draft-ietf-urn-biblio-01.txt   rfc2288.txt 
Internet Draft Clifford Lynch Network Working Group C. Lynch
September 8. 1997 Coalition for Networked Information Request for Comments: 2288 Coalition for Networked Information
draft-ietf-urn-biblio-01.txt Cecilia Preston Category: Informational C. Preston
Preston & Lynch Preston & Lynch
Ron Daniel Jr. R. Daniel
Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos National Laboratory
February 1998
Using Existing Bibliographic Identifiers
as
Uniform Resource Names
Status of this Document Using Existing Bibliographic Identifiers
as
Uniform Resource Names
This document is an Internet-Draft. Internet-Drafts are Status of this Memo
working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force
(IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other
groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
Drafts.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of This memo provides information for the Internet community. It does
six months and may be updated, replaced or made obsolete by not specify an Internet standard of any kind. Distribution of this
other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use memo is unlimited.
Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other
than as works in progress.
Distribution of this document is unlimited. Copyright Notice
This document does not specify a standard; it is purely Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1998). All Rights Reserved.
informational.
0. Abstract Abstract
A system for Uniform Resource Names (URNs) must be capable A system for Uniform Resource Names (URNs) must be capable of
of supporting identifiers from existing widely-used naming supporting identifiers from existing widely-used naming systems.
systems. This document discusses how three major This document discusses how three major bibliographic identifiers
bibliographic identifiers (the ISBN, ISSN and SICI) can be (the ISBN, ISSN and SICI) can be supported within the URN framework
supported within the URN framework and the currently and the currently proposed syntax for URNs.
proposed syntax for URNs.
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The ongoing work of several IETF working groups, most The ongoing work of several IETF working groups, most recently in the
recently in the Uniform Resource Names working group, has Uniform Resource Names working group, has culminated the development
culminated the development of a syntax for Uniform Resource of a syntax for Uniform Resource Names (URNs). The functional
Names (URNs). The functional requirements and overall requirements and overall framework for Uniform Resource Names are
framework for Uniform Resource Names are specified in RFC specified in RFC 1737 [Sollins & Masinter] and the specification for
1737 [Sollins & Masinter] and the specification for the the URN syntax is RFC 2141 [Moats].
URN syntax is RFC 2141 [Moats].
As part of the validation process for the development of As part of the validation process for the development of URNs the
URNs the IETF working group has agreed that it is important IETF working group has agreed that it is important to demonstrate
to demonstrate that the current URN syntax proposal can that the current URN syntax proposal can accommodate existing
accommodate existing identifiers from well established identifiers from well established namespaces. One such
namespaces. One such infrastructure for assigning and infrastructure for assigning and managing names comes from the
managing names comes from the bibliographic community. bibliographic community. Bibliographic identifiers function as names
Bibliographic identifiers function as names for objects that for objects that exist both in print and, increasingly, in electronic
exist both in print and, increasingly, in electronic formats. formats. This memo demonstrates the feasibility of supporting three
This Internet draft demonstrates the feasibility of representative bibliographic identifiers within the currently
supporting three representative bibliographic identifiers proposed URN framework and syntax.
within the currently proposed URN framework and syntax.
Note that this document does not purport to define the Note that this document does not purport to define the "official"
"official" standard way ofmoving these bibliographic standard way of moving these bibliographic identifiers into URNs; it
identifiers into URNs; it merely demonstrates feasibility. merely demonstrates feasibility. It has not been developed in
It has not been developed in consultation with these consultation with these standards bodies and maintenance agencies
standards bodies and maintenance agencies that oversee the that oversee the existing bibliographic identifiers. Any actual
existing bibliographic identifiers. Any actual Internet Internet standard for encoding these bibliographic identifiers as
standard for encoding these bibliographic identifiers as URNs will need to be developed in consultation with the responsible
URNs will need to be developed in consultation with the standards bodies and maintenance agencies.
responsible standards bodies and maintenance agencies.
