draft-ietf-webdav-protocol-10.txt   rfc2518.txt 
WEBDAV Working Group Y.Y. Goland, Microsoft Network Working Group Y. Goland
INTERNET DRAFT E.J. Whitehead, Jr., UC Irvine Request for Comments: 2518 Microsoft
<draft-ietf-webdav-protocol-10> A. Faizi, Netscape Category: Standards Track E. Whitehead
S.R. Carter, Novell UC Irvine
D. Jensen, Novell A. Faizi
Expires April, 1999 November 16, 1998 Netscape
S. Carter
Novell
D. Jensen
Novell
February 1999
HTTP Extensions for Distributed Authoring -- WEBDAV HTTP Extensions for Distributed Authoring -- WEBDAV
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This document is an Internet-Draft. Internet-Drafts are working This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
and its working groups. Note that other groups may also distribute improvements. Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
working documents as Internet-Drafts. Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
and status of this protocol. Distribution of this memo is unlimited.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
months and may be updated, replaced, or made obsolete by other
documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as
reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress".
To learn the current status of any Internet-Draft, please check the
"1id-abstracts.txt" listing contained in the Internet-Drafts Shadow
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munnari.oz.au (Pacific Rim), ftp.ietf.org (US East Coast), or
ftp.isi.edu (US West Coast).
Distribution of this document is unlimited. Please send comments to Copyright Notice
the Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WEBDAV) working group at
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with subject "subscribe" to <w3c-dist-auth-request@w3.org>.
Discussions of the WEBDAV working group are archived at Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1999). All Rights Reserved.
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Abstract Abstract
This document specifies a set of methods, headers, and content-types This document specifies a set of methods, headers, and content-types
ancillary to HTTP/1.1 for the management of resource properties, ancillary to HTTP/1.1 for the management of resource properties,
creation and management of resource collections, namespace creation and management of resource collections, namespace
manipulation, and resource locking (collision avoidance). manipulation, and resource locking (collision avoidance).
Contents Table of Contents
STATUS OF THIS MEMO...................................................1
ABSTRACT..............................................................1
CONTENTS..............................................................2
1 INTRODUCTION .......................................................7
2 NOTATIONAL CONVENTIONS .............................................8
3 TERMINOLOGY ........................................................8
4 DATA MODEL FOR RESOURCE PROPERTIES .................................9
4.1 The Resource Property Model .....................................9
4.2 Existing Metadata Proposals ....................................10
4.3 Properties and HTTP Headers ....................................10
4.4 Property Values ................................................10
4.5 Property Names .................................................11
4.6 Media Independent Links ........................................11
5 COLLECTIONS OF WEB RESOURCES ......................................12
5.1 HTTP URL Namespace Model .......................................12
5.2 Collection Resources ...........................................12
5.3 Creation and Retrieval of Collection Resources .................13
5.4 Source Resources and Output Resources ..........................14
6 LOCKING ...........................................................15
6.1 Exclusive Vs. Shared Locks .....................................15
6.2 Required Support ...............................................16
6.3 Lock Tokens ....................................................16
6.4 opaquelocktoken Lock Token URI Scheme ..........................17
6.4.1 Node Field Generation Without the IEEE 802 Address ..........17
6.5 Lock Capability Discovery ......................................19
6.6 Active Lock Discovery ..........................................19
6.7 Usage Considerations ...........................................19
7 WRITE LOCK ........................................................20
7.1 Methods Restricted by Write Locks ..............................20
7.2 Write Locks and Lock Tokens ....................................21
7.3 Write Locks and Properties .....................................21
7.4 Write Locks and Null Resources .................................21
7.5 Write Locks and Collections ....................................21
7.6 Write Locks and the If Request Header ..........................22
7.6.1 Example - Write Lock ........................................22
7.7 Write Locks and COPY/MOVE ......................................23
7.8 Refreshing Write Locks .........................................23
8 HTTP METHODS FOR DISTRIBUTED AUTHORING ............................24
8.1 PROPFIND .......................................................24
8.1.1 Example - Retrieving Named Properties .......................25
8.1.2 Example - Using allprop to Retrieve All Properties ..........26
8.1.3 Example - Using propname to Retrieve all Property Names .....29
8.2 PROPPATCH ......................................................30
8.2.1 Status Codes for use with 207 (Multi-Status) ................31
8.2.2 Example - PROPPATCH .........................................31
8.3 MKCOL Method ...................................................32
8.3.1 Request .....................................................32
8.3.2 Status Codes ................................................33
8.3.3 Example - MKCOL .............................................33
8.4 GET, HEAD for Collections ......................................34
8.5 POST for Collections ...........................................34
8.6 DELETE .........................................................34
8.6.1 DELETE for Non-Collection Resources .........................34
8.6.2 DELETE for Collections ......................................34
8.7 PUT ............................................................35
8.7.1 PUT for Non-Collection Resources ............................35
8.7.2 PUT for Collections .........................................36
8.8 COPY Method ....................................................36
8.8.1 COPY for HTTP/1.1 resources .................................36
8.8.2 COPY for Properties .........................................37
8.8.3 COPY for Collections ........................................37
8.8.4 COPY and the Overwrite Header ...............................38
8.8.5 Status Codes ................................................38
8.8.6 Example - COPY with Overwrite ...............................39
8.8.7 Example - COPY with No Overwrite ............................39
8.8.8 Example - COPY of a Collection ..............................40
8.9 MOVE Method ....................................................40
8.9.1 MOVE for Properties .........................................41
8.9.2 MOVE for Collections ........................................41
8.9.3 MOVE and the Overwrite Header ...............................42
8.9.4 Status Codes ................................................42
8.9.5 Example - MOVE of a Non-Collection ..........................42
8.9.6 Example - MOVE of a Collection ..............................43
8.10 LOCK Method ....................................................44
8.10.1 Operation ...................................................44
8.10.2 The Effect of Locks on Properties and Collections ...........44
8.10.3 Locking Replicated Resources ................................45
8.10.4 Depth and Locking ...........................................45
8.10.5 Interaction with other Methods ..............................45
8.10.6 Lock Compatibility Table ....................................46
8.10.7 Status Codes ................................................46
8.10.8 Example - Simple Lock Request ...............................47
8.10.9 Example - Refreshing a Write Lock ...........................48
8.10.10 Example - Multi-Resource Lock Request ......................49
8.11 UNLOCK Method ..................................................50
8.11.1 Example - UNLOCK ............................................50
9 HTTP HEADERS FOR DISTRIBUTED AUTHORING ............................51
9.1 DAV Header .....................................................51
9.2 Depth Header ...................................................51
9.3 Destination Header .............................................52
9.4 If Header ......................................................52
9.4.1 No-tag-list Production ......................................53
9.4.2 Tagged-list Production ......................................53
9.4.3 not Production ..............................................54
9.4.4 Matching Function ...........................................54
9.4.5 If Header and Non-DAV Compliant Proxies .....................55
9.5 Lock-Token Header ..............................................55
9.6 Overwrite Header ...............................................55
9.7 Status-URI Response Header .....................................56
9.8 Timeout Request Header .........................................56
10 STATUS CODE EXTENSIONS TO HTTP/1.1 ..............................57
10.1 102 Processing .................................................57
10.2 207 Multi-Status ...............................................57
10.3 422 Unprocessable Entity .......................................58
10.4 423 Locked .....................................................58
10.5 424 Failed Dependency ..........................................58
10.6 507 Insufficient Storage .......................................58
11 MULTI-STATUS RESPONSE ...........................................58
12 XML ELEMENT DEFINITIONS .........................................58
12.1 activelock XML Element .........................................59
12.1.1 depth XML Element ...........................................59
12.1.2 locktoken XML Element .......................................59
12.1.3 timeout XML Element .........................................59
12.2 collection XML Element .........................................59
12.3 href XML Element ...............................................60
12.4 link XML Element ...............................................60
12.4.1 dst XML Element .............................................60
12.4.2 src XML Element .............................................60
12.5 lockentry XML Element ..........................................60
12.6 lockinfo XML Element ...........................................61
12.7 lockscope XML Element ..........................................61
12.7.1 exclusive XML Element .......................................61
12.7.2 shared XML Element ..........................................61
12.8 locktype XML Element ...........................................61
12.8.1 write XML Element ...........................................61
12.9 multistatus XML Element ........................................62
12.9.1 response XML Element ........................................62
12.9.2 responsedescription XML Element .............................63
12.10 owner XML Element .............................................63
12.11 prop XML element ..............................................63
12.12 propertybehavior XML element ..................................63
12.12.1 keepalive XML element ......................................64
12.12.2 omit XML element ...........................................64
12.13 propertyupdate XML element ....................................64
12.13.1 remove XML element .........................................65
12.13.2 set XML element ............................................65
12.14 propfind XML Element ..........................................65
12.14.1 allprop XML Element ........................................65
12.14.2 propname XML Element .......................................66
13 DAV PROPERTIES ..................................................66
13.1 creationdate Property ..........................................66
13.2 displayname Property ...........................................66
13.3 getcontentlanguage Property ....................................67
13.4 getcontentlength Property ......................................67
13.5 getcontenttype Property ........................................67
13.6 getetag Property ...............................................67
13.7 getlastmodified Property .......................................68
13.8 lockdiscovery Property .........................................68
13.8.1 Example - Retrieving the lockdiscovery Property .............68
13.9 resourcetype Property ..........................................69
13.10 source Property ...............................................70
13.10.1 Example - A source Property ................................70
13.11 supportedlock Property ........................................71
13.11.1 Example - Retrieving the supportedlock Property ............71
14 INSTRUCTIONS FOR PROCESSING XML IN DAV ..........................72
15 DAV COMPLIANCE CLASSES ..........................................73
15.1 Class 1 ........................................................73
15.2 Class 2 ........................................................73
16 INTERNATIONALIZATION CONSIDERATIONS .............................73
17 SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS .........................................75
17.1 Authentication of Clients ......................................75
17.2 Denial of Service ..............................................75
17.3 Security through Obscurity .....................................76
17.4 Privacy Issues Connected to Locks ..............................76
17.5 Privacy Issues Connected to Properties .........................76
17.6 Reduction of Security due to Source Link .......................76
17.7 Implications of XML External Entities ..........................77
17.8 Risks Connected with Lock Tokens ...............................77
18 IANA CONSIDERATIONS .............................................78
19 COPYRIGHT .......................................................78
20 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ...........................................79
21 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................80
22 REFERENCES ......................................................81
22.1 Normative References ...........................................81
22.2 Informational References .......................................82
23 AUTHORS' ADDRESSES ..............................................83
24 APPENDICES ......................................................84 ABSTRACT............................................................1
24.1 Appendix 1 - WebDAV Document Type Definition ...................84 1 INTRODUCTION .....................................................5
24.2 Appendix 2 - ISO 8601 Date and Time Profile ....................85 2 NOTATIONAL CONVENTIONS ...........................................7
24.3 Appendix 3 - Notes on Processing XML Elements ..................86 3 TERMINOLOGY ......................................................7
24.3.1 Notes on Empty XML Elements .................................86 4 DATA MODEL FOR RESOURCE PROPERTIES ...............................8
24.3.2 Notes on Illegal XML Processing .............................86 4.1 The Resource Property Model ...................................8
24.4 Appendix 4 -- XML Namespaces for WebDAV ........................88 4.2 Existing Metadata Proposals ...................................8
24.4.1 Introduction ................................................88 4.3 Properties and HTTP Headers ...................................9
24.4.2 Motivation and Summary ......................................88 4.4 Property Values ...............................................9
24.4.3 Declaring Namespaces ........................................89 4.5 Property Names ...............................................10
24.4.4 Qualified Names .............................................90 4.6 Media Independent Links ......................................10
24.4.5 Using Qualified Names .......................................91 5 COLLECTIONS OF WEB RESOURCES ....................................11
24.4.6 Applying Namespaces to Elements and Attributes ..............92 5.1 HTTP URL Namespace Model .....................................11
24.4.7 Uniqueness of Attributes ....................................94 5.2 Collection Resources .........................................11
24.4.8 Conformance .................................................95 5.3 Creation and Retrieval of Collection Resources ...............12
24.4.9 Meaning of Qualified Names ..................................95 5.4 Source Resources and Output Resources ........................13
6 LOCKING .........................................................14
6.1 Exclusive Vs. Shared Locks ...................................14
6.2 Required Support .............................................16
6.3 Lock Tokens ..................................................16
6.4 opaquelocktoken Lock Token URI Scheme ........................16
6.4.1 Node Field Generation Without the IEEE 802 Address ........17
6.5 Lock Capability Discovery ....................................19
6.6 Active Lock Discovery ........................................19
6.7 Usage Considerations .........................................19
7 WRITE LOCK ......................................................20
7.1 Methods Restricted by Write Locks ............................20
7.2 Write Locks and Lock Tokens ..................................20
7.3 Write Locks and Properties ...................................20
7.4 Write Locks and Null Resources ...............................21
7.5 Write Locks and Collections ..................................21
7.6 Write Locks and the If Request Header ........................22
7.6.1 Example - Write Lock ......................................22
7.7 Write Locks and COPY/MOVE ....................................23
7.8 Refreshing Write Locks .......................................23
8 HTTP METHODS FOR DISTRIBUTED AUTHORING ..........................23
8.1 PROPFIND .....................................................24
8.1.1 Example - Retrieving Named Properties .....................25
8.1.2 Example - Using allprop to Retrieve All Properties ........26
8.1.3 Example - Using propname to Retrieve all Property Names ...29
8.2 PROPPATCH ....................................................31
8.2.1 Status Codes for use with 207 (Multi-Status) ..............31
8.2.2 Example - PROPPATCH .......................................32
8.3 MKCOL Method .................................................33
8.3.1 Request ...................................................33
8.3.2 Status Codes ..............................................33
8.3.3 Example - MKCOL ...........................................34
8.4 GET, HEAD for Collections ....................................34
8.5 POST for Collections .........................................35
8.6 DELETE .......................................................35
8.6.1 DELETE for Non-Collection Resources .......................35
8.6.2 DELETE for Collections ....................................36
8.7 PUT ..........................................................36
8.7.1 PUT for Non-Collection Resources ..........................36
8.7.2 PUT for Collections .......................................37
8.8 COPY Method ..................................................37
8.8.1 COPY for HTTP/1.1 resources ...............................37
8.8.2 COPY for Properties .......................................38
8.8.3 COPY for Collections ......................................38
8.8.4 COPY and the Overwrite Header .............................39
8.8.5 Status Codes ..............................................39
8.8.6 Example - COPY with Overwrite .............................40
8.8.7 Example - COPY with No Overwrite ..........................40
8.8.8 Example - COPY of a Collection ............................41
8.9 MOVE Method ..................................................42
8.9.1 MOVE for Properties .......................................42
8.9.2 MOVE for Collections ......................................42
8.9.3 MOVE and the Overwrite Header .............................43
8.9.4 Status Codes ..............................................43
8.9.5 Example - MOVE of a Non-Collection ........................44
8.9.6 Example - MOVE of a Collection ............................44
8.10 LOCK Method ..................................................45
8.10.1 Operation .................................................46
8.10.2 The Effect of Locks on Properties and Collections .........46
8.10.3 Locking Replicated Resources ..............................46
8.10.4 Depth and Locking .........................................46
8.10.5 Interaction with other Methods ............................47
8.10.6 Lock Compatibility Table ..................................47
8.10.7 Status Codes ..............................................48
8.10.8 Example - Simple Lock Request .............................48
8.10.9 Example - Refreshing a Write Lock .........................49
8.10.10 Example - Multi-Resource Lock Request ....................50
8.11 UNLOCK Method ................................................51
8.11.1 Example - UNLOCK ..........................................52
9 HTTP HEADERS FOR DISTRIBUTED AUTHORING ..........................52
9.1 DAV Header ...................................................52
9.2 Depth Header .................................................52
9.3 Destination Header ...........................................54
9.4 If Header ....................................................54
9.4.1 No-tag-list Production ....................................55
9.4.2 Tagged-list Production ....................................55
9.4.3 not Production ............................................56
9.4.4 Matching Function .........................................56
9.4.5 If Header and Non-DAV Compliant Proxies ...................57
9.5 Lock-Token Header ............................................57
9.6 Overwrite Header .............................................57
9.7 Status-URI Response Header ...................................57
9.8 Timeout Request Header .......................................58
10 STATUS CODE EXTENSIONS TO HTTP/1.1 ............................59
10.1 102 Processing ...............................................59
10.2 207 Multi-Status .............................................59
10.3 422 Unprocessable Entity .....................................60
10.4 423 Locked ...................................................60
10.5 424 Failed Dependency ........................................60
10.6 507 Insufficient Storage .....................................60
11 MULTI-STATUS RESPONSE .........................................60
12 XML ELEMENT DEFINITIONS .......................................61
12.1 activelock XML Element .......................................61
12.1.1 depth XML Element .........................................61
12.1.2 locktoken XML Element .....................................61
12.1.3 timeout XML Element .......................................61
12.2 collection XML Element .......................................62
12.3 href XML Element .............................................62
12.4 link XML Element .............................................62
12.4.1 dst XML Element ...........................................62
12.4.2 src XML Element ...........................................62
12.5 lockentry XML Element ........................................63
12.6 lockinfo XML Element .........................................63
12.7 lockscope XML Element ........................................63
12.7.1 exclusive XML Element .....................................63
12.7.2 shared XML Element ........................................63
12.8 locktype XML Element .........................................64
12.8.1 write XML Element .........................................64
12.9 multistatus XML Element ......................................64
12.9.1 response XML Element ......................................64
12.9.2 responsedescription XML Element ...........................65
12.10 owner XML Element ...........................................65
12.11 prop XML element ............................................66
12.12 propertybehavior XML element ................................66
12.12.1 keepalive XML element ....................................66
12.12.2 omit XML element .........................................67
12.13 propertyupdate XML element ..................................67
12.13.1 remove XML element .......................................67
12.13.2 set XML element ..........................................67
12.14 propfind XML Element ........................................68
12.14.1 allprop XML Element ......................................68
12.14.2 propname XML Element .....................................68
13 DAV PROPERTIES ................................................68
13.1 creationdate Property ........................................69
13.2 displayname Property .........................................69
13.3 getcontentlanguage Property ..................................69
13.4 getcontentlength Property ....................................69
13.5 getcontenttype Property ......................................70
13.6 getetag Property .............................................70
13.7 getlastmodified Property .....................................70
13.8 lockdiscovery Property .......................................71
13.8.1 Example - Retrieving the lockdiscovery Property ...........71
13.9 resourcetype Property ........................................72
13.10 source Property .............................................72
13.10.1 Example - A source Property ..............................72
13.11 supportedlock Property ......................................73
13.11.1 Example - Retrieving the supportedlock Property ..........73
14 INSTRUCTIONS FOR PROCESSING XML IN DAV ........................74
15 DAV COMPLIANCE CLASSES ........................................75
15.1 Class 1 ......................................................75
15.2 Class 2 ......................................................75
16 INTERNATIONALIZATION CONSIDERATIONS ...........................76
17 SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS .......................................77
17.1 Authentication of Clients ....................................77
17.2 Denial of Service ............................................78
17.3 Security through Obscurity ...................................78
17.4 Privacy Issues Connected to Locks ............................78
17.5 Privacy Issues Connected to Properties .......................79
17.6 Reduction of Security due to Source Link .....................79
17.7 Implications of XML External Entities ........................79
17.8 Risks Connected with Lock Tokens .............................80
18 IANA CONSIDERATIONS ...........................................80
19 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY .........................................81
20 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ..............................................82
21 REFERENCES ....................................................82
21.1 Normative References .........................................82
21.2 Informational References .....................................83
22 AUTHORS' ADDRESSES ............................................84
23 APPENDICES ....................................................86
23.1 Appendix 1 - WebDAV Document Type Definition .................86
23.2 Appendix 2 - ISO 8601 Date and Time Profile ..................88
23.3 Appendix 3 - Notes on Processing XML Elements ................89
23.3.1 Notes on Empty XML Elements ...............................89
23.3.2 Notes on Illegal XML Processing ...........................89
23.4 Appendix 4 -- XML Namespaces for WebDAV ......................92
23.4.1 Introduction ..............................................92
23.4.2 Meaning of Qualified Names ................................92
24 FULL COPYRIGHT STATEMENT ......................................94
1 Introduction 1 Introduction
This document describes an extension to the HTTP/1.1 protocol that This document describes an extension to the HTTP/1.1 protocol that
allows clients to perform remote web content authoring operations. allows clients to perform remote web content authoring operations.
This extension provides a coherent set of methods, headers, request This extension provides a coherent set of methods, headers, request
entity body formats, and response entity body formats that provide entity body formats, and response entity body formats that provide
operations for: operations for:
Properties: The ability to create, remove, and query information Properties: The ability to create, remove, and query information
about Web pages, such as their authors, creation dates, etc. Also, about Web pages, such as their authors, creation dates, etc. Also,
the ability to link pages of any media type to related pages. the ability to link pages of any media type to related pages.
Collections: The ability to create sets of related documents and to Collections: The ability to create sets of documents and to retrieve
retrieve a hierarchical membership listing (like a directory listing a hierarchical membership listing (like a directory listing in a file
in a file system). system).
Locking: The ability to keep more than one person from working on a Locking: The ability to keep more than one person from working on a
document at the same time. This prevents the "lost update problem," document at the same time. This prevents the "lost update problem,"
in which modifications are lost as first one author then another in which modifications are lost as first one author then another
writes changes without merging the other author's changes. writes changes without merging the other author's changes.
Namespace Operations: The ability to instruct the server to copy and Namespace Operations: The ability to instruct the server to copy and
move Web resources. move Web resources.
Requirements and rationale for these operations are described in a Requirements and rationale for these operations are described in a
companion document, "Requirements for a Distributed Authoring and companion document, "Requirements for a Distributed Authoring and
Versioning Protocol for the World Wide Web" [RFC2291]. Versioning Protocol for the World Wide Web" [RFC2291].
The sections below provide a detailed introduction to resource The sections below provide a detailed introduction to resource
properties (section 3), collections of resources (section 5), and properties (section 4), collections of resources (section 5), and
locking operations (section 6). These sections introduce the locking operations (section 6). These sections introduce the
abstractions manipulated by the WebDAV-specific HTTP methods abstractions manipulated by the WebDAV-specific HTTP methods
described in section 8, "HTTP Methods for Distributed Authoring". described in section 8, "HTTP Methods for Distributed Authoring".
In HTTP/1.1, method parameter information was exclusively encoded in In HTTP/1.1, method parameter information was exclusively encoded in
HTTP headers. Unlike HTTP/1.1, WebDAV encodes method parameter HTTP headers. Unlike HTTP/1.1, WebDAV encodes method parameter
information either in an Extensible Markup Language (XML) [REC-XML] information either in an Extensible Markup Language (XML) [REC-XML]
request entity body, or in an HTTP header. The use of XML to encode request entity body, or in an HTTP header. The use of XML to encode
method parameters was motivated by the ability to add extra XML method parameters was motivated by the ability to add extra XML
elements to existing structures, providing extensibility; and by elements to existing structures, providing extensibility; and by
skipping to change at page 8, line 15 skipping to change at page 6, line 50
input. input.
XML elements used in this specification are defined in section 12. XML elements used in this specification are defined in section 12.
The XML namespace extension (Appendix 4) is also used in this The XML namespace extension (Appendix 4) is also used in this
specification in order to allow for new XML elements to be added specification in order to allow for new XML elements to be added
without fear of colliding with other element names. without fear of colliding with other element names.
While the status codes provided by HTTP/1.1 are sufficient to While the status codes provided by HTTP/1.1 are sufficient to
describe most error conditions encountered by WebDAV methods, there describe most error conditions encountered by WebDAV methods, there
are some errors that do not fall neatly into the existing are some errors that do not fall neatly into the existing categories.
categories. New status codes developed for the WebDAV methods are New status codes developed for the WebDAV methods are defined in
defined in section 10. Since some WebDAV methods may operate over section 10. Since some WebDAV methods may operate over many
many resources, the Multi-Status response has been introduced to resources, the Multi-Status response has been introduced to return
return status information for multiple resources. The Multi-Status status information for multiple resources. The Multi-Status response
response is described in section 11. is described in section 11.
WebDAV employs the property mechanism to store information about the WebDAV employs the property mechanism to store information about the
current state of the resource. For example, when a lock is taken current state of the resource. For example, when a lock is taken out
out on a resource, a lock information property describes the current on a resource, a lock information property describes the current
state of the lock. Section 13 defines the properties used within the state of the lock. Section 13 defines the properties used within the
WebDAV specification. WebDAV specification.
Finishing off the specification are sections on what it means to be Finishing off the specification are sections on what it means to be
compliant with this specification (section 15), on compliant with this specification (section 15), on
internationalization support (section 16), and on security (section internationalization support (section 16), and on security (section
17). 17).
2 Notational Conventions 2 Notational Conventions
Since this document describes a set of extensions to the HTTP/1.1 Since this document describes a set of extensions to the HTTP/1.1
protocol, the augmented BNF used herein to describe protocol protocol, the augmented BNF used herein to describe protocol elements
elements is exactly the same as described in section 2.1 of is exactly the same as described in section 2.1 of [RFC2068]. Since
[RFC2068]. Since this augmented BNF uses the basic production rules this augmented BNF uses the basic production rules provided in
provided in section 2.2 of [RFC2068], these rules apply to this section 2.2 of [RFC2068], these rules apply to this document as well.
document as well.
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
3 Terminology 3 Terminology
URI/URL - A Uniform Resource Identifier and Uniform Resource URI/URL - A Uniform Resource Identifier and Uniform Resource Locator,
Locator, respectively. These terms (and the distinction between respectively. These terms (and the distinction between them) are
them) are defined in [RFC2396]. defined in [RFC2396].
Collection - A resource that contains a set of URIs, termed member Collection - A resource that contains a set of URIs, termed member
URIs, which identify member resources and meets the requirements in URIs, which identify member resources and meets the requirements in
section 5 of this specification. section 5 of this specification.
Member URI - A URI which is a member of the set of URIs contained by Member URI - A URI which is a member of the set of URIs contained by
a collection. a collection.
Internal Member URI - A Member URI that is immediately relative to Internal Member URI - A Member URI that is immediately relative to
the URI of the collection (the definition of immediately relative is the URI of the collection (the definition of immediately relative is
given in section 5.2). given in section 5.2).
Property - A name/value pair that contains descriptive information Property - A name/value pair that contains descriptive information
about a resource. about a resource.
Live Property - A property whose semantics and syntax are enforced Live Property - A property whose semantics and syntax are enforced by
by the server. For example, the live "getcontentlength" property the server. For example, the live "getcontentlength" property has
has its value, the length of the entity returned by a GET request, its value, the length of the entity returned by a GET request,
automatically calculated by the server. automatically calculated by the server.
Dead Property - A property whose semantics and syntax are not Dead Property - A property whose semantics and syntax are not
enforced by the server. The server only records the value of a dead enforced by the server. The server only records the value of a dead
property; the client is responsible for maintaining the consistency property; the client is responsible for maintaining the consistency
of the syntax and semantics of a dead property. of the syntax and semantics of a dead property.
Null Resource - A resource which responds with a 404 (Not Found) to Null Resource - A resource which responds with a 404 (Not Found) to
any HTTP/1.1 or DAV method except for PUT, MKCOL, OPTIONS and LOCK. any HTTP/1.1 or DAV method except for PUT, MKCOL, OPTIONS and LOCK.
A NULL resource MUST NOT appear as a member of its parent A NULL resource MUST NOT appear as a member of its parent collection.
collection.
4 Data Model for Resource Properties 4 Data Model for Resource Properties
4.1 The Resource Property Model 4.1 The Resource Property Model
Properties are pieces of data that describe the state of a resource. Properties are pieces of data that describe the state of a resource.
Properties are data about data. Properties are data about data.
Properties are used in distributed authoring environments to provide Properties are used in distributed authoring environments to provide
for efficient discovery and management of resources. For example, a for efficient discovery and management of resources. For example, a
'subject' property might allow for the indexing of all resources by 'subject' property might allow for the indexing of all resources by
their subject, and an 'author' property might allow for the their subject, and an 'author' property might allow for the discovery
discovery of what authors have written which documents. of what authors have written which documents.
The DAV property model consists of name/value pairs. The name of a The DAV property model consists of name/value pairs. The name of a
property identifies the property's syntax and semantics, and property identifies the property's syntax and semantics, and provides
provides an address by which to refer to its syntax and semantics. an address by which to refer to its syntax and semantics.
There are two categories of properties: "live" and "dead". A live There are two categories of properties: "live" and "dead". A live
property has its syntax and semantics enforced by the server. Live property has its syntax and semantics enforced by the server. Live
properties include cases where a) the value of a property is read- properties include cases where a) the value of a property is read-
only, maintained by the server, and b) the value of the property is only, maintained by the server, and b) the value of the property is
maintained by the client, but the server performs syntax checking on maintained by the client, but the server performs syntax checking on
submitted values. All instances of a given live property MUST comply submitted values. All instances of a given live property MUST comply
with the definition associated with that property name. A dead with the definition associated with that property name. A dead
property has its syntax and semantics enforced by the client; the property has its syntax and semantics enforced by the client; the
server merely records the value of the property verbatim. server merely records the value of the property verbatim.
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Framework (RDF) metadata activity of the World Wide Web Consortium. Framework (RDF) metadata activity of the World Wide Web Consortium.
RDF consists of a network-based data model and an XML representation RDF consists of a network-based data model and an XML representation
of that model. of that model.
Some proposals come from a digital library perspective. These Some proposals come from a digital library perspective. These
include the Dublin Core [RFC2413] metadata set and the Warwick include the Dublin Core [RFC2413] metadata set and the Warwick
Framework [WF], a container architecture for different metadata Framework [WF], a container architecture for different metadata
schemas. The literature includes many examples of metadata, schemas. The literature includes many examples of metadata,
including MARC [USMARC], a bibliographic metadata format, and a including MARC [USMARC], a bibliographic metadata format, and a
technical report bibliographic format employed by the Dienst system technical report bibliographic format employed by the Dienst system
[RFC1807]. Additionally, the proceedings from the first IEEE [RFC1807]. Additionally, the proceedings from the first IEEE Metadata
Metadata conference describe many community-specific metadata sets. conference describe many community-specific metadata sets.
Participants of the 1996 Metadata II Workshop in Warwick, UK [WF], Participants of the 1996 Metadata II Workshop in Warwick, UK [WF],
noted that "new metadata sets will develop as the networked noted that "new metadata sets will develop as the networked
infrastructure matures" and "different communities will propose, infrastructure matures" and "different communities will propose,
design, and be responsible for different types of metadata." These design, and be responsible for different types of metadata." These
observations can be corroborated by noting that many community- observations can be corroborated by noting that many community-
specific sets of metadata already exist, and there is significant specific sets of metadata already exist, and there is significant
motivation for the development of new forms of metadata as many motivation for the development of new forms of metadata as many
communities increasingly make their data available in digital form, communities increasingly make their data available in digital form,
requiring a metadata format to assist data location and cataloging. requiring a metadata format to assist data location and cataloging.
4.3 Properties and HTTP Headers 4.3 Properties and HTTP Headers
Properties already exist, in a limited sense, in HTTP message Properties already exist, in a limited sense, in HTTP message
headers. However, in distributed authoring environments a headers. However, in distributed authoring environments a relatively
relatively large number of properties are needed to describe the large number of properties are needed to describe the state of a
state of a resource, and setting/returning them all through HTTP resource, and setting/returning them all through HTTP headers is
headers is inefficient. Thus a mechanism is needed which allows a inefficient. Thus a mechanism is needed which allows a principal to
principal to identify a set of properties in which the principal is identify a set of properties in which the principal is interested and
interested and to set or retrieve just those properties. to set or retrieve just those properties.
