draft-ietf-urnbis-rfc3044bis-issn-urn-00.txt   draft-ietf-urnbis-rfc3044bis-issn-urn-01.txt 
IETF URNbis WG P. Godefroy IETF URNbis WG P. Godefroy
Internet-Draft ISSN International Centre Internet-Draft ISSN International Centre
Obsoletes: 3044 (if approved) February 24, 2012 Obsoletes: 3044 (if approved) November 7, 2012
Intended status: Standards Track Intended status: Standards Track
Expires: August 27, 2012 Expires: May 5, 2013
Using International Standard Serial Numbers as Uniform Resource Names Using International Standard Serial Numbers as Uniform Resource Names
draft-ietf-urnbis-rfc3044bis-issn-urn-00 draft-ietf-urnbis-rfc3044bis-issn-urn-01
Abstract Abstract
The International Standard Serial Number, ISSN, has been the The International Standard Serial Number, ISSN, has been the
authoritative identifier for continuing resources (which include authoritative identifier for continuing resources (which include
serials) for more than three decades. Since 2001, the URN (Uniform serials) for more than three decades. Since 2001, the URN (Uniform
Resource Name) namespace "ISSN" has been reserved for ISSNs. The Resource Name) namespace "ISSN" has been reserved for ISSNs. The
namespace registration was performed in RFC 3044. This document namespace registration was performed in RFC 3044. This document
redefines how the revised ISSN standard can be supported within the redefines -- in a backwards compatible manner -- how the revised ISSN
URN framework, taking into account in particular the latest revision standard can be supported within the URN framework, taking into
of the ISSN standard in the ISO framework (ISO 3297:2007). Moreover, account in particular the latest revision of the ISSN standard in the
additional syntax related information required by the RFC 2141[bis] ISO framework (ISO 3297:2007). Moreover, additional syntax related
has been included. An updated namespace registration is provided. information required by the RFC 2141[bis] has been included. An
This document replaces RFC 3044. updated namespace registration is provided. This document replaces
RFC 3044.
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on August 27, 2012. This Internet-Draft will expire on May 5, 2013.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
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publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
skipping to change at page 3, line 8 skipping to change at page 3, line 8
Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling
the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified
outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may
not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format
it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
than English. than English.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Conventions used in this document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Conventions Used in This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Fundamental Namespace and Community Considerations . . . . . . 5 3. Fundamental Namespace and Community Considerations . . . . . . 5
3.1. The URN:ISSN Namespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1. The URN:ISSN Namespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.2. Community Considerations for ISSNs . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.2. Community Considerations for ISSNs . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4. International Standard Serial Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4. International Standard Serial Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.1. Overview / Namespace considerations . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4.1. Overview / Namespace Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.1.1. Allocation of Blocks of ISSNs . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.2. ISSN Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.2. ISSN Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.3. Encoding Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.3. Encoding Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.4. Resolution of ISSN-based URNs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.4. Resolution of ISSN-based URNs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.4.1. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.4.1. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.4.2. Practical Aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.4.2. Practical Aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.5. Additional considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.5. Additional Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.5.1. ISSN-L (or "linking ISSN") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.5.1. ISSN-L (or "Linking ISSN") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.5.2. Updating and management of URLs corresponding to 4.5.2. Updating and Management of URLs Corresponding to
resources identified by URN:ISSN . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Resources Identified by URN:ISSN . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5. URN Namespace Registration and Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5. URN Namespace Registration and Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.1. URN Namespace ID Registration for the International 5.1. URN Namespace ID Registration for the International
Standard Serial Number (ISSN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Standard Serial Number (ISSN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
8. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 8. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
One of the basic permanent URI schemes (cf. RFC 3986 [RFC3986], One of the basic permanent URI schemes (cf. RFC 3986 [RFC3986],
[IANA-URI]) is 'URN' (Uniform Resource Name) as originally defined in [IANA-URI]) is 'URN' (Uniform Resource Name) as originally defined in
RFC 2141 [RFC2141] and now being formally specified in RFC 2141bis RFC 2141 [RFC2141] and now being formally specified in RFC 2141bis
[I-D.ietf-urnbis-rfc2141bis-urn]. Any identifier, when used within [I-D.ietf-urnbis-rfc2141bis-urn]. Any identifier, when used within
the URN system, needs its own namespace. In August 2011 there were the URN system, needs its own namespace. In August 2011 there were
44 registered URN namespaces (see [IANA-URN]), one of which belongs 44 registered URN namespaces (see [IANA-URN]), one of which belongs
to ISSN, International Standard Serial Number, as specified 2001 in to ISSN, International Standard Serial Number, as specified 2001 in
skipping to change at page 4, line 42 skipping to change at page 4, line 42
URN Namespaces have subsequently been registered for both ISBN URN Namespaces have subsequently been registered for both ISBN
(International Standard Book Number) and ISSN (International Serial (International Standard Book Number) and ISSN (International Serial
Standard Number) in RFCs 3187 and 3044 ([RFC3187], [RFC3044]), Standard Number) in RFCs 3187 and 3044 ([RFC3187], [RFC3044]),
respectively. respectively.
The RFC at hand replaces RFC 3044; all ISSN information has been The RFC at hand replaces RFC 3044; all ISSN information has been
updated and the namespace registration revised to make it compliant updated and the namespace registration revised to make it compliant
with stipulations of RFC 3406bis with stipulations of RFC 3406bis
[I-D.ietf-urnbis-rfc3406bis-urn-ns-reg], the work-in-progress [I-D.ietf-urnbis-rfc3406bis-urn-ns-reg], the work-in-progress
successor of RFC 3406 [RFC3406], which in turn had replaced the successor of RFC 3406 [RFC3406], which in turn had replaced the
legacy RFC 2611 [RFC2611] applied in the initial registration. legacy RFC 2611 [RFC2611] applied in the initial registration. This
version of the URN:ISSN registration is fully backwards compatible
with the original one, in the sense that all ISSN URNs assigned under
RFC 3044 remain valid and semantically unchanged.