In addition, there are several open questions with regard to In addition, there are several open questions with regard to the
the management and registry of Namespace Identifiers (NIDs) management and registry of Namespace Identifiers (NIDs) for URNs.
for URNs. For purposes of illustration, we have used the For purposes of illustration, we have used the three NIDs "ISBN",
three NIDs "ISBN", "ISSN" and "SICI" for the three "ISSN" and "SICI" for the three corresponding bibliographic
corresponding bibliographic identifiers discussed in this identifiers discussed in this document. While we believe this to be
document. While we believe this to be the most appropriate the most appropriate choice, it is not the only one. The NIDs could
choice, it is not the only one. The NIDs could be based on be based on the standards body and standard number (e.g. "US-ANSI-
the standards body and standard number (e.g. "US-ANSI-NISO- NISO-Z39.56-1997" rather than "SICI"). Alternatively, one could lump
Z39.56-1997" rather than "SICI"). Alternatively, one could all bibliographic identifiers into a single "BIBLIOGRAPHIC" name
lump all bibliographic identifiers into a single space, and structure the namespace-specific string to specify which
"BIBLIOGRAPHIC" name space, and structure the namespace- identifier is being used. Any final resolution of this must wait for
specific string to specify which identifier is being used. the outcome of namespace management discussions in the working group
Any final resolution of this must wait for the outcome of and the broader IETF community.
namespace management discussions in the working group and
the broader IETF community.
For the purposes of this document, we have selected three For the purposes of this document, we have selected three major
major bibliographic identifiers (national and international) bibliographic identifiers (national and international) to fit within
to fit within the URN framework. These are the International the URN framework. These are the International Standard Book Number
Standard Book Number (ISBN) [ISO1], the International (ISBN) [ISO1], the International Standard Serials Number (ISSN)
Standard Serials Number (ISSN) [NISO1,ISO2, ISO3], and the [NISO1,ISO2, ISO3], and the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier
Serial Item and Contribution Identifier (SICI) [NISO2]. An (SICI) [NISO2]. An ISBN is used to identify a monograph (book). An
ISBN is used to identify a monograph (book). An ISSN is used ISSN is used to identify serial publications (journals, newspapers)
to identify serial publications (journals, newspapers) as a as a whole. A SICI augments the ISSN in order to identify
whole. A SICI augments the ISSN in order to identify individual issues of serial publications, or components within those
individual issues of serial publications, or components issues (such as an individual article, or the table of contents of a
within those issues (such as an individual article, or the given issue). The ISBN and ISSN are defined in the United States by
table of contents of a given issue). The ISBN and ISSN are standards issued by the National Information Standards Organization
defined in the United States by standards issued by the (NISO) and also by parallel international standards issued under the
National Information Standards Organization (NISO) and also auspices of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
by parallel international standards issued under the auspices NISO is the ANSI-accredited standards body serving libraries,
of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). publishers and information services. The SICI code is defined by a
NISO is the ANSI-accredited standards body serving libraries, NISO document in the United States and does not have a parallel
publishers and information services. The SICI code is international standards document at present.
defined by a NISO document in the United States and does not
have a parallel international standards document at present.
Many other bibliographic identifiers are in common use (for Many other bibliographic identifiers are in common use (for example,
example, CODEN, numbers assigned by major bibliographic CODEN, numbers assigned by major bibliographic utilities such as OCLC
utilities such as OCLC and RLG, national library numbers such and RLG, national library numbers such as the Library of Congress
as the Library of Congress Control Number) or are under Control Number) or are under development. While we do not discuss
development. While we do not discuss them in this document, them in this document, many of these will also need to be supported
many of these will also need to be supported within the URN within the URN framework as it moves to large scale implementation.
framework as it moves to large scale implementation. The The issues involved in supporting those additional identifiers are
issues involved in supporting those additional identifiers anticipated to be broadly similar to those involved in supporting
are anticipated to be broadly similar to those involved in ISBNs, ISSNs, and SICIs.
supporting ISBNs, ISSNs, and SICIs.