4.4 Property Values 4.4 Property Values
The value of a property when expressed in XML MUST be well formed. The value of a property when expressed in XML MUST be well formed.
XML has been chosen because it is a flexible, self-describing, XML has been chosen because it is a flexible, self-describing,
structured data format that supports rich schema definitions, and structured data format that supports rich schema definitions, and
because of its support for multiple character sets. XML's self- because of its support for multiple character sets. XML's self-
describing nature allows any property's value to be extended by describing nature allows any property's value to be extended by
adding new elements. Older clients will not break when they adding new elements. Older clients will not break when they
encounter extensions because they will still have the data specified encounter extensions because they will still have the data specified
in the original schema and will ignore elements they do not in the original schema and will ignore elements they do not
understand. XML's support for multiple character sets allows any understand. XML's support for multiple character sets allows any
human-readable property to be encoded and read in a character set human-readable property to be encoded and read in a character set
familiar to the user. XML's support for multiple human languages, familiar to the user. XML's support for multiple human languages,
using the "xml:lang" attribute, handles cases where the same using the "xml:lang" attribute, handles cases where the same
character set is employed by multiple human languages. character set is employed by multiple human languages.
4.5 Property Names 4.5 Property Names
A property name is a universally unique identifier that is A property name is a universally unique identifier that is associated
associated with a schema that provides information about the syntax with a schema that provides information about the syntax and
and semantics of the property. semantics of the property.
Because a property's name is universally unique, clients can depend Because a property's name is universally unique, clients can depend
upon consistent behavior for a particular property across multiple upon consistent behavior for a particular property across multiple
resources, on the same and across different servers, so long as that resources, on the same and across different servers, so long as that
property is "live" on the resources in question, and the property is "live" on the resources in question, and the
implementation of the live property is faithful to its definition. implementation of the live property is faithful to its definition.
The XML namespace mechanism, which is based on URIs [RFC2396], is The XML namespace mechanism, which is based on URIs [RFC2396], is
used to name properties because it prevents namespace collisions and used to name properties because it prevents namespace collisions and
provides for varying degrees of administrative control. provides for varying degrees of administrative control.
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type. type.
5 Collections of Web Resources 5 Collections of Web Resources
This section provides a description of a new type of Web resource, This section provides a description of a new type of Web resource,
the collection, and discusses its interactions with the HTTP URL the collection, and discusses its interactions with the HTTP URL
namespace. The purpose of a collection resource is to model namespace. The purpose of a collection resource is to model
collection-like objects (e.g., file system directories) within a collection-like objects (e.g., file system directories) within a
server's namespace. server's namespace.
All DAV compliant resources MUST support the HTTP URL namespace All DAV compliant resources MUST support the HTTP URL namespace model
model specified herein. specified herein.
5.1 HTTP URL Namespace Model 5.1 HTTP URL Namespace Model
The HTTP URL namespace is a hierarchical namespace where the The HTTP URL namespace is a hierarchical namespace where the
hierarchy is delimited with the "/" character. hierarchy is delimited with the "/" character.
An HTTP URL namespace is said to be consistent if it meets the An HTTP URL namespace is said to be consistent if it meets the
following conditions: for every URL in the HTTP hierarchy there following conditions: for every URL in the HTTP hierarchy there
exists a collection that contains that URL as an internal member. exists a collection that contains that URL as an internal member.
The root, or top-level collection of the namespace under The root, or top-level collection of the namespace under
consideration is exempt from the previous rule. consideration is exempt from the previous rule.
Neither HTTP/1.1 nor WebDAV require that the entire HTTP URL Neither HTTP/1.1 nor WebDAV require that the entire HTTP URL
namespace be consistent. However, certain WebDAV methods are namespace be consistent. However, certain WebDAV methods are
prohibited from producing results that cause namespace prohibited from producing results that cause namespace
inconsistencies. inconsistencies.
Although implicit in [RFC2068] and [RFC2396], any resource, Although implicit in [RFC2068] and [RFC2396], any resource, including
including collection resources, MAY be identified by more than one collection resources, MAY be identified by more than one URI. For
URI. For example, a resource could be identified by multiple HTTP example, a resource could be identified by multiple HTTP URLs.
URLs.
5.2 Collection Resources 5.2 Collection Resources
A collection is a resource whose state consists of at least a list A collection is a resource whose state consists of at least a list of
of internal member URIs and a set of properties, but which may have internal member URIs and a set of properties, but which may have
additional state such as entity bodies returned by GET. An internal additional state such as entity bodies returned by GET. An internal
member URI MUST be immediately relative to a base URI of the member URI MUST be immediately relative to a base URI of the
collection. That is, the internal member URI is equal to a collection. That is, the internal member URI is equal to a
containing collection's URI plus an additional segment for non- containing collection's URI plus an additional segment for non-
collection resources, or additional segment plus trailing slash "/" collection resources, or additional segment plus trailing slash "/"
for collection resources, where segment is defined in section 3.3 of for collection resources, where segment is defined in section 3.3 of
[RFC2396]. [RFC2396].
Any given internal member URI MUST only belong to the collection Any given internal member URI MUST only belong to the collection
once, i.e., it is illegal to have multiple instances of the same URI once, i.e., it is illegal to have multiple instances of the same URI
in a collection. Properties defined on collections behave exactly in a collection. Properties defined on collections behave exactly as
as do properties on non-collection resources. do properties on non-collection resources.
For all WebDAV compliant resources A and B, identified by URIs U and For all WebDAV compliant resources A and B, identified by URIs U and
V, for which U is immediately relative to V, B MUST be a collection V, for which U is immediately relative to V, B MUST be a collection
that has U as an internal member URI. So, if the resource with URL that has U as an internal member URI. So, if the resource with URL
http://foo.com/bar/blah is WebDAV compliant and if the resource with http://foo.com/bar/blah is WebDAV compliant and if the resource with
URL http://foo.com/bar/ is WebDAV compliant then the resource with URL http://foo.com/bar/ is WebDAV compliant then the resource with
URL http://foo.com/bar/ must be a collection and must contain URL URL http://foo.com/bar/ must be a collection and must contain URL
http://foo.com/bar/blah as an internal member. http://foo.com/bar/blah as an internal member.
Collection resources MAY list the URLs ofnon-WebDAV compliant Collection resources MAY list the URLs of non-WebDAV compliant
children in the HTTP URL namespace hierarchy as internal members but children in the HTTP URL namespace hierarchy as internal members but
are not required to do so. For example, if the resource with URL are not required to do so. For example, if the resource with URL
http://foo.com/bar/blah is not WebDAV compliant and the URL http://foo.com/bar/blah is not WebDAV compliant and the URL
http://foo.com/bar/ identifies a collection then URL http://foo.com/bar/ identifies a collection then URL
http://foo.com/bar/blah may or may not be an internal member of the http://foo.com/bar/blah may or may not be an internal member of the
collection with URL http://foo.com/bar/. collection with URL http://foo.com/bar/.
If a WebDAV compliant resource has no WebDAV compliant children in If a WebDAV compliant resource has no WebDAV compliant children in
the HTTP URL namespace hierarchy then the WebDAV compliant resource the HTTP URL namespace hierarchy then the WebDAV compliant resource
is not required to be a collection. is not required to be a collection.
There is a standing convention that when a collection is referred to There is a standing convention that when a collection is referred to
by its name without a trailing slash, the trailing slash is by its name without a trailing slash, the trailing slash is
automatically appended. Due to this, a resource may accept a URI automatically appended. Due to this, a resource may accept a URI
without a trailing "/" to point to a collection. In this case it without a trailing "/" to point to a collection. In this case it
SHOULD return a content-location header in the response pointing to SHOULD return a content-location header in the response pointing to
the URI ending with the "/". For example, if a client invokes a the URI ending with the "/". For example, if a client invokes a
method on http://foo.bar/blah (no trailing slash), the resource method on http://foo.bar/blah (no trailing slash), the resource
http://foo.bar/blah/ (trailing slash) may respond as if the http://foo.bar/blah/ (trailing slash) may respond as if the operation
operation were invoked on it, and should return a content-location were invoked on it, and should return a content-location header with
header with http://foo.bar/blah/ in it. In general clients SHOULD http://foo.bar/blah/ in it. In general clients SHOULD use the "/"
use the "/" form of collection names. form of collection names.
A resource MAY be a collection but not be WebDAV compliant. That A resource MAY be a collection but not be WebDAV compliant. That is,
is, the resource may comply with all the rules set out in this the resource may comply with all the rules set out in this
specification regarding how a collection is to behave without specification regarding how a collection is to behave without
necessarily supporting all methods that a WebDAV compliant resource necessarily supporting all methods that a WebDAV compliant resource
is required to support. In such a case the resource may return the is required to support. In such a case the resource may return the
DAV:resourcetype property with the value DAV:collection but MUST NOT DAV:resourcetype property with the value DAV:collection but MUST NOT
return a DAV header containing the value "1" on an OPTIONS response. return a DAV header containing the value "1" on an OPTIONS response.
5.3 Creation and Retrieval of Collection Resources 5.3 Creation and Retrieval of Collection Resources
This document specifies the MKCOL method to create new collection This document specifies the MKCOL method to create new collection
resources, rather than using the existing HTTP/1.1 PUT or POST resources, rather than using the existing HTTP/1.1 PUT or POST
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interpreted as a command to remove those members. This would extend interpreted as a command to remove those members. This would extend
PUT to perform DELETE functionality, which is undesirable since it PUT to perform DELETE functionality, which is undesirable since it
changes the semantics of PUT, and makes it difficult to control changes the semantics of PUT, and makes it difficult to control
DELETE functionality with an access control scheme based on methods. DELETE functionality with an access control scheme based on methods.
While the POST method is sufficiently open-ended that a "create a While the POST method is sufficiently open-ended that a "create a
collection" POST command could be constructed, this is undesirable collection" POST command could be constructed, this is undesirable
because it would be difficult to separate access control for because it would be difficult to separate access control for
collection creation from other uses of POST. collection creation from other uses of POST.
The exact definition of the behavior of GET and PUT on collections The exact definition of the behavior of GET and PUT on collections is
is defined later in this document. defined later in this document.
5.4 Source Resources and Output Resources 5.4 Source Resources and Output Resources
For many resources, the entity returned by a GET method exactly For many resources, the entity returned by a GET method exactly
matches the persistent state of the resource, for example, a GIF matches the persistent state of the resource, for example, a GIF file
file stored on a disk. For this simple case, the URI at which a stored on a disk. For this simple case, the URI at which a resource
resource is accessed is identical to the URI at which the source is accessed is identical to the URI at which the source (the
(the persistent state) of the resource is accessed. This is also persistent state) of the resource is accessed. This is also the case
the case for HTML source files that are not processed by the server for HTML source files that are not processed by the server prior to
prior to transmission. transmission.
However, the server can sometimes process HTML resources before they However, the server can sometimes process HTML resources before they
are transmitted as a return entity body. For example, a server- are transmitted as a return entity body. For example, a server-
side-include directive within an HTML file might instruct a server side-include directive within an HTML file might instruct a server to
to replace the directive with another value, such as the current replace the directive with another value, such as the current date.
date. In this case, what is returned by GET (HTML plus date) In this case, what is returned by GET (HTML plus date) differs from
differs from the persistent state of the resource (HTML plus the persistent state of the resource (HTML plus directive).
directive). Typically there is no way to access the HTML resource Typically there is no way to access the HTML resource containing the
containing the unprocessed directive. unprocessed directive.
Sometimes the entity returned by GET is the output of a data- Sometimes the entity returned by GET is the output of a data-
producing process that is described by one or more source resources producing process that is described by one or more source resources
(that may not even have a location in the URI namespace). A single (that may not even have a location in the URI namespace). A single
data-producing process may dynamically generate the state of a data-producing process may dynamically generate the state of a
potentially large number of output resources. An example of this is potentially large number of output resources. An example of this is
a CGI script that describes a "finger" gateway process that maps a CGI script that describes a "finger" gateway process that maps part
part of the namespace of a server into finger requests, such as of the namespace of a server into finger requests, such as
http://www.foo.bar.org/finger_gateway/user@host. http://www.foo.bar.org/finger_gateway/user@host.
In the absence of distributed authoring capabilities, it is In the absence of distributed authoring capabilities, it is
acceptable to have no mapping of source resource(s) to the URI acceptable to have no mapping of source resource(s) to the URI
namespace. In fact, preventing access to the source resource(s) has namespace. In fact, preventing access to the source resource(s) has
desirable security benefits. However, if remote editing of the desirable security benefits. However, if remote editing of the
source resource(s) is desired, the source resource(s) should be source resource(s) is desired, the source resource(s) should be given
given a location in the URI namespace. This source location should a location in the URI namespace. This source location should not be
not be one of the locations at which the generated output is one of the locations at which the generated output is retrievable,
retrievable, since in general it is impossible for the server to since in general it is impossible for the server to differentiate
differentiate requests for source resources from requests for requests for source resources from requests for process output
process output resources. There is often a many-to-many resources. There is often a many-to-many relationship between source
relationship between source resources and output resources. resources and output resources.
On WebDAV compliant servers the URI of the source resource(s) may be On WebDAV compliant servers the URI of the source resource(s) may be
stored in a link on the output resource with type DAV:source (see stored in a link on the output resource with type DAV:source (see
section 13.10 for a description of the source link property). section 13.10 for a description of the source link property).
Storing the source URIs in links on the output resources places the Storing the source URIs in links on the output resources places the
burden of discovering the source on the authoring client. Note that burden of discovering the source on the authoring client. Note that
the value of a source link is not guaranteed to point to the correct the value of a source link is not guaranteed to point to the correct
source. Source links may break or incorrect values may be entered. source. Source links may break or incorrect values may be entered.
Also note that not all servers will allow the client to set the Also note that not all servers will allow the client to set the
source link value. For example a server which generates source source link value. For example a server which generates source links
links on the fly for its CGI files will most likely not allow a on the fly for its CGI files will most likely not allow a client to
client to set the source link value. set the source link value.
6 Locking 6 Locking
The ability to lock a resource provides a mechanism for serializing The ability to lock a resource provides a mechanism for serializing
access to that resource. Using a lock, an authoring client can access to that resource. Using a lock, an authoring client can
provide a reasonable guarantee that another principal will not provide a reasonable guarantee that another principal will not modify
modify a resource while it is being edited. In this way, a client a resource while it is being edited. In this way, a client can
can prevent the "lost update" problem. prevent the "lost update" problem.
This specification allows locks to vary over two client-specified This specification allows locks to vary over two client-specified
parameters, the number of principals involved (exclusive vs. shared) parameters, the number of principals involved (exclusive vs. shared)
and the type of access to be granted. This document defines locking and the type of access to be granted. This document defines locking
for only one access type, write. However, the syntax is extensible, for only one access type, write. However, the syntax is extensible,
and permits the eventual specification of locking for other access and permits the eventual specification of locking for other access
types. types.
6.1 Exclusive Vs. Shared Locks 6.1 Exclusive Vs. Shared Locks
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avoid having to merge results. avoid having to merge results.
However, there are times when the goal of a lock is not to exclude However, there are times when the goal of a lock is not to exclude
others from exercising an access right but rather to provide a others from exercising an access right but rather to provide a
mechanism for principals to indicate that they intend to exercise mechanism for principals to indicate that they intend to exercise
their access rights. Shared locks are provided for this case. A their access rights. Shared locks are provided for this case. A
shared lock allows multiple principals to receive a lock. Hence any shared lock allows multiple principals to receive a lock. Hence any
principal with appropriate access can get the lock. principal with appropriate access can get the lock.
With shared locks there are two trust sets that affect a resource. With shared locks there are two trust sets that affect a resource.
The first trust set is created by access permissions. Principals The first trust set is created by access permissions. Principals who
who are trusted, for example, may have permission to write to the are trusted, for example, may have permission to write to the
resource. Among those who have access permission to write to the resource. Among those who have access permission to write to the
resource, the set of principals who have taken out a shared lock resource, the set of principals who have taken out a shared lock also
also must trust each other, creating a (typically) smaller trust set must trust each other, creating a (typically) smaller trust set
within the access permission write set. within the access permission write set.
Starting with every possible principal on the Internet, in most Starting with every possible principal on the Internet, in most
situations the vast majority of these principals will not have write situations the vast majority of these principals will not have write
access to a given resource. Of the small number who do have write access to a given resource. Of the small number who do have write
access, some principals may decide to guarantee their edits are free access, some principals may decide to guarantee their edits are free
from overwrite conflicts by using exclusive write locks. Others may from overwrite conflicts by using exclusive write locks. Others may
decide they trust their collaborators will not overwrite their work decide they trust their collaborators will not overwrite their work
(the potential set of collaborators being the set of principals who (the potential set of collaborators being the set of principals who
have write permission) and use a shared lock, which informs their have write permission) and use a shared lock, which informs their
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can be used to remove an offending lock, neither mechanism may be can be used to remove an offending lock, neither mechanism may be
available when needed; the timeout may be long or the administrator available when needed; the timeout may be long or the administrator
may not be available. may not be available.
6.2 Required Support 6.2 Required Support
A WebDAV compliant server is not required to support locking in any A WebDAV compliant server is not required to support locking in any
form. If the server does support locking it may choose to support form. If the server does support locking it may choose to support
any combination of exclusive and shared locks for any access types. any combination of exclusive and shared locks for any access types.
The reason for this flexibility is that locking policy strikes to The reason for this flexibility is that locking policy strikes to the
the very heart of the resource management and versioning systems very heart of the resource management and versioning systems employed
employed by various storage repositories. These repositories by various storage repositories. These repositories require control
require control over what sort of locking will be made available. over what sort of locking will be made available. For example, some
For example, some repositories only support shared write locks while repositories only support shared write locks while others only
others only provide support for exclusive write locks while yet provide support for exclusive write locks while yet others use no
others use no locking at all. As each system is sufficiently locking at all. As each system is sufficiently different to merit
different to merit exclusion of certain locking features, this exclusion of certain locking features, this specification leaves
specification leaves locking as the sole axis of negotiation within locking as the sole axis of negotiation within WebDAV.
WebDAV.
6.3 Lock Tokens 6.3 Lock Tokens
A lock token is a type of state token, represented as a URI, which A lock token is a type of state token, represented as a URI, which
identifies a particular lock. A lock token is returned by every identifies a particular lock. A lock token is returned by every
successful LOCK operation in the lockdiscovery property in the successful LOCK operation in the lockdiscovery property in the
response body, and can also be found through lock discovery on a response body, and can also be found through lock discovery on a
resource. resource.
Lock token URIs MUST be unique across all resources for all time. Lock token URIs MUST be unique across all resources for all time.
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uniqueness requirements. uniqueness requirements.
Having a lock token provides no special access rights. Anyone can Having a lock token provides no special access rights. Anyone can
find out anyone else's lock token by performing lock discovery. find out anyone else's lock token by performing lock discovery.
Locks MUST be enforced based upon whatever authentication mechanism Locks MUST be enforced based upon whatever authentication mechanism
is used by the server, not based on the secrecy of the token values. is used by the server, not based on the secrecy of the token values.
6.4 opaquelocktoken Lock Token URI Scheme 6.4 opaquelocktoken Lock Token URI Scheme
The opaquelocktoken URI scheme is designed to be unique across all The opaquelocktoken URI scheme is designed to be unique across all
resources for all time. Due to this uniqueness quality, a client resources for all time. Due to this uniqueness quality, a client may
may submit an opaque lock token in an If header on a resource other submit an opaque lock token in an If header on a resource other than
than the one that returned it. the one that returned it.
All resources MUST recognize the opaquelocktoken scheme and, at All resources MUST recognize the opaquelocktoken scheme and, at
minimum, recognize that the lock token does not refer to an minimum, recognize that the lock token does not refer to an
outstanding lock on the resource. outstanding lock on the resource.
In order to guarantee uniqueness across all resources for all time In order to guarantee uniqueness across all resources for all time
the opaquelocktoken requires the use of the Universal Unique the opaquelocktoken requires the use of the Universal Unique
Identifier (UUID) mechanism, as described in [ISO-11578]. Identifier (UUID) mechanism, as described in [ISO-11578].
Opaquelocktoken generators, however, have a choice of how they Opaquelocktoken generators, however, have a choice of how they create
create these tokens. They can either generate a new UUID for every these tokens. They can either generate a new UUID for every lock
lock token they create or they can create a single UUID and then token they create or they can create a single UUID and then add
add extension characters. If the second method is selected then the extension characters. If the second method is selected then the
program generating the extensions MUST guarantee that the same program generating the extensions MUST guarantee that the same
extension will never be used twice with the associated UUID. extension will never be used twice with the associated UUID.
OpaqueLockToken-URI = "opaquelocktoken:" UUID [Extension] ; The OpaqueLockToken-URI = "opaquelocktoken:" UUID [Extension] ; The UUID
UUID production is the string representation of a UUID, as defined production is the string representation of a UUID, as defined in
in [ISO-11578]. Note that white space (LWS) is not allowed between [ISO-11578]. Note that white space (LWS) is not allowed between
elements of this production. elements of this production.
Extension = path ; path is defined in section 3.2.1 of RFC 2068 Extension = path ; path is defined in section 3.2.1 of RFC 2068
[RFC2068] [RFC2068]
6.4.1 Node Field Generation Without the IEEE 802 Address 6.4.1 Node Field Generation Without the IEEE 802 Address
UUIDs, as defined in [ISO-11578], contain a "node" field that UUIDs, as defined in [ISO-11578], contain a "node" field that
contains one of the IEEE 802 addresses for the server machine. As contains one of the IEEE 802 addresses for the server machine. As
noted in section 17.8, there are several security risks associated noted in section 17.8, there are several security risks associated
with exposing a machine's IEEE 802 address. This section provides an with exposing a machine's IEEE 802 address. This section provides an
alternate mechanism for generating the "node" field of a UUID which alternate mechanism for generating the "node" field of a UUID which
does not employ an IEEE 802 address. WebDAV servers MAY use this does not employ an IEEE 802 address. WebDAV servers MAY use this
algorithm for creating the node field when generating UUIDs. The algorithm for creating the node field when generating UUIDs. The
text in this section isoriginally from an Internet-Draft by Paul text in this section is originally from an Internet-Draft by Paul
Leach and Rich Salz, who are noted here to properly attribute their Leach and Rich Salz, who are noted here to properly attribute their
work. work.
The ideal solution is to obtain a 47 bit cryptographic quality The ideal solution is to obtain a 47 bit cryptographic quality random
random number, and use it as the low 47 bits of the node ID, with number, and use it as the low 47 bits of the node ID, with the most
the most significant bit of the first octet of the node ID set to 1. significant bit of the first octet of the node ID set to 1. This bit
This bit is the unicast/multicast bit, which will never be set in is the unicast/multicast bit, which will never be set in IEEE 802
IEEE 802 addresses obtained from network cards; hence, there can addresses obtained from network cards; hence, there can never be a
never be a conflict between UUIDs generated by machines with and conflict between UUIDs generated by machines with and without network
without network cards. cards.
If a system does not have a primitive to generate cryptographic If a system does not have a primitive to generate cryptographic
quality random numbers, then in most systems there are usually a quality random numbers, then in most systems there are usually a
fairly large number of sources of randomness available from which fairly large number of sources of randomness available from which one
one can be generated. Such sources are system specific, but often can be generated. Such sources are system specific, but often
include: include:
- the percent of memory in use - the percent of memory in use
- the size of main memory in bytes - the size of main memory in bytes
- the amount of free main memory in bytes - the amount of free main memory in bytes
- the size of the paging or swap file in bytes - the size of the paging or swap file in bytes
- free bytes of paging or swap file - free bytes of paging or swap file
- the total size of user virtual address space in bytes - the total size of user virtual address space in bytes
- the total available user address space bytes - the total available user address space bytes
- the size of boot disk drive in bytes - the size of boot disk drive in bytes
skipping to change at page 19, line 6 skipping to change at page 18, line 38
(Note that it is precisely the above kinds of sources of randomness (Note that it is precisely the above kinds of sources of randomness
that are used to seed cryptographic quality random number generators that are used to seed cryptographic quality random number generators
on systems without special hardware for their construction.) on systems without special hardware for their construction.)
In addition, items such as the computer's name and the name of the In addition, items such as the computer's name and the name of the
operating system, while not strictly speaking random, will help operating system, while not strictly speaking random, will help
differentiate the results from those obtained by other systems. differentiate the results from those obtained by other systems.
The exact algorithm to generate a node ID using these data is system The exact algorithm to generate a node ID using these data is system
specific, because both the data available and the functions to specific, because both the data available and the functions to obtain
obtain them are often very system specific. However, assuming that them are often very system specific. However, assuming that one can
one can concatenate all the values from the randomness sources into concatenate all the values from the randomness sources into a buffer,
a buffer, and that a cryptographic hash function such as MD5 is and that a cryptographic hash function such as MD5 is available, then
available, then any 6 bytes of the MD5 hash of the buffer, with the any 6 bytes of the MD5 hash of the buffer, with the multicast bit
multicast bit (the high bit of the first byte) set will be an (the high bit of the first byte) set will be an appropriately random
appropriately random node ID. node ID.
Other hash functions, such as SHA-1, can also be used. The only Other hash functions, such as SHA-1, can also be used. The only
requirement is that the result be suitably random _ in the sense requirement is that the result be suitably random _ in the sense that
that the outputs from a set uniformly distributed inputs are the outputs from a set uniformly distributed inputs are themselves
themselves uniformly distributed, and that a single bit change in uniformly distributed, and that a single bit change in the input can
the input can be expected to cause half of the output bits to be expected to cause half of the output bits to change.
change.
6.5 Lock Capability Discovery 6.5 Lock Capability Discovery
Since server lock support is optional, a client trying to lock a Since server lock support is optional, a client trying to lock a
resource on a server can either try the lock and hope for the best, resource on a server can either try the lock and hope for the best,
or perform some form of discovery to determine what lock or perform some form of discovery to determine what lock capabilities
capabilities the server supports. This is known as lock capability the server supports. This is known as lock capability discovery.
discovery. Lock capability discovery differs from discovery of Lock capability discovery differs from discovery of supported access
supported access control types, since there may be access control control types, since there may be access control types without
types without corresponding lock types. A client can determine what corresponding lock types. A client can determine what lock types the
lock types the server supports by retrieving the supportedlock server supports by retrieving the supportedlock property.
property.
Any DAV compliant resource that supports the LOCK method MUST Any DAV compliant resource that supports the LOCK method MUST support
support the supportedlock property. the supportedlock property.
6.6 Active Lock Discovery 6.6 Active Lock Discovery
If another principal locks a resource that a principal wishes to If another principal locks a resource that a principal wishes to
access, it is useful for the second principal to be able to find out access, it is useful for the second principal to be able to find out
who the first principal is. For this purpose the lockdiscovery who the first principal is. For this purpose the lockdiscovery
property is provided. This property lists all outstanding locks, property is provided. This property lists all outstanding locks,
describes their type, and where available, provides their lock describes their type, and where available, provides their lock token.
token.
Any DAV compliant resource that supports the LOCK method MUST Any DAV compliant resource that supports the LOCK method MUST support
support the lockdiscovery property. the lockdiscovery property.
6.7 Usage Considerations 6.7 Usage Considerations
Although the locking mechanisms specified here provide some help in Although the locking mechanisms specified here provide some help in
preventing lost updates, they cannot guarantee that updates will preventing lost updates, they cannot guarantee that updates will
never be lost. Consider the following scenario: never be lost. Consider the following scenario:
Two clients A and B are interested in editing the resource Two clients A and B are interested in editing the resource '
'index.html'. Client A is an HTTP client rather than a WebDAV index.html'. Client A is an HTTP client rather than a WebDAV client,
client, and so does not know how to perform locking. and so does not know how to perform locking.
Client A doesn't lock the document, but does a GET and begins Client A doesn't lock the document, but does a GET and begins
editing. editing.
Client B does LOCK, performs a GET and begins editing. Client B does LOCK, performs a GET and begins editing.
Client B finishes editing, performs a PUT, then an UNLOCK. Client B finishes editing, performs a PUT, then an UNLOCK.
Client A performs a PUT, overwriting and losing all of B's changes. Client A performs a PUT, overwriting and losing all of B's changes.
There are several reasons why the WebDAV protocol itself cannot There are several reasons why the WebDAV protocol itself cannot
prevent this situation. First, it cannot force all clients to use prevent this situation. First, it cannot force all clients to use
locking because it must be compatible with HTTP clients that do not locking because it must be compatible with HTTP clients that do not
comprehend locking. Second, it cannot require servers to support comprehend locking. Second, it cannot require servers to support
locking because of the variety of repository implementations, some locking because of the variety of repository implementations, some of
of which rely on reservations and merging rather than on locking. which rely on reservations and merging rather than on locking.
Finally, being stateless, it cannot enforce a sequence of operations Finally, being stateless, it cannot enforce a sequence of operations
like LOCK / GET / PUT / UNLOCK. like LOCK / GET / PUT / UNLOCK.
WebDAV servers that support locking can reduce the likelihood that WebDAV servers that support locking can reduce the likelihood that
clients will accidentally overwrite each other's changes by clients will accidentally overwrite each other's changes by requiring
requiring clients to lock resources before modifying them. Such clients to lock resources before modifying them. Such servers would
servers would effectively prevent HTTP 1.0 and HTTP 1.1 clients from effectively prevent HTTP 1.0 and HTTP 1.1 clients from modifying
modifying resources. resources.
WebDAV clients can be good citizens by using a lock / retrieve / WebDAV clients can be good citizens by using a lock / retrieve /
write /unlock sequence of operations (at least by default) whenever write /unlock sequence of operations (at least by default) whenever
they interact with a WebDAV server that supports locking. they interact with a WebDAV server that supports locking.
HTTP 1.1 clients can be good citizens, avoiding overwriting other HTTP 1.1 clients can be good citizens, avoiding overwriting other
clients' changes, by using entity tags in If-Match headers with any clients' changes, by using entity tags in If-Match headers with any
requests that would modify resources. requests that would modify resources.
Information managers may attempt to prevent overwrites by Information managers may attempt to prevent overwrites by
implementing client-side procedures requiring locking before implementing client-side procedures requiring locking before
modifying WebDAV resources. modifying WebDAV resources.
7 Write Lock 7 Write Lock
This section describes the semantics specific to the write lock This section describes the semantics specific to the write lock type.
type. The write lock is a specific instance of a lock type, and is The write lock is a specific instance of a lock type, and is the only
the only lock type described in this specification. lock type described in this specification.
7.1 Methods Restricted by Write Locks 7.1 Methods Restricted by Write Locks
A write lock MUST prevent a principal without the lock from A write lock MUST prevent a principal without the lock from
successfully executing a PUT, POST, PROPPATCH, LOCK, UNLOCK, MOVE, successfully executing a PUT, POST, PROPPATCH, LOCK, UNLOCK, MOVE,
DELETE, or MKCOL on the locked resource. All other current methods, DELETE, or MKCOL on the locked resource. All other current methods,
GET in particular, function independently of the lock. GET in particular, function independently of the lock.
Note, however, that as new methods are created it will be necessary Note, however, that as new methods are created it will be necessary
to specify how they interact with a write lock. to specify how they interact with a write lock.
skipping to change at page 21, line 18 skipping to change at page 21, line 4
result in the generation of a unique lock token associated with the result in the generation of a unique lock token associated with the
requesting principal. Thus if five principals have a shared write requesting principal. Thus if five principals have a shared write
lock on the same resource there will be five lock tokens, one for lock on the same resource there will be five lock tokens, one for
each principal. each principal.
7.3 Write Locks and Properties 7.3 Write Locks and Properties
While those without a write lock may not alter a property on a While those without a write lock may not alter a property on a
resource it is still possible for the values of live properties to resource it is still possible for the values of live properties to
change, even while locked, due to the requirements of their schemas. change, even while locked, due to the requirements of their schemas.