2. Conventions used in this document 2. Conventions Used in This Document
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
3. Fundamental Namespace and Community Considerations 3. Fundamental Namespace and Community Considerations
3.1. The URN:ISSN Namespace 3.1. The URN:ISSN Namespace
ISSN is an authoritative standard identifier system for continuing ISSN is an authoritative standard identifier system for continuing
resources and in particular serial publications. Therefore, any resources and in particular serial publications. Therefore, any
useful and deployable method for identifying these entities for useful and deployable method for identifying these entities for
network-wide reference and making their metadata available on the network-wide reference and making their metadata available on the
Internet needs to be based on ISSNs. ISSNs are authoritatively Internet needs to be based on ISSNs. ISSNs are authoritatively
referenced in a centrally managed database called the "ISSN Register" referenced in a centrally managed database called the "ISSN
which can be used as the basis for URN:ISSN resolution services. Register", which can be used as the basis for URN:ISSN resolution
services.
3.2. Community Considerations for ISSNs 3.2. Community Considerations for ISSNs
ISSNs are assigned under the auspices of the International ISSN ISSNs are assigned under the auspices of the ISSN International
International Centre and national ISSN Centres. ISSN assignment is a Centre and national ISSN Centres. ISSN assignment is a well managed
well managed and understood process, but as in any process and understood process, but as in any process administered by humans
administered by humans errors do take place. While some errors may errors do take place. While some errors may happen in the ISSN
happen in the ISSN Register itself and are readily corrected, most Register itself and are readily corrected, most errors happen in the
errors happen in the outside world through the use of inappropriate outside world through the use of inappropriate ISSN in external
ISSN in external references or the resources themselves. references or the resources themselves.
Continuing resources, including serials, most often consist of Continuing resources, including serials, most often consist of
component parts such as volumes, issues, articles. The ISSN standard component parts such as volumes, issues, articles. The ISSN standard
does not allow augmentation of the ISSN of the resource with (URI) does not allow the identification of component parts of the serial
fragments for identification of component parts. If a fragment designated by the ISSN, and the URN:ISSN Namespace equally does not
identifier is added to an ISSN, the resulting namespace specific support such augmentation -- neither by an added NSS component nor by
string will not be an ISSN. use of URI fragment identifiers.
For all the communities interested by the identification of For all the communities interested in the identification of
continuing resources and their contents, URN:ISSN-based continuing resources and their contents, URN:ISSN-based
identification and resolution services offer efficient, reliable and identification and resolution services offer efficient, reliable and
persistent access to resources and/or resource-related services. The persistent access to resources and/or resource-related services. The
users will not need special tools for this as Web browsers are users will not need special tools for this as Web browsers are
sufficient to display bibliographic information or when appropriate, sufficient to display bibliographic information or when appropriate,
an access point to the resources themselves. an access point to the resources themselves.
The next chapter presents an overview of the application of the URN: The next chapter presents an overview of the application of the URN:
ISSN namespace and the principles, and systems used, for the ISSN namespace and the principles, and systems used, for the
resolution of ISSN-based URNs. resolution of ISSN-based URNs.
4. International Standard Serial Numbers 4. International Standard Serial Numbers
4.1. Overview / Namespace considerations 4.1. Overview / Namespace Considerations
Each ISSN is a unique identifier for a specific serial or other Each ISSN is a unique identifier for a specific serial or other
continuing resource in a defined medium. continuing resource in a defined medium.
ISSN are applicable to serials and other continuing resources, ISSNs are applicable to serials and other continuing resources,
whether past, present, or to be produced in the foreseeable future, whether past, present, or to be produced in the foreseeable future,
whatever the medium of production. Continuing resources are issued whatever the medium of production. Continuing resources are issued
over time with no predetermined conclusion, they include serials and over time with no predetermined conclusion, they include serials and
ongoing integrating resources. ISSN are assigned to the entire ongoing integrating resources. ISSNs are assigned to the entire
population of serials and to ongoing integrating resources. population of serials and to ongoing integrating resources.
Serials are resources for which additional information is supplied Serials are resources for which additional information is supplied
indefinitely in a succession of discrete parts. All serials are indefinitely in a succession of discrete parts. All serials are
eligible for an ISSN. Also eligible for ISSN assignment are those eligible for an ISSN. Also eligible for ISSN assignment are those
bibliographic resources issued in successive issues or parts which bibliographic resources issued in successive issues or parts that
bear numbering and that also bear other characteristics of a serial bear numbering and that also bear other characteristics of a serial
(e.g. frequency in the title), but whose duration is limited (e.g. (e.g. frequency in the title), but whose duration is limited (e.g.
the newsletter of an event). the newsletter of an event).
Ongoing integrating resources are resources that are updated over Ongoing integrating resources are resources that are updated over
time and with no predetermined conclusion, for which the updates are time and with no predetermined conclusion, for which the updates are
integrated into the resources and do not remain discrete. Those integrated into the resources and do not remain discrete. Those
ongoing integrating resources which are eligible for an ISSN must be ongoing integrating resources that are eligible for an ISSN must be
updated indefinitely, and/or have an update statement. Advertising updated indefinitely, and/or have an update statement. Advertising
and individual home pages, online diaries, personal weblogs, and web and individual home pages, online diaries, personal weblogs, and web
sites consisting exclusively of links are not eligible for an ISSN. sites consisting exclusively of links are not eligible for an ISSN.
Individual monographs, technical reports, sound and video recordings, Individual monographs, technical reports, sound and video recordings,
printed music publications, audiovisual works and musical works have printed music publications, audiovisual works and musical works have
their own identifier systems. Such items may carry an ISSN in their own identifier systems. Such items may carry an ISSN in
addition to their own standard numbers when they are part of a addition to their own standard numbers when they are part of a
continuing resource. continuing resource.
Only one ISSN is assigned to a continuing resource in a defined Only one ISSN is assigned to a continuing resource in a defined
medium. This ISSN is permanently linked to the so called key title, medium. This ISSN is permanently linked to the so called key title,
a standardized form of title derived from information appearing on a standardized form of title derived from information appearing on
the continuing resource. A key title is unique to a particular the continuing resource. A key title is unique to a particular
continuing resource. Titles which would otherwise not be unique are continuing resource. Titles that would otherwise not be unique are
made unique by the addition of qualifying elements. In cases where made unique by the addition of qualifying elements. In cases where
the title changes sufficiently (as per specific rules defined in the the title changes sufficiently (as per specific rules defined in the
ISSN Manual) to warrant creating a new key title, a new ISSN is ISSN Manual) to warrant creating a new key title, a new ISSN is
assigned. In cases where the medium of the continuing resource assigned. In cases where the medium of the continuing resource
changes, a new ISSN and a new key title are assigned. changes, a new ISSN and a new key title are assigned.