2. Identification vs. Resolution 2. Identification vs. Resolution
It is important to distinguish between the resource It is important to distinguish between the resource identified by a
identified by a URN and the resources a URN resolver that can URN and the resources a URN resolver that can reasonably return when
reasonably return when attempting to resolve an identifier. attempting to resolve an identifier. For example, the ISSN 0040-781X
For example, the ISSN 0040-781X identifies the popular identifies the popular magazine "Time" -- all of it, every issue for
magazine "Time" -- all of it, every issue for from the start from the start of publication to present. Resolving such an
of publication to present. Resolving such an identifier identifier should not result in the equivalent of hundreds of
should not result in the equivalent of hundreds of thousands thousands of pages of text and photos being dumped to the user's
of pages of text and photos being dumped to the user's machine. It is more reasonable for ISSNs to resolve to a
machine. It is more reasonable for ISSNs to resolve to a navigational system, such as an HTML-based search form, so the user
navigational system, such as an HTML-based search form, so may select issues or articles of interest. ISBNs and SICIs, on the
the user may select issues or articles of interest. ISBNs other hand, do identify finite, manageably-sized objects, but these
and SICIs, on the other hand, do identify finite, manageably- objects may still be large enough that resolution to a hierarchical
sized objects, but these objects may still be large enough system is appropriate.
that resolution to a hierarchical system is appropriate.
In addition, the materials identified by an ISSN, ISBN or In addition, the materials identified by an ISSN, ISBN or SICI may
SICI may exist only in printed or other physical form, not exist only in printed or other physical form, not electronically.
electronically. The best that a resolver may be able to The best that a resolver may be able to offer is information about
offer is information about where to get the physical where to get the physical resource, such as library holdings or a
resource, such as library holdings or a bookstore or bookstore or publisher order form. The URN Framework provides
publisher order form. The URN Framework provides resolution resolution services that may be used to describe any differences
services that may be used to describe any differences between the resource identified by a URN and the resource that would
between the resource identified by a URN and the resource be returned as a result of resolving that URN.
that would be returned as a result of resolving that URN.
3. International Standard Book Numbers 3. International Standard Book Numbers
3.1 Overview 3.1 Overview
An International Standard Book Number (ISBN) identifies an An International Standard Book Number (ISBN) identifies an edition of
edition of a monographic work. The ISBN is defined by the a monographic work. The ISBN is defined by the standard
standard NISO/ANSI/ISO 2108:1992 [ISO1] NISO/ANSI/ISO 2108:1992 [ISO1]
Basically, an ISBN is a ten-digit number (actually, the last Basically, an ISBN is a ten-digit number (actually, the last digit
digit can be the letter "X" as well, as described below) can be the letter "X" as well, as described below) which is divided
which is divided into four variable length parts usually into four variable length parts usually separated by hyphens when
separated by hyphens when printed. The parts are as follows printed. The parts are as follows (in this order):
(in this order):
* a group identifier which specifies a group of publishers, * a group identifier which specifies a group of publishers, based on
based on national, geographic or some other criteria, national, geographic or some other criteria,
* the publisher identifier, * the publisher identifier,
* the title identifier, * the title identifier,
* and a modulus 11 check digit, using X instead of 10. * and a modulus 11 check digit, using X instead of 10.
The group and publisher number assignments are managed in The group and publisher number assignments are managed in such a way
such a way that the hyphens are not needed to parse the ISBN that the hyphens are not needed to parse the ISBN unambiguously into
unambiguously into its constituent parts. However, the ISBN its constituent parts. However, the ISBN is normally transmitted and
is normally transmitted and displayed with hyphens to make displayed with hyphens to make it easy for human beings to recognize
it easy for human beings to recognize these parts without these parts without having to make reference to or have knowledge of
having to make reference to or have knowledge of the number the number assignments for group and publisher identifiers.
assignments for group and publisher identifiers.
3.2 Encoding Considerations and Lexical Equivalance 3.2 Encoding Considerations and Lexical Equivalence
Embedding ISBNs within the URN framework presents no Embedding ISBNs within the URN framework presents no particular
particular encoding problems, since all of the characters encoding problems, since all of the characters that can appear in an
that can appear in an ISBN are valid in the identifier ISBN are valid in the identifier segment of the URN. %-encoding, as
segment of the URN. %-encoding, as described in [MOATS] is described in [MOATS] is never needed.
never needed.