Only dead properties and live properties defined to respect locks
are guaranteed not to change while write locked. Only dead properties and live properties defined to respect locks are
guaranteed not to change while write locked.
7.4 Write Locks and Null Resources 7.4 Write Locks and Null Resources
It is possible to assert a write lock on a null resource in order to It is possible to assert a write lock on a null resource in order to
lock the name. lock the name.
A write locked null resource, referred to as a lock-null resource, A write locked null resource, referred to as a lock-null resource,
MUST respond with a 404 (Not Found) or 405 (Method Not Allowed) to MUST respond with a 404 (Not Found) or 405 (Method Not Allowed) to
any HTTP/1.1 or DAV methods except for PUT, MKCOL, OPTIONS, any HTTP/1.1 or DAV methods except for PUT, MKCOL, OPTIONS, PROPFIND,
PROPFIND, LOCK, and UNLOCK. A lock-null resource MUST appear as a LOCK, and UNLOCK. A lock-null resource MUST appear as a member of
member of its parent collection. Additionally the lock-null its parent collection. Additionally the lock-null resource MUST have
resource MUST have defined on it all mandatory DAV properties. Most defined on it all mandatory DAV properties. Most of these
of these properties, such as all the get* properties, will have no properties, such as all the get* properties, will have no value as a
value as a lock-null resource does not support the GET method. lock-null resource does not support the GET method. Lock-Null
Lock-Null resources MUST have defined values for lockdiscovery and resources MUST have defined values for lockdiscovery and
supportedlock properties. supportedlock properties.
Until a method such as PUT or MKCOL is successfully executed on the Until a method such as PUT or MKCOL is successfully executed on the
lock-null resource the resource MUST stay in the lock-null state. lock-null resource the resource MUST stay in the lock-null state.
However, once a PUT or MKCOL is successfully executed on a lock-null However, once a PUT or MKCOL is successfully executed on a lock-null
resource the resource ceases to be in the lock-null state. resource the resource ceases to be in the lock-null state.
If the resource is unlocked, for any reason, without a PUT, MKCOL, If the resource is unlocked, for any reason, without a PUT, MKCOL, or
or similar method having been successfully executed upon it then the similar method having been successfully executed upon it then the
resource MUST return to the null state. resource MUST return to the null state.
7.5 Write Locks and Collections 7.5 Write Locks and Collections
A write lock on a collection, whether created by a "Depth: 0" or A write lock on a collection, whether created by a "Depth: 0" or
"Depth: infinity" lock request, prevents the addition or removal of "Depth: infinity" lock request, prevents the addition or removal of
member URIs of the collection by non-lock owners. As a consequence, member URIs of the collection by non-lock owners. As a consequence,
when a principal issues a PUT or POST request to create a new when a principal issues a PUT or POST request to create a new
resource under a URI which needs to be an internal member of a write resource under a URI which needs to be an internal member of a write
locked collection to maintain HTTP namespace consistency, or issues locked collection to maintain HTTP namespace consistency, or issues a
a DELETE to remove a resource which has a URI which is an existing DELETE to remove a resource which has a URI which is an existing
internal member URI of a write locked collection, this request MUST internal member URI of a write locked collection, this request MUST
fail if the principal does not have a write lock on the collection. fail if the principal does not have a write lock on the collection.
However, if a write lock request is issued to a collection However, if a write lock request is issued to a collection containing
containing member URIs identifying resources that are currently member URIs identifying resources that are currently locked in a
locked in a manner which conflicts with the write lock, the request manner which conflicts with the write lock, the request MUST fail
MUST fail with a 423 (Locked) status code. with a 423 (Locked) status code.
If a lock owner causes the URI of a resource to be added as an If a lock owner causes the URI of a resource to be added as an
internal member URI of a locked collection then the new resource internal member URI of a locked collection then the new resource MUST
MUST be automatically added to the lock. This is the only mechanism be automatically added to the lock. This is the only mechanism that
that allows a resource to be added to a write lock. Thus, for allows a resource to be added to a write lock. Thus, for example, if
example, if the collection /a/b/ is write locked and the resource /c the collection /a/b/ is write locked and the resource /c is moved to
is moved to /a/b/c then resource /a/b/c will be added to the write /a/b/c then resource /a/b/c will be added to the write lock.
lock.
7.6 Write Locks and the If Request Header 7.6 Write Locks and the If Request Header
If a user agent is not required to have knowledge about a lock when If a user agent is not required to have knowledge about a lock when
requesting an operation on a locked resource, the following scenario requesting an operation on a locked resource, the following scenario
might occur. Program A, run by User A, takes out a write lock on a might occur. Program A, run by User A, takes out a write lock on a
resource. Program B, also run by User A, has no knowledge of the resource. Program B, also run by User A, has no knowledge of the
lock taken out by Program A, yet performs a PUT to the locked lock taken out by Program A, yet performs a PUT to the locked
resource. In this scenario, the PUT succeeds because locks are resource. In this scenario, the PUT succeeds because locks are
associated with a principal, not a program, and thus program B, associated with a principal, not a program, and thus program B,
because it is acting with principal A's credential, is allowed to because it is acting with principal A's credential, is allowed to
perform the PUT. However, had program B known about the lock, it perform the PUT. However, had program B known about the lock, it
would not have overwritten the resource, preferring instead to would not have overwritten the resource, preferring instead to
present a dialog box describing the conflict to the user. Due to present a dialog box describing the conflict to the user. Due to
this scenario, a mechanism is needed to prevent different programs this scenario, a mechanism is needed to prevent different programs
from accidentally ignoring locks taken out by other programs with from accidentally ignoring locks taken out by other programs with the
the same authorization. same authorization.
In order to prevent these collisions a lock token MUST be submitted In order to prevent these collisions a lock token MUST be submitted
by an authorized principal in the If header for all locked resources by an authorized principal in the If header for all locked resources
that a method may interact with or the method MUST fail. For that a method may interact with or the method MUST fail. For
example, if a resource is to be moved and both the source and example, if a resource is to be moved and both the source and
destination are locked then two lock tokens must be submitted, one destination are locked then two lock tokens must be submitted, one
for the source and the other for the destination. for the source and the other for the destination.
7.6.1 Example - Write Lock 7.6.1 Example - Write Lock
>>Request >>Request
COPY /~fielding/index.html HTTP/1.1 COPY /~fielding/index.html HTTP/1.1
Host: www.ics.uci.edu Host: www.ics.uci.edu
Destination: http://www.ics.uci.edu/users/f/fielding/index.html Destination: http://www.ics.uci.edu/users/f/fielding/index.html
If: <http://www.ics.uci.edu/users/f/fielding/index.html> If: <http://www.ics.uci.edu/users/f/fielding/index.html>
(<opaquelocktoken:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6>) (<opaquelocktoken:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6>)
>>Response >>Response
skipping to change at page 23, line 4 skipping to change at page 22, line 45
COPY /~fielding/index.html HTTP/1.1 COPY /~fielding/index.html HTTP/1.1
Host: www.ics.uci.edu Host: www.ics.uci.edu
Destination: http://www.ics.uci.edu/users/f/fielding/index.html Destination: http://www.ics.uci.edu/users/f/fielding/index.html
If: <http://www.ics.uci.edu/users/f/fielding/index.html> If: <http://www.ics.uci.edu/users/f/fielding/index.html>
(<opaquelocktoken:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6>) (<opaquelocktoken:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6>)
>>Response >>Response
HTTP/1.1 204 No Content HTTP/1.1 204 No Content
In this example, even though both the source and destination are In this example, even though both the source and destination are
locked, only one lock token must be submitted, for the lock on the locked, only one lock token must be submitted, for the lock on the
destination. This is because the source resource is not modified by destination. This is because the source resource is not modified by
a COPY, and hence unaffected by the write lock. In this example, a COPY, and hence unaffected by the write lock. In this example, user
user agent authentication has previously occurred via a mechanism agent authentication has previously occurred via a mechanism outside
outside the scope of the HTTP protocol, in the underlying transport the scope of the HTTP protocol, in the underlying transport layer.
layer.
7.7 Write Locks and COPY/MOVE 7.7 Write Locks and COPY/MOVE
A COPY method invocation MUST NOT duplicate any write locks active A COPY method invocation MUST NOT duplicate any write locks active on
on the source. However, as previously noted, if the COPY copies the the source. However, as previously noted, if the COPY copies the
resource into a collection that is locked with "Depth: infinity", resource into a collection that is locked with "Depth: infinity",
then the resource will be added to the lock. then the resource will be added to the lock.
A successful MOVE request on a write locked resource MUST NOT move A successful MOVE request on a write locked resource MUST NOT move
the write lock with the resource. However, the resource is subject the write lock with the resource. However, the resource is subject to
to being added to an existing lock at the destination, as specified being added to an existing lock at the destination, as specified in
in section 7.5. For example, if the MOVE makes the resource a child section 7.5. For example, if the MOVE makes the resource a child of a
of a collection that is locked with "Depth: infinity", then the collection that is locked with "Depth: infinity", then the resource
resource will be added to that collection's lock. Additionally, if a will be added to that collection's lock. Additionally, if a resource
resource locked with "Depth: infinity" is moved to a destination locked with "Depth: infinity" is moved to a destination that is
that is within the scope of the same lock (e.g., within the within the scope of the same lock (e.g., within the namespace tree
namespace tree covered by the lock), the moved resource will again covered by the lock), the moved resource will again be a added to the
be a added to the lock. In both these examples, as specified in lock. In both these examples, as specified in section 7.6, an If
section 7.6, an If header must be submitted containing a lock token header must be submitted containing a lock token for both the source
for both the source and destination. and destination.
7.8 Refreshing Write Locks 7.8 Refreshing Write Locks
A client MUST NOT submit the same write lock request twice. Note A client MUST NOT submit the same write lock request twice. Note
that a client is always aware it is resubmitting the same lock that a client is always aware it is resubmitting the same lock
request because it must include the lock token in the If header in request because it must include the lock token in the If header in
order to make the request for a resource that is already locked. order to make the request for a resource that is already locked.
However, a client may submit a LOCK method with an If header but However, a client may submit a LOCK method with an If header but
without a body. This form of LOCK MUST only be used to "refresh" a without a body. This form of LOCK MUST only be used to "refresh" a
skipping to change at page 24, line 8 skipping to change at page 23, line 50
headers of arbitrary value with their lock refresh requests. headers of arbitrary value with their lock refresh requests.
Servers, as always, may ignore Timeout headers submitted by the Servers, as always, may ignore Timeout headers submitted by the
client. client.
If an error is received in response to a refresh LOCK request the If an error is received in response to a refresh LOCK request the
client SHOULD assume that the lock was not refreshed. client SHOULD assume that the lock was not refreshed.
8 HTTP Methods for Distributed Authoring 8 HTTP Methods for Distributed Authoring
The following new HTTP methods use XML as a request and response The following new HTTP methods use XML as a request and response
format. All DAV compliant clients and resources MUST use XML format. All DAV compliant clients and resources MUST use XML parsers
parsers that are compliant with [REC-XML]. All XML used in either that are compliant with [REC-XML]. All XML used in either requests
requests or responses MUST be, at minimum, well formed. If a server or responses MUST be, at minimum, well formed. If a server receives
receives ill-formed XML in a request it MUST reject the entire ill-formed XML in a request it MUST reject the entire request with a
request with a 400 (Bad Request). If a client receives ill-formed 400 (Bad Request). If a client receives ill-formed XML in a response
XML in a response then it MUST NOT assume anything about the outcome then it MUST NOT assume anything about the outcome of the executed
of the executed method and SHOULD treat the server as method and SHOULD treat the server as malfunctioning.
malfunctioning.
8.1 PROPFIND 8.1 PROPFIND
The PROPFIND method retrieves properties defined on the resource The PROPFIND method retrieves properties defined on the resource
identified by the Request-URI, if the resource does not have any identified by the Request-URI, if the resource does not have any
internal members, or on the resource identified by the Request-URI internal members, or on the resource identified by the Request-URI
and potentially its member resources, if the resource is a and potentially its member resources, if the resource is a collection
collection that has internal member URIs. All DAV compliant that has internal member URIs. All DAV compliant resources MUST
resources MUST support the PROPFIND method and the propfind XML support the PROPFIND method and the propfind XML element (section
element (section 12.14) along with all XML elements defined for use 12.14) along with all XML elements defined for use with that element.
with that element.
A client may submit a Depth header with a value of "0", "1", or A client may submit a Depth header with a value of "0", "1", or
"infinity" with a PROPFIND on a collection resource with internal "infinity" with a PROPFIND on a collection resource with internal
member URIs. DAV compliant servers MUST support the "0", "1" and member URIs. DAV compliant servers MUST support the "0", "1" and
"infinity" behaviors. By default, the PROPFIND method without a "infinity" behaviors. By default, the PROPFIND method without a Depth
Depth header MUST act as if a "Depth: infinity" header was included. header MUST act as if a "Depth: infinity" header was included.
A client may submit a propfind XML element in the body of the A client may submit a propfind XML element in the body of the request
request method describing what information is being requested. It method describing what information is being requested. It is
is possible to request particular property values, all property possible to request particular property values, all property values,
values, or a list of the names of the resource's properties. A or a list of the names of the resource's properties. A client may
client may choose not to submit a request body. An empty PROPFIND choose not to submit a request body. An empty PROPFIND request body
request body MUST be treated as a request for the names and values MUST be treated as a request for the names and values of all
of all properties. properties.
All servers MUST support returning a response of content type All servers MUST support returning a response of content type
text/xml or application/xml that contains a multistatus XML element text/xml or application/xml that contains a multistatus XML element
that describes the results of the attempts to retrieve the various that describes the results of the attempts to retrieve the various
properties. properties.
If there is an error retrieving a property then a proper error If there is an error retrieving a property then a proper error result
result MUST be included in the response. A request to retrieve the MUST be included in the response. A request to retrieve the value of
value of a property which does not exist is an error and MUST be a property which does not exist is an error and MUST be noted, if the
noted, if the response uses a multistatus XML element, with a response uses a multistatus XML element, with a response XML element
response XML element which contains a 404 (Not Found) status value. which contains a 404 (Not Found) status value.
Consequently, the multistatus XML element for a collection resource Consequently, the multistatus XML element for a collection resource
with member URIs MUST include a response XML element for each member with member URIs MUST include a response XML element for each member
URI of the collection, to whatever depth was requested. Each URI of the collection, to whatever depth was requested. Each response
response XML element MUST contain an href XML element that gives the XML element MUST contain an href XML element that gives the URI of
URI of the resource on which the properties in the prop XML element the resource on which the properties in the prop XML element are
are defined. Results for a PROPFIND on a collection resource with defined. Results for a PROPFIND on a collection resource with
internal member URIs are returned as a flat list whose order of internal member URIs are returned as a flat list whose order of
entries is not significant. entries is not significant.
In the case of allprop and propname, if a principal does not have In the case of allprop and propname, if a principal does not have the
the right to know whether a particular property exists then the right to know whether a particular property exists then the property
property should be silently excluded from the response. should be silently excluded from the response.
The results of this method SHOULD NOT be cached. The results of this method SHOULD NOT be cached.
8.1.1 Example - Retrieving Named Properties 8.1.1 Example - Retrieving Named Properties
>>Request >>Request
PROPFIND /file HTTP/1.1 PROPFIND /file HTTP/1.1
Host: www.foo.bar Host: www.foo.bar
Content-type: text/xml; charset="utf-8" Content-type: text/xml; charset="utf-8"
Content-Length: xxxx Content-Length: xxxx
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<D:propfind xmlns:D="DAV:"> <D:propfind xmlns:D="DAV:">
skipping to change at page 26, line 16 skipping to change at page 26, line 15
<D:responsedescription> The user does not have access to <D:responsedescription> The user does not have access to
the DingALing property. the DingALing property.
</D:responsedescription> </D:responsedescription>
</D:propstat> </D:propstat>
</D:response> </D:response>
<D:responsedescription> There has been an access violation error. <D:responsedescription> There has been an access violation error.
</D:responsedescription> </D:responsedescription>
</D:multistatus> </D:multistatus>
In this example, PROPFIND is executed on a non-collection resource In this example, PROPFIND is executed on a non-collection resource
http://www.foo.bar/file. The propfind XML element specifies the http://www.foo.bar/file. The propfind XML element specifies the name
name of four properties whose values are being requested. In this of four properties whose values are being requested. In this case
case only two properties were returned, since the principal issuing only two properties were returned, since the principal issuing the
the request did not have sufficient access rights to see the third request did not have sufficient access rights to see the third and
and fourth properties. fourth properties.
8.1.2 Example - Using allprop to Retrieve All Properties 8.1.2 Example - Using allprop to Retrieve All Properties
>>Request >>Request
PROPFIND /container/ HTTP/1.1 PROPFIND /container/ HTTP/1.1
Host: www.foo.bar Host: www.foo.bar
Depth: 1 Depth: 1
Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8" Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8"
Content-Length: xxxx Content-Length: xxxx
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
skipping to change at page 28, line 22 skipping to change at page 28, line 28
</D:response> </D:response>
</D:multistatus> </D:multistatus>
In this example, PROPFIND was invoked on the resource In this example, PROPFIND was invoked on the resource
http://www.foo.bar/container/ with a Depth header of 1, meaning the http://www.foo.bar/container/ with a Depth header of 1, meaning the
request applies to the resource and its children, and a propfind XML request applies to the resource and its children, and a propfind XML
element containing the allprop XML element, meaning the request element containing the allprop XML element, meaning the request
should return the name and value of all properties defined on each should return the name and value of all properties defined on each
resource. resource.
The resource http://www.foo.bar/container/ has six properties The resource http://www.foo.bar/container/ has six properties defined
defined on it: on it:
http://www.foo.bar/boxschema/bigbox, http://www.foo.bar/boxschema/bigbox,
http://www.foo.bar/boxschema/author, DAV:creationdate, http://www.foo.bar/boxschema/author, DAV:creationdate,
DAV:displayname, DAV:resourcetype, and DAV:supportedlock. DAV:displayname, DAV:resourcetype, and DAV:supportedlock.
The last four properties are WebDAV-specific, defined in section 13. The last four properties are WebDAV-specific, defined in section 13.
Since GET is not supported on this resource, the get* properties Since GET is not supported on this resource, the get* properties
(e.g., getcontentlength) are not defined on this resource. The DAV- (e.g., getcontentlength) are not defined on this resource. The DAV-
specific properties assert that "container" was created on December specific properties assert that "container" was created on December
1, 1997, at 5:42:21PM, in a time zone 8 hours west of GMT 1, 1997, at 5:42:21PM, in a time zone 8 hours west of GMT
(creationdate), has a name of "Example collection" (displayname), a (creationdate), has a name of "Example collection" (displayname), a
collection resource type (resourcetype), and supports exclusive collection resource type (resourcetype), and supports exclusive write
write and shared write locks (supportedlock). and shared write locks (supportedlock).
The resource http://www.foo.bar/container/front.html has nine The resource http://www.foo.bar/container/front.html has nine
properties defined on it: properties defined on it:
http://www.foo.bar/boxschema/bigbox (another instance of the http://www.foo.bar/boxschema/bigbox (another instance of the "bigbox"
"bigbox" property type), DAV:creationdate, DAV:displayname, property type), DAV:creationdate, DAV:displayname,
DAV:getcontentlength, DAV:getcontenttype, DAV:getetag, DAV:getcontentlength, DAV:getcontenttype, DAV:getetag,
DAV:getlastmodified, DAV:resourcetype, and DAV:supportedlock. DAV:getlastmodified, DAV:resourcetype, and DAV:supportedlock.
The DAV-specific properties assert that "front.html" was created on The DAV-specific properties assert that "front.html" was created on
December 1, 1997, at 6:27:21PM, in a time zone 8 hours west of GMT December 1, 1997, at 6:27:21PM, in a time zone 8 hours west of GMT
(creationdate), has a name of "Example HTML resource" (displayname), (creationdate), has a name of "Example HTML resource" (displayname),
a content length of 4525 bytes (getcontentlength), a MIME type of a content length of 4525 bytes (getcontentlength), a MIME type of
"text/html" (getcontenttype), an entity tag of "zzyzx" (getetag), "text/html" (getcontenttype), an entity tag of "zzyzx" (getetag), was
was last modified on Monday, January 12, 1998, at 09:25:56 GMT last modified on Monday, January 12, 1998, at 09:25:56 GMT
(getlastmodified), has an empty resource type, meaning that it is (getlastmodified), has an empty resource type, meaning that it is not
not a collection (resourcetype), and supports both exclusive write a collection (resourcetype), and supports both exclusive write and
and shared write locks (supportedlock). shared write locks (supportedlock).
8.1.3 Example - Using propname to Retrieve all Property Names 8.1.3 Example - Using propname to Retrieve all Property Names
>>Request >>Request
PROPFIND /container/ HTTP/1.1 PROPFIND /container/ HTTP/1.1
Host: www.foo.bar Host: www.foo.bar
Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8" Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8"
Content-Length: xxxx Content-Length: xxxx
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<propfind xmlns="DAV:"> <propfind xmlns="DAV:">
skipping to change at page 30, line 4 skipping to change at page 30, line 18
<displayname/> <displayname/>
<getcontentlength/> <getcontentlength/>
<getcontenttype/> <getcontenttype/>
<getetag/> <getetag/>
<getlastmodified/> <getlastmodified/>
<resourcetype/> <resourcetype/>
<supportedlock/> <supportedlock/>
</prop> </prop>
<status>HTTP/1.1 200 OK</status> <status>HTTP/1.1 200 OK</status>
</propstat> </propstat>
</response> </response>
</multistatus> </multistatus>
In this example, PROPFIND is invoked on the collection resource In this example, PROPFIND is invoked on the collection resource
http://www.foo.bar/container/, with a propfind XML element http://www.foo.bar/container/, with a propfind XML element containing
containing the propname XML element, meaning the name of all the propname XML element, meaning the name of all properties should
properties should be returned. Since no Depth header is present, it be returned. Since no Depth header is present, it assumes its
assumes its default value of "infinity", meaning the name of the default value of "infinity", meaning the name of the properties on
properties on the collection and all its progeny should be returned. the collection and all its progeny should be returned.
Consistent with the previous example, resource Consistent with the previous example, resource
http://www.foo.bar/container/ has six properties defined on it, http://www.foo.bar/container/ has six properties defined on it,
http://www.foo.bar/boxschema/bigbox, http://www.foo.bar/boxschema/bigbox,
http://www.foo.bar/boxschema/author, DAV:creationdate, http://www.foo.bar/boxschema/author, DAV:creationdate,
DAV:displayname, DAV:resourcetype, and DAV:supportedlock. DAV:displayname, DAV:resourcetype, and DAV:supportedlock.
The resource http://www.foo.bar/container/index.html, a member of The resource http://www.foo.bar/container/index.html, a member of the
the "container" collection, has nine properties defined on it, "container" collection, has nine properties defined on it,
http://www.foo.bar/boxschema/bigbox, DAV:creationdate, http://www.foo.bar/boxschema/bigbox, DAV:creationdate,
DAV:displayname, DAV:getcontentlength, DAV:getcontenttype, DAV:displayname, DAV:getcontentlength, DAV:getcontenttype,
DAV:getetag, DAV:getlastmodified, DAV:resourcetype, and DAV:getetag, DAV:getlastmodified, DAV:resourcetype, and
DAV:supportedlock. DAV:supportedlock.
This example also demonstrates the use of XML namespace scoping, and This example also demonstrates the use of XML namespace scoping, and
the default namespace. Since the "xmlns" attibute does not contain the default namespace. Since the "xmlns" attribute does not contain
an explicit "shorthand name" (prefix) letter, the namespace applies an explicit "shorthand name" (prefix) letter, the namespace applies
by default to all enclosed elements. Hence, all elements which do by default to all enclosed elements. Hence, all elements which do
not explicitly state the namespace to which they belong are members not explicitly state the namespace to which they belong are members
of the "DAV:" namespace schema. of the "DAV:" namespace schema.
8.2 PROPPATCH 8.2 PROPPATCH
The PROPPATCH method processes instructions specified in the request The PROPPATCH method processes instructions specified in the request
body to set and/or remove properties defined on the resource body to set and/or remove properties defined on the resource
identified by the Request-URI. identified by the Request-URI.
All DAV compliant resources MUST support the PROPPATCH method and All DAV compliant resources MUST support the PROPPATCH method and
MUST process instructions that are specified using the MUST process instructions that are specified using the
propertyupdate, set, and remove XML elements of the DAV schema. propertyupdate, set, and remove XML elements of the DAV schema.
Execution of the directives in this method is, of course, subject to Execution of the directives in this method is, of course, subject to
access control constraints. DAV compliant resources SHOULD support access control constraints. DAV compliant resources SHOULD support
the setting of arbitrary dead properties. the setting of arbitrary dead properties.
The request message body of a PROPPATCH method MUST contain the The request message body of a PROPPATCH method MUST contain the
propertyupdate XML element. Instruction processing MUST occur in propertyupdate XML element. Instruction processing MUST occur in the
the order instructions are received (i.e., from top to bottom). order instructions are received (i.e., from top to bottom).
Instructions MUST either all be executed or none executed. Thus if Instructions MUST either all be executed or none executed. Thus if
any error occurs during processing all executed instructions MUST be any error occurs during processing all executed instructions MUST be
undone and a proper error result returned. Instruction processing undone and a proper error result returned. Instruction processing
details can be found in the definition of the set and remove details can be found in the definition of the set and remove
instructions in section 12.13. instructions in section 12.13.
8.2.1 Status Codes for use with 207 (Multi-Status) 8.2.1 Status Codes for use with 207 (Multi-Status)
The following are examples of response codes one would expect to be The following are examples of response codes one would expect to be
used in a 207 (Multi-Status) response for this method. Note, used in a 207 (Multi-Status) response for this method. Note,
however, that unless explicitly prohibited any 2/3/4/5xx series however, that unless explicitly prohibited any 2/3/4/5xx series
response code may be used in a 207 (Multi-Status) response. response code may be used in a 207 (Multi-Status) response.
200 (OK) - The command succeeded. As there can be a mixture of sets 200 (OK) - The command succeeded. As there can be a mixture of sets
and removes in a body, a 201 (Created) seems inappropriate. and removes in a body, a 201 (Created) seems inappropriate.
403 (Forbidden) - The client, for reasons the server chooses not to 403 (Forbidden) - The client, for reasons the server chooses not to
specify, cannot alter one of the properties. specify, cannot alter one of the properties.
409 (Conflict) - The client has provided a value whose semantics are 409 (Conflict) - The client has provided a value whose semantics are
not appropriate for the property. This includes trying to set read- not appropriate for the property. This includes trying to set read-
only properties. only properties.
423 (Locked) - The specified resource is locked and the client 423 (Locked) - The specified resource is locked and the client either
either is not a lock owner or the lock type requires a lock token to is not a lock owner or the lock type requires a lock token to be
be submitted and the client did not submit it. submitted and the client did not submit it.
507 (Insufficient Storage) - The server did not have sufficient 507 (Insufficient Storage) - The server did not have sufficient space
space to record the property. to record the property.
8.2.2 Example - PROPPATCH 8.2.2 Example - PROPPATCH
>>Request >>Request
PROPPATCH /bar.html HTTP/1.1 PROPPATCH /bar.html HTTP/1.1
Host: www.foo.com Host: www.foo.com
Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8" Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8"
Content-Length: xxxx Content-Length: xxxx
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<D:propertyupdate xmlns:D="DAV:" <D:propertyupdate xmlns:D="DAV:"
skipping to change at page 32, line 42 skipping to change at page 33, line 18
property modifications occur. The 424 (Failed Dependency) status property modifications occur. The 424 (Failed Dependency) status
code for the Authors property indicates this action would have code for the Authors property indicates this action would have
succeeded if it were not for the conflict with removing the succeeded if it were not for the conflict with removing the
Copyright-Owner property. Copyright-Owner property.
8.3 MKCOL Method 8.3 MKCOL Method
The MKCOL method is used to create a new collection. All DAV The MKCOL method is used to create a new collection. All DAV
compliant resources MUST support the MKCOL method. compliant resources MUST support the MKCOL method.
8.3.1 Request 8.3.1 Request
MKCOL creates a new collection resource at the location specified by MKCOL creates a new collection resource at the location specified by
the Request-URI. If the resource identified by the Request-URI is the Request-URI. If the resource identified by the Request-URI is
non-null then the MKCOL MUST fail. During MKCOL processing, a non-null then the MKCOL MUST fail. During MKCOL processing, a server
server MUST make the Request-URI a member of its parent collection, MUST make the Request-URI a member of its parent collection, unless
unless the Request-URI is "/". If no such ancestor exists, the the Request-URI is "/". If no such ancestor exists, the method MUST
method MUST fail. When the MKCOL operation creates a new collection fail. When the MKCOL operation creates a new collection resource,
resource, all ancestors MUST already exist, or the method MUST fail all ancestors MUST already exist, or the method MUST fail with a 409
with a 409 (Conflict) status code. For example, if a request to (Conflict) status code. For example, if a request to create
create collection /a/b/c/d/ is made, and neither /a/b/ nor /a/b/c/ collection /a/b/c/d/ is made, and neither /a/b/ nor /a/b/c/ exists,
exists, the request must fail. the request must fail.
When MKCOL is invoked without a request body, the newly created When MKCOL is invoked without a request body, the newly created
collection SHOULD have no members. collection SHOULD have no members.
A MKCOL request message may contain a message body. The behavior of A MKCOL request message may contain a message body. The behavior of
a MKCOL request when the body is present is limited to creating a MKCOL request when the body is present is limited to creating
collections, members of a collection, bodies of members and collections, members of a collection, bodies of members and
properties on the collections or members. If the server receives a properties on the collections or members. If the server receives a
MKCOL request entity type it does not support or understand it MUST MKCOL request entity type it does not support or understand it MUST
respond with a 415 (Unsupported Media Type) status code. The exact respond with a 415 (Unsupported Media Type) status code. The exact
behavior of MKCOL for various request media types is undefined in behavior of MKCOL for various request media types is undefined in
this document, and will be specified in separate documents. this document, and will be specified in separate documents.
8.3.2 Status Codes 8.3.2 Status Codes
Responses from a MKCOL request MUST NOT be cached as MKCOL has non- Responses from a MKCOL request MUST NOT be cached as MKCOL has non-
idempotent semantics. idempotent semantics.
201 (Created) - The collection or structured resource was created in 201 (Created) - The collection or structured resource was created in
its entirety. its entirety.
403 (Forbidden) - This indicates at least one of two conditions: 1) 403 (Forbidden) - This indicates at least one of two conditions: 1)
the server does not allow the creation of collections at the given the server does not allow the creation of collections at the given
location in its namespace, or 2) the parent collection of the location in its namespace, or 2) the parent collection of the
Request-URI exists but cannot accept members. Request-URI exists but cannot accept members.
405 (Method Not Allowed) - MKCOL can only be executed on a 405 (Method Not Allowed) - MKCOL can only be executed on a
deleted/non-existent resource. deleted/non-existent resource.
409 (Conflict) - A collection cannot be made at the Request-URI 409 (Conflict) - A collection cannot be made at the Request-URI until
until one or more intermediate collections have been created. one or more intermediate collections have been created.
415 (Unsupported Media Type)- The server does not support the 415 (Unsupported Media Type)- The server does not support the request
request type of the body. type of the body.
507 (Insufficient Storage) - The resource does not have sufficient 507 (Insufficient Storage) - The resource does not have sufficient
space to record the state of the resource after the execution of space to record the state of the resource after the execution of this
this method. method.
8.3.3 Example - MKCOL 8.3.3 Example - MKCOL
This example creates a collection called /webdisc/xfiles/ on the This example creates a collection called /webdisc/xfiles/ on the
server www.server.org. server www.server.org.