Changes in publisher, country, language, frequency, subject scope or Changes in publisher, country, language, frequency, subject scope or
any other characteristic of a given continuing resource do not any other characteristic of a given continuing resource do not
warrant the assignment of a new ISSN. Title changes which are deemed warrant the assignment of a new ISSN. Title changes that are deemed
minor are registered in the ISSN metadata as "variant titles". minor are registered in the ISSN metadata as "variant titles".
When a new ISSN is assigned to a continuing resource (because of a When a new ISSN is assigned to a continuing resource (because of a
significant title change or of a medium change), both the "former" significant title change or of a media change), both the "former" and
and "new" ISSN are deemed valid and identify two distinct entities : "new" ISSN are deemed valid and identify two distinct entities: each
of them identifies the continuing resource in its incarnation in a
each of them identifies the continuing resource in its incarnation in given time interval, under a particular key title and/or physical
a given time interval, under a particular key title and/or physical
medium. "Dead" continuing resources are dead in the sense that they medium. "Dead" continuing resources are dead in the sense that they
are no longer updated, but they continue to be accessible in library are no longer updated, but they continue to be accessible in library
shelves or as archives on servers and their continuing identification shelves or as archives on servers and their continuing identification
is an obvious need for the whole chain of stakeholders. is an obvious need for the whole chain of stakeholders.
In such cases, ISSNs, through the metadata stored in the ISSN records In such cases, ISSNs, through the metadata stored in the ISSN records
of the ISSN Register are reciprocally linked. In fact, one of the of the ISSN Register are reciprocally linked. In fact, one of the
major aspects of the ISSN Register is its linking structure through major aspects of the ISSN Register is its linking structure through
which various incarnations of continuing resources are reciprocally which various incarnations of continuing resources are reciprocally
linked using the ISSN as pointer. There are different categories of linked using the ISSN as pointer. There are different categories of
such links (for former and successor titles, other medium editions, such links (for former and successor titles, other media editions,
other language editions, supplements etc.). A given ISSN may thus be other language editions, supplements etc.). A given ISSN may thus be
linked directly to a number of other ISSN which in turn may be linked linked directly to a number of other ISSN, which in turn may be
to other ISSNs etc. We can thus define the concepts of directly and linked to other ISSNs, etc. We can thus define the concepts of
indirectly linked ISSNs. directly and indirectly linked ISSNs.
Allocation of blocks of ISSN 4.1.1. Allocation of Blocks of ISSNs
The International Centre is responsible for the allocation of blocks The ISSN International Centre is responsible for the allocation of
of ISSN to National Centres. Each Centre receives limited blocks of blocks of ISSN to National Centres. Each Centre receives limited
numbers. In using blocks of ISSN, National ISSN Centres adhere to blocks of numbers. In using blocks of ISSNs, National ISSN Centres
the following procedures: adhere to the following procedures:
I. Report all ISSN assigned by their centre to the ISSN Register; I. Report all ISSNs assigned by their centre to the ISSN Register;
II. Use ISSN within their assigned block consecutively and use up II. Assign the ISSNs within their allocated block consecutively and
one block completely before starting another block; use up one block completely before starting another block;
III. Ensure that ISSN assignments made in advance of publication or III. Ensure that ISSN assignments made in advance of publication or
production of a continuing resource are recorded in the ISSN Register production of a continuing resource are recorded in the ISSN Register
by determining if publication or production of the resource has by determining if publication or production of the resource has
occurred and creating the appropriate ISSN records. occurred and creating the appropriate ISSN records.
Although it is possible, on the basis of internal management Although it is possible, on the basis of internal management
procedures of the ISSN Register, to determine in a majority of cases procedures of the ISSN Register, to determine in a majority of cases
that a given ISSN is part of a given block of ISSN allocated to a that a given ISSN is part of a given block of ISSNs allocated to a
given ISSN National Centre, this feature cannot be used for ISSN given ISSN National Centre, this feature cannot be used for ISSN
resolution mechanisms for the following reasons : resolution mechanisms for the following reasons:
- The country of publication of continuing resource may change over - The country of publication of a continuing resource may change
time (which implies that the responsibility of a given ISSN may be over time (which implies that the responsibility of a given ISSN
switched from one ISSN National Centre to another and that the ISSN may be switched from one ISSN National Centre to another and that
block from which the given ISSN was used may not correspond to the the ISSN block from which the given ISSN was used may not
actual country of publication) correspond to the actual country of publication).
- A significant number of ISSN were initially assigned in a - A significant number of ISSNs were initially assigned in a
"multinational" framework where the block of ISSN was not attached to "multinational" framework where the block of ISSNs was not
a given country attached to a given country.
- There exists a significant number of "multinational" publications - There exists a significant number of "multinational" publications
where "national" responsibility for ISSN assignment and management where "national" responsibility for ISSN assignment and management
has necessarily to be defined on somewhat arbitrary basis which may has necessarily to be defined on somewhat arbitrary basis, which
vary over time may vary over time.
For similar or identical reasons, although metadata attached to an For similar or identical reasons, although metadata attached to an
ISSN in the framework of the ISSN Register defines current National ISSN in the framework of the ISSN Register defines the current
ISSN Centre responsible for the management of the ISSN and its National ISSN Centre responsible for the management of the ISSN and
corresponding ISSN record, this information cannot and should not be its corresponding ISSN record, this information cannot and should not
used to infer a resolution path. be used to infer a resolution path.
4.2. ISSN Structure 4.2. ISSN Structure
An ISSN consists of eight digits. These are the Arabic numerals 0 to An ISSN consists of eight digits. These are the Arabic numerals 0 to
9, except that an upper case X can sometimes occur in the final 9, except that an upper case X can sometimes occur in the final
position as a check digit (when representing the number "10"). Since position as a check digit (when representing the number "10"). Since
ISSN are likely to be used in the same context as codes designed for ISSNs are likely to be used in the same context as codes designed for
other purposes, a distinction must be preserved in the form of other purposes, a distinction must be preserved in the form of
presentation. An ISSN therefore appears as two groups of four presentation. An ISSN therefore appears as two groups of four
digits, separated by a hyphen: digits, separated by a hyphen:
ISSN 0317-8471 ISSN 0317-8471
ISSN 1050-124X ISSN 1050-124X
The check digit is always located in the extreme right (low order) The check digit is always located in the extreme right (low order)
position, and is calculated on a modulus 11 basis using weights 8 to position, and is calculated on a modulus 11 basis using weights 8 to
2. 2.
