Network Working Group                                        M. Blanchet
Internet-Draft                                                  Viagenie
Intended status: Standards Track                       February 13,                           June 23, 2014
Expires: August 17, December 25, 2014

       Finding the Authoritative Registration Data (RDAP) Service
                   draft-ietf-weirds-bootstrap-01.txt
                   draft-ietf-weirds-bootstrap-02.txt

Abstract

   This document specifies a method to find which Registration Data
   Access Protocol (RDAP) server is authoritative to answer queries for
   a requested scope, such as domain names, IP addresses or Autonomous
   System numbers, using data available in IANA registries. numbers.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 17, December 25, 2014.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Domain Name RDAP Registry . . . .  Conventions Used In This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   3.  Internet Numbers  Structure of RDAP Bootstrap Registries  . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.  Domain Name RDAP Bootstrap Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.1.  IPv4 Address Space
   5.  Internet Numbers RDAP Registry Bootstrap Registries  . . . . . . . . .   4
     5.1.  IPv4 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Registry  . . . . .   3
     3.2. . .   5
     5.2.  IPv6 Address Space RDAP Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.3.   5
     5.3.  Autonomous Systems RDAP Bootstrap Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.   6
   6.  Entity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   5.   7
   7.  Non-existent Entries or RDAP URL Values . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   6.   7
   8.  Deployment and Implementation Considerations  . . . . . . . .   7
   9.  Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   7.  Limitations . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   8.  Security . . . . .   8
   11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   9.  IANA Considerations . .   9
   12. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   10. Acknowledgements . . .   9
   13. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   11. Non-Normative . . . . . .   9
     13.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7  10
     13.2.  Non-Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7  11

1.  Introduction

   Querying and retrieving registration data from registries are defined
   in the Registration Data Access Protocol(RDAP)[I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-q
   uery][I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http][I-D.ietf-weirds-json-response].
   These documents do not specify where to send the queries.  This
   document specifies a method to find which server is authoritative to
   answer queries for the requested scope.

   The proposed mechanism is based on that allocation data for domain
   names and IP addresses are maintained by IANA, are publicly available
   and are in a structured format.  The mechanism assumes some data
   structure within these registries and request IANA to modify or create these
   registries for the specific purpose of RDAP use. use, herein named RDAP
   Bootstrap registries.  An RDAP client fetches the RDAP bootstrap
   registries, extract the data and then do a match with the query data
   to find the authoritative registration data server and appropriate
   query base URL.

2.  Domain Name RDAP Registry  Conventions Used In This Document

   The domain names authoritative registration data service is found by
   doing the longest match of the target domain name with the values of
   the Domain column key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in the IANA Domain Name this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

3.  Structure of RDAP Bootstrap Registries

   The RDAP Bootstrap Registries are implemented as JSON [RFC7159]
   objects.  A registry starts with metadata such as defined in
   section Section 9.  This is a string search version id
   identified as a timestamp of the longest match
   starting from the end publication date of the target name registry and the end
   some defaults values.  Then follows an array of each value in arrays.  Each second
   level array lists all the Domain column.  The value of entries available by the "RDAP URL" column same template
   method.  There is no assumption of sorting at the base first or second
   level arrays.  An example structure of a JSON RDAP url as described in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query].

   For example, a RDAP query for example.com matches the .com entry in Bootstrap Registry
   is illustrated:

   "rdap.bootstrap": {
    "version": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ",
    "proto": [ https http ],

    "services": [
    ["entry1", "entry2", "entry3"]: {
       "template": "{proto}://registry.example.com/myrdap/{resource}",
       "proto": [ https ],
      },
    ["entry4"]: {
       "template": "{proto}://example.org/{resource}",
      },
    ],
   }

   The syntax of "version" value conforms to the Domain column Internet date/time
   format [RFC3339].  The "proto" object is an array of transport
   protocols used to access the registry. resource.  The RDAP server URL for this
   address is located bootstrap client
   SHOULD try the transport protocols in the corresponding "RDAP URL" column for that
   entry, which could order they are presented in
   the array.  The "proto" object can be http://rdap.example.org/rdap.  Therefore overriden in the
   query URL would be: http://rdap.example.org/rdap/domain/example.com.
   This example is not normative.