>>Request >>Request
MKCOL /webdisc/xfiles/ HTTP/1.1 MKCOL /webdisc/xfiles/ HTTP/1.1
Host: www.server.org Host: www.server.org
>>Response >>Response
HTTP/1.1 201 Created HTTP/1.1 201 Created
8.4 GET, HEAD for Collections 8.4 GET, HEAD for Collections
The semantics of GET are unchanged when applied to a collection, The semantics of GET are unchanged when applied to a collection,
since GET is defined as, "retrieve whatever information (in the form since GET is defined as, "retrieve whatever information (in the form
of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI" [RFC2068]. GET when of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI" [RFC2068]. GET when
applied to a collection may return the contents of an "index.html" applied to a collection may return the contents of an "index.html"
resource, a human-readable view of the contents of the collection, resource, a human-readable view of the contents of the collection, or
or something else altogether. Hence it is possible that the result something else altogether. Hence it is possible that the result of a
of a GET on a collection will bear no correlation to the membership GET on a collection will bear no correlation to the membership of the
of the collection. collection.
Similarly, since the definition of HEAD is a GET without a response Similarly, since the definition of HEAD is a GET without a response
message body, the semantics of HEAD are unmodified when applied to message body, the semantics of HEAD are unmodified when applied to
collection resources. collection resources.
8.5 POST for Collections 8.5 POST for Collections
Since by definition the actual function performed by POST is Since by definition the actual function performed by POST is
determined by the server and often depends on the particular determined by the server and often depends on the particular
resource, the behavior of POST when applied to collections cannot be resource, the behavior of POST when applied to collections cannot be
meaningfully modified because it is largely undefined. Thus the meaningfully modified because it is largely undefined. Thus the
semantics of POST are unmodified when applied to a collection. semantics of POST are unmodified when applied to a collection.
8.6 DELETE 8.6 DELETE
8.6.1 DELETE for Non-Collection Resources 8.6.1 DELETE for Non-Collection Resources
If the DELETE method is issued to a non-collection resource whose If the DELETE method is issued to a non-collection resource whose
URIs are an internal member of one or more collections, then during URIs are an internal member of one or more collections, then during
DELETE processing a server MUST remove any URI for the resource DELETE processing a server MUST remove any URI for the resource
identified by the Request-URI from collections which contain it as a identified by the Request-URI from collections which contain it as a
member. member.
8.6.2 DELETE for Collections 8.6.2 DELETE for Collections
The DELETE method on a collection MUST act as if a "Depth: infinity" The DELETE method on a collection MUST act as if a "Depth: infinity"
header was used on it. A client MUST NOT submit a Depth header with header was used on it. A client MUST NOT submit a Depth header with
a DELETE on a collection with any value but infinity. a DELETE on a collection with any value but infinity.
DELETE instructs that the collection specified in the Request-URI DELETE instructs that the collection specified in the Request-URI and
and all resources identified by its internal member URIs are to be all resources identified by its internal member URIs are to be
deleted. deleted.
If any resource identified by a member URI cannot be deleted then If any resource identified by a member URI cannot be deleted then all
all of the member's ancestors MUST NOT be deleted, so as to maintain of the member's ancestors MUST NOT be deleted, so as to maintain
namespace consistency. namespace consistency.
Any headers included with DELETE MUST be applied in processing every Any headers included with DELETE MUST be applied in processing every
resource to be deleted. resource to be deleted.
When the DELETE method has completed processing it MUST result in a When the DELETE method has completed processing it MUST result in a
consistent namespace. consistent namespace.
If an error occurs with a resource other than the resource If an error occurs with a resource other than the resource identified
identified in the Request-URI then the response MUST be a 207 in the Request-URI then the response MUST be a 207 (Multi-Status).
(Multi-Status). 424 (Failed Dependency) errors SHOULD NOT be in the 424 (Failed Dependency) errors SHOULD NOT be in the 207 (Multi-
207 (Multi-Status). They can be safely left out because the client Status). They can be safely left out because the client will know
will know that the ancestors of a resource could not be deleted when that the ancestors of a resource could not be deleted when the client
the client receives an error for the ancestor's progeny. receives an error for the ancestor's progeny. Additionally 204 (No
Additionally 204 (No Content) errors SHOULD NOT be returned in the Content) errors SHOULD NOT be returned in the 207 (Multi-Status).
207 (Multi-Status). The reason for this prohibition is that 204 (No The reason for this prohibition is that 204 (No Content) is the
Content) is the default success code. default success code.
8.6.2.1 Example - DELETE 8.6.2.1 Example - DELETE
>>Request >>Request
DELETE /container/ HTTP/1.1 DELETE /container/ HTTP/1.1
Host: www.foo.bar Host: www.foo.bar
>>Response >>Response
HTTP/1.1 207 Multi-Status HTTP/1.1 207 Multi-Status
Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8" Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8"
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<d:multistatus xmlns:d="DAV:"> <d:multistatus xmlns:d="DAV:">
<d:response> <d:response>
<d:href>http://www.foo.bar/container/resource3</d:href> <d:href>http://www.foo.bar/container/resource3</d:href>
<d:status>HTTP/1.1 423 Locked</d:status> <d:status>HTTP/1.1 423 Locked</d:status>
</d:response> </d:response>
</d:multistatus> </d:multistatus>
In this example the attempt to delete In this example the attempt to delete
http://www.foo.bar/container/resource3 failed because it is locked, http://www.foo.bar/container/resource3 failed because it is locked,
and no lock token was submitted with the request. Consequently, the and no lock token was submitted with the request. Consequently, the
attempt to delete http://www.foo.bar/container/ also failed. Thus attempt to delete http://www.foo.bar/container/ also failed. Thus the
the client knows that the attempt to delete client knows that the attempt to delete http://www.foo.bar/container/
http://www.foo.bar/container/ must have also failed since the parent must have also failed since the parent can not be deleted unless its
can not be deleted unless its child has also been deleted. Even child has also been deleted. Even though a Depth header has not been
though a Depth header has not been included, a depth of infinity is included, a depth of infinity is assumed because the method is on a
assumed because the method is on a collection. collection.
8.7 PUT 8.7 PUT
8.7.1 PUT for Non-Collection Resources 8.7.1 PUT for Non-Collection Resources
A PUT performed on an existing resource replaces the GET response A PUT performed on an existing resource replaces the GET response
entity of the resource. Properties defined on the resource may be entity of the resource. Properties defined on the resource may be
recomputed during PUT processing but are not otherwise affected. recomputed during PUT processing but are not otherwise affected. For
For example, if a server recognizes the content type of the request example, if a server recognizes the content type of the request body,
body, it may be able to automatically extract information that could it may be able to automatically extract information that could be
be profitably exposed as properties. profitably exposed as properties.
A PUT that would result in the creation of a resource without an A PUT that would result in the creation of a resource without an
appropriately scoped parent collection MUST fail with a 409 appropriately scoped parent collection MUST fail with a 409
(Conflict). (Conflict).
8.7.2 PUT for Collections 8.7.2 PUT for Collections
As defined in the HTTP/1.1 specification [RFC2068], the "PUT method As defined in the HTTP/1.1 specification [RFC2068], the "PUT method
requests that the enclosed entity be stored under the supplied requests that the enclosed entity be stored under the supplied
Request-URI." Since submission of an entity representing a Request-URI." Since submission of an entity representing a
collection would implicitly encode creation and deletion of collection would implicitly encode creation and deletion of
resources, this specification intentionally does not define a resources, this specification intentionally does not define a
transmission format for creating a collection using PUT. Instead, transmission format for creating a collection using PUT. Instead,
the MKCOL method is defined to create collections. the MKCOL method is defined to create collections.
When the PUT operation creates a new non-collection resource all When the PUT operation creates a new non-collection resource all
skipping to change at page 36, line 38 skipping to change at page 37, line 32
The COPY method creates a duplicate of the source resource, The COPY method creates a duplicate of the source resource,
identified by the Request-URI, in the destination resource, identified by the Request-URI, in the destination resource,
identified by the URI in the Destination header. The Destination identified by the URI in the Destination header. The Destination
header MUST be present. The exact behavior of the COPY method header MUST be present. The exact behavior of the COPY method
depends on the type of the source resource. depends on the type of the source resource.
All WebDAV compliant resources MUST support the COPY method. All WebDAV compliant resources MUST support the COPY method.
However, support for the COPY method does not guarantee the ability However, support for the COPY method does not guarantee the ability
to copy a resource. For example, separate programs may control to copy a resource. For example, separate programs may control
resources on the same server. As a result, it may not be possible resources on the same server. As a result, it may not be possible to
to copy a resource to a location that appears to be on the same copy a resource to a location that appears to be on the same server.
server.
8.8.1 COPY for HTTP/1.1 resources 8.8.1 COPY for HTTP/1.1 resources
When the source resource is not a collection the result of the COPY When the source resource is not a collection the result of the COPY
method is the creation of a new resource at the destination whose method is the creation of a new resource at the destination whose
state and behavior match that of the source resource as closely as state and behavior match that of the source resource as closely as
possible. After a successful COPY invocation, all properties on the possible. After a successful COPY invocation, all properties on the
source resource MUST be duplicated on the destination resource, source resource MUST be duplicated on the destination resource,
subject to modifying headers and XML elements, following the subject to modifying headers and XML elements, following the
definition for copying properties. Since the environment at the definition for copying properties. Since the environment at the
destination may be different than at the source due to factors destination may be different than at the source due to factors
outside the scope of control of the server, such as the absence of outside the scope of control of the server, such as the absence of
resources required for correct operation, it may not be possible to resources required for correct operation, it may not be possible to
completely duplicate the behavior of the resource at the completely duplicate the behavior of the resource at the destination.
destination. Subsequent alterations to the destination resource will Subsequent alterations to the destination resource will not modify
not modify the source resource. Subsequent alterations to the the source resource. Subsequent alterations to the source resource
source resource will not modify the destination resource. will not modify the destination resource.
8.8.2 COPY for Properties 8.8.2. COPY for Properties
The following section defines how properties on a resource are The following section defines how properties on a resource are
handled during a COPY operation. handled during a COPY operation.
Live properties SHOULD be duplicated as identically behaving live Live properties SHOULD be duplicated as identically behaving live
properties at the destination resource. If a property cannot be properties at the destination resource. If a property cannot be
copied live, then its value MUST be duplicated, octet-for-octet, in copied live, then its value MUST be duplicated, octet-for-octet, in
an identically named, dead property on the destination resource an identically named, dead property on the destination resource
subject to the effects of the propertybehavior XML element. subject to the effects of the propertybehavior XML element.
The propertybehavior XML element can specify that properties are The propertybehavior XML element can specify that properties are
copied on best effort, that all live properties must be successfully copied on best effort, that all live properties must be successfully
copied or the method must fail, or that a specified list of live copied or the method must fail, or that a specified list of live
properties must be successfully copied or the method must fail. The properties must be successfully copied or the method must fail. The
propertybehavior XML element is defined in section 12.12. propertybehavior XML element is defined in section 12.12.
8.8.3 COPY for Collections 8.8.3 COPY for Collections
The COPY method on a collection without a Depth header MUST act as The COPY method on a collection without a Depth header MUST act as if
if a Depth header with value "infinity" was included. A client may a Depth header with value "infinity" was included. A client may
submit a Depth header on a COPY on a collection with a value of "0" submit a Depth header on a COPY on a collection with a value of "0"
or "infinity". DAV compliant servers MUST support the "0" and or "infinity". DAV compliant servers MUST support the "0" and
"infinity" Depth header behaviors. "infinity" Depth header behaviors.
A COPY of depth infinity instructs that the collection resource A COPY of depth infinity instructs that the collection resource
identified by the Request-URI is to be copied to the location identified by the Request-URI is to be copied to the location
identified by the URI in the Destination header, and all its identified by the URI in the Destination header, and all its internal
internal member resources are to be copied to a location relative to member resources are to be copied to a location relative to it,
it, recursively through all levels of the collection hierarchy. recursively through all levels of the collection hierarchy.
A COPY of "Depth: 0" only instructs that the collection and its A COPY of "Depth: 0" only instructs that the collection and its
properties but not resources identified by its internal member URIs, properties but not resources identified by its internal member URIs,
are to be copied. are to be copied.
Any headers included with a COPY MUST be applied in processing every Any headers included with a COPY MUST be applied in processing every
resource to be copied with the exception of the Destination header. resource to be copied with the exception of the Destination header.
The Destination header only specifies the destination URI for the The Destination header only specifies the destination URI for the
Request-URI. When applied to members of the collection identified by Request-URI. When applied to members of the collection identified by
the Request-URI the value of Destination is to be modified to the Request-URI the value of Destination is to be modified to reflect
reflect the current location in the hierarchy. So, if the Request- the current location in the hierarchy. So, if the Request- URI is
URI is /a/ with Host header value http://fun.com/ and the /a/ with Host header value http://fun.com/ and the Destination is
Destination is http://fun.com/b/ then when http://fun.com/a/c/d is http://fun.com/b/ then when http://fun.com/a/c/d is processed it must
processed it must use a Destination of http://fun.com/b/c/d. use a Destination of http://fun.com/b/c/d.
When the COPY method has completed processing it MUST have created a When the COPY method has completed processing it MUST have created a
consistent namespace at the destination (see section 5.1 for the consistent namespace at the destination (see section 5.1 for the
definition of namespace consistency). However, if an error occurs definition of namespace consistency). However, if an error occurs
while copying an internal collection, the server MUST NOT copy any while copying an internal collection, the server MUST NOT copy any
resources identified by members of this collection (i.e., the server resources identified by members of this collection (i.e., the server
must skip this subtree), as this would create an inconsistent must skip this subtree), as this would create an inconsistent
namespace. After detecting an error, the COPY operation SHOULD try namespace. After detecting an error, the COPY operation SHOULD try to
to finish as much of the original copy operation as possible (i.e., finish as much of the original copy operation as possible (i.e., the
the server should still attempt to copy other subtrees and their server should still attempt to copy other subtrees and their members,
members, that are not descendents of an error-causing collection). that are not descendents of an error-causing collection). So, for
So, for example, if an infinite depth copy operation is performed on example, if an infinite depth copy operation is performed on
collection /a/, which contains collections /a/b/ and /a/c/, and an collection /a/, which contains collections /a/b/ and /a/c/, and an
error occurs copying /a/b/, an attempt should still be made to copy error occurs copying /a/b/, an attempt should still be made to copy
/a/c/. Similarly, after encountering an error copying a non- /a/c/. Similarly, after encountering an error copying a non-
collection resource as part of an infinite depth copy, the server collection resource as part of an infinite depth copy, the server
SHOULD try to finish as much of the original copy operation as SHOULD try to finish as much of the original copy operation as
possible. possible.
If an error in executing the COPY method occurs with a resource If an error in executing the COPY method occurs with a resource other
other than the resource identified in the Request-URI then the than the resource identified in the Request-URI then the response
response MUST be a 207 (Multi-Status). MUST be a 207 (Multi-Status).
The 424 (Failed Dependency) status code SHOULD NOT be returned in The 424 (Failed Dependency) status code SHOULD NOT be returned in the
the 207 (Multi-Status) response from a COPY method. These responses 207 (Multi-Status) response from a COPY method. These responses can
can be safely omitted because the client will know that the progeny be safely omitted because the client will know that the progeny of a
of a resource could not be copied when the client receives an error resource could not be copied when the client receives an error for
for the parent. Additionally 201 (Created)/204 (No Content) status the parent. Additionally 201 (Created)/204 (No Content) status codes
codes SHOULD NOT be returned as values in 207 (Multi-Status) SHOULD NOT be returned as values in 207 (Multi-Status) responses from
responses from COPY methods. They, too, can be safely omitted COPY methods. They, too, can be safely omitted because they are the
because they are the default success codes. default success codes.
8.8.4 COPY and the Overwrite Header 8.8.4 COPY and the Overwrite Header
If a resource exists at the destination and the Overwrite header is If a resource exists at the destination and the Overwrite header is
"T" then prior to performing the copy the server MUST perform a "T" then prior to performing the copy the server MUST perform a
DELETE with "Depth: infinity" on the destination resource. If the DELETE with "Depth: infinity" on the destination resource. If the
Overwrite header is set to "F" then the operation will fail. Overwrite header is set to "F" then the operation will fail.
8.8.5 Status Codes 8.8.5 Status Codes
201 (Created) - The source resource was successfully copied. The 201 (Created) - The source resource was successfully copied. The
copy operation resulted in the creation of a new resource. copy operation resulted in the creation of a new resource.
204 (No Content) - The source resource was successfully copied to a 204 (No Content) - The source resource was successfully copied to a
pre-existing destination resource. pre-existing destination resource.
403 (Forbidden) _ The source and destination URIs are the same. 403 (Forbidden) _ The source and destination URIs are the same.
409 (Conflict) _ A resource cannot be created at the destination 409 (Conflict) _ A resource cannot be created at the destination
until one or more intermediate collections have been created. until one or more intermediate collections have been created.
412 (Precondition Failed) - The server was unable to maintain the 412 (Precondition Failed) - The server was unable to maintain the
liveness of the properties listed in the propertybehavior XML liveness of the properties listed in the propertybehavior XML element
element or the Overwrite header is "F" and the state of the or the Overwrite header is "F" and the state of the destination
destination resource is non-null. resource is non-null.
423 (Locked) - The destination resource was locked. 423 (Locked) - The destination resource was locked.
502 (Bad Gateway) - This may occur when the destination is on another
server and the destination server refuses to accept the resource.
507 (Insufficient Storage) - The destination resource does not have 507 (Insufficient Storage) - The destination resource does not have
sufficient space to record the state of the resource after the sufficient space to record the state of the resource after the
execution of this method. execution of this method.
502 (Bad Gateway) - This may occur when the destination is on 8.8.6 Example - COPY with Overwrite
another server and the destination server refuses to accept the
resource.
8.8.6 Example - COPY with Overwrite
This example shows resource This example shows resource
http://www.ics.uci.edu/~fielding/index.html being copied to the http://www.ics.uci.edu/~fielding/index.html being copied to the
location http://www.ics.uci.edu/users/f/fielding/index.html. The location http://www.ics.uci.edu/users/f/fielding/index.html. The 204
204 (No Content) status code indicates the existing resource at the (No Content) status code indicates the existing resource at the
destination was overwritten. destination was overwritten.
>>Request >>Request
COPY /~fielding/index.html HTTP/1.1 COPY /~fielding/index.html HTTP/1.1
Host: www.ics.uci.edu Host: www.ics.uci.edu
Destination: http://www.ics.uci.edu/users/f/fielding/index.html Destination: http://www.ics.uci.edu/users/f/fielding/index.html
>>Response >>Response
HTTP/1.1 204 No Content HTTP/1.1 204 No Content
8.8.7 Example - COPY with No Overwrite 8.8.7 Example - COPY with No Overwrite
The following example shows the same copy operation being performed, The following example shows the same copy operation being performed,
but with the Overwrite header set to "F." A response of 412 but with the Overwrite header set to "F." A response of 412
(Precondition Failed) is returned because the destination resource (Precondition Failed) is returned because the destination resource
has a non-null state. has a non-null state.
>>Request >>Request
COPY /~fielding/index.html HTTP/1.1 COPY /~fielding/index.html HTTP/1.1
Host: www.ics.uci.edu Host: www.ics.uci.edu
skipping to change at page 39, line 46 skipping to change at page 41, line 4
but with the Overwrite header set to "F." A response of 412 but with the Overwrite header set to "F." A response of 412
(Precondition Failed) is returned because the destination resource (Precondition Failed) is returned because the destination resource
has a non-null state. has a non-null state.
>>Request >>Request
COPY /~fielding/index.html HTTP/1.1 COPY /~fielding/index.html HTTP/1.1
Host: www.ics.uci.edu Host: www.ics.uci.edu
Destination: http://www.ics.uci.edu/users/f/fielding/index.html Destination: http://www.ics.uci.edu/users/f/fielding/index.html
Overwrite: F Overwrite: F
>>Response >>Response
HTTP/1.1 412 Precondition Failed HTTP/1.1 412 Precondition Failed
8.8.8 Example - COPY of a Collection 8.8.8 Example - COPY of a Collection
>>Request >>Request
COPY /container/ HTTP/1.1 COPY /container/ HTTP/1.1
Host: www.foo.bar Host: www.foo.bar
Destination: http://www.foo.bar/othercontainer/ Destination: http://www.foo.bar/othercontainer/
Depth: infinity Depth: infinity
Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8" Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8"
Content-Length: xxxx Content-Length: xxxx
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<d:propertybehavior xmlns:d="DAV:"> <d:propertybehavior xmlns:d="DAV:">
<d:keepalive>*</d:keepalive> <d:keepalive>*</d:keepalive>
</d:propertybehavior> </d:propertybehavior>
>>Response >>Response
HTTP/1.1 207 Multi-Status HTTP/1.1 207 Multi-Status
Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8" Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8"
Content-Length: xxxx Content-Length: xxxx
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<d:multistatus xmlns:d="DAV:"> <d:multistatus xmlns:d="DAV:">
<d:response> <d:response>
<d:href>http://www.foo.bar/othercontainer/R2/</d:href> <d:href>http://www.foo.bar/othercontainer/R2/</d:href>
<d:status>HTTP/1.1 412 Precondition Failed</d:status> <d:status>HTTP/1.1 412 Precondition Failed</d:status>
</d:response> </d:response>
</d:multistatus> </d:multistatus>
The Depth header is unnecessary as the default behavior of COPY on a The Depth header is unnecessary as the default behavior of COPY on a
collection is to act as if a "Depth: infinity" header had been collection is to act as if a "Depth: infinity" header had been
submitted. In this example most of the resources, along with the submitted. In this example most of the resources, along with the
collection, were copied successfully. However the collection R2 collection, were copied successfully. However the collection R2
failed, most likely due to a problem with maintaining the liveness failed, most likely due to a problem with maintaining the liveness of
of properties (this is specified by the propertybehavior XML properties (this is specified by the propertybehavior XML element).
element). Because there was an error copying R2, none of R2's Because there was an error copying R2, none of R2's members were
members were copied. However no errors were listed for those copied. However no errors were listed for those members due to the
members due to the error minimization rules given in section 8.8.3. error minimization rules given in section 8.8.3.
8.9 MOVE Method 8.9 MOVE Method
The MOVE operation on a non-collection resource is the logical The MOVE operation on a non-collection resource is the logical
equivalent of a copy (COPY), followed by consistency maintenance equivalent of a copy (COPY), followed by consistency maintenance
processing, followed by a delete of the source, where all three processing, followed by a delete of the source, where all three
actions are performed atomically. The consistency maintenance step actions are performed atomically. The consistency maintenance step
allows the server to perform updates caused by the move, such as allows the server to perform updates caused by the move, such as
updating all URIs other than the Request-URI which identify the updating all URIs other than the Request-URI which identify the
source resource, to point to the new destination resource. source resource, to point to the new destination resource.
Consequently, the Destination header MUST be present on all MOVE Consequently, the Destination header MUST be present on all MOVE
methods and MUST follow all COPY requirements for the COPY part of methods and MUST follow all COPY requirements for the COPY part of
the MOVE method. All DAV compliant resources MUST support the MOVE the MOVE method. All DAV compliant resources MUST support the MOVE
method. However, support for the MOVE method does not guarantee the method. However, support for the MOVE method does not guarantee the
ability to move a resource to a particular destination. ability to move a resource to a particular destination.
For example, separate programs may actually control different sets For example, separate programs may actually control different sets of
of resources on the same server. Therefore, it may not be possible resources on the same server. Therefore, it may not be possible to
to move a resource within a namespace that appears to belong to the move a resource within a namespace that appears to belong to the same
same server. server.
If a resource exists at the destination, the destination resource If a resource exists at the destination, the destination resource
will be DELETEd as a side-effect of the MOVE operation, subject to will be DELETEd as a side-effect of the MOVE operation, subject to
the restrictions of the Overwrite header. the restrictions of the Overwrite header.
8.9.1 MOVE for Properties 8.9.1 MOVE for Properties
The behavior of properties on a MOVE, including the effects of the The behavior of properties on a MOVE, including the effects of the
propertybehavior XML element, MUST be the same as specified in propertybehavior XML element, MUST be the same as specified in
section 8.8.2. section 8.8.2.
8.9.2 MOVE for Collections 8.9.2 MOVE for Collections
A MOVE with "Depth: infinity" instructs that the collection A MOVE with "Depth: infinity" instructs that the collection
identified by the Request-URI be moved to the URI specified in the identified by the Request-URI be moved to the URI specified in the
Destination header, and all resources identified by its internal Destination header, and all resources identified by its internal
member URIs are to be moved to locations relative to it, recursively member URIs are to be moved to locations relative to it, recursively
through all levels of the collection hierarchy. through all levels of the collection hierarchy.
The MOVE method on a collection MUST act as if a "Depth: infinity" The MOVE method on a collection MUST act as if a "Depth: infinity"
header was used on it. A client MUST NOT submit a Depth header on a header was used on it. A client MUST NOT submit a Depth header on a
MOVE on a collection with any value but "infinity". MOVE on a collection with any value but "infinity".
Any headers included with MOVE MUST be applied in processing every Any headers included with MOVE MUST be applied in processing every
resource to be moved with the exception of the Destination header. resource to be moved with the exception of the Destination header.
The behavior of the Destination header is the same as given for COPY The behavior of the Destination header is the same as given for COPY
on collections. on collections.
When the MOVE method has completed processing it MUST have created a When the MOVE method has completed processing it MUST have created a
consistent namespace at both the source and destination (see section consistent namespace at both the source and destination (see section
5.1 for the definition of namespace consistency). However, if an 5.1 for the definition of namespace consistency). However, if an
error occurs while moving an internal collection, the server MUST error occurs while moving an internal collection, the server MUST NOT
NOT move any resources identified by members of the failed move any resources identified by members of the failed collection
collection (i.e., the server must skip the error-causing subtree), (i.e., the server must skip the error-causing subtree), as this would
as this would create an inconsistent namespace. In this case, after create an inconsistent namespace. In this case, after detecting the
detecting the error, the move operation SHOULD try to finish as much error, the move operation SHOULD try to finish as much of the
of the original move as possible (i.e., the server should still original move as possible (i.e., the server should still attempt to
attempt to move other subtrees and the resources identified by their move other subtrees and the resources identified by their members,
members, that are not descendents of an error-causing collection). that are not descendents of an error-causing collection). So, for
So, for example, if an infinite depth move is performed on example, if an infinite depth move is performed on collection /a/,
collection /a/, which contains collections /a/b/ and /a/c/, and an which contains collections /a/b/ and /a/c/, and an error occurs
error occurs moving /a/b/, an attempt should still be made to try moving /a/b/, an attempt should still be made to try moving /a/c/.
moving /a/c/. Similarly, after encountering an error moving a non- Similarly, after encountering an error moving a non-collection
collection resource as part of an infinite depth move, the server resource as part of an infinite depth move, the server SHOULD try to
SHOULD try to finish as much of the original move operation as finish as much of the original move operation as possible.
possible.
If an error occurs with a resource other than the resource If an error occurs with a resource other than the resource identified
identified in the Request-URI then the response MUST be a 207 in the Request-URI then the response MUST be a 207 (Multi-Status).
(Multi-Status).
The 424 (Failed Dependency) status code SHOULD NOT be returned in The 424 (Failed Dependency) status code SHOULD NOT be returned in the
the 207 (Multi-Status) response from a MOVE method. These errors 207 (Multi-Status) response from a MOVE method. These errors can be
can be safely omitted because the client will know that the progeny safely omitted because the client will know that the progeny of a
of a resource could not be moved when the client receives an error resource could not be moved when the client receives an error for the
for the parent. Additionally 201 (Created)/204 (No Content) parent. Additionally 201 (Created)/204 (No Content) responses SHOULD
responses SHOULD NOT be returned as values in 207 (Multi-Status) NOT be returned as values in 207 (Multi-Status) responses from a
responses from a MOVE. These responses can be safely omitted MOVE. These responses can be safely omitted because they are the
because they are the default success codes. default success codes.
8.9.3 MOVE and the Overwrite Header 8.9.3 MOVE and the Overwrite Header
If a resource exists at the destination and the Overwrite header is If a resource exists at the destination and the Overwrite header is
"T" then prior to performing the move the server MUST perform a "T" then prior to performing the move the server MUST perform a
DELETE with "Depth: infinity" on the destination resource. If the DELETE with "Depth: infinity" on the destination resource. If the
Overwrite header is set to "F" then the operation will fail. Overwrite header is set to "F" then the operation will fail.
8.9.4 Status Codes 8.9.4 Status Codes
201 (Created) - The source resource was successfully moved, and a 201 (Created) - The source resource was successfully moved, and a new
new resource was created at the destination. resource was created at the destination.
204 (No Content) - The source resource was successfully moved to a 204 (No Content) - The source resource was successfully moved to a
pre-existing destination resource. pre-existing destination resource.
403 (Forbidden) _ The source and destination URIs are the same. 403 (Forbidden) _ The source and destination URIs are the same.
409 (Conflict) _ A resource cannot be created at the destination 409 (Conflict) _ A resource cannot be created at the destination
until one or more intermediate collections have been created. until one or more intermediate collections have been created.
412 (Precondition Failed) - The server was unable to maintain the 412 (Precondition Failed) - The server was unable to maintain the
liveness of the properties listed in the propertybehavior XML liveness of the properties listed in the propertybehavior XML element
element or the Overwrite header is "F" and the state of the or the Overwrite header is "F" and the state of the destination
destination resource is non-null. resource is non-null.
423 (Locked) - The source or the destination resource was locked. 423 (Locked) - The source or the destination resource was locked.
502 (Bad Gateway) - This may occur when the destination is on 502 (Bad Gateway) - This may occur when the destination is on another
another server and the destination server refuses to accept the server and the destination server refuses to accept the resource.
resource.
8.9.5 Example - MOVE of a Non-Collection 8.9.5 Example - MOVE of a Non-Collection
This example shows resource This example shows resource
http://www.ics.uci.edu/~fielding/index.html being moved to the http://www.ics.uci.edu/~fielding/index.html being moved to the
location http://www.ics.uci.edu/users/f/fielding/index.html. The location http://www.ics.uci.edu/users/f/fielding/index.html. The
contents of the destination resource would have been overwritten if contents of the destination resource would have been overwritten if
the destination resource had been non-null. In this case, since the destination resource had been non-null. In this case, since
there was nothing at the destination resource, the response code is there was nothing at the destination resource, the response code is
201 (Created). 201 (Created).
>>Request >>Request
MOVE /~fielding/index.html HTTP/1.1 MOVE /~fielding/index.html HTTP/1.1
Host: www.ics.uci.edu Host: www.ics.uci.edu
Destination: http://www.ics.uci.edu/users/f/fielding/index.html Destination: http://www.ics.uci.edu/users/f/fielding/index.html
>>Response >>Response
HTTP/1.1 201 Created HTTP/1.1 201 Created
Location: http://www.ics.uci.edu/users/f/fielding/index.html Location: http://www.ics.uci.edu/users/f/fielding/index.html
8.9.6 Example - MOVE of a Collection 8.9.6 Example - MOVE of a Collection
>>Request >>Request
MOVE /container/ HTTP/1.1 MOVE /container/ HTTP/1.1
Host: www.foo.bar Host: www.foo.bar
Destination: http://www.foo.bar/othercontainer/ Destination: http://www.foo.bar/othercontainer/
Overwrite: F Overwrite: F
If: (<opaquelocktoken:fe184f2e-6eec-41d0-c765-01adc56e6bb4>) If: (<opaquelocktoken:fe184f2e-6eec-41d0-c765-01adc56e6bb4>)
(<opaquelocktoken:e454f3f3-acdc-452a-56c7-00a5c91e4b77>) (<opaquelocktoken:e454f3f3-acdc-452a-56c7-00a5c91e4b77>)
Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8" Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8"
skipping to change at page 44, line 4 skipping to change at page 45, line 22
Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8" Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8"
Content-Length: xxxx Content-Length: xxxx
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<d:multistatus xmlns:d='DAV:'> <d:multistatus xmlns:d='DAV:'>
<d:response> <d:response>
<d:href>http://www.foo.bar/othercontainer/C2/</d:href> <d:href>http://www.foo.bar/othercontainer/C2/</d:href>
<d:status>HTTP/1.1 423 Locked</d:status> <d:status>HTTP/1.1 423 Locked</d:status>
</d:response> </d:response>
</d:multistatus> </d:multistatus>
In this example the client has submitted a number of lock tokens
with the request. A lock token will need to be submitted for every In this example the client has submitted a number of lock tokens with
the request. A lock token will need to be submitted for every
resource, both source and destination, anywhere in the scope of the resource, both source and destination, anywhere in the scope of the
method, that is locked. In this case the proper lock token was not method, that is locked. In this case the proper lock token was not
submitted for the destination http://www.foo.bar/othercontainer/C2/. submitted for the destination http://www.foo.bar/othercontainer/C2/.