Example: URN:ISBN:0-395-36341-1 Example: URN:ISBN:0-395-36341-1
For the ISBN namespace, some additional equivalence rules For the ISBN namespace, some additional equivalence rules are
are appropriate. Prior to comparing two ISBN URNs for appropriate. Prior to comparing two ISBN URNs for equivalence, it is
equivalence, it is appropriate to remove all hyphens, and to appropriate to remove all hyphens, and to convert any occurrences of
convert any occurrences of the letter X to upper case. the letter X to upper case.
3.3 Additional considerations 3.3 Additional considerations
The ISBN standard and related community implementation The ISBN standard and related community implementation guidelines
guidelines define when different versions of a work should define when different versions of a work should be assigned the same
be assigned the same or differing ISBNs. In actuality, or differing ISBNs. In actuality, however, practice varies somewhat
however, practice varies somewhat depending on publisher as depending on publisher as to whether different ISBNs are assigned for
to whether different ISBNs are assigned for paperbound vs. paperbound vs. hardbound versions of the same work, electronic vs.
hardbound versions of the same work, electronic vs. printed printed versions of the same work, or versions of the same work
distinguished in some other way (e.g., published for example in the
versions of the same work, or versions of the same work US and in Europe). The choice of whether to assign a new ISBN or to
distinguished in some other way (e.g.published for example in reuse an existing one when publishing a revised printing of an
the US and in Europe). The choice of whether to assign a new existing edition of a work or even a revised edition of a work is
ISBN or to reuse an existing one when publishing a revised somewhat subjective. Practice varies from publisher to publisher
printing of an existing edition of a work or even a revised (indeed, the distinction between a revised printing and a new edition
edition of a work is somewhat subjective. Practice varies is itself somewhat subjective). The use of ISBNs within the URN
from publisher to publisher (indeed, the distinction between framework simply reflects these existing practices. Note that it is
a revised printing and a new edition is itself somewhat likely that an ISBN URN will often resolve to many instances of the
subjective). The use of ISBNs within the URN framework work (many URLs).
simply reflects these existing practices. Note that it is
likely that an ISBN URN will often resolve to many instances
of the work (many URLs).
4. International Standard Serials Numbers 4. International Standard Serials Numbers
4.1 Overview 4.1 Overview
International Standard Serials Numbers (ISSN) identify a International Standard Serials Numbers (ISSN) identify a work that is
work that is published on a continued basis in issues; they published on a continued basis in issues; they identify the entire
identify the entire (often open-ended, in the case of an (often open-ended, in the case of an actively published) work. ISSNs
actively published) work. ISSNs are defined by the are defined by the international standards ISO 3297:1986 [ISO2] and
international standards ISO 3297:1986 [ISO2] and ISO/DIS ISO/DIS 3297 [ISO3] and within the United States by NISO Z39.9-1992
3297 [ISO3] and within the United States by NISO Z39.9-1992 [NISO1]. The ISSN International Centre is located in Paris and
[NISO1]. The ISSN International Centre is located in Paris and coordinates coordinates a network of regional centers. The National Serials Data
a network of regional centers. The National Program within the Library of Congress is the US Center of this
Serials Data Program within the Library of Congress is the US network.
Center of this network.
ISSNs have the form NNNN-NNNN where N is a digit, the last ISSNs have the form NNNN-NNNN where N is a digit, the last digit may
digit may be an upper case X as the result of the check be an upper case X as the result of the check character calculation.
character calculation. Unlike the ISBN the ISSN components Unlike the ISBN the ISSN components do not have much structure;
do not have much structure; blocks of numbers are passed out blocks of numbers are passed out to the regional centers and
to the regional centers and publishers. publishers.
4.2 Encoding Considerations and Lexical Equivalance 4.2 Encoding Considerations and Lexical Equivalence
Again, there is no problem representing ISSNs in the Again, there is no problem representing ISSNs in the namespace-
namespace-specific string of URNs since all characters valid specific string of URNs since all characters valid in the ISSN are
in the ISSN are valid in the namespace-specific URN string, valid in the namespace-specific URN string, and %-encoding is never
and %-encoding is never required. required.