4.3. Encoding Considerations 4.3. Encoding Considerations
Embedding ISSNs within the URN framework does not present encoding Embedding ISSNs within the URN framework does not present encoding
problems, since all of the characters that can appear in an ISSN (the problems, since all of the characters that can appear in an ISSN (the
10 digits (0 to 9), the hyphen and capital letter X) are valid in the 10 digits (0 to 9), the hyphen and capital letter X) are valid in the
namespace-specific string (NSS) part of the URN. percent-encoding, as namespace-specific string (NSS) part of the URN. Percent-encoding,
described in RFC 2141bis [I-D.ietf-urnbis-rfc2141bis-urn], is never as described in RFC 2141bis [I-D.ietf-urnbis-rfc2141bis-urn], is
needed. In order to improve readability of the NSS, central hyphens never needed. In order to improve readability of the NSS, central
SHOULD always be used. hyphens SHOULD always be used.
Example: URN:ISSN:1234-1231 Example: URN:ISSN:1234-1231
4.4. Resolution of ISSN-based URNs 4.4. Resolution of ISSN-based URNs
4.4.1. General 4.4.1. General
For URN resolution purposes, all elements, including the check digit For URN resolution purposes, all elements, including the check digit
and the central hyphen, must be taken into account. and the central hyphen, must be taken into account.
If a local resource stores and manages ISSN without a central hyphen, If a local resource stores and manages ISSNs without a central
it should be programmatically added for the constitution of URN:ISSN. hyphen, it SHOULD be programmatically inserted for the constitution
of URN:ISSN.
Applications, such as the national bibliography or the open archive Applications, such as the national bibliography or the open archive
of a university, can use the URN as the persistent address of the of a university, can use the URN as the persistent address of the
resource. There is just one place (the URN registry) where the resource. There is just one place (the URN registry) where the
address is mapped to one or more physical locations. address is mapped to one or more physical locations.
4.4.2. Practical Aspects 4.4.2. Practical Aspects
Persistence is one of the key features for any persistent identifier Persistence is one of the key features for any persistent identifier
system. There are three inter-related aspects of persistence that system. There are three inter-related aspects of persistence that
need to be discussed: persistence of the resource itself, persistence need to be discussed: persistence of the resource itself, persistence
of the identifier, and persistence of the URN-based resolvers. of the identifier, and persistence of the URN-based resolvers.
Persistence of the resources : continuing resources are complex Persistence of the resources: continuing resources are complex
objects which evolve over time. In their (mostly) paper objects that evolve over time. In their (mostly) paper incarnations,
incarnations, they have been stored on library shelves sometimes for they have been stored on library shelves sometimes for centuries.
centuries. Bibliographic records mediate identification and access. Bibliographic records mediate identification and access. If a
If a continuing resource is available on print only, its URN:ISSN continuing resource is available on print only, its URN:ISSN will
will resolve to the bibliographic record in the ISSN register. resolve to the bibliographic record in the ISSN register.
The ISSN Register has indentified (at the beginning of 2012) almost The ISSN Register has identified (at the beginning of 2012) almost
100,000 online continuing resources which may or may not have print 100,000 online continuing resources that may or may not have print
equivalents. Furthermore, vast digitization efforts are now equivalents. Furthermore, vast digitization efforts are now
undertaken over the world to create electronic archives of printed undertaken over the world to create electronic archives of printed
continuing resources (these initiatives have often a dual aim of long continuing resources (these initiatives have often a dual aim of long
term preservation and economies in shelving space); efforts are also term preservation and economies in shelving space); efforts are also
under way to manage the long term preservation of online continuing under way to manage the long term preservation of online continuing
resources. resources.
All these efforts which have as a goal the persistence of the All these efforts that have as a goal the persistence of the
continuing resources will be all the more successful if they benefit continuing resources will be all the more successful if they benefit
from a standardized identification layer. This obviously also has an from a standardized identification layer. This obviously also has an
impact on the management of contents (volumes, issues, and first and impact on the management of contents (volumes, issues, and first and
foremost articles) where linking frameworks which appeared during the foremost articles) where linking frameworks that appeared during the
last ten years (CROSSREF or Open URL) make heavy use of the ISSN. last ten years (CROSSREF or Open URL) make heavy use of the ISSN.
Persistence of the identifier : The ISSN as an identifier is Persistence of the identifier: The ISSN as an identifier is
persistent in the sense that once assigned, an ISSN will never be re- persistent in the sense that once assigned, an ISSN will never be re-
assigned to a different continuing resource. assigned to a different continuing resource.
Persistence of the resolvers : URN resolvers are not static. The Persistence of the resolvers: URN resolvers are not static. The
services they'll supply will change over time, due to changes in services they'll supply will change over time, due to changes in
technical infrastructure. For instance, new URN resolution services technical infrastructure. For instance, new URN resolution services
may be added or modified over time. Persistence of the resolvers may be added or modified over time. Persistence of the resolvers
themselves is mainly an organizational issue, related to the themselves is mainly an organizational issue, related to the
persistence of organizations maintaining them. As URN:ISSN persistence of organizations maintaining them. As URN:ISSN
resolution services will be based on the ISSN Register, which is resolution services will be based on the ISSN Register, which is
itself a persistent resource which has been maintained for almost 35 itself a persistent resource that has been maintained for almost 35
years, we may thus assume that URN:ISSN resolution services will be years, we may thus assume that URN:ISSN resolution services will be
persistent. persistent.
The ISSN Register will initially support four resolution services The ISSN Register will initially support four resolution services
specified in RFC 2483 [RFC2483], namely I2L, I2Ls, I2C and I2Cs. specified in RFC 2483 [RFC2483], namely I2L, I2Ls, I2C and I2Cs.
Only I2C and I2Cs (URI to URC(s); delivery of descriptive metadata Only I2C and I2Cs (URI to URC(s); delivery of descriptive metadata
related to the resource) are valid for non-networked resources. related to the resource) are valid for non-networked resources.
Descriptive metadata can only be supplied in the MARC21 format. Descriptive metadata can only be supplied in the MARC21 format. The
resolutions service will be conformant with the syntax defined for
the query instruction for URN service selection specified in
RFC 2141bis [I-D.ietf-urnbis-rfc2141bis-urn].