This means that the resource /container/C2/ could not be moved. This means that the resource /container/C2/ could not be moved.
Because there was an error copying /container/C2/, none of Because there was an error copying /container/C2/, none of
/container/C2's members were copied. However no errors were listed /container/C2's members were copied. However no errors were listed
for those members due to the error minimization rules given in for those members due to the error minimization rules given in
section 8.8.3. User agent authentication has previously occurred section 8.8.3. User agent authentication has previously occurred via
via a mechanism outside the scope of the HTTP protocol, in an a mechanism outside the scope of the HTTP protocol, in an underlying
underlying transport layer. transport layer.
8.10 LOCK Method 8.10 LOCK Method
The following sections describe the LOCK method, which is used to The following sections describe the LOCK method, which is used to
take out a lock of any access type. These sections on the LOCK take out a lock of any access type. These sections on the LOCK
method describe only those semantics that are specific to the LOCK method describe only those semantics that are specific to the LOCK
method and are independent of the access type of the lock being method and are independent of the access type of the lock being
requested. requested.
Any resource which supports the LOCK method MUST, at minimum, Any resource which supports the LOCK method MUST, at minimum, support
support the XML request and response formats defined herein. the XML request and response formats defined herein.
8.10.1 Operation 8.10.1 Operation
A LOCK method invocation creates the lock specified by the lockinfo A LOCK method invocation creates the lock specified by the lockinfo
XML element on the Request-URI. Lock method requests SHOULD have a XML element on the Request-URI. Lock method requests SHOULD have a
XML request body which contains an owner XML element for this lock XML request body which contains an owner XML element for this lock
request, unless this is a refresh request. The LOCK request may have request, unless this is a refresh request. The LOCK request may have
a Timeout header. a Timeout header.
Clients MUST assume that locks may arbitrarily disappear at any Clients MUST assume that locks may arbitrarily disappear at any time,
time, regardless of the value given in the Timeout header. The regardless of the value given in the Timeout header. The Timeout
Timeout header only indicates the behavior of the server if header only indicates the behavior of the server if "extraordinary"
"extraordinary" circumstances do not occur. For example, an circumstances do not occur. For example, an administrator may remove
administrator may remove a lock at any time or the system may crash a lock at any time or the system may crash in such a way that it
in such a way that it loses the record of the lock's existence. The loses the record of the lock's existence. The response MUST contain
response MUST contain the value of the lockdiscovery property in a the value of the lockdiscovery property in a prop XML element.
prop XML element.
In order to indicate the lock token associated with a newly created In order to indicate the lock token associated with a newly created
lock, a Lock-Token response header MUST be included in the response lock, a Lock-Token response header MUST be included in the response
for every successful LOCK request for a new lock. Note that the for every successful LOCK request for a new lock. Note that the
Lock-Token header would not be returned in the response for a Lock-Token header would not be returned in the response for a
successful refresh LOCK request because a new lock was not created. successful refresh LOCK request because a new lock was not created.
8.10.2 The Effect of Locks on Properties and Collections 8.10.2 The Effect of Locks on Properties and Collections
The scope of a lock is the entire state of the resource, including The scope of a lock is the entire state of the resource, including
its body and associated properties. As a result, a lock on a its body and associated properties. As a result, a lock on a
resource MUST also lock the resource's properties. resource MUST also lock the resource's properties.
For collections, a lock also affects the ability to add or remove For collections, a lock also affects the ability to add or remove
members. The nature of the effect depends upon the type of access members. The nature of the effect depends upon the type of access
control involved. control involved.
8.10.3 Locking Replicated Resources 8.10.3 Locking Replicated Resources
A resource may be made available through more than one URI. However A resource may be made available through more than one URI. However
locks apply to resources, not URIs. Therefore a LOCK request on a locks apply to resources, not URIs. Therefore a LOCK request on a
resource MUST NOT succeed if can not be honored by all the URIs resource MUST NOT succeed if can not be honored by all the URIs
through which the resource is addressable. through which the resource is addressable.
8.10.4 Depth and Locking 8.10.4 Depth and Locking
The Depth header may be used with the LOCK method. Values other The Depth header may be used with the LOCK method. Values other than
than 0 or infinity MUST NOT be used with the Depth header on a LOCK 0 or infinity MUST NOT be used with the Depth header on a LOCK
method. All resources that support the LOCK method MUST support the method. All resources that support the LOCK method MUST support the
Depth header. Depth header.
A Depth header of value 0 means to just lock the resource specified A Depth header of value 0 means to just lock the resource specified
by the Request-URI. by the Request-URI.
If the Depth header is set to infinity then the resource specified If the Depth header is set to infinity then the resource specified in
in the Request-URI along with all its internal members, all the way the Request-URI along with all its internal members, all the way down
down the hierarchy, are to be locked. A successful result MUST the hierarchy, are to be locked. A successful result MUST return a
return a single lock token which represents all the resources that single lock token which represents all the resources that have been
have been locked. If an UNLOCK is successfully executed on this locked. If an UNLOCK is successfully executed on this token, all
token, all associated resources are unlocked. If the lock cannot be associated resources are unlocked. If the lock cannot be granted to
granted to all resources, a 409 (Conflict) status code MUST be all resources, a 409 (Conflict) status code MUST be returned with a
returned with a response entity body containing a multistatus XML response entity body containing a multistatus XML element describing
element describing which resource(s) prevented the lock from being which resource(s) prevented the lock from being granted. Hence,
granted. Hence, partial success is not an option. Either the partial success is not an option. Either the entire hierarchy is
entire hierarchy is locked or no resources are locked. locked or no resources are locked.
If no Depth header is submitted on a LOCK request then the request If no Depth header is submitted on a LOCK request then the request
MUST act as if a "Depth:infinity" had been submitted. MUST act as if a "Depth:infinity" had been submitted.
8.10.5 Interaction with other Methods 8.10.5 Interaction with other Methods
The interaction of a LOCK with various methods is dependent upon the The interaction of a LOCK with various methods is dependent upon the
lock type. However, independent of lock type, a successful DELETE lock type. However, independent of lock type, a successful DELETE of
of a resource MUST cause all of its locks to be removed. a resource MUST cause all of its locks to be removed.
8.10.6 Lock Compatibility Table 8.10.6 Lock Compatibility Table
The table below describes the behavior that occurs when a lock The table below describes the behavior that occurs when a lock
request is made on a resource. request is made on a resource.
Current lock state/ | Shared Lock | Exclusive Current lock state/ | Shared Lock | Exclusive
Lock request | | Lock Lock request | | Lock
=====================+=================+============== =====================+=================+==============
None | True | True None | True | True
---------------------+-----------------+-------------- ---------------------+-----------------+--------------
Shared Lock | True | False Shared Lock | True | False
---------------------+-----------------+-------------- ---------------------+-----------------+--------------
Exclusive Lock | False | False* Exclusive Lock | False | False*
------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------
Legend: True = lock may be granted. False = lock MUST NOT be Legend: True = lock may be granted. False = lock MUST NOT be
granted. *=It is illegal for a principal to request the same lock granted. *=It is illegal for a principal to request the same lock
twice. twice.
The current lock state of a resource is given in the leftmost The current lock state of a resource is given in the leftmost column,
column, and lock requests are listed in the first row. The and lock requests are listed in the first row. The intersection of a
intersection of a row and column gives the result of a lock request. row and column gives the result of a lock request. For example, if a
For example, if a shared lock is held on a resource, and an shared lock is held on a resource, and an exclusive lock is
exclusive lock is requested, the table entry is "false", indicating requested, the table entry is "false", indicating the lock must not
the lock must not be granted. be granted.
8.10.7 Status Codes 8.10.7 Status Codes
200 (OK) - The lock request succeeded and the value of the 200 (OK) - The lock request succeeded and the value of the
lockdiscovery property is included in the body. lockdiscovery property is included in the body.
412 (Precondition Failed) - The included lock token was not 412 (Precondition Failed) - The included lock token was not
enforceable on this resource or the server could not satisfy the enforceable on this resource or the server could not satisfy the
request in the lockinfo XML element. request in the lockinfo XML element.
423 (Locked) - The resource is locked, so the method has been 423 (Locked) - The resource is locked, so the method has been
rejected. rejected.
8.10.8 Example - Simple Lock Request 8.10.8 Example - Simple Lock Request
>>Request >>Request
LOCK /workspace/webdav/proposal.doc HTTP/1.1 LOCK /workspace/webdav/proposal.doc HTTP/1.1
Host: webdav.sb.aol.com Host: webdav.sb.aol.com
Timeout: Infinite, Second-4100000000 Timeout: Infinite, Second-4100000000
Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8" Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8"
Content-Length: xxxx Content-Length: xxxx
Authorization: Digest username="ejw", Authorization: Digest username="ejw",
realm="ejw@webdav.sb.aol.com", nonce="...", realm="ejw@webdav.sb.aol.com", nonce="...",
skipping to change at page 48, line 4 skipping to change at page 49, line 18
</D:owner> </D:owner>
<D:timeout>Second-604800</D:timeout> <D:timeout>Second-604800</D:timeout>
<D:locktoken> <D:locktoken>
<D:href> <D:href>
opaquelocktoken:e71d4fae-5dec-22d6-fea5-00a0c91e6be4 opaquelocktoken:e71d4fae-5dec-22d6-fea5-00a0c91e6be4
</D:href> </D:href>
</D:locktoken> </D:locktoken>
</D:activelock> </D:activelock>
</D:lockdiscovery> </D:lockdiscovery>
</D:prop> </D:prop>
This example shows the successful creation of an exclusive write
lock on resource This example shows the successful creation of an exclusive write lock
http://webdav.sb.aol.com/workspace/webdav/proposal.doc. The on resource http://webdav.sb.aol.com/workspace/webdav/proposal.doc.
resource http://www.ics.uci.edu/~ejw/contact.html contains contact The resource http://www.ics.uci.edu/~ejw/contact.html contains
information for the owner of the lock. The server has an activity- contact information for the owner of the lock. The server has an
based timeout policy in place on this resource, which causes the activity-based timeout policy in place on this resource, which causes
lock to automatically be removed after 1 week (604800 seconds). the lock to automatically be removed after 1 week (604800 seconds).
Note that the nonce, response, and opaque fields have not been Note that the nonce, response, and opaque fields have not been
calculated in the Authorization request header. calculated in the Authorization request header.
8.10.9 Example - Refreshing a Write Lock 8.10.9 Example - Refreshing a Write Lock
>>Request >>Request
LOCK /workspace/webdav/proposal.doc HTTP/1.1 LOCK /workspace/webdav/proposal.doc HTTP/1.1
Host: webdav.sb.aol.com Host: webdav.sb.aol.com
Timeout: Infinite, Second-4100000000 Timeout: Infinite, Second-4100000000
If: (<opaquelocktoken:e71d4fae-5dec-22d6-fea5-00a0c91e6be4>) If: (<opaquelocktoken:e71d4fae-5dec-22d6-fea5-00a0c91e6be4>)
Authorization: Digest username="ejw", Authorization: Digest username="ejw",
realm="ejw@webdav.sb.aol.com", nonce="...", realm="ejw@webdav.sb.aol.com", nonce="...",
uri="/workspace/webdav/proposal.doc", uri="/workspace/webdav/proposal.doc",
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</D:owner> </D:owner>
<D:timeout>Second-604800</D:timeout> <D:timeout>Second-604800</D:timeout>
<D:locktoken> <D:locktoken>
<D:href> <D:href>
opaquelocktoken:e71d4fae-5dec-22d6-fea5-00a0c91e6be4 opaquelocktoken:e71d4fae-5dec-22d6-fea5-00a0c91e6be4
</D:href> </D:href>
</D:locktoken> </D:locktoken>
</D:activelock> </D:activelock>
</D:lockdiscovery> </D:lockdiscovery>
</D:prop> </D:prop>
This request would refresh the lock, resetting any time outs.
Notice that the client asked for an infinite time out but the server
choose to ignore the request. In this example, the nonce, response,
and opaque fields have not been calculated in the Authorization
request header.
8.10.10 Example - Multi-Resource Lock Request This request would refresh the lock, resetting any time outs. Notice
that the client asked for an infinite time out but the server choose
to ignore the request. In this example, the nonce, response, and
opaque fields have not been calculated in the Authorization request
header.
8.10.10 Example - Multi-Resource Lock Request
>>Request >>Request
LOCK /webdav/ HTTP/1.1 LOCK /webdav/ HTTP/1.1
Host: webdav.sb.aol.com Host: webdav.sb.aol.com
Timeout: Infinite, Second-4100000000 Timeout: Infinite, Second-4100000000
Depth: infinity Depth: infinity
Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8" Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8"
Content-Length: xxxx Content-Length: xxxx
Authorization: Digest username="ejw", Authorization: Digest username="ejw",
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<D:status>HTTP/1.1 403 Forbidden</D:status> <D:status>HTTP/1.1 403 Forbidden</D:status>
</D:response> </D:response>
<D:response> <D:response>
<D:href>http://webdav.sb.aol.com/webdav/</D:href> <D:href>http://webdav.sb.aol.com/webdav/</D:href>
<D:propstat> <D:propstat>
<D:prop><D:lockdiscovery/></D:prop> <D:prop><D:lockdiscovery/></D:prop>
<D:status>HTTP/1.1 424 Failed Dependency</D:status> <D:status>HTTP/1.1 424 Failed Dependency</D:status>
</D:propstat> </D:propstat>
</D:response> </D:response>
</D:multistatus> </D:multistatus>
This example shows a request for an exclusive write lock on a This example shows a request for an exclusive write lock on a
collection and all its children. In this request, the client has collection and all its children. In this request, the client has
specified that it desires an infinite length lock, if available, specified that it desires an infinite length lock, if available,
otherwise a timeout of 4.1 billion seconds, if available. The otherwise a timeout of 4.1 billion seconds, if available. The request
request entity body contains the contact information for the entity body contains the contact information for the principal taking
principal taking out the lock, in this case a web page URL. out the lock, in this case a web page URL.
The error is a 403 (Forbidden) response on the resource The error is a 403 (Forbidden) response on the resource
http://webdav.sb.aol.com/webdav/secret. Because this resource could http://webdav.sb.aol.com/webdav/secret. Because this resource could
not be locked, none of the resources were locked. Note also that not be locked, none of the resources were locked. Note also that the
the lockdiscovery property for the Request-URI has been included as lockdiscovery property for the Request-URI has been included as
required. In this example the lockdiscovery property is empty which required. In this example the lockdiscovery property is empty which
means that there are no outstanding locks on the resource. means that there are no outstanding locks on the resource.
In this example, the nonce, response, and opaque fields have not In this example, the nonce, response, and opaque fields have not been
been calculated in the Authorization request header. calculated in the Authorization request header.
8.11 UNLOCK Method 8.11 UNLOCK Method
The UNLOCK method removes the lock identified by the lock token in The UNLOCK method removes the lock identified by the lock token in
the Lock-Token request header from the Request-URI, and all other the Lock-Token request header from the Request-URI, and all other
resources included in the lock. If all resources which have been resources included in the lock. If all resources which have been
locked under the submitted lock token can not be unlocked then the locked under the submitted lock token can not be unlocked then the
UNLOCK request MUST fail. UNLOCK request MUST fail.
Any DAV compliant resource which supports the LOCK method MUST Any DAV compliant resource which supports the LOCK method MUST
support the UNLOCK method. support the UNLOCK method.
8.11.1 Example - UNLOCK 8.11.1 Example - UNLOCK
>>Request >>Request
UNLOCK /workspace/webdav/info.doc HTTP/1.1 UNLOCK /workspace/webdav/info.doc HTTP/1.1
Host: webdav.sb.aol.com Host: webdav.sb.aol.com
Lock-Token: <opaquelocktoken:a515cfa4-5da4-22e1-f5b5-00a0451e6bf7> Lock-Token: <opaquelocktoken:a515cfa4-5da4-22e1-f5b5-00a0451e6bf7>
Authorization: Digest username="ejw", Authorization: Digest username="ejw",
realm="ejw@webdav.sb.aol.com", nonce="...", realm="ejw@webdav.sb.aol.com", nonce="...",
uri="/workspace/webdav/proposal.doc", uri="/workspace/webdav/proposal.doc",
response="...", opaque="..." response="...", opaque="..."
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HTTP/1.1 204 No Content HTTP/1.1 204 No Content
In this example, the lock identified by the lock token In this example, the lock identified by the lock token
"opaquelocktoken:a515cfa4-5da4-22e1-f5b5-00a0451e6bf7" is "opaquelocktoken:a515cfa4-5da4-22e1-f5b5-00a0451e6bf7" is
successfully removed from the resource successfully removed from the resource
http://webdav.sb.aol.com/workspace/webdav/info.doc. If this lock http://webdav.sb.aol.com/workspace/webdav/info.doc. If this lock
included more than just one resource, the lock is removed from all included more than just one resource, the lock is removed from all
resources included in the lock. The 204 (No Content) status code is resources included in the lock. The 204 (No Content) status code is
used instead of 200 (OK) because there is no response entity body. used instead of 200 (OK) because there is no response entity body.
In this example, the nonce, response, and opaque fields have not In this example, the nonce, response, and opaque fields have not been
been calculated in the Authorization request header. calculated in the Authorization request header.
9 HTTP Headers for Distributed Authoring 9 HTTP Headers for Distributed Authoring
9.1 DAV Header 9.1 DAV Header
DAV = "DAV" ":" "1" ["," "2"] ["," 1#extend] DAV = "DAV" ":" "1" ["," "2"] ["," 1#extend]
This header indicates that the resource supports the DAV schema and This header indicates that the resource supports the DAV schema and
protocol as specified. All DAV compliant resources MUST return the protocol as specified. All DAV compliant resources MUST return the
DAV header on all OPTIONS responses. DAV header on all OPTIONS responses.
The value is a list of all compliance classes that the resource The value is a list of all compliance classes that the resource
supports. Note that above a comma has already been added to the 2. supports. Note that above a comma has already been added to the 2.
This is because a resource can not be level 2 compliant unless it is This is because a resource can not be level 2 compliant unless it is
also level 1 compliant. Please refer to section 15 for more details. also level 1 compliant. Please refer to section 15 for more details.
In general, however, support for one compliance class does not In general, however, support for one compliance class does not entail
entail support for any other. support for any other.
9.2 Depth Header 9.2 Depth Header
Depth = "Depth" ":" ("0" | "1" | "infinity") Depth = "Depth" ":" ("0" | "1" | "infinity")
The Depth header is used with methods executed on resources which The Depth header is used with methods executed on resources which
could potentially have internal members to indicate whether the could potentially have internal members to indicate whether the
method is to be applied only to the resource ("Depth: 0"), to the method is to be applied only to the resource ("Depth: 0"), to the
resource and its immediate children, ("Depth: 1"), or the resource resource and its immediate children, ("Depth: 1"), or the resource
and all its progeny ("Depth: infinity"). and all its progeny ("Depth: infinity").
The Depth header is only supported if a method's definition The Depth header is only supported if a method's definition
explicitly provides for such support. explicitly provides for such support.
The following rules are the default behavior for any method that The following rules are the default behavior for any method that
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The Depth header is only supported if a method's definition The Depth header is only supported if a method's definition
explicitly provides for such support. explicitly provides for such support.
The following rules are the default behavior for any method that The following rules are the default behavior for any method that
supports the Depth header. A method may override these defaults by supports the Depth header. A method may override these defaults by
defining different behavior in its definition. defining different behavior in its definition.
Methods which support the Depth header may choose not to support all Methods which support the Depth header may choose not to support all
of the header's values and may define, on a case by case basis, the of the header's values and may define, on a case by case basis, the
behavior of the method if a Depth header is not present. For behavior of the method if a Depth header is not present. For example,
example, the MOVE method only supports "Depth: infinity" and if a the MOVE method only supports "Depth: infinity" and if a Depth header
Depth header is not present will act as if a "Depth: infinity" is not present will act as if a "Depth: infinity" header had been
header had been applied. applied.
Clients MUST NOT rely upon methods executing on members of their Clients MUST NOT rely upon methods executing on members of their
hierarchies in any particular order or on the execution being atomic hierarchies in any particular order or on the execution being atomic
unless the particular method explicitly provides such guarantees. unless the particular method explicitly provides such guarantees.
Upon execution, a method with a Depth header will perform as much of Upon execution, a method with a Depth header will perform as much of
its assigned task as possible and then return a response specifying its assigned task as possible and then return a response specifying
what it was able to accomplish and what it failed to do. what it was able to accomplish and what it failed to do.
So, for example, an attempt to COPY a hierarchy may result in some So, for example, an attempt to COPY a hierarchy may result in some of
of the members being copied and some not. the members being copied and some not.
Any headers on a method that has a defined interaction with the Any headers on a method that has a defined interaction with the Depth
Depth header MUST be applied to all resources in the scope of the header MUST be applied to all resources in the scope of the method
method except where alternative behavior is explicitly defined. For except where alternative behavior is explicitly defined. For example,
example, an If-Match header will have its value applied against an If-Match header will have its value applied against every resource
every resource in the method's scope and will cause the method to in the method's scope and will cause the method to fail if the header
fail if the header fails to match. fails to match.
If a resource, source or destination, within the scope of the method If a resource, source or destination, within the scope of the method
with a Depth header is locked in such a way as to prevent the with a Depth header is locked in such a way as to prevent the
successful execution of the method, then the lock token for that successful execution of the method, then the lock token for that
resource MUST be submitted with the request in the If request resource MUST be submitted with the request in the If request header.
header.
The Depth header only specifies the behavior of the method with The Depth header only specifies the behavior of the method with
regards to internal children. If a resource does not have internal regards to internal children. If a resource does not have internal
children then the Depth header MUST be ignored. children then the Depth header MUST be ignored.
Please note, however, that it is always an error to submit a value Please note, however, that it is always an error to submit a value
for the Depth header that is not allowed by the method's definition. for the Depth header that is not allowed by the method's definition.
Thus submitting a "Depth: 1" on a COPY, even if the resource does Thus submitting a "Depth: 1" on a COPY, even if the resource does not
not have internal members, will result in a 400 (Bad Request). The have internal members, will result in a 400 (Bad Request). The method
method should fail not because the resource doesn't have internal should fail not because the resource doesn't have internal members,
members, but because of the illegal value in the header. but because of the illegal value in the header.
9.3 Destination Header 9.3 Destination Header
Destination = "Destination" ":" absoluteURI Destination = "Destination" ":" absoluteURI
The Destination header specifies the URI which identifies a The Destination header specifies the URI which identifies a
destination resource for methods such as COPY and MOVE, which take destination resource for methods such as COPY and MOVE, which take
two URIs as parameters. Note that the absoluteURI production is two URIs as parameters. Note that the absoluteURI production is
defined in [RFC2396]. defined in [RFC2396].
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information, referred to as a state token, about a resource as well information, referred to as a state token, about a resource as well
as ETags. A typical example of a state token is a lock token, and as ETags. A typical example of a state token is a lock token, and
lock tokens are the only state tokens defined in this specification. lock tokens are the only state tokens defined in this specification.
All DAV compliant resources MUST honor the If header. All DAV compliant resources MUST honor the If header.
The If header's purpose is to describe a series of state lists. If The If header's purpose is to describe a series of state lists. If
the state of the resource to which the header is applied does not the state of the resource to which the header is applied does not
match any of the specified state lists then the request MUST fail match any of the specified state lists then the request MUST fail
with a 412 (Precondition Failed). If one of the described state with a 412 (Precondition Failed). If one of the described state
lists matches the state of the resource then the request may lists matches the state of the resource then the request may succeed.
succeed.
Note that the absoluteURI production is defined in [RFC2396]. Note that the absoluteURI production is defined in [RFC2396].
9.4.1 No-tag-list Production 9.4.1 No-tag-list Production
The No-tag-list production describes a series of state tokens and The No-tag-list production describes a series of state tokens and
ETags. If multiple No-tag-list productions are used then one only ETags. If multiple No-tag-list productions are used then one only
needs to match the state of the resource for the method to be needs to match the state of the resource for the method to be allowed
allowed to continue. to continue.
If a method, due to the presence of a Depth or Destination header, If a method, due to the presence of a Depth or Destination header, is
is applied to multiple resources then the No-tag-list production applied to multiple resources then the No-tag-list production MUST be
MUST be applied to each resource the method is applied to. applied to each resource the method is applied to.
9.4.1.1 Example - No-tag-list If Header 9.4.1.1 Example - No-tag-list If Header
If: (<locktoken:a-write-lock-token> ["I am an ETag"]) (["I am If: (<locktoken:a-write-lock-token> ["I am an ETag"]) (["I am another
another ETag"]) ETag"])
The previous header would require that any resources within the The previous header would require that any resources within the scope
scope of the method must either be locked with the specified lock of the method must either be locked with the specified lock token and
token and in the state identified by the "I am an ETag" ETag or in in the state identified by the "I am an ETag" ETag or in the state
the state identified by the second ETag "I am another ETag". To put identified by the second ETag "I am another ETag". To put the matter
the matter more plainly one can think of the previous If header as more plainly one can think of the previous If header as being in the
being in the form (or (and <locktoken:a-write-lock-token> ["I am an form (or (and <locktoken:a-write-lock-token> ["I am an ETag"]) (and
ETag"]) (and ["I am another ETag"])). ["I am another ETag"])).
9.4.2 Tagged-list Production 9.4.2 Tagged-list Production
The tagged-list production scopes a list production. That is, it The tagged-list production scopes a list production. That is, it
specifies that the lists following the resource specification only specifies that the lists following the resource specification only
apply to the specified resource. The scope of the resource apply to the specified resource. The scope of the resource
production begins with the list production immediately following the production begins with the list production immediately following the
resource production and ends with the next resource production, if resource production and ends with the next resource production, if
any. any.
When the If header is applied to a particular resource, the Tagged- When the If header is applied to a particular resource, the Tagged-
list productions MUST be searched to determine if any of the listed list productions MUST be searched to determine if any of the listed
resources match the operand resource(s) for the current method. If resources match the operand resource(s) for the current method. If
none of the resource productions match the current resource then the none of the resource productions match the current resource then the
header MUST be ignored. If one of the resource productions does header MUST be ignored. If one of the resource productions does
match the name of the resource under consideration then the list match the name of the resource under consideration then the list
productions following the resource production MUST be applied to the productions following the resource production MUST be applied to the
resource in the manner specified in the previous section. resource in the manner specified in the previous section.
The same URI MUST NOT appear more than once in a resource production The same URI MUST NOT appear more than once in a resource production
in an If header. in an If header.
9.4.2.1 Example - Tagged List If header 9.4.2.1 Example - Tagged List If header
COPY /resource1 HTTP/1.1 COPY /resource1 HTTP/1.1
Host: www.foo.bar Host: www.foo.bar
Destination: http://www.foo.bar/resource2 Destination: http://www.foo.bar/resource2
If: <http://www.foo.bar/resource1> (<locktoken:a-write-lock-token> If: <http://www.foo.bar/resource1> (<locktoken:a-write-lock-token>
[W/"A weak ETag"]) (["strong ETag"]) [W/"A weak ETag"]) (["strong ETag"])
<http://www.bar.bar/random>(["another strong ETag"]) <http://www.bar.bar/random>(["another strong ETag"])
In this example http://www.foo.bar/resource1 is being copied to In this example http://www.foo.bar/resource1 is being copied to
http://www.foo.bar/resource2. When the method is first applied to http://www.foo.bar/resource2. When the method is first applied to
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specified by "(<locktoken:a-write-lock-token> [W/"A weak ETag"]) specified by "(<locktoken:a-write-lock-token> [W/"A weak ETag"])
(["strong ETag"])", that is, it either must be locked with a lock (["strong ETag"])", that is, it either must be locked with a lock
token of "locktoken:a-write-lock-token" and have a weak entity tag token of "locktoken:a-write-lock-token" and have a weak entity tag
W/"A weak ETag" or it must have a strong entity tag "strong ETag". W/"A weak ETag" or it must have a strong entity tag "strong ETag".
That is the only success condition since the resource That is the only success condition since the resource
http://www.bar.bar/random never has the method applied to it (the http://www.bar.bar/random never has the method applied to it (the
only other resource listed in the If header) and only other resource listed in the If header) and
http://www.foo.bar/resource2 is not listed in the If header. http://www.foo.bar/resource2 is not listed in the If header.
9.4.3 not Production 9.4.3 not Production
Every state token or ETag is either current, and hence describes the Every state token or ETag is either current, and hence describes the
state of a resource, or is not current, and does not describe the state of a resource, or is not current, and does not describe the
state of a resource. The boolean operation of matching a state token state of a resource. The boolean operation of matching a state token
or ETag to the current state of a resource thus resolves to a true or ETag to the current state of a resource thus resolves to a true or
or false value. The not production is used to reverse that value. false value. The not production is used to reverse that value. The
The scope of the not production is the state-token or entity-tag scope of the not production is the state-token or entity-tag
immediately following it. immediately following it.
If: (Not <locktoken:write1> <locktoken:write2>) If: (Not <locktoken:write1> <locktoken:write2>)
When submitted with a request, this If header requires that all When submitted with a request, this If header requires that all
operand resources must not be locked with locktoken:write1 and must operand resources must not be locked with locktoken:write1 and must
be locked with locktoken:write2. be locked with locktoken:write2.
9.4.4 Matching Function 9.4.4 Matching Function
When performing If header processing, the definition of a matching When performing If header processing, the definition of a matching
state token or entity tag is as follows. state token or entity tag is as follows.
Matching entity tag: Where the entity tag matches an entity tag Matching entity tag: Where the entity tag matches an entity tag
associated with that resource. associated with that resource.
Matching state token: Where there is an exact match between the Matching state token: Where there is an exact match between the state
state token in the If header and any state token on the resource. token in the If header and any state token on the resource.
9.4.5 If Header and Non-DAV Compliant Proxies 9.4.5 If Header and Non-DAV Compliant Proxies
Non-DAV compliant proxies will not honor the If header, since they Non-DAV compliant proxies will not honor the If header, since they
will not understand the If header, and HTTP requires non-understood will not understand the If header, and HTTP requires non-understood
headers to be ignored. When communicating with HTTP/1.1 proxies, headers to be ignored. When communicating with HTTP/1.1 proxies, the
the "Cache-Control: no-cache" request header MUST be used so as to "Cache-Control: no-cache" request header MUST be used so as to
prevent the proxy from improperly trying to service the request from prevent the proxy from improperly trying to service the request from
its cache. When dealing with HTTP/1.0 proxies the "Pragma: no- its cache. When dealing with HTTP/1.0 proxies the "Pragma: no-cache"
cache" request header MUST be used for the same reason. request header MUST be used for the same reason.
9.5 Lock-Token Header 9.5 Lock-Token Header
Lock-Token = "Lock-Token" ":" Coded-URL Lock-Token = "Lock-Token" ":" Coded-URL
The Lock-Token request header is used with the UNLOCK method to The Lock-Token request header is used with the UNLOCK method to
identify the lock to be removed. The lock token in the Lock-Token identify the lock to be removed. The lock token in the Lock-Token
request header MUST identify a lock that contains the resource request header MUST identify a lock that contains the resource
identified by Request-URI as a member. identified by Request-URI as a member.