Example: URN:ISSN:1046-8188 Example: URN:ISSN:1046-8188
Supplementary comparison rules are also appropriate for the Supplementary comparison rules are also appropriate for the ISSN
ISSN namespace. Just as for ISBNs, hyphens should be namespace. Just as for ISBNs, hyphens should be dropped prior to
dropped prior to comparison and occurrences of 'x' comparison and occurrences of 'x' normalized to uppercase.
normalized to uppercase.
4.3 Additional Considerations 4.3 Additional Considerations
The ISSN standard and related community implementation The ISSN standard and related community implementation guidelines
guidelines specify when new ISSNs should be assigned vs. specify when new ISSNs should be assigned vs. continuing to use an
continuing to use an existing one. There are some existing one. There are some publications where practice within the
publications where practice within the bibliographic bibliographic community varies from institution to institution, such
community varies from institution to insitution, such as as annuals or annual conference proceedings. In some cases these are
annuals or annual conference proceedings. In some cases treated as serials and ISSNs are used, and in some cases they are
these are treated as serials and ISSNs are used, and in some treated as monographs and ISBNs are used. For example SIGMOD Record
cases they are treated as monographs and ISBNs are used. For volume 24 number 2 June 1995 contains the Proceedings of the 1995 ACM
example SIGMOD Record volume 24 number 2 June 1995 contains SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data. If you
the Proceedings of the 1995 ACM SIGMOD International subscribe to the journal (ISSN 0163-5808) this is simply the June
Conference on Management of Data. If you subscribe to the issue. On the other hand you may have acquired this volume as the
journal (ISSN 0163-5808) this is simply the June issue. On conference proceedings (a monograph) and as such would use the ISBN
the other hand you may have acquired this volume as the 0-89791-731-6 to identify the work. There are also varying practices
conference proceedings (a monograph) and as such would use within the publishing community as to when new ISSNs are assigned due
the ISBN 0-89791-731-6 to identify the work. There are also to the change in the name of a periodical (e.g. Atlantic becomes
varying practices within the publishing community as to when Atlantic Monthly); or when a periodical is published both in printed
new ISSNs are assigned due to the change in the name of a and electronic versions (e.g. The New York Times). The use of ISSNs
periodical (e.g. Atlantic becomes Atlantic Monthly); or when in URNs will reflect these judgments and practices.
a periodical is published both in printed and electronic
versions (e.g. The New York Times). The use of ISSNs in URNs
will reflect these judgments and practices.
5. Serial Item and Contribution Identifiers 5. Serial Item and Contribution Identifiers
5.1 Overview 5.1 Overview
The standard for Serial Item and Contribution Identifiers The standard for Serial Item and Contribution Identifiers (SICI)
(SICI) codes, which has recently been extensively revised, codes, which has recently been extensively revised, is defined by
is defined by NISO/ANSI Z39.56-1997 [NISO2]. The maintenance NISO/ANSI Z39.56-1997 [NISO2]. The maintenance agency for the SICI
agency for the SICI code is the UnCover Corporation. code is the UnCover Corporation.
SICI codes can be used to identify an issue of a serial, or SICI codes can be used to identify an issue of a serial, or a
a specific contribution (e.g., an article, or the table of specific contribution (e.g., an article, or the table of contents)
contents) within an issue of a serial. SICI codes are not within an issue of a serial. SICI codes are not assigned, they are
assigned, they are constructed based on information about constructed based on information about the issue or issue component
the issue or issue component in question. in question.
The complete syntax for the SICI code will not be discussed The complete syntax for the SICI code will not be discussed here; see
here; see NISO/ANSI Z39.56-1997 [NISO2] for details. NISO/ANSI Z39.56-1997 [NISO2] for details. However, an example and
However, an example and brief review of the major components brief review of the major components is needed to understand the
is needed to understand the relationship with the ISSN and relationship with the ISSN and how this identifier differs from an
how this identifier differs from an ISSN. An example of a ISSN. An example of a SICI code is: 0015-
SICI code is: 0015-6914(19960101)157:1<62:KTSW>2.0.TX;2-F 6914(19960101)157:1<62:KTSW>2.0.TX;2-F
The first nine characters are the ISSN identifying the The first nine characters are the ISSN identifying the serial title.