Due to the structure of the ISSN, it is assumed that URN:ISSN Due to the structure of the ISSN, it is assumed that URN:ISSN
resolution can only be reliably achieved through a central service, resolution can only be reliably achieved through a central service,
based on the ISSN Register which in turn can benefit from automated based on the ISSN Register that in turn can benefit from automated
linking with other local resources using the ISSN as an identifier. linking with other local resources using the ISSN as an identifier.
Only a combination of the authority of the centralized ISSN Register Only a combination of the authority of the centralized ISSN Register
and of local data can guarantee both reliability and persistence. and of local data can guarantee both reliability and persistence.
4.5. Additional considerations 4.5. Additional Considerations
4.5.1. ISSN-L (or "linking ISSN") 4.5.1. ISSN-L (or "Linking ISSN")
In the framework of URN:ISSN resolution, the ISSN-L is a very In the framework of URN:ISSN resolution, the ISSN-L is a very
important new feature. important new feature.
The ISSN-L (or "linking ISSN") is an important modification The ISSN-L (or "linking ISSN") is an important modification
introduced in the latest revision of the ISSN standard in the ISO introduced in the latest revision of the ISSN standard in the ISO
framework. framework.
The ISSN-L has been defined to meet the need for a collocation, or The ISSN-L has been defined to meet the need for a collocation, or
grouping mechanism that brings together the various medium versions grouping mechanism that brings together the various media versions of
of a continuing resource, and thus facilitate content management. a continuing resource, and thus facilitate content management.
The ISSN-L is an ISSN designated by the ISSN Network to group the The ISSN-L is an ISSN designated by the ISSN Network to group the
different media versions of a continuing resource. different media versions of a continuing resource.
Only one ISSN-L is designated regardless of how many different medium Only one ISSN-L is designated regardless of how many different media
versions of a continuing resource exist. A continuing resource will versions of a continuing resource exist. A continuing resource will
be associated with only one ISSN-L. be associated with only one ISSN-L.
4.5.1.1. Designation of the ISSN-L 4.5.1.1. Designation of the ISSN-L
The designation of the ISSN-L is carried out either by a centre of The designation of the ISSN-L is carried out either by a centre of
the ISSN Network or is performed automatically as records are added the ISSN Network or is performed automatically as records are added
to the ISSN Register. It is done either by those ISSN National to the ISSN Register. It is done either by those ISSN National
Centres that are able to undertake this responsibility, or by the Centres that are able to undertake this responsibility, or by the
International Centre. The records produced by these National Centres International Centre. The records produced by these National Centres
include the ISSN-L in the ISSN records under their responsibility. include the ISSN-L in the ISSN records under their responsibility.
4.5.1.2. Rules for the designation of the ISSN-L 4.5.1.2. Rules for the Designation of the ISSN-L
The first ISSN assigned, in the ISSN Register, to any medium version The first ISSN assigned, in the ISSN Register, to any media version
of a continuing resource is designated by default to function also as of a continuing resource is designated by default to function also as
the ISSN-L and applies to all other media versions of that resource the ISSN-L and applies to all other media versions of that resource
identified in the ISSN Register. An ISSN-L is designated for each identified in the ISSN Register. An ISSN-L is designated for each
continuing resource identified in the ISSN Register, even if the continuing resource identified in the ISSN Register, even if the
continuing resource is issued in only one medium. Only one ISSN-L is continuing resource is issued in only one medium. Only one ISSN-L is
designated regardless of how many different medium versions of a designated regardless of how many different media versions of a
continuing resource exist. continuing resource exist.
In the framework of URN:ISSN resolution, whether an ISSN is submitted In the framework of URN:ISSN resolution, whether an ISSN is submitted
as an ISSN-L or as an ISSN should be considered as having no as an ISSN-L or as an ISSN should be considered as having no
practical impact as the response should always include by default practical impact as the response should always include by default
basic resolution data for all ISSN which may be linked through a basic resolution data for all ISSNs that may be linked through a
common ISSN-L. common ISSN-L.
For efficient practical resolution purposes, it should not be assumed For efficient practical resolution purposes, it should not be assumed
that the requesting service has an unambiguous knowledge of either : that the requesting service has an unambiguous knowledge of either:
o The medium version associated to a given ISSN o the media version associated to a given ISSN; or
o The ISSN which is designated to function as ISSN-L linking the o the ISSN which is designated to function as the ISSN-L that links
different medium versions the different media versions.
The URN:ISSN resolution service should make no such assumption The URN:ISSN resolution service should make no such assumption
concerning the knowledge of the requesting service. The URN:ISSN concerning the knowledge of the requesting service. The URN:ISSN
resolution should make available sufficient authoritative metadata so resolution should make available sufficient authoritative metadata so
as to allow the requesting service to obtain the expected response, as to allow the requesting service to obtain the expected response,
even if the ISSN submitted is not used fully adequately by the even if the ISSN submitted is not used fully adequately by the
requestor. URN:ISSN resolution metadata should allow the requesting requestor. URN:ISSN resolution metadata should allow the requesting
service to check and correct if necessary its potentially incorrect service to check and correct if necessary its potentially incorrect
assumptions, so as to avoid the following situations : assumptions, so as to avoid the following situations:
o An ISSN would be left unresolved (for instance because a "print" o an ISSN would be left unresolved (for instance because a "print"
ISSN was sent instead of the "online" ISSN and I2L service is ISSN was sent instead of the "online" ISSN and I2L service is
requested) requested);
o The requesting service would be left unaware of the existence of o the requesting service would be left unaware of the existence of
other ISSN linked through a common linking ISSN-L, because it other ISSN linked through a common linking ISSN-L, because it
would have submitted for resolution an ISSN not designated as would have submitted for resolution an ISSN not designated as
ISSN-L ISSN-L;
o The requesting service would have to perform several successive o the requesting service would have to perform several successive
URN:ISSN resolution requests for all ISSN linked through a common URN:ISSN resolution requests for all ISSN linked through a common
ISSN-L ISSN-L.
Examples: Examples:
URN:ISSN:1234-1231 identifies the current print edition of "Medical URN:ISSN:1234-1231 identifies the current print edition of
News" "Medical News".
URN:ISSN:1560-1560 identifies the current online edition of "Medical URN:ISSN:1560-1560 identifies the current online edition of
News" "Medical News".
The ISSN-L linking both media versions of "Medical News" happens to The ISSN-L linking both media versions of "Medical News" happens to
be ISSN-L 1234-1231 (i.e based on the ISSN 1234-1231, designated as be ISSN-L 1234-1231 (i.e based on the ISSN 1234-1231, designated as
such in the framework of the management of the ISSN Register). such in the framework of the management of the ISSN Register).