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Overwrite = "Overwrite" ":" ("T" | "F") Overwrite = "Overwrite" ":" ("T" | "F")
The Overwrite header specifies whether the server should overwrite The Overwrite header specifies whether the server should overwrite
the state of a non-null destination resource during a COPY or MOVE. the state of a non-null destination resource during a COPY or MOVE.
A value of "F" states that the server must not perform the COPY or A value of "F" states that the server must not perform the COPY or
MOVE operation if the state of the destination resource is non-null. MOVE operation if the state of the destination resource is non-null.
If the overwrite header is not included in a COPY or MOVE request If the overwrite header is not included in a COPY or MOVE request
then the resource MUST treat the request as if it has an overwrite then the resource MUST treat the request as if it has an overwrite
header of value "T". While the Overwrite header appears to duplicate header of value "T". While the Overwrite header appears to duplicate
the functionality of the If-Match: * header of HTTP/1.1, If-Match the functionality of the If-Match: * header of HTTP/1.1, If-Match
applies only to the Request-URI, and not to the Destination of a applies only to the Request-URI, and not to the Destination of a COPY
COPY or MOVE. or MOVE.
If a COPY or MOVE is not performed due to the value of the Overwrite If a COPY or MOVE is not performed due to the value of the Overwrite
header, the method MUST fail with a 412 (Precondition Failed) status header, the method MUST fail with a 412 (Precondition Failed) status
code. code.
All DAV compliant resources MUST support the Overwrite header. All DAV compliant resources MUST support the Overwrite header.
9.7 Status-URI Response Header 9.7 Status-URI Response Header
The Status-URI response header may be used with the 102 (Processing) The Status-URI response header may be used with the 102 (Processing)
skipping to change at page 56, line 26 skipping to change at page 58, line 21
example, if a MOVE method on a collection is outstanding and a 102 example, if a MOVE method on a collection is outstanding and a 102
(Processing) response with a Status-URI response header is returned, (Processing) response with a Status-URI response header is returned,
the included URIs will indicate resources that have had move the included URIs will indicate resources that have had move
attempted on them and what the result was. attempted on them and what the result was.
9.8 Timeout Request Header 9.8 Timeout Request Header
TimeOut = "Timeout" ":" 1#TimeType TimeOut = "Timeout" ":" 1#TimeType
TimeType = ("Second-" DAVTimeOutVal | "Infinite" | Other) TimeType = ("Second-" DAVTimeOutVal | "Infinite" | Other)
DAVTimeOutVal = 1*digit DAVTimeOutVal = 1*digit
Other = Extend field-value ; See section 4.2 of [RFC2068] Other = "Extend" field-value ; See section 4.2 of [RFC2068]
Clients may include Timeout headers in their LOCK requests.
However, the server is not required to honor or even consider these Clients may include Timeout headers in their LOCK requests. However,
requests. Clients MUST NOT submit a Timeout request header with any the server is not required to honor or even consider these requests.
method other than a LOCK method. Clients MUST NOT submit a Timeout request header with any method
other than a LOCK method.
A Timeout request header MUST contain at least one TimeType and may A Timeout request header MUST contain at least one TimeType and may
contain multiple TimeType entries. The purpose of listing multiple contain multiple TimeType entries. The purpose of listing multiple
TimeType entries is to indicate multiple different values and value TimeType entries is to indicate multiple different values and value
types that are acceptable to the client. The client lists the types that are acceptable to the client. The client lists the
TimeType entries in order of preference. TimeType entries in order of preference.
Timeout response values MUST use a Second value, Infinite, or a Timeout response values MUST use a Second value, Infinite, or a
TimeType the client has indicated familiarity with. The server may TimeType the client has indicated familiarity with. The server may
assume a client is familiar with any TimeType submitted in a Timeout assume a client is familiar with any TimeType submitted in a Timeout
header. header.
The "Second" TimeType specifies the number of seconds that will The "Second" TimeType specifies the number of seconds that will
elapse between granting of the lock at the server, and the automatic elapse between granting of the lock at the server, and the automatic
removal of the lock. The timeout value for TimeType "Second" MUST removal of the lock. The timeout value for TimeType "Second" MUST
NOT be greater than 2^32-1. NOT be greater than 2^32-1.
The timeout counter SHOULD be restarted any time an owner of the The timeout counter SHOULD be restarted any time an owner of the lock
lock sends a method to any member of the lock, including unsupported sends a method to any member of the lock, including unsupported
methods, or methods which are unsuccessful. However the lock MUST methods, or methods which are unsuccessful. However the lock MUST be
be refreshed if a refresh LOCK method is successfully received. refreshed if a refresh LOCK method is successfully received.
If the timeout expires then the lock may be lost. Specifically, if If the timeout expires then the lock may be lost. Specifically, if
the server wishes to harvest the lock upon time-out, the server the server wishes to harvest the lock upon time-out, the server
SHOULD act as if an UNLOCK method was executed by the server on the SHOULD act as if an UNLOCK method was executed by the server on the
resource using the lock token of the timed-out lock, performed with resource using the lock token of the timed-out lock, performed with
its override authority. Thus logs should be updated with the its override authority. Thus logs should be updated with the
disposition of the lock, notifications should be sent, etc., just as disposition of the lock, notifications should be sent, etc., just as
they would be for an UNLOCK request. they would be for an UNLOCK request.
Servers are advised to pay close attention to the values submitted Servers are advised to pay close attention to the values submitted by
by clients, as they will be indicative of the type of activity the clients, as they will be indicative of the type of activity the
client intends to perform. For example, an applet running in a client intends to perform. For example, an applet running in a
browser may need to lock a resource, but because of the instability browser may need to lock a resource, but because of the instability
of the environment within which the applet is running, the applet of the environment within which the applet is running, the applet may
may be turned off without warning. As a result, the applet is be turned off without warning. As a result, the applet is likely to
likely to ask for a relatively small timeout value so that if the ask for a relatively small timeout value so that if the applet dies,
applet dies, the lock can be quickly harvested. However, a document the lock can be quickly harvested. However, a document management
management system is likely to ask for an extremely long timeout system is likely to ask for an extremely long timeout because its
because its user may be planning on going off-line. user may be planning on going off-line.
A client MUST NOT assume that just because the time-out has expired A client MUST NOT assume that just because the time-out has expired
the lock has been lost. the lock has been lost.
10 Status Code Extensions to HTTP/1.1 10 Status Code Extensions to HTTP/1.1
The following status codes are added to those defined in HTTP/1.1 The following status codes are added to those defined in HTTP/1.1
[RFC2068]. [RFC2068].
10.1 102 Processing 10.1 102 Processing
The 102 (Processing) status code is an interim response used to The 102 (Processing) status code is an interim response used to
inform the client that the server has accepted the complete request, inform the client that the server has accepted the complete request,
but has not yet completed it. This status code SHOULD only be sent but has not yet completed it. This status code SHOULD only be sent
when the server has a reasonable expectation that the request will when the server has a reasonable expectation that the request will
take significant time to complete. As guidance, if a method is take significant time to complete. As guidance, if a method is taking
taking longer than 20 seconds (a reasonable, but arbitrary value) to longer than 20 seconds (a reasonable, but arbitrary value) to process
process the server SHOULD return a 102 (Processing) response. The the server SHOULD return a 102 (Processing) response. The server MUST
server MUST send a final response after the request has been send a final response after the request has been completed.
completed.
Methods can potentially take a long period of time to process, Methods can potentially take a long period of time to process,
especially methods that support the Depth header. In such cases the especially methods that support the Depth header. In such cases the
client may time-out the connection while waiting for a response. To client may time-out the connection while waiting for a response. To
prevent this the server may return a 102 (Processing) status code to prevent this the server may return a 102 (Processing) status code to
indicate to the client that the server is still processing the indicate to the client that the server is still processing the
method. method.
10.2 207 Multi-Status 10.2 207 Multi-Status
The 207 (Multi-Status) status code provides status for multiple The 207 (Multi-Status) status code provides status for multiple
independent operations (see section 11 for more information). independent operations (see section 11 for more information).
10.3 422 Unprocessable Entity 10.3 422 Unprocessable Entity
The 422 (Unprocessable Entity) status code means the server The 422 (Unprocessable Entity) status code means the server
understands the content type of the request entity (hence a understands the content type of the request entity (hence a
415(Unsupported Media Type) status code is inappropriate), and the 415(Unsupported Media Type) status code is inappropriate), and the
syntax of the request entity is correct (thus a 400 (Bad Request) syntax of the request entity is correct (thus a 400 (Bad Request)
status code is inappropriate) but was unable to process the status code is inappropriate) but was unable to process the contained
contained instructions. For example, this error condition may occur instructions. For example, this error condition may occur if an XML
if an XML request body contains well-formed (i.e., syntactically request body contains well-formed (i.e., syntactically correct), but
correct), but semantically erroneous XML instructions. semantically erroneous XML instructions.
10.4 423 Locked 10.4 423 Locked
The 423 (Locked) status code means the source or destination The 423 (Locked) status code means the source or destination resource
resource of a method is locked. of a method is locked.
10.5 424 Failed Dependency 10.5 424 Failed Dependency
The 424 (Failed Dependency) status code means that the method could The 424 (Failed Dependency) status code means that the method could
not be performed on the resource because the requested action not be performed on the resource because the requested action
depended on another action and that action failed. For example, if depended on another action and that action failed. For example, if a
a command in a PROPPATCH method fails then, at minimum, the rest of command in a PROPPATCH method fails then, at minimum, the rest of the
the commands will also fail with 424 (Failed Dependency). commands will also fail with 424 (Failed Dependency).
10.6 507 Insufficient Storage 10.6 507 Insufficient Storage
The 507 (Insufficient Storage) status code means the method could The 507 (Insufficient Storage) status code means the method could not
not be performed on the resource because the server is unable to be performed on the resource because the server is unable to store
store the representation needed to successfully complete the the representation needed to successfully complete the request. This
request. This condition is considered to be temporary. If the condition is considered to be temporary. If the request which
request which received this status code was the result of a user received this status code was the result of a user action, the
action, the request MUST NOT be repeated until it is requested by a request MUST NOT be repeated until it is requested by a separate user
separate user action. action.
11 Multi-Status Response 11 Multi-Status Response
The default 207 (Multi-Status) response body is a text/xml or The default 207 (Multi-Status) response body is a text/xml or
application/xml HTTP entity that contains a single XML element application/xml HTTP entity that contains a single XML element called
called multistatus, which contains a set of XML elements called multistatus, which contains a set of XML elements called response
response which contain 200, 300, 400, and 500 series status codes which contain 200, 300, 400, and 500 series status codes generated
generated during the method invocation. 100 series status codes during the method invocation. 100 series status codes SHOULD NOT be
SHOULD NOT be recorded in a response XML element. recorded in a response XML element.
12 XML Element Definitions 12 XML Element Definitions
In the section below, the final line of each section gives the In the section below, the final line of each section gives the
element type declaration using the format defined in [REC-XML]. The element type declaration using the format defined in [REC-XML]. The
"Value" field, where present, specifies futher restrictions on the "Value" field, where present, specifies further restrictions on the
allowable contents of the XML element using BNF (i.e., to further allowable contents of the XML element using BNF (i.e., to further
restrict the values of a PCDATA element). restrict the values of a PCDATA element).
12.1 activelock XML Element 12.1 activelock XML Element
Name: activelock Name: activelock
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: Describes a lock on a resource. Purpose: Describes a lock on a resource.
<!ELEMENT activelock (lockscope, locktype, depth, owner?, timeout?, <!ELEMENT activelock (lockscope, locktype, depth, owner?, timeout?,
locktoken?) > locktoken?) >
12.1.1 depth XML Element 12.1.1 depth XML Element
Name: depth Name: depth
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: The value of the Depth header. Purpose: The value of the Depth header.
Value: "0" | "1" | "infinity" Value: "0" | "1" | "infinity"
<!ELEMENT depth (#PCDATA) > <!ELEMENT depth (#PCDATA) >
12.1.2 locktoken XML Element 12.1.2 locktoken XML Element
Name: locktoken Name: locktoken
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: The lock token associated with a lock. Purpose: The lock token associated with a lock.
Description: The href contains one or more opaque lock token URIs Description: The href contains one or more opaque lock token URIs
which all refer to the same lock (i.e., the OpaqueLockToken-URI which all refer to the same lock (i.e., the OpaqueLockToken-URI
production in section 6.4). production in section 6.4).
<!ELEMENT locktoken (href+) > <!ELEMENT locktoken (href+) >
12.1.3 timeout XML Element 12.1.3 timeout XML Element
Name: timeout Name: timeout
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: The timeout associated with a lock Purpose: The timeout associated with a lock
Value: TimeType ;Defined in section 9.8 Value: TimeType ;Defined in section 9.8
<!ELEMENT timeout (#PCDATA) > <!ELEMENT timeout (#PCDATA) >
12.2 collection XML Element 12.2 collection XML Element
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Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: Identifies the content of the element as a URI. Purpose: Identifies the content of the element as a URI.
Value: URI ; See section 3.2.1 of [RFC2068] Value: URI ; See section 3.2.1 of [RFC2068]
<!ELEMENT href (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT href (#PCDATA)>
12.4 link XML Element 12.4 link XML Element
Name: link Name: link
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: Identifies the property as a link and contains the Purpose: Identifies the property as a link and contains the source
source and destination of that link. and destination of that link.
Description: The link XML element is used to provide the sources and Description: The link XML element is used to provide the sources and
destinations of a link. The name of the property containing the destinations of a link. The name of the property containing the link
link XML element provides the type of the link. Link is a multi- XML element provides the type of the link. Link is a multi-valued
valued element, so multiple links may be used together to indicate element, so multiple links may be used together to indicate multiple
multiple links with the same type. The values in the href XML links with the same type. The values in the href XML elements inside
elements inside the src and dst XML elements of the link XML element the src and dst XML elements of the link XML element MUST NOT be
MUST NOT be rejected if they point to resources which do not exist. rejected if they point to resources which do not exist.
<!ELEMENT link (src+, dst+) > <!ELEMENT link (src+, dst+) >
12.4.1 dst XML Element 12.4.1 dst XML Element
Name: dst Name: dst
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: Indicates the destination of a link Purpose: Indicates the destination of a link
Value: URI Value: URI
<!ELEMENT dst (#PCDATA) > <!ELEMENT dst (#PCDATA) >
12.4.2 src XML Element 12.4.2 src XML Element
Name: src Name: src
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: Indicates the source of a link. Purpose: Indicates the source of a link.
Value: URI Value: URI
<!ELEMENT src (#PCDATA) > <!ELEMENT src (#PCDATA) >
12.5 lockentry XML Element 12.5 lockentry XML Element
Name: lockentry Name: lockentry
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: Defines the types of locks that can be used with the Purpose: Defines the types of locks that can be used with the
resource. resource.
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12.7 lockscope XML Element 12.7 lockscope XML Element
Name: lockscope Name: lockscope
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: Specifies whether a lock is an exclusive lock, or a Purpose: Specifies whether a lock is an exclusive lock, or a
shared lock. shared lock.
<!ELEMENT lockscope (exclusive | shared) > <!ELEMENT lockscope (exclusive | shared) >
12.7.1 exclusive XML Element 12.7.1 exclusive XML Element
Name: exclusive Name: exclusive
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: Specifies an exclusive lock Purpose: Specifies an exclusive lock
<!ELEMENT exclusive EMPTY > <!ELEMENT exclusive EMPTY >
12.7.2 shared XML Element 12.7.2 shared XML Element
Name: shared Name: shared
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: Specifies a shared lock Purpose: Specifies a shared lock
<!ELEMENT shared EMPTY > <!ELEMENT shared EMPTY >
12.8 locktype XML Element 12.8 locktype XML Element
Name: locktype Name: locktype
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: Specifies the access type of a lock. At present, this Purpose: Specifies the access type of a lock. At present, this
specification only defines one lock type, the write lock. specification only defines one lock type, the write lock.
<!ELEMENT locktype (write) > <!ELEMENT locktype (write) >
12.8.1 write XML Element 12.8.1 write XML Element
Name: write Name: write
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: Specifies a write lock. Purpose: Specifies a write lock.
<!ELEMENT write EMPTY > <!ELEMENT write EMPTY >
12.9 multistatus XML Element 12.9 multistatus XML Element
Name: multistatus Name: multistatus
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: Contains multiple response messages. Purpose: Contains multiple response messages.
Description: The responsedescription at the top level is used to Description: The responsedescription at the top level is used to
provide a general message describing the overarching nature of the provide a general message describing the overarching nature of the
response. If this value is available an application may use it response. If this value is available an application may use it
instead of presenting the individual response descriptions contained instead of presenting the individual response descriptions contained
within the responses. within the responses.
<!ELEMENT multistatus (response+, responsedescription?) > <!ELEMENT multistatus (response+, responsedescription?) >
12.9.1 response XML Element 12.9.1 response XML Element
Name: response Name: response
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: Holds a single response describing the effect of a Purpose: Holds a single response describing the effect of a
method on resource and/or its properties. method on resource and/or its properties.
Description: A particular href MUST NOT appear more than once as the Description: A particular href MUST NOT appear more than once as the
child of a response XML element under a multistatus XML element. child of a response XML element under a multistatus XML element.
This requirement is necessary in order to keep processing costs for This requirement is necessary in order to keep processing costs for a
a response to linear time. Essentially, this prevents having to response to linear time. Essentially, this prevents having to search
search in order to group together all the responses by href. There in order to group together all the responses by href. There are,
are, however, no requirements regarding ordering based on href however, no requirements regarding ordering based on href values.
values.
<!ELEMENT response (href, ((href*, status)|(propstat+)), <!ELEMENT response (href, ((href*, status)|(propstat+)),
responsedescription?) > responsedescription?) >
12.9.1.1 propstat XML Element 12.9.1.1 propstat XML Element
Name: propstat Name: propstat
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: Groups together a prop and status element that is Purpose: Groups together a prop and status element that is
associated with a particular href element. associated with a particular href element.
Description: The propstat XML element MUST contain one prop XML Description: The propstat XML element MUST contain one prop XML
element and one status XML element. The contents of the prop XML element and one status XML element. The contents of the prop XML
element MUST only list the names of properties to which the result element MUST only list the names of properties to which the result in
in the status element applies. the status element applies.
<!ELEMENT propstat (prop, status, responsedescription?) > <!ELEMENT propstat (prop, status, responsedescription?) >
12.9.1.2 status XML Element 12.9.1.2 status XML Element
Name: status Name: status
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: Holds a single HTTP status-line Purpose: Holds a single HTTP status-line
Value: status-line ;status-line defined in [RFC2068] Value: status-line ;status-line defined in [RFC2068]
<!ELEMENT status (#PCDATA) > <!ELEMENT status (#PCDATA) >
12.9.2 responsedescription XML Element 12.9.2 responsedescription XML Element
Name: responsedescription Name: responsedescription
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: Contains a message that can be displayed to the user Purpose: Contains a message that can be displayed to the user
explaining the nature of the response. explaining the nature of the response.
Description: This XML element provides information suitable to be Description: This XML element provides information suitable to be
presented to a user. presented to a user.
<!ELEMENT responsedescription (#PCDATA) > <!ELEMENT responsedescription (#PCDATA) >
12.10 owner XML Element 12.10 owner XML Element
Name: owner Name: owner
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: Provides information about the principal taking out a Purpose: Provides information about the principal taking out a
lock. lock.
Description: The owner XML element provides information sufficient Description: The owner XML element provides information sufficient
for either directly contacting a principal (such as a telephone for either directly contacting a principal (such as a telephone
number or Email URI), or for discovering the principal (such as the number or Email URI), or for discovering the principal (such as the
URL of a homepage) who owns a lock. URL of a homepage) who owns a lock.
<!ELEMENT owner ANY> <!ELEMENT owner ANY>
12.11 prop XML element 12.11 prop XML element
Name: prop Name: prop
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: Contains properties related to a resource. Purpose: Contains properties related to a resource.
Description: The prop XML element is a generic container for Description: The prop XML element is a generic container for
properties defined on resources. All elements inside a prop XML properties defined on resources. All elements inside a prop XML
element MUST define properties related to the resource. No other element MUST define properties related to the resource. No other
elements may be used inside of a prop element. elements may be used inside of a prop element.
<!ELEMENT prop ANY> <!ELEMENT prop ANY>
12.12 propertybehavior XML element 12.12 propertybehavior XML element
Name: propertybehavior Name: propertybehavior Namespace: DAV: Purpose: Specifies
Namespace: DAV: how properties are handled during a COPY or MOVE.
Purpose: Specifies how properties are handled during a COPY or
MOVE.
Description: The propertybehavior XML element specifies how Description: The propertybehavior XML element specifies how
properties are handled during a COPY or MOVE. If this XML element properties are handled during a COPY or MOVE. If this XML element is
is not included in the request body then the server is expected to not included in the request body then the server is expected to act
act as defined by the default property handling behavior of the as defined by the default property handling behavior of the
associated method. All WebDAV compliant resources MUST support the associated method. All WebDAV compliant resources MUST support the
propertybehavior XML element. propertybehavior XML element.
<!ELEMENT propertybehavior (omit | keepalive) > <!ELEMENT propertybehavior (omit | keepalive) >
12.12.1 keepalive XML element 12.12.1 keepalive XML element
Name: keepalive Name: keepalive
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: Specifies requirements for the copying/moving of live Purpose: Specifies requirements for the copying/moving of live
properties. properties.
Description: If a list of URIs is included as the value of keepalive Description: If a list of URIs is included as the value of keepalive
then the named properties MUST be "live" after they are copied then the named properties MUST be "live" after they are copied
(moved) to the destination resource of a COPY (or MOVE). If the (moved) to the destination resource of a COPY (or MOVE). If the
value "*" is given for the keepalive XML element, this designates value "*" is given for the keepalive XML element, this designates
that all live properties on the source resource MUST be live on the that all live properties on the source resource MUST be live on the
destination. If the requirements specified by the keepalive element destination. If the requirements specified by the keepalive element
can not be honored then the method MUST fail with a 412 can not be honored then the method MUST fail with a 412 (Precondition
(Precondition Failed). All DAV compliant resources MUST support the Failed). All DAV compliant resources MUST support the keepalive XML
keepalive XML element for use with the COPY and MOVE methods. element for use with the COPY and MOVE methods.
Value: "*" ; #PCDATA value can only be "*" Value: "*" ; #PCDATA value can only be "*"
<!ELEMENT keepalive (#PCDATA | href+) > <!ELEMENT keepalive (#PCDATA | href+) >
12.12.2 omit XML element 12.12.2 omit XML element
Name: omit Name: omit
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: The omit XML element instructs the server that it should Purpose: The omit XML element instructs the server that it should
use best effort to copy properties but a failure to copy a property use best effort to copy properties but a failure to copy a property
MUST NOT cause the method to fail. MUST NOT cause the method to fail. Description: The default behavior
Description: The default behavior for a COPY or MOVE is to copy/move for a COPY or MOVE is to copy/move all properties or fail the method.
all properties or fail the method. In certain circumstances, such In certain circumstances, such as when a server copies a resource
as when a server copies a resource over another protocol such as over another protocol such as FTP, it may not be possible to
FTP, it may not be possible to copy/move the properties associated copy/move the properties associated with the resource. Thus any
with the resource. Thus any attempt to copy/move over FTP would attempt to copy/move over FTP would always have to fail because
always have to fail because properties could not be moved over, even properties could not be moved over, even as dead properties. All DAV
as dead properties. All DAV compliant resources MUST support the compliant resources MUST support the omit XML element on COPY/MOVE
omit XML element on COPY/MOVE methods. methods.
<!ELEMENT omit EMPTY > <!ELEMENT omit EMPTY >
12.13 propertyupdate XML element 12.13 propertyupdate XML element
Name: propertyupdate Name: propertyupdate
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: Contains a request to alter the properties on a Purpose: Contains a request to alter the properties on a
resource. resource.
Description: This XML element is a container for the information Description: This XML element is a container for the information
required to modify the properties on the resource. This XML element required to modify the properties on the resource. This XML element
is multi-valued. is multi-valued.
<!ELEMENT propertyupdate (remove | set)+ > <!ELEMENT propertyupdate (remove | set)+ >
12.13.1 remove XML element 12.13.1 remove XML element
Name: remove Name: remove
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: Lists the DAV properties to be removed from a resource. Purpose: Lists the DAV properties to be removed from a resource.
Description: Remove instructs that the properties specified in prop Description: Remove instructs that the properties specified in prop
should be removed. Specifying the removal of a property that does should be removed. Specifying the removal of a property that does
not exist is not an error. All the XML elements in a prop XML not exist is not an error. All the XML elements in a prop XML
element inside of a remove XML element MUST be empty, as only the element inside of a remove XML element MUST be empty, as only the
names of properties to be removed are required. names of properties to be removed are required.
<!ELEMENT remove (prop) > <!ELEMENT remove (prop) >
12.13.2 set XML element 12.13.2 set XML element
Name: set Name: set
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: Lists the DAV property values to be set for a resource. Purpose: Lists the DAV property values to be set for a resource.
Description: The set XML element MUST contain only a prop XML Description: The set XML element MUST contain only a prop XML
element. The elements contained by the prop XML element inside the element. The elements contained by the prop XML element inside the
set XML element MUST specify the name and value of properties that set XML element MUST specify the name and value of properties that
are set on the resource identified by Request-URI. If a property are set on the resource identified by Request-URI. If a property
already exists then its value is replaced. Language tagging already exists then its value is replaced. Language tagging
information in the property's value (in the "xml:lang" attribute, if information in the property's value (in the "xml:lang" attribute, if
present) MUST be persistently stored along with the property, and present) MUST be persistently stored along with the property, and
MUST be subsequently retrievable using PROPFIND. MUST be subsequently retrievable using PROPFIND.
<!ELEMENT set (prop) > <!ELEMENT set (prop) >
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element. The elements contained by the prop XML element inside the element. The elements contained by the prop XML element inside the
set XML element MUST specify the name and value of properties that set XML element MUST specify the name and value of properties that
are set on the resource identified by Request-URI. If a property are set on the resource identified by Request-URI. If a property
already exists then its value is replaced. Language tagging already exists then its value is replaced. Language tagging
information in the property's value (in the "xml:lang" attribute, if information in the property's value (in the "xml:lang" attribute, if
present) MUST be persistently stored along with the property, and present) MUST be persistently stored along with the property, and
MUST be subsequently retrievable using PROPFIND. MUST be subsequently retrievable using PROPFIND.
<!ELEMENT set (prop) > <!ELEMENT set (prop) >
12.14 propfind XML Element 12.14 propfind XML Element
Name: propfind Name: propfind
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: Specifies the properties to be returned from a PROPFIND Purpose: Specifies the properties to be returned from a PROPFIND
method. Two special elements are specified for use with propfind, method. Two special elements are specified for use with propfind,
allprop and propname. If prop is used inside propfind it MUST only allprop and propname. If prop is used inside propfind it MUST only
contain property names, not values. contain property names, not values.
<!ELEMENT propfind (allprop | propname | prop) > <!ELEMENT propfind (allprop | propname | prop) >
12.14.1 allprop XML Element 12.14.1 allprop XML Element
Name: allprop Name: allprop Namespace: DAV: Purpose: The allprop XML
Namespace: DAV: element specifies that all property names and values on the resource
Purpose: The allprop XML element specifies that all property are to be returned.
names and values on the resource are to be returned.
<!ELEMENT allprop EMPTY > <!ELEMENT allprop EMPTY >
12.14.2 propname XML Element 12.14.2 propname XML Element
Name: propname Name: propname Namespace: DAV: Purpose: The propname XML
Namespace: DAV: element specifies that only a list of property names on the resource
Purpose: The propname XML element specifies that only a list of is to be returned.
property names on the resource is to be returned.
<!ELEMENT propname EMPTY > <!ELEMENT propname EMPTY >
13 DAV Properties 13 DAV Properties
For DAV properties, the name of the property is also the same as the For DAV properties, the name of the property is also the same as the
name of the XML element that contains its value. In the section name of the XML element that contains its value. In the section
below, the final line of each section gives the element type below, the final line of each section gives the element type
declaration using the format defined in [REC-XML]. The "Value" declaration using the format defined in [REC-XML]. The "Value" field,
field, where present, specifies futher restrictions on the allowable where present, specifies further restrictions on the allowable
contents of the XML element using BNF (i.e., to further restrict the contents of the XML element using BNF (i.e., to further restrict the
values of a PCDATA element). values of a PCDATA element).
13.1 creationdate Property 13.1 creationdate Property
Name: creationdate Name: creationdate
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: Records the time and date the resource was created. Purpose: Records the time and date the resource was created.
Value: date-time ; See Appendix 2 Value: date-time ; See Appendix 2
Description: The creationdate property should be defined on all DAV Description: The creationdate property should be defined on all DAV
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<!ELEMENT creationdate (#PCDATA) > <!ELEMENT creationdate (#PCDATA) >
13.2 displayname Property 13.2 displayname Property
Name: displayname Name: displayname
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: Provides a name for the resource that is suitable for Purpose: Provides a name for the resource that is suitable for
presentation to a user. presentation to a user.
Description: The displayname property should be defined on all DAV Description: The displayname property should be defined on all DAV
compliant resources. If present, the property contains a compliant resources. If present, the property contains a description
description of the resource that is suitable for presentation to a of the resource that is suitable for presentation to a user.
user.
<!ELEMENT displayname (#PCDATA) > <!ELEMENT displayname (#PCDATA) >
13.3 getcontentlanguage Property 13.3 getcontentlanguage Property
Name: getcontentlanguage Name: getcontentlanguage
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: Contains the Content-Language header returned by a GET Purpose: Contains the Content-Language header returned by a GET
without accept headers without accept headers
Description: The getcontentlanguage property MUST be defined on any Description: The getcontentlanguage property MUST be defined on any
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13.8 lockdiscovery Property 13.8 lockdiscovery Property
Name: lockdiscovery Name: lockdiscovery
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: Describes the active locks on a resource Purpose: Describes the active locks on a resource
Description: The lockdiscovery property returns a listing of who has Description: The lockdiscovery property returns a listing of who has
a lock, what type of lock he has, the timeout type and the time a lock, what type of lock he has, the timeout type and the time
remaining on the timeout, and the associated lock token. The server remaining on the timeout, and the associated lock token. The server
is free to withhold any or all of this information if the requesting is free to withhold any or all of this information if the requesting
principal does not have sufficient access rights to see the principal does not have sufficient access rights to see the requested
requested data. data.
<!ELEMENT lockdiscovery (activelock)* > <!ELEMENT lockdiscovery (activelock)* >
13.8.1 Example - Retrieving the lockdiscovery Property 13.8.1 Example - Retrieving the lockdiscovery Property
>>Request >>Request
PROPFIND /container/ HTTP/1.1 PROPFIND /container/ HTTP/1.1
Host: www.foo.bar Host: www.foo.bar
Content-Length: xxxx Content-Length: xxxx
Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8" Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8"
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<D:propfind xmlns:D='DAV:'> <D:propfind xmlns:D='DAV:'>
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13.9 resourcetype Property 13.9 resourcetype Property
Name: resourcetype Name: resourcetype
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: Specifies the nature of the resource. Purpose: Specifies the nature of the resource.
Description: The resourcetype property MUST be defined on all DAV Description: The resourcetype property MUST be defined on all DAV
compliant resources. The default value is empty. compliant resources. The default value is empty.
<!ELEMENT resourcetype ANY > <!ELEMENT resourcetype ANY >
13.10 source Property 13.10 source Property
Name: source Name: source
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: The destination of the source link identifies the Purpose: The destination of the source link identifies the
resource that contains the unprocessed source of the link's source. resource that contains the unprocessed source of the link's source.