serial title. The second component, in parentheses, is the The second component, in parentheses, is the chronology information
chronology information giving the date the particular serial giving the date the particular serial issue was published. In this
issue was published. In this example that date was January example that date was January 1, 1996. The third component, 157:1,
1, 1996. The third component, 157:1, is enumeration is enumeration information (volume, number) for the particular issue
information (volume, number) for the particular issue of the of the serial. These three components comprise the "item segment" of
serial. These three components comprise the "item segment" a SICI code. By augmenting the ISSN with the chronology and/or
of a SICI code. By augmenting the ISSN with the chronology enumeration information, specific issues of the serial can be
and/or enumeration information, specific issues of the identified. The next segment, <62:KTSW>, identifies a particular
serial can be identified. The next segment, <62:KTSW>, contribution within the issue. In this example we provide the
identifies a particular contribution within the issue. In starting page number and a title code constructed from the initial
this example we provide the starting page number and a title characters of the title. Identifiers assigned to a contribution can
code constructed from the initial characters of the title. be used in the contribution segment if page numbers are
Identifiers assigned to a contribution can be used in the inappropriate. The rest of the identifier is the control segment,
contribution segment if page numbers are inappropriate. The which includes a check character. Interested readers are encouraged
rest of the identifier is the control segment, which to consult the standard for an explanation of the fields in that
includes a check character. Interested readers are segment.
encouraged to consult the standard for an explanation of the
fields in that segment.
5.2 Encoding Considerations and Lexical Equivalance 5.2 Encoding Considerations and Lexical Equivalence
The character set for SICIs is intended to be email- The character set for SICIs is intended to be email-transport-
transport-transparent, so it does not present major problems. transparent, so it does not present major problems. However, all
However, all printable excluded and reserved characters from printable excluded and reserved characters from the URN syntax are
the URN syntax are valid in the SICI character set and must valid in the SICI character set and must be %-encoded.
be %-encoded.
Example of a SICI for an issue of a journal: Example of a SICI for an issue of a journal:
URN:SICI:1046-8188(199501)13:1%3C%3E1.0.TX;2-F URN:SICI:1046-8188(199501)13:1%3C%3E1.0.TX;2-F
For an article contained within that issue: For an article contained within that issue:
URN:SICI:1046-8188(199501)13:1%3C69:FTTHBI%3E2.0.TX;2-4 URN:SICI:1046-8188(199501)13:1%3C69:FTTHBI%3E2.0.TX;2-4
Equivalence rules for SICIs are not appropriate for Equivalence rules for SICIs are not appropriate for definition as
definition as part of the namespace and incorporation in part of the namespace and incorporation in areas such as cache
areas such as cache management algorithms. It is best left management algorithms. It is best left to resolver systems which try
to resolver systems which try to determine if two SICIs refer to determine if two SICIs refer to the same content. Consequently,
to the same content. Consequently, we do not propose any we do not propose any specific rules for equivalence testing through
specific rules for equivalence testing through lexical manipulation. lexical manipulation.
5.3 Additional Considerations 5.3 Additional Considerations
Since the serial is identified by an ISSN, some of the Since the serial is identified by an ISSN, some of the ambiguity
ambiguity currently found in the assignment of ISSNs carries currently found in the assignment of ISSNs carries over into SICI
over into SICI codes. In cases where an ISSN may refer to a codes. In cases where an ISSN may refer to a serial that exists in
serial that exists in multiple formats, the SICI contains a multiple formats, the SICI contains a qualifier that specifies the
qualifier that specifies the format type (for example, format type (for example, print, microform, or electronic). SICI
print, microform, or electronic). SICI codes may be codes may be constructed from a variety of sources (the actual issue
constructed from a variety of sources (the actual issue of of the serial, a citation or a record from an abstracting service)
the serial, a citation or a record from an abstracting and, as such are based on the principle of using all available
service) and, as such are based on the principle of using information, so there may be multiple SICI codes representing the
all available information, so there may be multiple SICI same article [NISO2, Appendix D]. For example, one code might be
codes representing the same article [NISO2, Appenidx D]. constructed with access to both chronology and enumeration (that is,
For example, one code might be constructed with access to date of issue and volume, issue and page number), another code might
both chronology and enumeration (that is, date of issue and be constructed based only on enumeration information and without
volume, issue and page number), another code might be benefit of chronology. Systems that use SICI codes employ complex
constructed based only on enumeration information and matching algorithms to try to match SICI codes constructed from
without benefit of chronology. Systems that use SICI codes incomplete information to SICI codes constructed with the benefit of
employ complex matching algorithms to try to match SICI all relevant information.