The resolution of URN:ISSN:1234-1231 should be equivalent to the The resolution of URN:ISSN:1234-1231 should be equivalent to the
resolution of URN:ISSN 1560-1560, i.e; in both cases one should find resolution of URN:ISSN 1560-1560; i.e., in both cases one should find
a reference to the other medium version. a reference to the other media version.
4.5.2. Updating and management of URLs corresponding to resources 4.5.2. Updating and Management of URLs Corresponding to Resources
identified by URN:ISSN Identified by URN:ISSN
As already indicated, continuing resources are complex objects or As already indicated, continuing resources are complex objects or
sets of objects which evolve over time and can be partly or fully sets of objects that evolve over time and can be partly or fully
duplicated, published, archived, remixed. Various entities duplicated, published, archived, remixed. Various entities
(publishers, issuing bodies, libraries, content aggregators, (publishers, issuing bodies, libraries, content aggregators,
archiving institutions, subscription services...) may be partly or archiving institutions, subscription services, ...) may be partly or
fully responsible over time for the online management of these fully responsible over time for the online management of these
objects. objects.
Their stewardship may be ambiguously implemented for various reasons Their stewardship may be ambiguously implemented for various reasons:
:
o It may extend over a restricted sub-set of the resource (only from o It may extend over a restricted sub-set of the resource (only from
a given year for instance) a given year for instance).
o It may express itself over time through various technical o It may express itself over time through various technical
implementations which may translate into server name and URL implementations, which may translate into server name and URL
changes changes.
o It may or may not be associated with an adequate stewardship over o It may or may not be associated with an adequate stewardship over
the appropriate identification of the objects) (inadequate ISSN the appropriate identification of the objects (inadequate ISSN
being used for media versions, title changes not taken into being used for media versions, title changes not taken into
account...) account, ...).
o The ISSN assigned may or may not be used in a consistent and o The ISSN assigned may or may not be used in a consistent and
standardized machine processable form in the objects themselves or standardized machine processable form in the objects themselves or
in external reference lists. Even if an appropriate ISSN is used in external reference lists. Even if an appropriate ISSN is used
in the stored metadata, it may be duplicated at the level of all in the stored metadata, it may be duplicated at the level of all
the sub-objects (volumes, issues, articles...) making it the sub-objects (volumes, issues, articles, ...) making it
impractical to ascertain the adequate entry point of the impractical to ascertain the adequate entry point of the
continuing resource itself as a whole. continuing resource itself as a whole.
In some cases, continuing resources are not processed or managed as In some cases, continuing resources are not processed or managed as
such and only their constituent parts (for instance, volumes, issues, such and only their constituent parts (for instance, volumes, issues,
articles...) are made directly accessible as evolving sets. articles, ...) are made directly accessible as evolving sets.
Last but not least, commercial publications may restrict access to Last but not least, commercial publications may restrict access to
authenticated users only. authenticated users only.
This practically means that "resolution" (in the sense of This practically means that "resolution" (in the sense of
localization) of continuing resources can best be achieved in the localization) of continuing resources can best be achieved in the
framework of long term coordinated efforts, but cannot be guaranteed framework of long term coordinated efforts, but cannot be guaranteed
in all cases. The best results will of course be obtained with in all cases. The best results will of course be obtained with
"preservation silos" or big entities. Concerning the "long tail" of "preservation silos" or big entities. Concerning the "long tail" of
small publications, preservation initiatives are best equipped to small publications, preservation initiatives are best equipped to
handle the link between identification and access to the resources handle the link between identification and access to the resources
themselves. themselves.
This means that URN:ISSN resolution will not be able to offer "full This means that URN:ISSN resolution will not be able to offer "full
resolution" (i.e. reliable access to the resource itself) in all resolution" (i.e. reliable access to the resource itself) in all
cases, even if the resource is "online". cases, even if the resource is "online".
On the other hand, URN:ISSN extended resolution services could be On the other hand, URN:ISSN extended resolution services could be
offered on a systematic basis thanks to the metadata stored in the offered on a systematic basis thanks to the metadata stored in the
ISSN Register and its potential linking with external resources, such ISSN Register and its potential linking with external resources, such
as : as:
o basic metadata stored in the ISSN Register identifying or o basic metadata stored in the ISSN Register identifying or
describing the resource, including, as stated above, metadata from describing the resource, including, as stated above, metadata from
the ISSN records linked through a common ISSN-L; in particular, the ISSN records linked through a common ISSN-L; in particular,
the minimum set of data should include the category of the ISSN as the minimum set of data should include the category of the ISSN as
defined above, so as to allow for instance and adequate processing defined above, so as to allow for instance an adequate processing
of "cancelled ISSNs". of "cancelled ISSNs";
o access to the direct or indirect linking structure associating the o access to the direct or indirect linking structure associating the
ISSN with other continuing resources ISSN with other continuing resources;
o linking to administrative metadata such as archiving and o linking to administrative metadata such as archiving and
preservation information about the resource or in a more general preservation information about the resource or in a more general
and wider way, to any kind of relevant ancillary information : and wider way, to any kind of relevant ancillary information:
publisher, issuing body, availability through third party outfits, publisher, issuing body, availability through third party outfits,
such as union catalogues etc., external evaluation and such as union catalogues etc., external evaluation and
authentication data, in fact to any other party or service authentication data, in fact to any other party or service
offering relevant ISSN based metadata. offering relevant ISSN based metadata.
URN:ISSN resolution services can be both human readable and machine URN:ISSN resolution services can be both human readable and machine
processable so as to support semantic web compatible services. processable so as to support semantic web compatible services.
It should finally be noted that as the ISSN Register is a It should finally be noted that as the ISSN Register is a
subscription based resource, URN:ISSN resolution cannot be a fully subscription based resource, URN:ISSN resolution cannot be a fully
open service. open service.
5. URN Namespace Registration and Use 5. URN Namespace Registration and Use
The formal URN Namespace Identifier Registration for the pre-2007 The formal URN Namespace Identifier Registration for the pre-2007
version of the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) standard version of the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) standard
was done in "RFC 3044 [RFC3044]. was done in RFC 3044 [RFC3044].
The revised ISSN standard does not require a new namespace, but the The revised ISSN standard does not require a new namespace, but the
registration is renewed here. The registrant organization has moved registration is updated here. The registrant organization has moved
from a former address to a new one in Paris. Moreover, the from a former address to a new one in Paris. Moreover, the
description of the NSS and resolution details have been amended. description of the NSS and resolution details have been amended.
