text on ECN to clarify the process where R is a reduction
based on ECN marks.
WG draft 08 contained:
o Removed description of how to use Accurate ECN feedback. It is
not clear that this document should specify a usage of a mechanism
that has not been fully defined. Accurate ECN may lead to
different congestion responses and these will need to be defined
in the CC specifications for using Accurate ECN.
WG draft 09 contained:
o Removed update to RFC 5681 - the status of the present document is
Experimental, and hence this document does not update RFC 5681.
WG draft 10 contained edits following WGLC:
o Section 1.1 Implementation of new CWV: New section added to
introduce the places where there are implementation flexibility.
o Section 4.4: Clarified that the MUST is to satisfy the goal to
avoid a TCP sender growing a large "non-validated" cwnd, when it
has not recently sent using the current size of cwnd, and fixed
format of bullet 2 in 4.4.
o Section 4.5.2: rewritten section text.
WG draft 11 contained edits following IETF LC:
o Updated text in section 1.1.
o Updated text in response to AD, Gen-ART, & Sec reviews.
o LC call comments from Mirja Kuehlewind
WG draft 12 contained edits following IETF LC (Mirja Kuehlewind):
o Additional text (based on text in annexe notes) to clarify use of
pipeACK rather than FlightSize.
o Corrected text on undefined pipeACK - to be consistent.
o Added text on standard TCP method (reference to RFC 5681).
o Separated text on implementation experience of "timers" into a new
implementation subsection (4.5.2), to avoid this common
implementation method being overlooked.
WG draft 13 contained edits following IESG Review:
o Jari/Gen-ART (note: MSS was defined)
o Kathleen Moriarty (SecDir)
o Ben Campbell
o Barry Leiba (note: reference added to section 4, rather than new
wording to requirement).
11. References 7. References
11.1. Normative References 7.1. Normative References
[RFC0793] Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol", September [RFC793] Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol", STD 7,
1981. RFC 793, DOI 10.17487/RFC0793, September 1981,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc793>.
[RFC2018] Mathis, M., Mahdavi, J., Floyd, S., and A. Romanow, "TCP [RFC2018] Mathis, M., Mahdavi, J., Floyd, S., and A. Romanow, "TCP
Selective Acknowledgment Options", RFC 2018, October 1996. Selective Acknowledgment Options", RFC 2018,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2018, October 1996,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2018>.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC2861] Handley, M., Padhye, J., and S. Floyd, "TCP Congestion [RFC2861] Handley, M., Padhye, J., and S. Floyd, "TCP Congestion
Window Validation", RFC 2861, June 2000. Window Validation", RFC 2861, DOI 10.17487/RFC2861, June
2000, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2861>.
[RFC5681] Allman, M., Paxson, V., and E. Blanton, "TCP Congestion [RFC5681] Allman, M., Paxson, V., and E. Blanton, "TCP Congestion
Control", September 2009. Control", RFC 5681, DOI 10.17487/RFC5681, September 2009,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5681>.
[RFC6298] Paxson, V., Allman, M., Chu, J., and M. Sargent, [RFC6298] Paxson, V., Allman, M., Chu, J., and M. Sargent,
"Computing TCP's Retransmission Timer", June 2011. "Computing TCP's Retransmission Timer", RFC 6298,
DOI 10.17487/RFC6298, June 2011,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6298>.
[RFC6675] Blanton, E., Allman, M., Wang, L., Jarvinen, I., Kojo, M., [RFC6675] Blanton, E., Allman, M., Wang, L., Jarvinen, I., Kojo, M.,
and Y. Nishida, "A Conservative Loss Recovery Algorithm and Y. Nishida, "A Conservative Loss Recovery Algorithm
Based on Selective Acknowledgment (SACK) for TCP", RFC Based on Selective Acknowledgment (SACK) for TCP",
6675, August 2012. RFC 6675, DOI 10.17487/RFC6675, August 2012,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6675>.
11.2. Informative References 7.2. Informative References
[All05] Allman, M. and E. Blanton, "Notes on burst mitigation for [All05] Allman, M. and E. Blanton, "Notes on Burst Mitigation for
transport protocols", March 2005. Transport Protocols", ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication
Review, Volume 35, Issue 2, DOI 10.1145/1064413.1064419,
April 2005.
[Bis08] Biswas, I. and G. Fairhurst, "A Practical Evaluation of [Bis08] Biswas, I. and G. Fairhurst, "A Practical Evaluation of
Congestion Window Validation Behaviour, 9th Annual Congestion Window Validation Behaviour", 9th Annual
Postgraduate Symposium in the Convergence of Postgraduate Symposium in the Convergence of
Telecommunications, Networking and Broadcasting (PGNet), Telecommunications, Networking and Broadcasting
Liverpool, UK", June 2008. (PGNet), Liverpool, UK, 2008.