3.  Internet Numbers RDAP Registries

3.1.  IPv4 Address Space specific
   entries.  Per [RFC7258], the secure version of the transport protocol
   SHOULD be first.

4.  Domain Name RDAP Bootstrap Registry

   This registry contains domain labels entries attached to the root,
   grouped by templates, as shown in this example.

   "rdap.bootstrap": {
    "version": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ",
    "proto": [ "https", "http" ],

    "services": [
    ["net", "com"]: {
       "template": "https://registry.example.com/myrdap/{resource}",
      },
    ["org", "mytld"]: {
       "template": "{proto}://example.org/{resource}",
      },
    ],
    ["mytld2"]: {
       "template": "{proto}://example.net/rdapmytld2/{resource}",
       "proto": [ "http", "https"],
      },
    ],
   }

   The IPv4 address space domain names authoritative registration data service is found by
   doing a the longest match of the target address domain name with the domain
   values
   of in the Prefix column arrays in the IANA IPv4 address space Domain Name RDAP registry as
   defined in section Section 9.  The Bootstrap Registry.
   This is a string search of the longest match is done starting from the same way
   as for routing: end of
   the addresses are converted in binary form target name and then the binary strings are compared. end of each value in the arrays.  The value
   of the "RDAP URL" column corresponding "template" object is the base RDAP url URL as
   described in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query].

   For example, a domain RDAP query for "192.0.2.0/24" a.b.example.com matches the "192/8" com
   entry in one of the Prefix column arrays of the registry.  The  Following the example
   above, the base RDAP server URL for this
   address query is located
   "https://registry.example.com/myrdap/".  The {resource} specified in
   [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] is then appended to the corresponding "RDAP URL" column for that
   entry, which could be http://rdap.example.org/rdap.  Therefore base URL to
   complete the query.  The complete query URL would be: http://rdap.example.org/rdap/ip/192.0.2.0/24. is then
   "https://registry.example.com/myrdap/domain/a.b.example.com".  This
   example is not normative.

3.2.  IPv6 Address Space

5.  Internet Numbers RDAP Registry

   The Bootstrap Registries

   This section discusses IPv4 and IPv6 address space and autonomous
   system numbers.

   For IP address space, the authoritative registration data service is
   found by doing a longest match of the target address with the values
   of the Prefix column arrays in the IANA IPv6 address space corresponding Address Space RDAP registry as
   defined in section Section 9. Bootstrap
   registry.  The longest match is done the same way as for routing: the
   addresses are converted in binary form and then the binary strings
   are compared. compared to find the longest match.  The value of the "RDAP URL" column template
   object is the base RDAP url as described in

   [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query].

   For example, a query for "2001:db8::/32" matches the "2001/16" entry
   in the Prefix column  The longest match method enables
   covering prefixes of a larger address space pointing to one RDAP
   template while more specific prefixes within the registry.  The covering prefix
   being served by another RDAP server URL for this
   address is located template.

5.1.  IPv4 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Registry

   This registry contains IPv4 prefix entries, specified in the corresponding "RDAP URL" column CIDR format
   and grouped by templates, as shown in this example.

   "rdap.bootstrap": {
    "version": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ",
    "proto": [ "https", "http" ],

    "services": [
    ["1.0.0.0/8", "192.0.0.0/8"]: {
       "template": "https://rir1.example.com/myrdap/{resource}",
      },
    ["28.2.0.0/16", "192.0.2.0/24"]: {
       "template": "{proto}://example.org/{resource}",
      },
    ],
    ["28.3.0.0/16"]: {
       "template": "{proto}://example.net/rdaprir2/{resource}",
       "proto": [ "http", "https"],
      },
    ],
   }

   For example, a query for that
   entry, which could be http://rdap.example.org/rdap.  Therefore "192.0.2.0/24" matches the "192.0.0.0/8"
   entry and the "192.0.2.0/24" entry in the example registry above.
   The latter is chosen by the client given the longest match.  The base
   RDAP URL for this query is then taken from the template object and
   expands to "{proto}://example.org/".  The {resource} specified in
   [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] is then appended to the base URL would be: http://rdap.example.org/rdap/ip/2001:db8::/32. to
   complete the query.  The complete query is then "https://example.org/
   ip/192.0.2.0/24".  This example is not normative.