5.1. URN Namespace ID Registration for the International Standard 5.1. URN Namespace ID Registration for the International Standard
Serial Number (ISSN) Serial Number (ISSN)
This registration describes how the International Standard Serial This registration describes how the International Standard Serial
Number (ISSN) can be supported within the URN framework. Number (ISSN) can be supported within the URN framework.
_Namespace ID: _ ISSN [ RFC Editor: please replace "XXXX" in all instances of "RFC XXXX"
below by the RFC number assigned to this document. ]
This Namespace ID has already been assigned to the International Namespace ID: ISSN
Standard Serial Number in January 2001 when the namespace was
initially registered.
_Registration Information:_ This Namespace ID has already been assigned to the International
Standard Serial Number in January 2001 when the namespace was
initially registered.
Version: 2 Date: 2012-02-23 Kind of named resources:
_Declared registrant of the namespace:_ Continuing (serial) publications.
_Registering Organization:_ Centre international d'Enregistrement des Registration Information:
Publications en Serie - CIEPS-ISSN - ISSN International Centre
_Designated Contact Person:_ Version: 2
Name: Ms. Francoise Pelle Date: 2012-10-31
Affiliation: Director, ISSN International Centre Declared registrant of the namespace:
Email: issnic@issn.org Registering Organization: Centre international d'Enregistrement
des Publications en Serie - CIEPS-ISSN - ISSN International Centre
45 rue de Turbigo, 75003 PARIS, FRANCE Designated Contact Person:
Name: Ms. Francoise Pelle
Affiliation: Director, ISSN International Centre
Email: issnic@issn.org
Postal: 45 rue de Turbigo, 75003 PARIS, FRANCE
Web URL: <http://www.issn.org/>
Web URL: <http://www.issn.org/ > Declaration of syntactic structure of NSS part:
_Declaration of syntactic structure of NSS part: _ The ISSN syntax (used literally as the NSS) is as follows:
__The ISSN syntax is as follows: NNNN-NNNC
NNNN-NNNC where N is a Digit character [0..9]
C is either a Digit character or letter "X" [0..9,X]
C is the check character
where N is a Digit character [0..9] Example 1: URN:ISSN:1234-1231
Example 2: URN:ISSN: 0259-000X
C is either a Digit character or letter "X" [0..9,X] Relevant ancillary documentation:
C is the check character The ISSN (International Standard Serial Number) is a unique
machine-readable identification number, which identifies
unambiguously any continuing resource. This number is defined in
ISO Standard 3297:2007. ISSNs have been in use for more than 30
years and they have deeply affected the handling of continuing
resources and their contents. 88 countries are officially ISSN
members (at the beginning of 2012).
Example 1: URN:ISSN:1234-1231 The administration of the ISSN system is carried out at two
levels: International Centre and National Centres.
Example 2: URN:ISSN: 0259-000X The ISSN International Centre is located in Paris (France).
The main functions of the Centre are:
_Relevant ancillary documentation: _ * To promote, co-ordinate and supervise the world-wide use of the
ISSN system.
The ISSN (International Standard Serial Number) is a unique machine- * To maintain and publish the ISSN Register.
readable identification number, which identifies unambiguously any
continuing resource. This number is defined in ISO Standard 3297:
2007. ISSNs have been in use for more than 30 years and they have
deeply affected the handling of continuing resources and their
contents. 88 countries are officially ISSN members (at the beginning
of 2012).
The administration of the ISSN system is carried out at two levels: * To allocate blocks of ISSNs to ISSN National Centres.
International Centre and National Centres.
The ISSN International Centre is located in Paris (France). The main * to assign ISSN to international publications and to serials
functions of the Centre are: issued in countries with no National Centre.
o To promote, co-ordinate and supervise the world-wide use of the Detailed information about ISSN usage can be found from the ISSN
ISSN system. Users' Manual. The manual is available at
<http://www.issn.org/2-23364-ISSN-Manual.php>
o To maintain and publish the ISSN Register. Conformance with URN Syntax:
o To allocate blocks of ISSNs to ISSN National Centres. Legal ISSN characters are 0-9 and hyphen and X. No percent-
encoding is needed. Hyphen carries no semantic content but SHOULD
NOT be dropped from the NSS.
o to assign ISSN to international publications and to serials issued Rules for Lexical Equivalence of NSS part:
in countries with no National Centre.
Detailed information about ISSN usage can be found from the ISSN ISSN numbers are usually printed with the letters 'ISSN' and a
Users' Manual. single blank preceding the ISSN proper (for instance: ISSN 1234-
1231). Any data preceding the ISSN MUST NOT be included in the
NSS. No percent encoding is needed.
The manual is available at Prior to comparing the NSS of two ISSN-based URNs for equivalence,
<http://www.issn.org/2-23364-ISSN-Manual.php> all hyphens, if present, MUST be removed and letter 'X'
capitalized.
_Conformance with URN Syntax:_ Note that, according to RFC 2141bis
[I-D.ietf-urnbis-rfc2141bis-urn], the prefix "URN:ISSN:" is case-
insensitive; generic URI parsing and comparison software
frequently uses lower case as the canonical (normalized) form.
Legal ISSN characters are 0-9 and hyphen and X. No percent-encoding The URNs are equivalent if the normalized forms obtained this way
is needed. Hyphen carries no semantic content but SHOULD NOT be compare equal.
dropped from the NSS.
_Rules for Lexical Equivalence of NSS part: _ Usage of query instructions:
ISSN numbers are usually printed with the letters 'ISSN' and a single 'ISSN' URN resolvers initially support four of the resolution
blank preceding the ISSN proper (for instance: ISSN 1234-1231). Any services specified in RFC 2483 [RFC2483], namely I2L, I2Ls, I2C
data preceding the ISSN MUST NOT be included in the NSS. No percent and I2Cs. Only I2C and I2Cs (URI to URC(s); delivery of
encoding is needed. descriptive metadata related to the resource) are valid for non-
networked resources, and hence I2C is the default service.
Prior to comparing the NSS of two ISSN-based URNs for equivalence, 'ISSN' URN resolution by the ISSN International Centre will ignore
all hyphens, if present, MUST be removed and letter 'X' capitalized. query keywords other than "s".