Description: The source of the link (src) is typically the URI of Description: The source of the link (src) is typically the URI of the
the output resource on which the link is defined, and there is output resource on which the link is defined, and there is typically
typically only one destination (dst) of the link, which is the URI only one destination (dst) of the link, which is the URI where the
where the unprocessed source of the resource may be accessed. When unprocessed source of the resource may be accessed. When more than
more than one link destination exists, this specification asserts no one link destination exists, this specification asserts no policy on
policy on ordering. ordering.
<!ELEMENT source (link)* > <!ELEMENT source (link)* >
13.10.1 Example - A source Property 13.10.1 Example - A source Property
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<D:prop xmlns:D="DAV:" xmlns:F="http://www.foocorp.com/Project/"> <D:prop xmlns:D="DAV:" xmlns:F="http://www.foocorp.com/Project/">
<D:source> <D:source>
<D:link> <D:link>
<F:projfiles>Source</F:projfiles> <F:projfiles>Source</F:projfiles>
<D:src>http://foo.bar/program</D:src> <D:src>http://foo.bar/program</D:src>
<D:dst>http://foo.bar/src/main.c</D:dst> <D:dst>http://foo.bar/src/main.c</D:dst>
</D:link> </D:link>
<D:link> <D:link>
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</D:link> </D:link>
</D:source> </D:source>
</D:prop> </D:prop>
In this example the resource http://foo.bar/program has a source In this example the resource http://foo.bar/program has a source
property that contains three links. Each link contains three property that contains three links. Each link contains three
elements, two of which, src and dst, are part of the DAV schema elements, two of which, src and dst, are part of the DAV schema
defined in this document, and one which is defined by the schema defined in this document, and one which is defined by the schema
http://www.foocorp.com/project/ (Source, Library, and Makefile). A http://www.foocorp.com/project/ (Source, Library, and Makefile). A
client which only implements the elements in the DAV spec will not client which only implements the elements in the DAV spec will not
understand the foocorp elements and will ignore them, thus seeing understand the foocorp elements and will ignore them, thus seeing the
the expected source and destination links. An enhanced client may expected source and destination links. An enhanced client may know
know about the foocorp elements and be able to present the user with about the foocorp elements and be able to present the user with
additional information about the links. This example demonstrates additional information about the links. This example demonstrates
the power of XML markup, allowing element values to be enhanced the power of XML markup, allowing element values to be enhanced
without breaking older clients. without breaking older clients.
13.11 supportedlock Property 13.11 supportedlock Property
Name: supportedlock Name: supportedlock
Namespace: DAV: Namespace: DAV:
Purpose: To provide a listing of the lock capabilities supported Purpose: To provide a listing of the lock capabilities supported
by the resource. by the resource.
Description: The supportedlock property of a resource returns a Description: The supportedlock property of a resource returns a
listing of the combinations of scope and access types which may be listing of the combinations of scope and access types which may be
specified in a lock request on the resource. Note that the actual specified in a lock request on the resource. Note that the actual
contents are themselves controlled by access controls so a server is contents are themselves controlled by access controls so a server is
not required to provide information the client is not authorized to not required to provide information the client is not authorized to
see. see.
<!ELEMENT supportedlock (lockentry)* > <!ELEMENT supportedlock (lockentry)* >
13.11.1 Example - Retrieving the supportedlock Property 13.11.1 Example - Retrieving the supportedlock Property
>>Request >>Request
PROPFIND /container/ HTTP/1.1 PROPFIND /container/ HTTP/1.1
Host: www.foo.bar Host: www.foo.bar
Content-Length: xxxx Content-Length: xxxx
Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8" Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8"
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<D:propfind xmlns:D="DAV:"> <D:propfind xmlns:D="DAV:">
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14 Instructions for Processing XML in DAV 14 Instructions for Processing XML in DAV
All DAV compliant resources MUST ignore any unknown XML element and All DAV compliant resources MUST ignore any unknown XML element and
all its children encountered while processing a DAV method that uses all its children encountered while processing a DAV method that uses
XML as its command language. XML as its command language.
This restriction also applies to the processing, by clients, of DAV This restriction also applies to the processing, by clients, of DAV
property values where unknown XML elements SHOULD be ignored unless property values where unknown XML elements SHOULD be ignored unless
the property's schema declares otherwise. the property's schema declares otherwise.
This restriction does not apply to setting dead DAV properties on This restriction does not apply to setting dead DAV properties on the
the server where the server MUST record unknown XML elements. server where the server MUST record unknown XML elements.
Additionally, this restriction does not apply to the use of XML Additionally, this restriction does not apply to the use of XML where
where XML happens to be the content type of the entity body, for XML happens to be the content type of the entity body, for example,
example, when used as the body of a PUT. when used as the body of a PUT.
Since XML can be transported as text/xml or application/xml, a DAV Since XML can be transported as text/xml or application/xml, a DAV
server MUST accept DAV method requests with XML parameters server MUST accept DAV method requests with XML parameters
transported as either text/xml or application/xml, and DAV client transported as either text/xml or application/xml, and DAV client
MUST accept XML responses using either text/xml or application/xml. MUST accept XML responses using either text/xml or application/xml.
15 DAV Compliance Classes 15 DAV Compliance Classes
A DAV compliant resource can choose from two classes of compliance. A DAV compliant resource can choose from two classes of compliance.
A client can discover the compliance classes of a resource by A client can discover the compliance classes of a resource by
executing OPTIONS on the resource, and examining the "DAV" header executing OPTIONS on the resource, and examining the "DAV" header
which is returned. which is returned.
Since this document describes extensions to the HTTP/1.1 protocol, Since this document describes extensions to the HTTP/1.1 protocol,
minimally all DAV compliant resources, clients, and proxies MUST be minimally all DAV compliant resources, clients, and proxies MUST be
compliant with [RFC2068]. compliant with [RFC2068].
Compliance classes are not necessarily sequential. A resource that Compliance classes are not necessarily sequential. A resource that is
is class 2 compliant must also be class 1 compliant; but if class 2 compliant must also be class 1 compliant; but if additional
additional compliance classes are defined later, a resource that is compliance classes are defined later, a resource that is class 1, 2,
class 1, 2, and 4 compliant might not be class 3 compliant. Also and 4 compliant might not be class 3 compliant. Also note that
note that identifiers other than numbers may be used as compliance identifiers other than numbers may be used as compliance class
class identifiers. identifiers.
15.1 Class 1 15.1 Class 1
A class 1 compliant resource MUST meet all "MUST" requirements in A class 1 compliant resource MUST meet all "MUST" requirements in all
all sections of this document. sections of this document.
Class 1 compliant resources MUST return, at minimum, the value "1" Class 1 compliant resources MUST return, at minimum, the value "1" in
in the DAV header on all responses to the OPTIONS method. the DAV header on all responses to the OPTIONS method.
15.2 Class 2 15.2 Class 2
A class 2 compliant resource MUST meet all class 1 requirements and A class 2 compliant resource MUST meet all class 1 requirements and
support the LOCK method, the supportedlock property, the support the LOCK method, the supportedlock property, the
lockdiscovery property, the Time-Out response header and the Lock- lockdiscovery property, the Time-Out response header and the Lock-
Token request header. A class "2" compliant resource SHOULD also Token request header. A class "2" compliant resource SHOULD also
support the Time-Out request header and the owner XML element. support the Time-Out request header and the owner XML element.
Class 2 compliant resources MUST return, at minimum, the values "1" Class 2 compliant resources MUST return, at minimum, the values "1"
and "2" in the DAV header on all responses to the OPTIONS method. and "2" in the DAV header on all responses to the OPTIONS method.
16 Internationalization Considerations 16 Internationalization Considerations
In the realm of internationalization, this specification complies In the realm of internationalization, this specification complies
with the IETF Character Set Policy [RFC2277]. In this specification, with the IETF Character Set Policy [RFC2277]. In this specification,
human-readable fields can be found either in the value of a human-readable fields can be found either in the value of a property,
property, or in an error message returned in a response entity body. or in an error message returned in a response entity body. In both
In both cases, the human-readable content is encoded using XML, cases, the human-readable content is encoded using XML, which has
which has explicit provisions for character set tagging and explicit provisions for character set tagging and encoding, and
encoding, and requires that XML processors read XML elements requires that XML processors read XML elements encoded, at minimum,
encoded, at minimum, using the UTF-8 [UTF-8] encoding of the ISO using the UTF-8 [UTF-8] encoding of the ISO 10646 multilingual plane.
10646 multilingual plane. XML examples in this specification XML examples in this specification demonstrate use of the charset
demonstrate use of the charset parameter of the Content-Type header, parameter of the Content-Type header, as defined in [RFC2376], as
as defined in [RFC2376], as well as the XML "encoding" attribute, well as the XML "encoding" attribute, which together provide charset
which together provide charset identification information for MIME identification information for MIME and XML processors.
and XML processors.
XML also provides a language tagging capability for specifying the XML also provides a language tagging capability for specifying the
language of the contents of a particular XML element. XML uses language of the contents of a particular XML element. XML uses
either IANA registered language tags (see [RFC1766]) or ISO 639 either IANA registered language tags (see [RFC1766]) or ISO 639
language tags [ISO-639] in the "xml:lang" attribute of an XML language tags [ISO-639] in the "xml:lang" attribute of an XML element
element to identify the language of its content and attributes. to identify the language of its content and attributes.
WebDAV applications MUST support the character set tagging, WebDAV applications MUST support the character set tagging, character
character set encoding, and the language tagging functionality of set encoding, and the language tagging functionality of the XML
the XML specification. Implementors of WebDAV applications are specification. Implementors of WebDAV applications are strongly
strongly encouraged to read "XML Media Types" [RFC2376] for encouraged to read "XML Media Types" [RFC2376] for instruction on
instruction on which MIME media type to use for XML transport, and which MIME media type to use for XML transport, and on use of the
on use of the charset parameter of the Content-Type header. charset parameter of the Content-Type header.
Names used within this specification fall into three categories: Names used within this specification fall into three categories:
names of protocol elements such as methods and headers, names of XML names of protocol elements such as methods and headers, names of XML
elements, and names of properties. Naming of protocol elements elements, and names of properties. Naming of protocol elements
follows the precedent of HTTP, using English names encoded in follows the precedent of HTTP, using English names encoded in USASCII
USASCII for methods and headers. Since these protocol elements are for methods and headers. Since these protocol elements are not
not visible to users, and are in fact simply long token identifiers, visible to users, and are in fact simply long token identifiers, they
they do not need to support encoding in multiple character sets. do not need to support encoding in multiple character sets.
Similarly, though the names of XML elements used in this Similarly, though the names of XML elements used in this
specification are English names encoded in UTF-8, these names are specification are English names encoded in UTF-8, these names are not
not visible to the user, and hence do not need to support multiple visible to the user, and hence do not need to support multiple
character set encodings. character set encodings.
The name of a property defined on a resource is a URI. Although The name of a property defined on a resource is a URI. Although some
some applications (e.g., a generic property viewer) will display applications (e.g., a generic property viewer) will display property
property URIs directly to their users, it is expected that the URIs directly to their users, it is expected that the typical
typical application will use a fixed set of properties, and will application will use a fixed set of properties, and will provide a
provide a mapping from the property name URI to a human-readable mapping from the property name URI to a human-readable field when
field when displaying the property name to a user. It is only in displaying the property name to a user. It is only in the case where
the case where the set of properties is not known ahead of time that the set of properties is not known ahead of time that an application
an application need display a property name URI to a user. We need display a property name URI to a user. We recommend that
recommend that applications provide human-readable property names applications provide human-readable property names wherever feasible.
wherever feasible.
For error reporting, we follow the convention of HTTP/1.1 status For error reporting, we follow the convention of HTTP/1.1 status
codes, including with each status code a short, English description codes, including with each status code a short, English description
of the code (e.g., 423 (Locked)). While the possibility exists that of the code (e.g., 423 (Locked)). While the possibility exists that
a poorly crafted user agent would display this message to a user, a poorly crafted user agent would display this message to a user,
internationalized applications will ignore this message, and display internationalized applications will ignore this message, and display
an appropriate message in the user's language and character set. an appropriate message in the user's language and character set.
Since interoperation of clients and servers does not require locale Since interoperation of clients and servers does not require locale
information, this specification does not specify any mechanism for information, this specification does not specify any mechanism for
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inadequate means for protecting the accessibility and integrity of a inadequate means for protecting the accessibility and integrity of a
resource as the password may be intercepted. Since Basic resource as the password may be intercepted. Since Basic
authentication for HTTP/1.1 performs essentially clear text authentication for HTTP/1.1 performs essentially clear text
transmission of a password, Basic authentication MUST NOT be used to transmission of a password, Basic authentication MUST NOT be used to
authenticate a WebDAV client to a server unless the connection is authenticate a WebDAV client to a server unless the connection is
secure. Furthermore, a WebDAV server MUST NOT send Basic secure. Furthermore, a WebDAV server MUST NOT send Basic
authentication credentials in a WWW-Authenticate header unless the authentication credentials in a WWW-Authenticate header unless the
connection is secure. Examples of secure connections include a connection is secure. Examples of secure connections include a
Transport Layer Security (TLS) connection employing a strong cipher Transport Layer Security (TLS) connection employing a strong cipher
suite with mutual authentication of client and server, or a suite with mutual authentication of client and server, or a
connection over a network which is physically secure, for example, connection over a network which is physically secure, for example, an
an isolated network in a building with restricted access. isolated network in a building with restricted access.
WebDAV applications MUST support the Digest authentication scheme WebDAV applications MUST support the Digest authentication scheme
[RFC2069]. Since Digest authentication verifies that both parties to [RFC2069]. Since Digest authentication verifies that both parties to
a communication know a shared secret, a password, without having to a communication know a shared secret, a password, without having to
send that secret in the clear, Digest authentication avoids the send that secret in the clear, Digest authentication avoids the
security problems inherent in Basic authentication while providing a security problems inherent in Basic authentication while providing a
level of authentication which is useful in a wide range of level of authentication which is useful in a wide range of scenarios.
scenarios.
17.2 Denial of Service 17.2 Denial of Service
Denial of service attacks are of special concern to WebDAV servers. Denial of service attacks are of special concern to WebDAV servers.
WebDAV plus HTTP enables denial of service attacks on every part of WebDAV plus HTTP enables denial of service attacks on every part of a
a system's resources. system's resources.
The underlying storage can be attacked by PUTting extremely large The underlying storage can be attacked by PUTting extremely large
files. files.
Asking for recursive operations on large collections can attack Asking for recursive operations on large collections can attack
processing time. processing time.
Making multiple pipelined requests on multiple connections can Making multiple pipelined requests on multiple connections can attack
attack network connections. network connections.
WebDAV servers need to be aware of the possibility of a denial of WebDAV servers need to be aware of the possibility of a denial of
service attack at all levels. service attack at all levels.
17.3 Security through Obscurity 17.3 Security through Obscurity
WebDAV provides, through the PROPFIND method, a mechanism for WebDAV provides, through the PROPFIND method, a mechanism for listing
listing the member resources of a collection. This greatly the member resources of a collection. This greatly diminishes the
diminishes the effectiveness of security or privacy techniques that effectiveness of security or privacy techniques that rely only on the
rely only on the difficulty of discovering the names of network difficulty of discovering the names of network resources. Users of
resources. Users of WebDAV servers are encouraged to use access WebDAV servers are encouraged to use access control techniques to
control techniques to prevent unwanted access to resources, rather prevent unwanted access to resources, rather than depending on the
than depending on the relative obscurity of their resource names. relative obscurity of their resource names.
17.4 Privacy Issues Connected to Locks 17.4 Privacy Issues Connected to Locks
When submitting a lock request a user agent may also submit an owner When submitting a lock request a user agent may also submit an owner
XML field giving contact information for the person taking out the XML field giving contact information for the person taking out the
lock (for those cases where a person, rather than a robot, is taking lock (for those cases where a person, rather than a robot, is taking
out the lock). This contact information is stored in a lockdiscovery out the lock). This contact information is stored in a lockdiscovery
property on the resource, and can be used by other collaborators to property on the resource, and can be used by other collaborators to
begin negotiation over access to the resource. However, in many begin negotiation over access to the resource. However, in many
cases this contact information can be very private, and should not cases this contact information can be very private, and should not be
be widely disseminated. Servers SHOULD limit read access to the widely disseminated. Servers SHOULD limit read access to the
lockdiscovery property as appropriate. Furthermore, user agents lockdiscovery property as appropriate. Furthermore, user agents
SHOULD provide control over whether contact information is sent at SHOULD provide control over whether contact information is sent at
all, and if contact information is sent, control over exactly what all, and if contact information is sent, control over exactly what
information is sent. information is sent.
17.5 Privacy Issues Connected to Properties 17.5 Privacy Issues Connected to Properties
Since property values are typically used to hold information such as Since property values are typically used to hold information such as
the author of a document, there is the possibility that privacy the author of a document, there is the possibility that privacy
concerns could arise stemming from widespread access to a resource's concerns could arise stemming from widespread access to a resource's
property data. To reduce the risk of inadvertent release of private property data. To reduce the risk of inadvertent release of private
information via properties, servers are encouraged to develop access information via properties, servers are encouraged to develop access
control mechanisms that separate read access to the resource body control mechanisms that separate read access to the resource body and
and read access to the resource's properties. This allows a user to read access to the resource's properties. This allows a user to
control the dissemination of their property data without overly control the dissemination of their property data without overly
restricting access to the resource's contents. restricting access to the resource's contents.
17.6 Reduction of Security due to Source Link 17.6 Reduction of Security due to Source Link
HTTP/1.1 warns against providing read access to script code because HTTP/1.1 warns against providing read access to script code because
it may contain sensitive information. Yet WebDAV, via its source it may contain sensitive information. Yet WebDAV, via its source
link facility, can potentially provide a URI for script resources so link facility, can potentially provide a URI for script resources so
they may be authored. For HTTP/1.1, a server could reasonably they may be authored. For HTTP/1.1, a server could reasonably
prevent access to source resources due to the predominance of read- prevent access to source resources due to the predominance of read-
only access. WebDAV, with its emphasis on authoring, encourages only access. WebDAV, with its emphasis on authoring, encourages read
read and write access to source resources, and provides the source and write access to source resources, and provides the source link
link facility to identify the source. This reduces the security facility to identify the source. This reduces the security benefits
benefits of eliminating access to source resources. Users and of eliminating access to source resources. Users and administrators
administrators of WebDAV servers should be very cautious when of WebDAV servers should be very cautious when allowing remote
allowing remote authoring of scripts, limiting read and write access authoring of scripts, limiting read and write access to the source
to the source resources to authorized principals. resources to authorized principals.
17.7 Implications of XML External Entities 17.7 Implications of XML External Entities
XML supports a facility known as "external entities", defined in XML supports a facility known as "external entities", defined in
section 4.2.2 of [REC-XML], which instruct an XML processor to section 4.2.2 of [REC-XML], which instruct an XML processor to
retrieve and perform an inline include of XML located at a retrieve and perform an inline include of XML located at a particular
particular URI. An external XML entity can be used to append or URI. An external XML entity can be used to append or modify the
modify the document type declaration (DTD) associated with an XML document type declaration (DTD) associated with an XML document. An
document. An external XML entity can also be used to include XML external XML entity can also be used to include XML within the
within the content of an XML document. For non-validating XML, such content of an XML document. For non-validating XML, such as the XML
as the XML used in this specification, including an external XML used in this specification, including an external XML entity is not
entity is not required by [REC-XML]. However, [REC-XML] does state required by [REC-XML]. However, [REC-XML] does state that an XML
that an XML processor may, at its discretion, include the external processor may, at its discretion, include the external XML entity.
XML entity.
External XML entities have no inherent trustworthiness and are External XML entities have no inherent trustworthiness and are
subject to all the attacks that are endemic to any HTTP GET request. subject to all the attacks that are endemic to any HTTP GET request.
Furthermore, it is possible for an external XML entity to modify the Furthermore, it is possible for an external XML entity to modify the
DTD, and hence affect the final form of an XML document, in the DTD, and hence affect the final form of an XML document, in the worst
worst case significantly modifying its semantics, or exposing the case significantly modifying its semantics, or exposing the XML
XML processor to the security risks discussed in [RFC2376]. processor to the security risks discussed in [RFC2376]. Therefore,
Therefore, implementers must be aware that external XML entities implementers must be aware that external XML entities should be
should be treated as untrustworthy. treated as untrustworthy.
There is also the scalability risk that would accompany a widely There is also the scalability risk that would accompany a widely
deployed application which made use of external XML entities. In deployed application which made use of external XML entities. In
this situation, it is possible that there would be significant this situation, it is possible that there would be significant
numbers of requests for one external XML entity, potentially numbers of requests for one external XML entity, potentially
overloading any server which fields requests for the resource overloading any server which fields requests for the resource
containing the external XML entity. containing the external XML entity.
17.8 Risks Connected with Lock Tokens 17.8 Risks Connected with Lock Tokens
skipping to change at page 78, line 11 skipping to change at page 80, line 36
There are several risks associated with exposure of IEEE 802 There are several risks associated with exposure of IEEE 802
addresses. Using the IEEE 802 address: addresses. Using the IEEE 802 address:
* It is possible to track the movement of hardware from subnet to * It is possible to track the movement of hardware from subnet to
subnet. subnet.
* It may be possible to identify the manufacturer of the hardware * It may be possible to identify the manufacturer of the hardware
running a WebDAV server. running a WebDAV server.
* It may be possible to determine the number of each type of * It may be possible to determine the number of each type of computer
computer running WebDAV. running WebDAV.
Section 6.4.1 of this specification details an alternate mechanism Section 6.4.1 of this specification details an alternate mechanism
for generating the "node" field of a UUID without using an IEEE 802 for generating the "node" field of a UUID without using an IEEE 802
address, which alleviates the risks associated with exposure of IEEE address, which alleviates the risks associated with exposure of IEEE
802 addresses by using an alternate source of uniqueness. 802 addresses by using an alternate source of uniqueness.
18 IANA Considerations 18 IANA Considerations
This document defines two namespaces, the namespace of property This document defines two namespaces, the namespace of property
names, and the namespace of WebDAV-specific XML elements used within names, and the namespace of WebDAV-specific XML elements used within
skipping to change at page 78, line 35 skipping to change at page 81, line 15
URIs are used for both names, for several reasons. Assignment of a URIs are used for both names, for several reasons. Assignment of a
URI does not require a request to a central naming authority, and URI does not require a request to a central naming authority, and
hence allow WebDAV property names and XML elements to be quickly hence allow WebDAV property names and XML elements to be quickly
defined by any WebDAV user or application. URIs also provide a defined by any WebDAV user or application. URIs also provide a
unique address space, ensuring that the distributed users of WebDAV unique address space, ensuring that the distributed users of WebDAV
will not have collisions among the property names and XML elements will not have collisions among the property names and XML elements
they create. they create.
This specification defines a distinguished set of property names and This specification defines a distinguished set of property names and
XML elements that are understood by all WebDAV applications. The XML elements that are understood by all WebDAV applications. The
property names and XML elements in this specification are all property names and XML elements in this specification are all derived
derived from the base URI DAV: by adding a suffix to this URI, for from the base URI DAV: by adding a suffix to this URI, for example,
example, DAV:creationdate for the "creationdate" property. DAV:creationdate for the "creationdate" property.
This specification also defines a URI scheme for the encoding of This specification also defines a URI scheme for the encoding of lock
lock tokens, the opaquelocktoken URI scheme described in section tokens, the opaquelocktoken URI scheme described in section 6.4.
6.4.
To ensure correct interoperation based on this specification, IANA To ensure correct interoperation based on this specification, IANA
must reserve the URI namespaces starting with "DAV:" and with must reserve the URI namespaces starting with "DAV:" and with
"opaquelocktoken:" for use by this specification, its revisions, and "opaquelocktoken:" for use by this specification, its revisions, and
related WebDAV specifications. related WebDAV specifications.
19 Copyright 19 Intellectual Property
The following copyright notice is copied from RFC 2026 [RFC2026],
section 10.4, and describes the applicable copyright for this
document.
Copyright (C) The Internet Society 1998. All Rights Reserved.
This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph
are included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this
document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
English.
The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assignees.
This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
"AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION
HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
20 Intellectual Property
The following notice is copied from RFC 2026 [RFC2026], section The following notice is copied from RFC 2026 [RFC2026], section 10.4,
10.4, and describes the position of the IETF concerning intellectual and describes the position of the IETF concerning intellectual
property claims made against this document. property claims made against this document.
The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
intellectual property or other rights that might be claimed to intellectual property or other rights that might be claimed to
pertain to the implementation or use other technology described in pertain to the implementation or use other technology described in
this document or the extent to which any license under such rights this document or the extent to which any license under such rights
might or might not be available; neither does it represent that it might or might not be available; neither does it represent that it
has made any effort to identify any such rights. Information on the has made any effort to identify any such rights. Information on the
IETF's procedures with respect to rights in standards-track and IETF's procedures with respect to rights in standards-track and
standards-related documentation can be found in BCP-11. Copies of standards-related documentation can be found in BCP-11. Copies of
claims of rights made available for publication and any assurances claims of rights made available for publication and any assurances of
of licenses to be made available, or the result of an attempt made licenses to be made available, or the result of an attempt made to
to obtain a general license or permission for the use of such obtain a general license or permission for the use of such
proprietary rights by implementors or users of this specification proprietary rights by implementors or users of this specification can
can be obtained from the IETF Secretariat. be obtained from the IETF Secretariat.
The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
rights which may cover technology that may be required to practice rights which may cover technology that may be required to practice
this standard. Please address the information to the IETF Executive this standard. Please address the information to the IETF Executive
Director. Director.
21 Acknowledgements 20 Acknowledgements
A specification such as this thrives on piercing critical review and A specification such as this thrives on piercing critical review and
withers from apathetic neglect. The authors gratefully acknowledge withers from apathetic neglect. The authors gratefully acknowledge
the contributions of the following people, whose insights were so the contributions of the following people, whose insights were so
valuable at every stage of our work. valuable at every stage of our work.
Terry Allen, Harald Alvestrand, Jim Amsden, Becky Anderson, Alan Terry Allen, Harald Alvestrand, Jim Amsden, Becky Anderson, Alan
Babich, Sanford Barr, Dylan Barrell, Bernard Chester, Tim Berners- Babich, Sanford Barr, Dylan Barrell, Bernard Chester, Tim Berners-
Lee, Dan Connolly, Jim Cunningham, Ron Daniel, Jr., Jim Davis, Keith Lee, Dan Connolly, Jim Cunningham, Ron Daniel, Jr., Jim Davis, Keith
Dawson, Mark Day, Brian Deen, Martin Duerst, David Durand, Lee Dawson, Mark Day, Brian Deen, Martin Duerst, David Durand, Lee
Farrell, Chuck Fay, Wesley Felter, Roy Fielding, Mark Fisher, Alan Farrell, Chuck Fay, Wesley Felter, Roy Fielding, Mark Fisher, Alan
Freier, George Florentine, Jim Gettys, Phill Hallam-Baker, Dennis Freier, George Florentine, Jim Gettys, Phill Hallam-Baker, Dennis
Hamilton, Steve Henning, Mead Himelstein, Alex Hopmann, Andre van Hamilton, Steve Henning, Mead Himelstein, Alex Hopmann, Andre van der
der Hoek, Ben Laurie, Paul Leach, Ora Lassila, Karen MacArthur, Hoek, Ben Laurie, Paul Leach, Ora Lassila, Karen MacArthur, Steven
Steven Martin, Larry Masinter, Michael Mealling, Keith Moore, Thomas Martin, Larry Masinter, Michael Mealling, Keith Moore, Thomas Narten,
Narten, Henrik Nielsen, Kenji Ota, Bob Parker, Glenn Peterson, Jon Henrik Nielsen, Kenji Ota, Bob Parker, Glenn Peterson, Jon Radoff,
Radoff, Saveen Reddy, Henry Sanders, Christopher Seiwald, Judith Saveen Reddy, Henry Sanders, Christopher Seiwald, Judith Slein, Mike
Slein, Mike Spreitzer, Einar Stefferud, Greg Stein, Ralph Swick, Spreitzer, Einar Stefferud, Greg Stein, Ralph Swick, Kenji Takahashi,
Kenji Takahashi, Richard N. Taylor, Robert Thau, John Turner, Sankar Richard N. Taylor, Robert Thau, John Turner, Sankar Virdhagriswaran,
Virdhagriswaran, Fabio Vitali, Gregory Woodhouse, and Lauren Wood. Fabio Vitali, Gregory Woodhouse, and Lauren Wood.
Two from this list deserve special mention. The contributions by Two from this list deserve special mention. The contributions by
Larry Masinter have been invaluable, both in helping the formation Larry Masinter have been invaluable, both in helping the formation of
of the working group and in patiently coaching the authors along the the working group and in patiently coaching the authors along the
way. In so many ways he has set high standards we have toiled to way. In so many ways he has set high standards we have toiled to
meet. The contributions of Judith Slein in clarifying the meet. The contributions of Judith Slein in clarifying the
requirements, and in patiently reviewing draft after draft, both requirements, and in patiently reviewing draft after draft, both
improved this specification and expanded our minds on document improved this specification and expanded our minds on document
management. management.
We would also like to thank John Turner for developing the XML DTD. We would also like to thank John Turner for developing the XML DTD.
22 References 21 References
22.1 Normative References 21.1 Normative References
[RFC1766] H. T. Alvestrand, "Tags for the Identification of [RFC1766] Alvestrand, H., "Tags for the Identification of
Languages." RFC 1766. Uninett. March, 1995. Languages", RFC 1766, March 1995.
[RFC2277] H. T. Alvestrand, "IETF Policy on Character Sets and [RFC2277] Alvestrand, H., "IETF Policy on Character Sets and
Languages." RFC 2277, BCP 18. Uninett. January, 1998. Languages", BCP 18, RFC 2277, January 1998.
[RFC2119] S. Bradner, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels." RFC 2119, BCP 14. Harvard Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
University. March, 1997.
[RFC2396] T. Berners-Lee, R. Fielding, L. Masinter, "Uniform [RFC2396] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R. and L. Masinter,
Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax." RFC 2396. "Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax",
MIT/LCS, U.C. Irvine, Xerox. August, 1998. RFC 2396, August 1998.
[REC-XML] T. Bray, J. Paoli, C. M. Sperberg-McQueen, "Extensible [REC-XML] T. Bray, J. Paoli, C. M. Sperberg-McQueen,
Markup Language (XML)." World Wide Web Consortium "Extensible Markup Language (XML)." World Wide Web
Recommendation REC-xml-19980210. Consortium Recommendation REC-xml-19980210.
http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/REC-xml-19980210. http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/REC-xml-19980210.
[RFC2069] J. Franks, P. Hallam-Baker, J. Hostetler, P. Leach, A. [REC-XML-NAMES] T. Bray, D. Hollander, A. Layman, "Namespaces in
Luotonen, E. Sink, and L. Stewart. "An Extension to HTTP : XML". World Wide Web Consortium Recommendation REC-
Digest Access Authentication" RFC 2069. Northwestern xml-names-19990114. http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-
University, CERN, Spyglass Inc., Microsoft Corp., Netscape xml-names-19990114/
Communications Corp., Spyglass Inc., Open Market Inc.
January 1997.
[RFC2068] R. Fielding, J. Gettys, J. Mogul, H. Frystyk, T. Berners- [RFC2069] Franks, J., Hallam-Baker, P., Hostetler, J., Leach,
Lee, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1." RFC 2068. P, Luotonen, A., Sink, E. and L. Stewart, "An
U.C. Irvine, DEC, MIT/LCS. January, 1997. Extension to HTTP : Digest Access Authentication",
RFC 2069, January 1997.