3.3.  Autonomous Systems

5.2.  IPv6 Address Space RDAP Registry

   The Autonomous Systems (AS) authoritative registration data service
   is found

   This registry contains IPv6 prefix entries, using [RFC4291] text
   representation of address prefixes format, grouped by identifying templates, as
   shown in this example.

   "rdap.bootstrap": {
    "version": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ",
    "proto": [ "https", "http" ],

    "services": [
    ["2001:0200::/23", "2001:db8::/32"]: {
       "template": "https://rir2.example.com/myrdap/{resource}",
      },
    ["2600::/16", "2100:ffff::/32"]: {
       "template": "{proto}://example.org/{resource}",
      },
    ],
    ["2001:0200:1000::/28"]: {
       "template": "{proto}://example.net/rdaprir2/{resource}",
       "proto": [ "http", "https"],
      },
    ],
   }

   For example, a query for "2001:0200:1000::/48" matches the
   "2001:0200::/23" entry and the range "2001:0200:1000::/28" entry in which the target Autonomous
   System is, with
   example registry above.  The latter is chosen by the values of client given the Number column
   longest match.  The base RDAP URL for this query is then taken from
   the template object "{proto}://example.net/rdaprir2/".  The
   {resource} specified in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] is then appended
   to the IANA base URL to complete the query.  The complete query is
   therefore "https://example.net/rdaprir2/ip/2001:0200:1000::/48".
   This example is not normative.

5.3.  Autonomous Systems (AS) Numbers RDAP Bootstrap Registry

   This registry contains Autonomous Systems Number Ranges entries,
   grouped by templates, as defined shown in section
   Section 9.  The value this example.  Entries in the
   arrays are either single AS numbers or ranges of AS numbers where the "RDAP URL" column is
   lower appears first, then the base RDAP url
   as described "-" separator and then the upper
   number.  Both 16bit and 32 bit AS numbers are specified in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query]. decimal.

   "rdap.bootstrap": {
    "version": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ",
    "proto": [ "https", "http" ],

    "services": [
    ["2045", "20116-20117"]: {
       "template": "https://rir2.example.com/myrdap/{resource}",
      },
    ["10000-12000", "65900-66000"]: {
       "template": "{proto}://example.org/{resource}",
      },
    ],
    ["65512-65534"]: {
       "template": "{proto}://example.net/rdaprir2/{resource}",
       "proto": [ "http", "https"],
      },
    ],
   }

   For example, a query for AS 65411 matches the "64512-65534" entry in
   the Number column of the registry. example registry above.  The base RDAP server URL for this
   address query is located then
   taken from the template object "{proto}://example.net/rdaprir2/".
   The {resource} specified in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] is then
   appended to the corresponding "RDAP URL" column for that
   entry, which could be http://rdap.example.org/rdap.  Therefore base URL to complete the query.  The complete query URL would be: http://rdap.example.org/rdap/autnum/65411.
   is therefore "https://example.net/rdaprir2/autnum/65411".  This
   example is not normative.

4.

6.  Entity

   Since there is no global namespace for entities, this document does
   not describe how to find the authoritative RDAP server for entities.
   It is possible however that, if the entity identifier was received
   from a previous query, the same RDAP server could be queried for that
   entity or the entity identifier itself is a fully referenced URL that
   can be queried.

5.

7.  Non-existent Entries or RDAP URL Values

   The registries may not contain the requested value or the RDAP URL
   value may be empty.  In these cases, there is no known RDAP server
   for that requested value and the client should SHOULD provide an appropriate
   error message to the user.

6.

8.  Deployment and Implementation Considerations

   This method relies on the fact that RDAP clients are fetching the
   IANA XML registries. registries to then find the servers locally.  Clients SHOULD not
   fetch every time the XML
   files.

   If the query data does not match any entry in registry.  Clients SHOULD cache the already fetched
   registry registry,
   but use underlying protocol signalling, such as HTTP Expires header
   field [RFC7234], to identify when it is time to refresh the cached
   registry.