Note that, according to RFC 2141bis [I-D.ietf-urnbis-rfc2141bis-urn], Usage of fragment part:
the prefix "URN:ISSN:" is case-insensitive; generic URI parsing and
comparison software frequently uses lower case as the canonical
(normalized) form.
The URNs are equivalent if the normalized forms obtained this way There are no provisions for support of the fragment part in URI
compare equal. references to 'ISSN' URNs.
However, the MARC21 format used to return metadata for 'ISSN' URNs
can be interpreted by cognizant resolution clients.
_Identifier uniqueness and persistence considerations:_ Identifier uniqueness and persistence considerations:
ISSN is a unique and persistent identifier. An ISSN, once it has ISBN is a unique identifier. ISSN is a unique and persistent
been assigned, MUST NOT be re-used for another continuing resource. identifier. An ISSN, once it has been assigned, MUST NOT be re-
'ISSN' URNs inherit the uniqueness and persistence properties from used for another continuing resource. 'ISSN' URNs inherit the
ISSNs. uniqueness and persistence properties from ISSNs.
_Process of identifier assignment:_ Process of identifier assignment:
Assignment of ISSNs is controlled, and 'ISSN' URNs immediately Assignment of ISSNs is controlled, and 'ISSN' URNs immediately
inherit this property. There are three levels of control: the ISSN inherit this property. There are three levels of control: the
international Centre, national ISSN Centres, and finally all the ISSN International Centre, national ISSN Centres, and finally all
stakeholders responsible for a correct use of the ISSN system. the stakeholders responsible for a correct use of the ISSN system.
Process for identifier resolution: See Section 4.3 of RFC3044. Process for identifier resolution:
_Validation mechanism: _ See Section 4.4 of RFC XXXX.
The check digit helps to assure the correctness of an ISSN number Validation mechanism:
assigned for a continuing resource when it has been entered or
processed. Applications processing bibliographic data such as
integrated library systems MAY use the check digit to check the
correctness of the ISSN string. If the number is found to be wrong
due to, e.g., a typing error made by a publisher, the correct ISSN
SHOULD nevertheless be used while the wrong number may be stored
alongside for reference. Although the resource itself may only
contain the wrong number, national bibliographies and systems used by
relevant communities often will contain both the wrong and correct
ISSN number.
_Scope: _ The check digit helps to assure the correctness of an ISSN number
assigned for a continuing resource when it has been entered or
processed. Applications processing bibliographic data such as
integrated library systems MAY use the check digit to check the
correctness of the ISSN string. If the number is found to be
wrong due to, e.g., a typing error made by a publisher, the
correct ISSN SHOULD nevertheless be used while the wrong number
may be stored alongside for reference. Although the resource
itself may only contain the wrong number, national bibliographies
and systems used by relevant communities often will contain both
the wrong and correct ISSN number.
ISSN is a global identifier system used for identification of Scope:
continuing resources. It is very widely used and supported by the
publishing and scholarly publication communities. ISSN is a global identifier system used for identification of
continuing resources. It is very widely used and supported by the
publishing and scholarly publication communities.
6. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
This document proposes means of encoding ISSNs within the URN This document proposes means of encoding ISSNs within the URN
framework. An ISSN-based URN resolution service is depicted here, framework. An ISSN-based URN resolution service is depicted here,
but in a generic level only; thus questions of secure or but in a generic level only; thus questions of secure or
authenticated resolution mechanisms are excluded. It does not deal authenticated resolution mechanisms are excluded. It does not deal
with means of validating the integrity or authenticating the source with means of validating the integrity or authenticating the source
or provenance of URNs that contain ISSNs. Issues regarding or provenance of URNs that contain ISSNs. Issues regarding
intellectual property rights associated with objects identified by intellectual property rights associated with objects identified by
skipping to change at page 18, line 19 skipping to change at page 18, line 41
current URI Standard (STD 63, RFC 3986), ABNF, and IANA guidelines. current URI Standard (STD 63, RFC 3986), ABNF, and IANA guidelines.
The PERSID project <http://www.persid.org/> is a significant impulse The PERSID project <http://www.persid.org/> is a significant impulse
to this work. to this work.
9. References 9. References
9.1. Normative References 9.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-urnbis-rfc2141bis-urn] [I-D.ietf-urnbis-rfc2141bis-urn]
Hoenes, A., "Uniform Resource Name (URN) Syntax", Hoenes, A., "Uniform Resource Name (URN) Syntax",
draft-ietf-urnbis-rfc2141bis-urn-01 (work in progress), draft-ietf-urnbis-rfc2141bis-urn-03 (work in progress),
October 2011. October 2012.
[I-D.ietf-urnbis-rfc3406bis-urn-ns-reg] [I-D.ietf-urnbis-rfc3406bis-urn-ns-reg]
Hoenes, A., "Uniform Resource Name (URN) Namespace Hoenes, A., "Defining Uniform Resource Name (URN)
Definition Mechanisms", Namespaces", draft-ietf-urnbis-rfc3406bis-urn-ns-reg-03
draft-ietf-urnbis-rfc3406bis-urn-ns-reg-01 (work in (work in progress), October 2012.
progress), October 2011.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform [RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
RFC 3986, January 2005. RFC 3986, January 2005.
9.2. Informative References 9.2. Informative References
[I-D.ietf-urnbis-rfc3187bis-isbn-urn] [I-D.ietf-urnbis-rfc3187bis-isbn-urn]
Huttunen, M., Hakala, J., and A. Hoenes, "Using Huttunen, M., Hakala, J., and A. Hoenes, "Using
International Standard Book Numbers as Uniform Resource International Standard Book Numbers as Uniform Resource
Names", draft-ietf-urnbis-rfc3187bis-isbn-urn-02 (work in Names", draft-ietf-urnbis-rfc3187bis-isbn-urn-03 (work in
progress), February 2012. progress), October 2012.
[IANA-URI] [IANA-URI]
IANA, "URI Schemes Registry", IANA, "URI Schemes Registry",
<http://www.iana.org/assignments/uri-schemes>. <http://www.iana.org/assignments/uri-schemes>.
[IANA-URN] [IANA-URN]
IANA, "URN Namespace Registry", IANA, "URN Namespace Registry",
<http://www.iana.org/assignments/urn-namespaces>. <http://www.iana.org/assignments/urn-namespaces>.
[RFC2141] Moats, R., "URN Syntax", RFC 2141, May 1997. [RFC2141] Moats, R., "URN Syntax", RFC 2141, May 1997.
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