codes constructed from incomplete information to SICI codes
constructed with the benefit of all relevant information.
6. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
This document proposes means of encoding several existing This document proposes means of encoding several existing
bibliographic identifiers within the URN framework. This bibliographic identifiers within the URN framework. This document
documentent does not discuss resolution; thus questions of does not discuss resolution; thus questions of secure or
secure or authenticated resolution mechanisms are out of authenticated resolution mechanisms are out of scope. It does not
scope. It does not address means of validating the integrity address means of validating the integrity or authenticating the
or authenticating the source or provenance of URNs that source or provenance of URNs that contain bibliographic identifiers.
contain bibliographic identifiers. Issues regarding Issues regarding intellectual property rights associated with objects
intellectual property rights associated with objects identified by the various bibliographic identifiers are also beyond
identified by the various bibliographic identifiers are also the scope of this document, as are questions about rights to the
beyond the scope of this document, as are questions about databases that might be used to construct resolvers.
rights to the databases that might be used to construct
resolvers.
7. References 7. References
[ISO1] NISO/ANSI/ISO 2108:1992 Information and documentation [ISO1] NISO/ANSI/ISO 2108:1992 Information and documentation
-- International standard book number (ISBN) -- International standard book number (ISBN)
[ISO2] ISO 3297:1986 Documentation -- International standard
serial numbering (ISSN)
[ISO3] ISO/DIS 3297 Information and documentation --
International standard serial numbering (ISSN) (Revision of ISO
3297:1986)
[Moats] Moats, R., "URN Syntax", RFC 2141, May 1997.
[NISO 1] NISO/ANSI Z39.9-1992 International standard serial
numbering (ISSN)
[NISO 2] NISO/ANSI Z39.56-1997 Serial Item and Contribution
Identifier
[Sollins & Masinter] Sollins, K., and L. Masinter, "Functional
Requirements for Uniform Resource Names", RFC 1737, December
1994.
[ISO2] ISO 3297:1986 Documentation -- International standard 8. Authors' Addresses
serial numbering (ISSN)
[ISO3] ISO/DIS 3297 Information and documentation -- Clifford Lynch
International standard serial numbering (ISSN) Executive Director
(Revision of ISO 3297:1986) Coalition for Networked Information
21 Dupont Circle
Washington, DC 20036
[Moats] R. Moats, URN Syntax RFC 2141 May 1997. EMail: cliff@cni.org
[NISO 1] NISO/ANSI Z39.9-1992 International standard serial Cecilia Preston
numbering (ISSN) Preston & Lynch
PO Box 8310
Emeryville, CA 94662
[NISO 2] NISO/ANSI Z39.56-1997 Serial Item and Contribution EMail: cecilia@well.com
Identifier
[Sollins & Masinter] K. Sollins and L. Masinter, "Functional
Requirements for Uniform Resource Names", RFC 1737
December 1994.
8. Author's Addresses Ron Daniel Jr.
Advanced Computing Lab, MS B287
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Los Alamos, NM, 87545
Clifford Lynch EMail: rdaniel@acl.lanl.gov
Executive Director
Coalition for Networked Information
21 Dupont Circle
Washington, DC 20036
cliff@cni.org
Cecilia Preston 9. Full Copyright Statement
Preston & Lynch
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Ron Daniel Jr. Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1998). All Rights Reserved.
Advanced Computing Lab, MS B287
Los Alamos National Laboratory This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
Los Alamos, NM, 87545 others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
rdaniel@acl.lanl.gov or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
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English.
The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
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This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
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