   If the query data does not match any entry in the client, client cached
   registry, then the client may implement various methods, such as the
   following:

   o  The  In the case of a domain object to be RDAP queried, the client may
      first queries query the DNS to see if the respective entry has been recently
      delegated or if it is a mistyped information by the user.  The DNS
      query could be to fetch the NS records for a
      domain TLD. the TLD domain.  If the
      DNS answer is negative, then there is no need to fetch the new
      version of the XML registry.  However, if the DNS answer is positive,
      this means may mean that the currently cached XML registry is no more
      current.  The client should could then fetch the registry, parse and then
      do the normal matching as specified above.  This method may not
      work for all types of RDAP objects.

   o  If the client knows the existence of a RDAP aggregator or
      redirector and trust that service, then it could send the query to
      the redirector, which would redirect the client if it knows the
      authoritative server that client has not found.

   o  Clients can also rely on HTTP headers to verify if the registry
      has changed since last time it was fetched, without the need to
      fetch the whole registry.

   IANA should make sure that the service of those registries is able to
   cope with a larger demand and should take appropriate measures such
   as caching and load balancing.

   This specification makes no assumption on does not assume while not prohibiting how the some
   authorities of registration data may work together on sharing their
   information for a common service.

7. service, including mutual
   redirection[I-D.ietf-weirds-redirects].

9.  Limitations

   This method does not provide a direct way to find authoritative RDAP
   servers:

   o  for entities

   o  for queries using search patterns that do not contain a
      terminating string that matches some entries in the registries

8.

10.  Security Considerations

   By providing a bootstrap method to find RDAP servers, this document
   helps making sure that the end-users will get the RDAP data from
   authoritative source, instead of from rogue sources.  The method
   itself has the same security properties as the RDAP protocols
   themselves.  The transport used to access the registries could be
   secured by TLS if IANA supports it.

9.  IANA Considerations

   IANA is requested to do the following:

   o  Create a new registry for IPv4 address space with the following
      columns: the first column is the entries taken from the current
      "IPv4 Address Space" registry[ipv4reg] and and the second column
      is the RDAP server URL.  The same registrants for these entries
      are entitled to provide the RDAP URL value for their respective
      space, using the same communication channels already established
      between the registrants and IANA.

   o  Create a new registry for IPv6 address space with the following
      columns: the first column is the entries taken from the current
      IPv6 Address Space registries [ipv6regparent][ipv6reg] and the
      second column is the RDAP server URL.  The same registrants for
      these entries are entitled to provide the RDAP URL value for their
      respective space, using the same communication channels already
      established between the registrants and IANA.

   o  Create a new registry for Autonomous System Number space with the
      following columns: the first column is the entries taken from the
      current "Autonomous System Number Space" registry[asreg] and the
      second column is the RDAP server URL.  The same registrants for
      these entries are entitled to provide the RDAP URL value for their
      respective space, using the same communication channels already
      established between the registrants and IANA.

   o  Create a new registry of domain names, essentially TLDs, with end-users will get the
      following columns: Domain and RDAP URL.  The content should be
      initially populated by an extract data from
   authoritative source, instead of the Root zone
      database[domainreg]. from rogue sources.  The method
   itself has the same registrants for these entries are
      entitled to provide security properties as the RDAP URL value for their respective space,
      using protocols
   themselves.  The transport used to access the same communication channels already established between registries could be
   more secure by using TLS [RFC5246] if IANA supports it.

11.  IANA Considerations

   IANA is requested to do the registrants and IANA. following:

   o  A change happening in any of the source registries should trigger  Create a change new registry "IPv4 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service"
      in the corresponding new registry.  For example, JSON format, as shown above.

   o  Create a new
      IPv6 address block appearing in the source IPv6 address space registry should trigger "IPv6 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service"
      in the same JSON format, as shown above.

   o  Create a new entry registry "Autonomous System Number Space RDAP
      Bootstrap Service" in the corresponding
      RDAP registry. JSON format, as shown above.

   o  IANA shall update its procedures to include  Create a new registry "Domain Name Space RDAP Bootstrap Service"
      in the provisioning of
      these values.

   o JSON format, as shown above.