[ISO-639] ISO (International Organization for Standardization). ISO [RFC2068] Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H. and
639:1988. "Code for the representation of names of T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol --
languages." HTTP/1.1", RFC 2068, January 1997.
[ISO-8601] ISO (International Organization for Standardization). ISO [ISO-639] ISO (International Organization for Standardization).
8601:1988. "Data elements and interchange formats - ISO 639:1988. "Code for the representation of names
Information interchange - Representation of dates and of languages."
times."
[ISO-11578] ISO (International Organization for Standardization). [ISO-8601] ISO (International Organization for Standardization).
ISO/IEC 11578:1996. "Information technology - Open Systems ISO 8601:1988. "Data elements and interchange formats
Interconnection - Remote Procedure Call (RPC)" - Information interchange - Representation of dates
and times."
[RFC2141] R. Moats, "URN Syntax." RFC 2141. AT&T. May, 1997. [ISO-11578] ISO (International Organization for Standardization).
ISO/IEC 11578:1996. "Information technology - Open
Systems Interconnection - Remote Procedure Call
(RPC)"
[UTF-8] F. Yergeau, "UTF-8, a transformation format of Unicode and [RFC2141] Moats, R., "URN Syntax", RFC 2141, May 1997.
ISO 10646." RFC 2279. Alis Technologies. January, 1998.
22.2 Informational References [UTF-8] Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of
Unicode and ISO 10646", RFC 2279, January 1998.
[RFC2026] S. Bradner, "The Internet Standards Process - Revision 3." 21.2 Informational References
RFC 2026, BCP 9. Harvard University. October, 1996.
[WD-XML-NAMES] T. Bray, D. Hollander, A. Layman, "Name Spaces in [RFC2026] Bradner, S., "The Internet Standards Process - Revision
XML" World Wide Web Consortium Working Draft, 3", BCP 9, RFC 2026, October 1996.
http://www.w3.org/TR/WD-xml-names.
[RFC1807] R. Lasher, D. Cohen, "A Format for Bibliographic Records," [RFC1807] Lasher, R. and D. Cohen, "A Format for Bibliographic
RFC 1807. Stanford, Myricom. June, 1995. Records", RFC 1807, June 1995.
[WF] C. Lagoze, "The Warwick Framework: A Container [WF] C. Lagoze, "The Warwick Framework: A Container
Architecture for Diverse Sets of Metadata", D-Lib Architecture for Diverse Sets of Metadata", D-Lib
Magazine, July/August 1996. Magazine, July/August 1996.
http://www.dlib.org/dlib/july96/lagoze/07lagoze.html http://www.dlib.org/dlib/july96/lagoze/07lagoze.html
[USMARC] Network Development and MARC Standards, Office, ed. 1994. [USMARC] Network Development and MARC Standards, Office, ed. 1994.
"USMARC Format for Bibliographic Data", 1994. Washington, "USMARC Format for Bibliographic Data", 1994. Washington,
DC: Cataloging Distribution Service, Library of Congress. DC: Cataloging Distribution Service, Library of Congress.
[REC-PICS] J. Miller, T. Krauskopf, P. Resnick, W. Treese, "PICS [REC-PICS] J. Miller, T. Krauskopf, P. Resnick, W. Treese, "PICS
Label Distribution Label Syntax and Communication Label Distribution Label Syntax and Communication
Protocols" Version 1.1, World Wide Web Consortium Protocols" Version 1.1, World Wide Web Consortium
Recommendation REC-PICS-labels-961031. Recommendation REC-PICS-labels-961031.
http://www.w3.org/pub/WWW/TR/REC-PICS-labels-961031.html. http://www.w3.org/pub/WWW/TR/REC-PICS-labels-961031.html.
[RFC2291] J. A. Slein, F. Vitali, E. J. Whitehead, Jr., D. Durand, [RFC2291] Slein, J., Vitali, F., Whitehead, E. and D. Durand,
"Requirements for Distributed Authoring and Versioning "Requirements for Distributed Authoring and Versioning
Protocol for the World Wide Web." RFC 2291. Xerox, Univ. Protocol for the World Wide Web", RFC 2291, February 1998.
of Bologna, U.C. Irvine, Boston Univ. February, 1998.
[RFC2413] S. Weibel, J. Kunze, C. Lagoze, M. Wolf, "Dublin Core [RFC2413] Weibel, S., Kunze, J., Lagoze, C. and M. Wolf, "Dublin
Metadata for Resource Discovery." RFC 2413. OCLC, UCSF, Core Metadata for Resource Discovery", RFC 2413, September
Cornell, Reuters. September, 1998. 1998.
[RFC2376] E. Whitehead, M. Murata, "XML Media Types." RFC 2376. U.C. [RFC2376] Whitehead, E. and M. Murata, "XML Media Types", RFC 2376,
Irvine, Fuji Xerox Info. Systems. July 1998. July 1998.
23 Authors' Addresses 22 Authors' Addresses
Y. Y. Goland Y. Y. Goland
Microsoft Corporation Microsoft Corporation
One Microsoft Way One Microsoft Way
Redmond, WA 98052-6399 Redmond, WA 98052-6399
Email: yarong@microsoft.com
EMail: yarong@microsoft.com
E. J. Whitehead, Jr. E. J. Whitehead, Jr.
Dept. Of Information and Computer Science Dept. Of Information and Computer Science
University of California, Irvine University of California, Irvine
Irvine, CA 92697-3425 Irvine, CA 92697-3425
Email: ejw@ics.uci.edu
EMail: ejw@ics.uci.edu
A. Faizi A. Faizi
Netscape Netscape
685 East Middlefield Road 685 East Middlefield Road
Mountain View, CA 94043 Mountain View, CA 94043
Email: asad@netscape.com
EMail: asad@netscape.com
S. R. Carter S. R. Carter
Novell Novell
1555 N. Technology Way 1555 N. Technology Way
M/S ORM F111 M/S ORM F111
Orem, UT 84097-2399 Orem, UT 84097-2399
Email: srcarter@novell.com
EMail: srcarter@novell.com
D. Jensen D. Jensen
Novell Novell
1555 N. Technology Way 1555 N. Technology Way
M/S ORM F111 M/S ORM F111
Orem, UT 84097-2399 Orem, UT 84097-2399
Email: dcjensen@novell.com
24 Appendices EMail: dcjensen@novell.com
24.1 Appendix 1 - WebDAV Document Type Definition 23 Appendices
This section provides a document type definition, following the 23.1 Appendix 1 - WebDAV Document Type Definition
rules in [REC-XML], for the XML elements used in the protocol stream
and in the values of properties. It collects the element definitions This section provides a document type definition, following the rules
given in sections 12 and 13. in [REC-XML], for the XML elements used in the protocol stream and in
the values of properties. It collects the element definitions given
in sections 12 and 13.
<!DOCTYPE webdav-1.0 [ <!DOCTYPE webdav-1.0 [
<!--============ XML Elements from Section 12 ==================--> <!--============ XML Elements from Section 12 ==================-->
<!ELEMENT activelock (lockscope, locktype, depth, owner?, timeout?, <!ELEMENT activelock (lockscope, locktype, depth, owner?, timeout?,
locktoken?) > locktoken?) >
<!ELEMENT lockentry (lockscope, locktype) > <!ELEMENT lockentry (lockscope, locktype) >
<!ELEMENT lockinfo (lockscope, locktype, owner?) > <!ELEMENT lockinfo (lockscope, locktype, owner?) >
skipping to change at page 85, line 30 skipping to change at page 88, line 5
<!ELEMENT getcontentlength (#PCDATA) > <!ELEMENT getcontentlength (#PCDATA) >
<!ELEMENT getcontenttype (#PCDATA) > <!ELEMENT getcontenttype (#PCDATA) >
<!ELEMENT getetag (#PCDATA) > <!ELEMENT getetag (#PCDATA) >
<!ELEMENT getlastmodified (#PCDATA) > <!ELEMENT getlastmodified (#PCDATA) >
<!ELEMENT lockdiscovery (activelock)* > <!ELEMENT lockdiscovery (activelock)* >
<!ELEMENT resourcetype ANY > <!ELEMENT resourcetype ANY >
<!ELEMENT source (link)* > <!ELEMENT source (link)* >
<!ELEMENT supportedlock (lockentry)* > <!ELEMENT supportedlock (lockentry)* >
]> ]>
24.2 Appendix 2 - ISO 8601 Date and Time Profile 23.2 Appendix 2 - ISO 8601 Date and Time Profile
The creationdate property specifies the use of the ISO 8601 date The creationdate property specifies the use of the ISO 8601 date
format [ISO-8601]. This section defines a profile of the ISO 8601 format [ISO-8601]. This section defines a profile of the ISO 8601
date format for use with this specification. This profile is quoted date format for use with this specification. This profile is quoted
from an Internet-Draft by Chris Newman, and is mentioned here to from an Internet-Draft by Chris Newman, and is mentioned here to
properly attribute his work. properly attribute his work.
date-time = full-date "T" full-time date-time = full-date "T" full-time
full-date = date-fullyear "-" date-month "-" date-mday full-date = date-fullyear "-" date-month "-" date-mday
skipping to change at page 86, line 10 skipping to change at page 88, line 37
time-offset = "Z" / time-numoffset time-offset = "Z" / time-numoffset
partial-time = time-hour ":" time-minute ":" time-second partial-time = time-hour ":" time-minute ":" time-second
[time-secfrac] [time-secfrac]
Numeric offsets are calculated as local time minus UTC (Coordinated Numeric offsets are calculated as local time minus UTC (Coordinated
Universal Time). So the equivalent time in UTC can be determined by Universal Time). So the equivalent time in UTC can be determined by
subtracting the offset from the local time. For example, 18:50:00- subtracting the offset from the local time. For example, 18:50:00-
04:00 is the same time as 22:58:00Z. 04:00 is the same time as 22:58:00Z.
If the time in UTC is known, but the offset to local time is If the time in UTC is known, but the offset to local time is unknown,
unknown, this can be represented with an offset of "-00:00". This this can be represented with an offset of "-00:00". This differs
differs from an offset of "Z" which implies that UTC is the from an offset of "Z" which implies that UTC is the preferred
preferred reference point for the specified time. reference point for the specified time.
24.3 Appendix 3 - Notes on Processing XML Elements 23.3 Appendix 3 - Notes on Processing XML Elements
24.3.1 Notes on Empty XML Elements 23.3.1 Notes on Empty XML Elements
XML supports two mechanisms for indicating that an XML element does XML supports two mechanisms for indicating that an XML element does
not have any content. The first is to declare an XML element of the not have any content. The first is to declare an XML element of the
form <A></A>. The second is to declare an XML element of the form form <A></A>. The second is to declare an XML element of the form
<A/>. The two XML elements are semantically identical. <A/>. The two XML elements are semantically identical.
It is a violation of the XML specification to use the <A></A> form It is a violation of the XML specification to use the <A></A> form if
if the associated DTD declares the element to be EMPTY (e.g., the associated DTD declares the element to be EMPTY (e.g., <!ELEMENT
<!ELEMENT A EMPTY>). If such a statement is included, then the A EMPTY>). If such a statement is included, then the empty element
empty element format, <A/> must be used. If the element is not format, <A/> must be used. If the element is not declared to be
delcared to be EMPTY, then either form <A></A> or <A/> may be used EMPTY, then either form <A></A> or <A/> may be used for empty
for empty elements. elements.
24.3.2 Notes on Illegal XML Processing 23.3.2 Notes on Illegal XML Processing
XML is a flexible data format that makes it easy to submit data that XML is a flexible data format that makes it easy to submit data that
appears legal but in fact is not. The philosophy of "Be flexible in appears legal but in fact is not. The philosophy of "Be flexible in
what you accept and strict in what you send" still applies, but it what you accept and strict in what you send" still applies, but it
must not be applied inappropriately. XML is extremely flexible in must not be applied inappropriately. XML is extremely flexible in
dealing with issues of white space, element ordering, inserting new dealing with issues of white space, element ordering, inserting new
elements, etc. This flexibility does not require extension, elements, etc. This flexibility does not require extension,
especially not in the area of the meaning of elements. especially not in the area of the meaning of elements.
There is no kindness in accepting illegal combinations of XML There is no kindness in accepting illegal combinations of XML
elements. At best it will cause an unwanted result and at worst it elements. At best it will cause an unwanted result and at worst it
can cause real damage. can cause real damage.
24.3.2.1 Example - XML Syntax Error 23.3.2.1 Example - XML Syntax Error
The following request body for a PROPFIND method is illegal. The following request body for a PROPFIND method is illegal.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<D:propfind xmlns:D="DAV:"> <D:propfind xmlns:D="DAV:">
<D:allprop/> <D:allprop/>
<D:propname/> <D:propname/>
</D:propfind> </D:propfind>
The definition of the propfind element only allows for the allprop
or the propname element, not both. Thus the above is an error and The definition of the propfind element only allows for the allprop or
must be responded to with a 400 (Bad Request). the propname element, not both. Thus the above is an error and must
be responded to with a 400 (Bad Request).
Imagine, however, that a server wanted to be "kind" and decided to Imagine, however, that a server wanted to be "kind" and decided to
pick the allprop element as the true element and respond to it. A pick the allprop element as the true element and respond to it. A
client running over a bandwidth limited line who intended to execute client running over a bandwidth limited line who intended to execute
a propname would be in for a big surprise if the server treated the a propname would be in for a big surprise if the server treated the
command as an allprop. command as an allprop.
Additionally, if a server were lenient and decided to reply to this Additionally, if a server were lenient and decided to reply to this
request, the results would vary randomly from server to server, with request, the results would vary randomly from server to server, with
some servers executing the allprop directive, and others executing some servers executing the allprop directive, and others executing
the propname directive. This reduces interoperability rather than the propname directive. This reduces interoperability rather than
increasing it. increasing it.
24.3.2.2 Example - Unknown XML Element 23.3.2.2 Example - Unknown XML Element
The previous example was illegal because it contained two elements The previous example was illegal because it contained two elements
that were explicitly banned from appearing together in the propfind that were explicitly banned from appearing together in the propfind
element. However, XML is an extensible language, so one can imagine element. However, XML is an extensible language, so one can imagine
new elements being defined for use with propfind. Below is the new elements being defined for use with propfind. Below is the
request body of a PROPFIND and, like the previous example, must be request body of a PROPFIND and, like the previous example, must be
rejected with a 400 (Bad Request) by a server that does not rejected with a 400 (Bad Request) by a server that does not
understand the expired-props element. understand the expired-props element.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
skipping to change at page 87, line 47 skipping to change at page 90, line 44
request body as the server unfamiliar with expired-props sees it. request body as the server unfamiliar with expired-props sees it.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<D:propfind xmlns:D="DAV:" <D:propfind xmlns:D="DAV:"
xmlns:E="http://www.foo.bar/standards/props/"> xmlns:E="http://www.foo.bar/standards/props/">
</D:propfind> </D:propfind>
As the server does not understand the expired-props element, As the server does not understand the expired-props element,
according to the WebDAV-specific XML processing rules specified in according to the WebDAV-specific XML processing rules specified in
section 14, it must ignore it. Thus the server sees an empty section 14, it must ignore it. Thus the server sees an empty
propfind, which by the definition of the propfind element is propfind, which by the definition of the propfind element is illegal.
illegal.
Please note that had the extension been additive it would not Please note that had the extension been additive it would not
necessarily have resulted in a 400 (Bad Request). For example, necessarily have resulted in a 400 (Bad Request). For example,
imagine the following request body for a PROPFIND: imagine the following request body for a PROPFIND:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<D:propfind xmlns:D="DAV:" <D:propfind xmlns:D="DAV:"
xmlns:E="http://www.foo.bar/standards/props/"> xmlns:E="http://www.foo.bar/standards/props/">
<D:propname/> <D:propname/>
<E:leave-out>*boss*</E:leave-out> <E:leave-out>*boss*</E:leave-out>
</D:propfind> </D:propfind>
The previous example contains the fictitious element leave-out. Its The previous example contains the fictitious element leave-out. Its
purpose is to prevent the return of any property whose name matches purpose is to prevent the return of any property whose name matches
the submitted pattern. If the previous example were submitted to a the submitted pattern. If the previous example were submitted to a
server unfamiliar with leave-out, the only result would be that the server unfamiliar with leave-out, the only result would be that the
leave-out element would be ignored and a propname would be executed. leave-out element would be ignored and a propname would be executed.
skipping to change at page 88, line 18 skipping to change at page 92, line 5
<D:propname/> <D:propname/>
<E:leave-out>*boss*</E:leave-out> <E:leave-out>*boss*</E:leave-out>
</D:propfind> </D:propfind>
The previous example contains the fictitious element leave-out. Its The previous example contains the fictitious element leave-out. Its
purpose is to prevent the return of any property whose name matches purpose is to prevent the return of any property whose name matches
the submitted pattern. If the previous example were submitted to a the submitted pattern. If the previous example were submitted to a
server unfamiliar with leave-out, the only result would be that the server unfamiliar with leave-out, the only result would be that the
leave-out element would be ignored and a propname would be executed. leave-out element would be ignored and a propname would be executed.
24.4 Appendix 4 -- XML Namespaces for WebDAV 23.4 Appendix 4 -- XML Namespaces for WebDAV
24.4.1 Introduction
To provide a unique space of XML element names which has
decentralized extensibility, this specification uses a feature of
XML known as XML "namespaces". This appendix provides a normative
reference for XML namespace functionality for implementations of
this specification. All DAV compliant systems MUST support the XML
namespace extension as specified in this appendix.
The remainder of this appendix is intended to match, as closely as
needed, the text in WD-xml-names-19980916, "Namespaces in XML",
edited by Tim Bray, Dave Hollander, and Andrew Layman [WD-XML-
NAMES]. To meet this goal, the text in this appendix is mostly
quoted verbatim from sections 1-6 of that source. However, some
minor changes were made, specifically to make the references match
the style of this document, and a forward reference to appendix A
(non-normative) of [REC-XML] was removed, as no appendices of [REC-
XML] are duplicated here.
24.4.2 Motivation and Summary
We envision applications of Extensible Markup Language (XML) where a
single XML document may contain elements and attributes that are
defined for and used by multiple software modules. One motivation
for this is modularity; if such a markup vocabulary exists which is
well-understood and for which there is useful software available, it
is better to re-use this markup rather than re-invent it.
Such documents, containing multiple markup vocabularies, pose
problems of recognition and collision. Software modules need to be
able to recognize the tags and attributes which they are designed to
process, even in the face of "collisions" occurring when markup
intended for some other software package uses the same element type
or attribute name.
These considerations require that document constructs should have
universal names, whose scope extends beyond their containing
document. This specification describes a mechanism, XML namespaces,
which accomplishes this.
[Definition:] An XML namespace is a collection of names, identified
by a URI, which are used in XML documents as element types and
attribute names. XML namespaces differ from the "namespaces"
conventionally used in computing disciplines in that the XML version
has internal structure and is not, mathematically speaking, a set.
Names from XML namespaces may appear as qualified names, which
contain a single colon, separating the name into a namespace prefix
and a local part. The prefix, which is mapped to a URI [RFC2396],
selects a namespace. The combination of the universally managed URI
namespace and the document's own namespace produces identifiers that
are universally unique. Mechanisms are provided for prefix scoping
and defaulting to avoid clutter and improve readability.
URIs can contain characters not allowed in names, so cannot be used
directly as namespace prefixes. Therefore, the namespace prefix
serves as a proxy for a URI. An attribute-based syntax described
below is used to declare the association of the namespace prefix
with a URI; software which supports this namespace proposal must
recognize and act on these declarations and prefixes.
24.4.3 Declaring Namespaces
Note that many of the nonterminals in the productions in section 24
of this specification are defined not here but in the XML
specification [REC-XML]. When nonterminals defined here have the
same names as nonterminals defined in the XML specification, the
productions here in all cases match a subset of the strings matched
by the corresponding ones there.
[Definition:] A namespace is declared using an attribute whose
prefix is xmlns as follows:
Namespace declaration using attributes
[1] NSDecl ::= PrefixDef Eq AttValue [ NSC: Empty URI ]
[2] PrefixDef ::= 'xmlns' (':' NCName)? [ NSC: Leading "XML" ]
[3] NCName ::= (Letter | '_') (NCNameChar)* /* An XML Name,
minus the ":" */
[4] NCNameChar ::= Letter | Digit | '.' | '-' | '_' |
CombiningChar | Extender
[Definition:] The AttValue in the NSDecl production is a URI which
functions as a namespace name to identify the namespace. The
namespace name, to serve its intended purpose, should have the
characteristics of uniqueness and persistence. It is not a goal that
it be directly usable for retrieval of a schema (if any exists). An
example of a syntax that is designed with these goals in mind is
that for Uniform Resource Names [RFC2141]. However, it should be
noted that ordinary URLs can be managed in such a way as to achieve
these same goals.
[Definition:] In the PrefixDef production, if the optional colon and
NCName are provided, then that NCName gives the namespace prefix,
used to associate names with this namespace in the scope of the
element to which the declaration is attached.
[Definition:] If the colon and NCName are not provided, then the
associated namespace name is that of the default namespace in the
scope of the element to which the declaration is attached.
Namespace Constraint: Empty URI
The AttValue may be empty only if the PrefixDef is simply xmlns,
i.e. is declaring a default namespace. Default namespaces and
overriding of declarations are discussed in "5. Applying Namespaces
to Elements and Attributes".
Namespace Constraint: Leading "XML"
Prefixes beginning with the three-letter sequence x, m, l, in any
case combination, are reserved for use by XML and XML-related
specifications.
An example namespace declaration:
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<x xmlns:edi='http://ecommerce.org/schema'>
<!-- the edi namespace applies to the "x" element and contents -
->
</x>
24.4.4 Qualified Names
[Definition:] In XML documents conforming to this specification,
some names (constructs corresponding to the nonterminal Name) may be
given as qualified names, defined as follows:
Qualified Name
[5] QName ::= (Prefix ':')? LocalPart
[6] Prefix ::= NCName
[7] LocalPart ::= NCName
The Prefix provides the namespace prefix part of the qualified name,
and must be associated with a namespace URI in a namespace
declaration. [Definition:] The LocalPart provides the local part of
the qualified name.
Note that the prefix functions only as a placeholder for a namespace
name. Applications should use the namespace name, not the prefix, in
constructing names whose scope extends beyond the containing
document.
24.4.5 Using Qualified Names
In XML documents conforming to this specification, element types are
given as qualified names, as follows:
Element Types and Attribute Names
[8] STag ::= '<' QName (S Attribute)* S? '>' [ NSC: Prefix
Declared ]
[9] ETag ::= '</' QName S? '>' [ NSC: Prefix Declared ]
[10] EmptyElemTag ::= '<' QName (S Attribute)* S? '/>' [ NSC:
Prefix Declared ]
Attribute names are given as qualified names, as follows:
Attribute
[11] Attribute ::= QName Eq AttValue [ NSC: Prefix Declared ]
Namespace Constraint: Prefix Declared
The namespace prefix, unless it is xml or xmlns, must have been
declared in a namespace declaration attribute in either the start-
tag of the element where the prefix is used or in an an ancestor
element (i.e. an element in whose content the prefixed markup
occurs). The prefix xml is by definition bound to the namespace name
urn:Connolly:input:required. The prefix xmlns is used only for
namespace bindings and is not itself bound to any namespace name.
This constraint may lead to operational difficulties in the case
where the namespace declaration attribute is provided, not directly
in the XML document entity, but via a default attribute declared in
an external entity. Such declarations may not be read by software
which is based on a non-validating XML processor. Many XML
applications, presumably including namespace-sensitive ones, fail to
require validating processors. For correct operation with such
applications, namespace declarations must be provided either
directly or via default attributes declared in the internal subset
of the DTD.
Element names and attribute types are also given as qualified names
when they appear in declarations in the DTD:
Qualified Names in Declarations
[12] doctypedecl ::= '<!DOCTYPE' S QName (S ExternalID)? S? ('['
(markupdecl | PEReference | S)* ']' S?)? '>'
[13] elementdecl ::= '<!ELEMENT' S QName S contentspec S? '>'
[14] cp ::= (QName | choice | seq) ('?' | '*' | '+')?
[15] Mixed ::= '(' S? '#PCDATA' (S? '|' S? QName)* S? ')*'
| '(' S? '#PCDATA' S? ')'
[16] AttlistDecl ::= '<!ATTLIST' S QName AttDef* S? '>'
[17] AttDef ::= S QName S AttType S DefaultDecl
24.4.6 Applying Namespaces to Elements and Attributes
24.4.6.1 Namespace Scoping
The namespace declaration is considered to apply to the element
where it is specified and to all elements within the content of that
element, unless overridden by another namespace declaration with the
same PrefixDef part:
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!-- everything here is explicitly in the HTML namespace -->
<html:html xmlns:html='http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40'>
<html:head><html:title>Frobnostication</html:title></html:head>
<html:body><html:p>Moved to
<html:a href='http://frob.com'>here.</html:a></html:p>
</html:body>
</html:html>
Multiple namespace prefixes can be declared as attributes of a
single element, as shown in this example:
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!-- both namespace prefixes are available throughout -->
<bk:book xmlns:bk='urn:loc.gov:books'
xmlns:isbn='urn:ISBN:0-395-36341-6'>
<bk:title>Cheaper by the Dozen</bk:title>
<isbn:number>1568491379</isbn:number>
</bk:book>
24.4.6.2 Namespace Defaulting
A default namespace is considered to apply to the element where it
is declared (if that element has no namespace prefix), and to all
elements with no prefix within the content of that element. If the
URI in a default namespace declaration is empty, then unprefixed
elements in the scope of the declaration are not considered to be in
any namespace. Note that default namespaces do not apply directly to
attributes.
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!-- everything is in the HTML namespace, in this case by default --
>
<html xmlns='http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40'>
<head><title>Frobnostication</title></head>
<body><p>Moved to
<a href='http://frob.com'>here</a>.</p></body>
</html>
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!-- unprefixed names are from "books" -->
<book xmlns='urn:loc.gov:books'
xmlns:isbn='urn:ISBN:0-395-36341-6'>
<title>Cheaper by the Dozen</title>
<isbn:number>1568491379</isbn:number>
</book>
A larger example of namespace scoping:
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!-- initially, the default namespace is "books" -->
<book xmlns='urn:loc.gov:books'
xmlns:isbn='urn:ISBN:0-395-36341-6'>
<title>Cheaper by the Dozen</title>
<isbn:number>1568491379</isbn:number>
<notes>
<!-- drop the default into HTML for some commentary -->
<p xmlns='urn:w3-org-ns:HTML'>
This is a <i>funny</i> book!
</p>
</notes>
</book>
The default namespace, once declared, may be overridden:
<?xml version='1.0'?>
<Beers>
<!-- the default namespace is now that of HTML -->
<table xmlns='http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40'>
<tr><td>Name</td><td>Origin</td><td>Description</td></tr>
<tr>
<!-- drop the HTML namespace inside table cells -->
<td><brandName xmlns="">Huntsman</brandName></td>
<td><origin xmlns="">Bath, UK</origin></td>
<td>
<details xmlns=""><class>Bitter</class><hop>Fuggles</hop>
<pro>Wonderful hop, light alcohol, good summer beer</pro>
<con>Fragile; excessive variance pub to pub</con>
</details>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</Beers>
24.4.7 Uniqueness of Attributes
In XML documents conforming to this specification, no start-tag may
contain two attributes which:
1. have identical names, or
2. have qualified names with the same local part and with prefixes
which have been bound to namespace names which are lexically
equivalent. Note that namespace names are URIs, the governing RFCs
for which contain rules for establishing lexical equivalence.
For example, each of the bad start-tags is illegal in the following:
<!-- http://www.w3.org is bound to n1 and n2 -->
<x xmlns:n1="http://www.w3.org"
xmlns:n2="http://www.w3.org" >
<bad a="1" a="2" />
<bad n1:a="1" n2:a="2" />
</x>
However, each of the following is legal:
<!-- http://www.w3.org is bound to n1 and is the default -->
<x xmlns:n1="http://www.w3.org"
xmlns="http://www.w3.org" />
<good a="1" b="2" />
<good a="1" n1:a="2" />
</x>
24.4.8 Conformance
In XML documents which conform to this specification, element types
and attribute names must match the production either for NSDecl or
QName and must satisfy the "Namespace Constraints".
An XML document conforms to this specification if all other tokens
in the document which are required, for XML conformance, to match
the XML production for Name, match this specification's production
for NCName.
The effect of conformance is that in such a document:
* All element types and attribute names contain either zero or one
colon.
* No entity names, PI targets, or notation names contain any colons. 23.4.1 Introduction
Strictly speaking, attribute values declared to be of types ID, All DAV compliant systems MUST support the XML namespace extensions
IDREF(S), ENTITY(IES), and NOTATION are also Names, and thus should as specified in [REC-XML-NAMES].
be colon-free. However, the declared type of attribute values is in
principle only available in documents which have been validated.
Thus, in well-formed XML documents, there can be no assurance that
the contents of attribute values have been checked for conformance
to this specification.
24.4.9 Meaning of Qualified Names 23.4.2 Meaning of Qualified Names
[Note to the reader: This section does not appear in [WD-XML-NAMES], [Note to the reader: This section does not appear in [REC-XML-NAMES],
but is necessary to avoid ambiguity for WebDAV XML processors.] but is necessary to avoid ambiguity for WebDAV XML processors.]
WebDAV compliant XML processors MUST interpret a qualified name as a WebDAV compliant XML processors MUST interpret a qualified name as a
URI constructed by appending the LocalPart to the namespace name URI constructed by appending the LocalPart to the namespace name URI.
URI.
Example Example
<del:glider xmlns:del="http://www.del.jensen.org/"> <del:glider xmlns:del="http://www.del.jensen.org/">
<del:glidername> <del:glidername>
Johnny Updraft Johnny Updraft
</del:glidername> </del:glidername>
<del:glideraccidents/> <del:glideraccidents/>
</del:glider> </del:glider>
In this example, the qualified element name "del:glider" is In this example, the qualified element name "del:glider" is
interpreted as the URL "http://www.del.jensen.org/glider". interpreted as the URL "http://www.del.jensen.org/glider".
<bar:glider xmlns:del="http://www.del.jensen.org/"> <bar:glider xmlns:del="http://www.del.jensen.org/">
<bar:glidername> <bar:glidername>
Johnny Updraft Johnny Updraft
</bar:glidername> </bar:glidername>
<bar:glideraccidents/> <bar:glideraccidents/>
</bar:glider> </bar:glider>
Even though this example is syntactically different from the Even though this example is syntactically different from the previous
previous example, it is semantically identical. Each instance of example, it is semantically identical. Each instance of the
the namespace name "bar" is replaced with namespace name "bar" is replaced with "http://www.del.jensen.org/"
"http://www.del.jensen.org/" and then appended to the local name for and then appended to the local name for each element tag. The
each element tag. The resulting tag names in this example are resulting tag names in this example are exactly the same as for the
exactly the same as for the previous example. previous example.
<foo:r xmlns:foo="http://www.del.jensen.org/glide"> <foo:r xmlns:foo="http://www.del.jensen.org/glide">
<foo:rname> <foo:rname>
Johnny Updraft Johnny Updraft
</foo:rname> </foo:rname>
<foo:raccidents/> <foo:raccidents/>
</foo:r> </foo:r>
This example is semantically identical to the two previous ones. This example is semantically identical to the two previous ones.
Each instance of the namespace name "foo" is replaced with Each instance of the namespace name "foo" is replaced with
"http://www.del.jensen.org/glide" which is then appended to the "http://www.del.jensen.org/glide" which is then appended to the local
local name for each element tag, the resulting tag names are name for each element tag, the resulting tag names are identical to
identical to those in the previous examples. those in the previous examples.
24. Full Copyright Statement
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1999). All Rights Reserved.
This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this
document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
English.
The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.
This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
"AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION
HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
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