[Bis10] Biswas, I., Sathiaseelan, A., Secchi, R., and G. [Bis10] Biswas, I., Sathiaseelan, A., Secchi, R., and G.
Fairhurst, "Analysing TCP for Bursty Traffic, Int'l J. of Fairhurst, "Analysing TCP for Bursty Traffic", Int'l J. of
Communications, Network and System Sciences, 7(3)", June Communications, Network and System Sciences,
2010. DOI 10.4236/ijcns.2010.37078, July 2010.
[Bis11] Biswas, I., "PhD Thesis, Internet congestion control for [Bis11] Biswas, I., "Internet Congestion Control for Variable-Rate
variable rate TCP traffic, School of Engineering, TCP Traffic", PhD Thesis, School of Engineering,
University of Aberdeen", June 2011. University of Aberdeen, 2011.
[Fai12] Sathiaseelan, A., Secchi, R., Fairhurst, G., and I. [Fai12] Sathiaseelan, A., Secchi, R., Fairhurst, G., and I.
Biswas, "Enhancing TCP Performance to support Variable- Biswas, "Enhancing TCP Performance to support Variable-
Rate Traffic, 2nd Capacity Sharing Workshop, ACM CoNEXT, Rate Traffic", 2nd Capacity Sharing Workshop, ACM
Nice, France, 10th December 2012.", June 2008. CoNEXT, Nice, France, December 2012.
[Hos15] Hossain, Z., "PhD Thesis, A Study of Mechanisms to Support [Hos15] Hossain, Z., "A Study of Mechanisms to Support Variable-
Variable-rate Internet Applications over a Multi-service Rate Internet Applications over a Multi-service Satellite
Satellite Platform, School of Engineering, University of Platform", PhD Thesis, School of Engineering, University
Aberdeen", January 2015. of Aberdeen, January 2015.
[Hug01] Hughes, A., Touch, J., and J. Heidemann, "Issues in TCP [Hug01] Hughes, A., Touch, J., and J. Heidemann, "Issues in TCP
Slow-Start Restart After Idle (Work-in-Progress)", Slow-Start Restart After Idle", Work in Progress,
December 2001. draft-hughes-restart-00, December 2001.
[Liu07] Liu, D., Allman, M., Jiny, S., and L. Wang, "Congestion [Liu07] Liu, D., Allman, M., Jin, S., and L. Wang, "Congestion
Control without a Startup Phase, 5th International Control without a Startup Phase", 5th International
Workshop on Protocols for Fast Long-Distance Networks Workshop on Protocols for Fast Long-Distance Networks
(PFLDnet), Los Angeles, California, USA", February 2007. (PFLDnet), Los Angeles, California, February 2007.
[RFC7230] Fielding, R. and J. Reschke, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol [RFC7230] Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer
(HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing", RFC 7230, June Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing",
2014. RFC 7230, DOI 10.17487/RFC7230, June 2014,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7230>.
Acknowledgments
This document was produced by the TCP Maintenance and Minor
Extensions (tcpm) working group.
The authors acknowledge the contributions of Dr. I. Biswas and Dr.
Ziaul Hossain in supporting the evaluation of CWV and for their help
in developing the mechanisms proposed in this document. We also
acknowledge comments received from the Internet Congestion Control
Research Group, in particular Yuchung Cheng, Mirja Kuehlewind, Joe
Touch, and Mark Allman. This work was partly funded by the European
Community under its Seventh Framework Programme through the Reducing
Internet Transport Latency (RITE) project (ICT-317700).
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Godred Fairhurst Godred Fairhurst
University of Aberdeen University of Aberdeen
School of Engineering School of Engineering
Fraser Noble Building Fraser Noble Building
Aberdeen, Scotland AB24 3UE Aberdeen, Scotland AB24 3UE
UK United Kingdom
Email: gorry@erg.abdn.ac.uk Email: gorry@erg.abdn.ac.uk
URI: http://www.erg.abdn.ac.uk URI: http://www.erg.abdn.ac.uk
Arjuna Sathiaseelan Arjuna Sathiaseelan
University of Aberdeen University of Aberdeen
School of Engineering School of Engineering
Fraser Noble Building Fraser Noble Building
Aberdeen, Scotland AB24 3UE Aberdeen, Scotland AB24 3UE
UK United Kingdom
Email: arjuna@erg.abdn.ac.uk Email: arjuna@erg.abdn.ac.uk
URI: http://www.erg.abdn.ac.uk URI: http://www.erg.abdn.ac.uk
Raffaello Secchi Raffaello Secchi
University of Aberdeen University of Aberdeen
School of Engineering School of Engineering
Fraser Noble Building Fraser Noble Building
Aberdeen, Scotland AB24 3UE Aberdeen, Scotland AB24 3UE
UK United Kingdom
Email: raffaello@erg.abdn.ac.uk Email: raffaello@erg.abdn.ac.uk
URI: http://www.erg.abdn.ac.uk URI: http://www.erg.abdn.ac.uk
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