   It is envisioned envisionned that the entries of each of these new registries are
      synched from will have similar entries
   than the source assignment registries.  There shall be no
      additional records.  If there is a need for additional records,
      then corresponding IANA allocation registries, such as
   [ipv4reg],[ipv6reg],[asreg], [domainreg], and possibly similar
   registration policies.  However, the policy registration policies for updating the
   new registries of this document are left to IANA.

   The registries may be maintained in IANA own format, such as XML.
   However, the registry is Standards Track RFC.

10. should be available in the JSON format, and
   optionally in other formats such as XML.

12.  Acknowledgements

   The weirds working group had multiple discussions on this topic,
   including a session during IETF 84. 84, where various methods such as in-
   DNS and others were debated.  The idea of using IANA registries was
   discovered by the editor during discussions with his colleagues as
   well as by a comment from Andy Newton.  All the people involved in
   these discussions are herein acknowledged.  Linlin Zhou,
   Jean-Philippe Jean-
   Philippe Dionne, John Levine, Kim Davies, Ernie Dainow, Scott
   Hollenbeck, Arturo Servin, Andy Newton Newton, Murray Kucherawy have
   provided input and suggestions to this document.

11.

13.  References
13.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3339]  Klyne, G., Ed. and C. Newman, "Date and Time on the
              Internet: Timestamps", RFC 3339, July 2002.

   [RFC4291]  Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
              Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006.

   [RFC7159]  Bray, T., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
              Interchange Format", RFC 7159, March 2014.

13.2.  Non-Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-weirds-json-response]
              Newton, A. and S. Hollenbeck, "JSON Responses for the
              Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)", draft-ietf-
              weirds-json-response-06
              weirds-json-response-07 (work in progress), October 2013. April 2014.

   [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query]
              Newton, A. and S. Hollenbeck, "Registration Data Access
              Protocol Query Format", draft-ietf-weirds-rdap-query-10
              (work in progress), February 2014.

   [I-D.ietf-weirds-redirects]
              Martinez, C., Zhou, L., and G. Rada, "Redirection Service
              for Registration Data Access Protocol", draft-ietf-weirds-
              redirects-03 (work in progress), February 2014.

   [I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http]
              Newton, A., Ellacott, B., and N. Kong, "HTTP usage in the
              Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)", draft-ietf-
              weirds-using-http-08 (work in progress), February 2014.

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008.

   [RFC7234]  Fielding, R., Nottingham, M., and J. Reschke, "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching", RFC 7234, June
              2014.

   [RFC7258]  Farrell, S. and H. Tschofenig, "Pervasive Monitoring Is an
              Attack", BCP 188, RFC 7258, May 2014.

   [asreg]    Internet Assigned Numbers Authority(IANA), , "Autonomous
              System (AS) Numbers", <http://www.iana.org/assignments/
              as-numbers/as-numbers.xml>. <http://www.iana.org/assignments/as-
              numbers/as-numbers.xml>.

   [domainreg]
              Internet Assigned Numbers Authority(IANA), , "Root Zone
              Database", <http://www.iana.org/domains/root/db>.

   [ipv4reg]  Internet Assigned Numbers Authority(IANA), , "IPv4 Address
              Space", <http://www.iana.org/assignments/
              ipv4-address-space/ipv4-address-space.xml>. <http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipv4-address-
              space/ipv4-address-space.xml>.

   [ipv6reg]  Internet Assigned Numbers Authority(IANA), , "IPv6 Global
              Unicast Address Assignments", <http://www.iana.org/
              assignments/ipv6-unicast-address-assignments/
              ipv6-unicast-address-assignments.xml>.
              <http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipv6-unicast-address-
              assignments/ipv6-unicast-address-assignments.xml>.

   [ipv6regparent]
              Internet Assigned Numbers Authority(IANA), , "Internet
              Protocol Version 6 Address Space", <http://www.iana.org/
              assignments/ipv6-address-space/ipv6-address-space.xml>.
              <http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipv6-address-space/
              ipv6-address-space.xml>.

Author's Address

   Marc Blanchet
   Viagenie
   246 Aberdeen
   Quebec, QC  G1R 2E1
   Canada

   Email: Marc.Blanchet@viagenie.ca
   URI:   http://www.viagenie.ca